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Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank everyone who helped to see this seminar to completion. In particular, I would like to thank my seminar coordinator, Prof. T Valsalan for the moral support and guidance to complete my seminar on time. Also I would like to thank Mr. T. Anil Kumar (Lecturer in EEE) for his valuable help and support.

I express my gratitude to all my friends and classmates for their support and help in this seminar. Last, but not the least I wish to express my gratitude to God almighty for his abundant blessings, without which this seminar would not have been successful.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

ABSTRACT

The last two decades ended in the midst of revolution caused by a technology that was barely noticeable at the beginning of the decade. In 1980 few would have guessed that personal computer along with desktop publishing software would fundamentally change the way of our industry did business. In 1990 again internet was known and used by a relatively small set of people. Yet by the end of the decade it was a major force in our industry and in society and in economy. Once again we are facing anew decade and we have to wonder what the next dominant technology likely to change our way of life is. While there is a number of candidates for the next big technology including perennial favorite, the free energy device, our best is the technology called 3D printing which as the name implies is a technology that literally prints real 3D objects. It is used by the marketing industry to create models for marketing focus groups and pre-production sales demonstration.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 HISTORY SOURCE DATA

1 2 2 4 4 6 8 9 9 11 14 15 16 17

CHAPTER 2

AN OVERVIEW OF 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGY 2.1 2.2 2.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM WORKING COLOUR MODELLING

CHAPTER 3

APPLICATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 ADVANTAGES BUILDING MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER 4

CONCLUSION REFERENCE

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1993, .3DP technology creates 3D physical prototypes by solidifying layers of deposited powder using a liquid binder. By definition 3DP is an extremely versatile and rapid process accommodating geometry of varying complexity in hundreds of different applications, and supporting many types of materials. Utilizing 3DP technology, Z Corp. has developed 3D printers that operate at unprecedented speeds, extremely low costs, and within a broad range of applications. 3D printers are used by leading manufacturers to produce early concept models and product prototypes .This paper describes the core technology and its related applications.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

1.1 HISTORY
3d printing technology was originally developed in Massachusetts Institute of Technology. First 3 D Printer was launched in 1998. First 3D color printer was launched in 2000. Introduced High definition 3D Printing in 2005. HD3DP concept is the result of a combination of print-head technology, materials advancement, firmware, and mechanical design.

1.2 SOURCE DATA


3D printing technology leverages 3D source data, which often takes the form of computer-aided design (CAD) models. Mechanical CAD software packages, the first applications to create 3D data, have quickly become the standard for nearly all product development processes. Other industries such as architectural design have also embraced 3D technologies because of the overwhelming advantages they provide, including improved visualization, greater automation, and more cost-effective reuse of 3D data for a variety of critically important applications. Due to the widespread adoption of 3D-based design technologies, most industries today already create 3D design data and are capable of producing physical models with 3D printers. The software that drives the 3D printers accepts all major 3D file formats, including .stl, .wrl, .ply, and .sfx files, which leading 3D software packages can export. In addition to mainstream applications in mechanical and architectural design, 3D printing has expanded into new markets including medical, molecular, and geospatial modeling. Additional sources of data include CT/MRI diagnostic data, protein molecule modeling database data, and digitized 3D-scan data. As designing and modeling with 3D technologies has become more pervasive, developers have created a large number of software packages tailored for use in specific industries. A small sampling of 3D software packages that are directly compatible with the 3D printers appear in the table below.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

SolidWorks Pro/ENGINEER CATIA 3D Studio Max

Maya SketchUp RasMol Rhino

RapidForm Alias Raindrop GeoMagic Inventor

3D Studio Viz Form Z VectorWorks Mimics

After exporting a solid file from a 3D modeling package, users can open the file in ZPrint, the desktop interface for Z Corp.s 3D printers. The primary function ofZPrint is to cut the solid object into digital cross sections, or layers, creating a 2D image for each 0.1016mm (0.004) slice along the z axis. In addition to sectioning the model, users can utilize ZPrint to address other production options, such as viewing, orienting, scaling, coloring, and labeling multiple parts. When a user decides to print the job, ZPrint software sends 2D images of the cross sections to the 3D Printer via a standard network, just as other software sends images or documents to a standard 2D printer. Setup takes approximately 10 minutes.

CHAPTER 2 Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg. 3 Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

AN OVERVIEW OF 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGY


2.1BLOCK DIAGRAM
The microcomputer is used to create a 3 Dimensional model of the component to be made using well-known CAD techniques. A slicing algorithm is used to identify selected successive slices, i.e., to provide data with respect to selected 2-D layers, of the 3-D model. Once a particular 2D slice has been selected, the slice is then reduced to a series of one dimensional scan lines. Each of the scan line may comprise of single line segments or two or more shorter line segments. Each line segment having a defined starting point on a scan line and a defined line segment length. The microcomputer actuates the powder distribution operation when a particular 2-D slice of the 3-D model which has been created has been selected by supplying a powder START signal to a powder distribution controller circuit which is used to actuate a powder distribution system to permit a layer of powder for the selected slice to be deposited as by a powder head device. The powder is deposited over the entire confined region within which the selected slice is located. Once the powder is distributed, the operation of powder distribution controller is stopped when the microcomputer issues a powder STOP signal signifying that powder distribution over such region has been completed. Microcomputer then select a scan line i.e., the first scan line of the selected 2-D slice and then select a line segment, e.g., the first 1-D line segment of the selected scan line and supplies data defining the starting point thereof and the length thereof to a binder jet nozzle control circuit. For simplicity in describing the operation it is assumed that a single binder jet nozzle is used and that such nozzle scans the line segment of a slice in a

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

manner such that the overall 2-D slice is scanned in a conventional raster scan operation. When the real time position of the nozzle is at starting point of the selected line segment. Nozzle is turned on at the start of the line segment and turned off at the end of line segment in accordance with the defined starting point and length data supplied from the computer for that line segment. Each successive line segment is similarly scanned for the selected scan line and for each successive scan line of the selected slice in the same manner. For such purpose nozzle carrier system starts its motion with a scan BEGIN signal from microcomputer. So that it is moved in both x-axis direction and in the Y-axis direction. Data as to the real time position of the nozzle carrier is supplied to the nozzle control circuit. When the complete slice has been scanned, a scan STOP signal signifies an end of the slice scan condition.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

2.2 3D PRINTING WORKING


3D printers use standard inkjet printing technology to create parts layerby-layer by depositing a liquid binder onto thin layers of powder. Instead of feeding paper under the print heads like a 2D printer, a 3D printer moves the print heads over a bed of powder upon which it prints the cross-sectional data sent from the ZPrint software. The system requires powder to be distributed accurately and evenly across the build platform. 3D Printers accomplish this task by using a feed piston and platform, which rises incrementally for each layer. A roller mechanism spreads powder fed from the feed piston onto the build platform; intentionally spreading approximately 30 percent of extra powder per layer to ensure a full layer of densely packed powder on the build platform. The excess powder falls down an overflow chute, into a container for reuse in the next build. Once the layer of powder is spread, the inkjet print heads print the crosssectional area for the first, or bottom slice of the part onto the smooth layer of powder, binding the powder together. A piston then lowers the build platform 0.1016mm (0.004), and a new layer of powder is spread on top. The print heads apply the data for the next cross section onto the new layer, which binds itself to the previous layer. ZPrint repeats this process for all of the layers of the part. The 3D printing process creates an exact physical model of the geometry represented by 3D data. Process time depends on the height of the part or parts being built. Typically, 3D printers build at a vertical rate of 25mm 50mm (1 2) per hour. When the 3D printing process completes, loose powder surrounds and supports the part in the build chamber. Users can remove the part from the build chamber after the materials have had time to set, and return unprinted, loose powder back to the feed platform for reuse. Users then use forced air to blow the excess powder off the printed part, a short process which takes less than 10 minutes. Z Corp. technology does not require the use of solid or attached supports during the printing process, and all unused material is reusable.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

3D printing is fast
3D printing is the fastest additive technology commercially available on the market. Other companies often refer to their equipment as 3D printers, however these systems rely on processes using a vector approach or single-jet technology to deposit all build material. Z Corp. uses inkjet print heads with a resolution of 600 dpi (dots per inch), focuses on a drop-on-demand approach, and manufactures the only true 3D inkjet printers available. The technology allows printing of multiple parts simultaneously, while only adding a negligible amount of time to the print time for one part. The fundamental inkjet approach is the primary contributor to greater speed, although there are several other reasons why this system is the fastest. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg. 7 Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

ZPrint software processes data in parallel with the printing of the part. While the 3D printer deposits the first layer, the software slices and processes the fifth layer. Some additive technologies process all tool paths before the job begins. Although the processing time may seem to be fast, it is often only a fraction of the total time it takes to build the part. It can actually take up to an hour to prepare a job with multiple parts using some additive technologies. 3D printers enable the stacking of parts vertically because they do not require rigid support structures. Producing parts with other types of additive technologies requires structural supports along the vertical axis, limiting the ability to stack or nest parts. With this 3D printers, users can utilize the entire build area and produce multiple parts with only one set-up procedure, further reducing the total number of builds and processing time.

2.3 COLOUR MODELLING


When printing 2D images from digital files, computers convert the RGB values (Red, Green, and Blue colors displayed on the monitor) to CMYK colors (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black). Typically, a 2D color desktop printer will have a print head with three of the color channels, CMY, and another for black, K. Using these four inks, the printer combines several dots in each printed pixel though the use of ordered dither patterns to create the appearance of thousands of colors. The same principle applies to 3D printing. 3D printers use four colored binders: cyan, magenta, yellow and clear, to print colors onto the shell of the part. ZPrint software communicates color information to the printer within the slice data. Full-color 3D printing produces prototypes with the same coloring as the actual product. Users also use color to represent analysis results directly on the model or to annotate and label design changes to further enhance the communication value of the model.

While color can be an essential communications tool, many 3D software packages do not provide a simple way to produce 3D files that include color data. To address this challenge developed ZEdit software, a Microsoft Windows based program that facilitates the addition of color data to 3D part files. ZEdit is a tool for part coloring, markup, labeling, and texture mapping.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

Users also utilize it to map .jpeg files onto 3D part geometries. ZEdit software works with files from any of the leading 3D software packages. Z Corp.s 3D printers produce high-resolution models Z Corp. first introduced high-resolution 3D Printing (HD3DP) in 2005. The HD3DP concept is the result of a combination of print-head technology, materials advancement, firmware, and mechanical design. Highly engineered inkjet print heads, with 600-dpi, high-resolution capabilities, are the product of years of research. Z Corp. leverages the engineered print heads in combination with proprietary firmware to control the print head during the printing process, accurately and precisely depositing colored binder in the areas indicated by the ZPrint software. Additionally, this 3D printers control the print head movement while positioned extremely close to the powder, reducing inaccuracies related to fanning of the binder spray.

CHAPTER 3

APPLICATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS


3.1 ADVANTAGES
1) 3D printing is Affordable 3D printers produce very little waste. The unprinted powder surrounds and supports complex parts during printing. Users can reuse all unused support powder. Thus, printed-part volume becomes the basis for all part-creation costs. Other additive processes require the building of solid support structures to support complex geometries during the printing process. Users have to discard these support structures after use, and the wasted material contributes significantly to the cost of additive technologies. 3D printers are dependable and easy-to-use, resulting in low operating costs. Modular design and standard inkjet printing technology combine to produce a reliable system that is straightforward to operate and easy to maintain.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

The use of an off-the-shelf print head allows for inexpensive, quick replacement of the systems primary consumable component. The application of modular design techniques to the printers electronics, printing, and maintenance components makes the printers efficient to maintain with minimum downtime, further reducing costs. 2) 3D printers are easy to use The straightforward user interface and simple part-making process make 3D printers accessible to everyone involved in product design. The materials used are non-toxic, completely safe, and do not require specialized operating environments such as a lab or a shop. Users can operate 3D printers right in an office rather than in a designated space with specialized requirements. Because of the intuitive ZPrint software interface and simple set-up procedures, anyone can efficiently operate one of 3D printers, eliminating the need for a dedicated machine operator. The reliable technology allows its 3D printers to run unattended during the printing process, reducing user interaction to the simple setup and part removal steps, which generally take less than one hour. The process of bonding loose powder to solidify into parts is compatible with many types of materials. While the 3D printer remains exactly the same, users can change the build material to produce parts with a wide range of material properties to meet various application requirements. Z Corp. offers five materials and continues to develop other materials to provide performance enhancements for additional applications. Users can select the best material to support the needs of a specific application. 3) Speed 3D Printers are the fastest.5-10x faster than other RP technology.A part can be printed at rate of 25mm vertical per hour. In todays competitive global market speed in product development has become a critical factor for success. 4) Affordability Z Corporation sets the standard for affordability in 3D printing. Because Z Corporation printers leverage standard inkjet printing technology, they are more reliable and affordable. The approach results in material usage Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg. 10 Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

costs that are a fraction of other rapid prototyping technologies; finished parts cost $.10 USD per cubic centimeter in materials. A handheld part can be produced for about $10 USD in material costs. Z Corporation 3D printers recycle all unused material, so you only pay for the actual materials used to produce a part. 5) High-Quality Color Z Corporation 3D Printers operate like a 2D desktop inkjet printer, allowing for the use of multiple print-heads to support full-color printing with dramatic increases in speed. Full,24-bit color capabilities use colored binder materials (cyan, magenta, and yellow, just like a 2D printer) to produce millions of distinct colors. Full-color printing allows the addition of annotations, engineering labels and texture maps. Z Corporations introduction ofHD3DP (High-Definition 3D Printing) capabilities also supports the production of models having complex geometries and small, detailed features. 6) Versatile The process of bonding loose powder to solidify into parts is compatible with many types of materials.While the 3D printer remains exactly material property to meet various application requirement. the same.users can change the build material to produce part with wide range of

3.2 BUILDING MATERIALS


1) High-Performance Composite Material makes strong, high-definition

parts and is the material of choice for printing color parts. The most widely used material, high-performance composite material enables color HD3DP on the 600-dpi platform 3D printer. Fine resolution on small features and excellent strength make this material suitable for applications ranging from concept modeling to sand-casting patterns. It consists of a heavily engineered plaster material with numerous additives that maximize surface finish, feature resolution, and part strength. This material is ideal for: 1 High-strength requirements

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

11

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08 2 Delicate or thin-walled parts 3 Color printing 4 Accurate representation of design details

3D Printing Technology

2) Direct Casting Metal Material creates sand-casting molds for non-ferrous metals. This material is a blend of foundry sand, plaster, and other additives that when combined produce strong molds with good surface finishes. Direct casting metal material can withstand the heat required to cast non-ferrous metals. Users of this ZCast process can create prototype castings without incurring the costs and lead-time delays of tooling.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

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Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

3) Investment Casting Material fabricates parts that users dip in wax to produce investment casting patterns without molds or geometric constraints. The material consists of a mix of cellulose, specialty fibers, and other additives that combine to provide an accurate part while maximizing wax during the burn-out process. Users absorption and minimizing residue

utilize investment casting material to create high quality castings with excellent surface finishes in a number of industries. 4) Snap-fit material creates Snap- parts with plastic-like, flexural

properties, Which are ideal for snap-fit applications. Z Corp. has optimized this material for infiltration with the Z-Snap epoxy. Users utilize snap-fit material to create plastic-like parts that snap into other components and assemblies. 5) Elastomeric Material creates parts with rubber-like properties.

Optimized for infiltration with an elastomer, this material system consists of a mix of cellulose, specialty fibers, and other additives. Users utilize elastomeric material to produce accurate parts that are capable of absorbing the elastomer, which gives the parts their rubber-like properties.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

13

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

The microcomputer is used to create a 3 Dimensional model of the component to be made using well-known CAD techniques.A slicing algorithm is used to identify selected successive slices, i.e., to provide data with respect to selected 2-D layers, of the 3-D model. Once a particular 2D slice has been selected, the slice is then reduced to a series of one dimensional scan lines. Each of the scan line may comprise of single line segments or two or more shorter line segments.Each line segment having a defined starting point on a scan line and a defined line segment length. The microcomputer actuates the powder distribution operation when a particular 2-D slice of the 3-D model which has been created has been selected by supplying a powder START signal to a powder distribution controller circuit which is used to actuate a powder distribution system to permit a layer of powder for the selected slice to be deposited as by a powder head device. The powder is deposited over the entire confined region within which the selected slice is located. Once the powder is distributed, the operation of powder distribution controller is stopped when the microcomputer issues a powder STOP signal signifying that powder distribution over such region has been completed. Microcomputer then select a scan line i.e., the first scan line of the selected 2-D slice and then select a line segment, e.g., the first 1-D line segment of the selected scan line and supplies data defining the starting point thereof and the length thereof to a binder jet nozzle control circuit. For simplicity in describing the operation it is assumed that a single binder jet nozzle is used and that such nozzle scans the line segment of a slice in a manner such that the overall 2-D slice is scanned in a conventional raster scan operation.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

14

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

15

Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

3.3 SPECIFICATION
Some of 3D printers available in the market are 1) Z printer 310 2) Spectrum Z 510 3) Z printer 45 1) Z printer 310 [Industrial strandate Monochrome 3D printing system] Equipment Dimension 74 * 86 * 109cm Equipment weight 115 Kg Power Requirement 115 V, 4.3 A or 230 V / 2.4 A Resolution; 300 * 450 dpi Build speed; 2 4 layers per minute 2) Spectrum Z-510 [next generation H D colour 3DP] Equipment Dimension: 107 * 79 * 127cm Equipment weight - 204 Kg Resolution-600*540dpi Power-100V, 7.8A or 115V, 6.8A or 230V, 3.4A

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

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Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

3.4 APPLICATION
1. Concept modeling 2. Finite Element Analysis 3. Functional Testing 4. Metal Casting 5. Presantation Models

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

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Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08 CHAPTER 4

3D Printing Technology

CONCLUSION
3D Printing is the method of converting virtual 3D models into physical model. After the arrival of 3D Printing futurist predicted that wed soon see them in every home. In future consumers will probably make what they want at home with their own 3D Printers. If some want a latest fashion toy. They will buy the 3D file instead of the product. One day we may have 3D Printer that use nanotechnology to create products by depositing them atom by atom. Simple machinery has been created at the atomic scale such as small wheels, transistors and walking DNA. These could be the precursors to more advanced custom manufacturing system.

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

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Govt. College of Engg., Kannur

Seminar Report 2007-08

3D Printing Technology

REFERENCE
1. http://www.emco.co.uk/rapid.htm 2,http://www.hawkridgesis.com/products/p.add.z corps.htm/ 3. http://www.sldtech.com/PDFs/3D printers Brochure overviews.pdf 4. www.architecture.mit .edu. 5. www.realizationgroup.com

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

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Govt. College of Engg., Kannur