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CHAPTER 8

Fundamentals of Cutting ()
Material Removal: Machining Cutting Abrasive processes: grinding Nontraditional machining Dimensional accuracy Material waste

Fundamentals of Cutting
Figure 8.1 Examples of cutting processes.

Figure 8.2 Schematic illustration of a twodimensional cutting process, also called orthogonal cutting. Note that the tool shape and its angles, depth of cut, to, and the cutting speed, V, are all independent variables. Figure extra Basic principle of the turning operations.

Factors Influencing Cutting Processes


TABLE extra Parameter Cutting speed, depth of cut, feed, cutting fluids Tool angles Continuous chip Built-up edge chip Discontinuous chip Temperature rise Tool wear Machinability Influence and interrelationship Forces, power, temperature rise, tool life, type of chip, surface finish. As above; influence on chip flow direction; resistance to tool chipping. Good surface finish; steady cutting forces; undesirable in automated machinery. Poor surface finish; thin stable edge can protect tool surfaces. Desirable for ease of chip disposal; fluctuating cutting forces; can affect surface finish and cause vibration and chatter. Influences tool life, particularly crater wear, and dimensional accuracy of workpiece; may cause thermal damage to workpiece surface. Influences surface finish, dimensional accuracy, temperature rise, forces and power. Related to tool life, surface finish, forces and power.

Mechanics of Chip Formation

Figure 8.3 (a) Schematic illustration of the basic mechanism of chip formation in metal cutting. (b) Velocity diagram in the cutting zone. See also section 8.2.5. Source: M. E. Merchant.

to sin cutting ratio , r = = tc cos( )


Vs shear strain , = cot + tan( ); & = d

V V V = s = c cos( ) cos sin

Chips and Their Photomicrographs


Figure 8.5 Basic types of chips and their photomicrographs produced in metal cutting: (a) continuous chip with narrow, straight primary shear zone; (b) secondary shear zone at the chiptool interface; (c) continuous chip with built-up edge; (d) (d) continuous chip with large primary shear zone; (e) segmented or nonhomogeneous chip and (f) discontinuous chip: impurities and hard particles act as nucleation sires for cracks. Source: After M. C. Shaw, P. K. Wright, and S. Kalpakjian.
(a) (b) (c)

(e)

(f)

Built-Up Edge Chips


(a) (b)

Adhesion of workpiece material to rake face, and its growth Geometry change Surface finish High hardness

(c)

Figure 8.7 (a) Hardness distribution in the cutting zone for 3115 steel. Note that some regions in the built-up edge are as much as three times harder than the bulk metal. (b) Surface finish in turning 5130 steel with a built-up edge. (c) Surface finish on 1018 steel in face milling. Magnifications: 15X. Source: Courtesy of Metcut Research Associates, Inc.

Chip Breakers
Figure 8.8 (a) Schematic illustration of the action of a chip breaker. Note that the chip breaker decreases the radius of curvature of the chip. (b) Chip breaker clamped on the rake face of a cutting tool. (c) Grooves in cutting tools acting as chip breakers. See also Fig. 8.39.

Long, continuous chips: entangled, interfering with cutting operations Safety hazard

Examples of Chips Produced in Turning


Figure 8.9 Various chips produced in turning: (a) tightly curled chip; (b) chip hits workpiece and breaks; (c) continuous chip moving away from workpiece; and (d) chip hits tool shank and breaks off. Source: G. Boothroyd, Fundamentals of Metal Machining and Machine Tools. Copyright 1975; McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Used with permission.

Change of tool geometry Interrupted cutting: milling

Control of chip flow

Chip breakers

No need of chip breakers

Cutting With an Oblique Tool

Figure 8.10 (a) Schematic illustration of cutting with an oblique tool. (b) Top view showing the inclination angle, i. (c) Types of chips produced with different inclination.

3-dimensional cutting

2-dimensional of orthogonal cutting

c i effective rake angle : e = sin 1 (sin 2 i + cos 2 i sin n )

Right-Hand Cutting Tool


Figure 8.11 (a) Schematic illustration of a right-hand cutting tool. Although these tools have traditionally been produced from solid tool-steel bars, they have been largely replaced by carbide or other inserts of various shapes and sizes, as shown in (b). The various angles on these tools and their effects on machining in section 8.8.2.

Various angles: should be selected properly

Forces in Two-Dimensional Cutting


Figure 8.12 Forces acting on a cutting tool in two-dimensional cutting. Note that the resultant force, R, must be collinear to balance the forces.

Fc: cutting force, Ft: thrust force F: friction force, N: normal force R: resultant force Fs: shear force, Fn: normal force

F = R sin , N = R cos friction coefficient =

Ft = R sin( ), Ft = Fc tan( )

F F + Fc tan = tan = t N Fc Ft tan

Fs Fn wt o shear stress : = , normal stress : = As = As As sin

Approximate Energy Requirements in Cutting Operations


TABLE extra Approximate Energy Requirements in Cutting Operations (at drive motor, corrected for 80% efficiency; multiply by 1.25 for dull tools). Specific energy Material Aluminum alloys Cast irons Copper alloys High-temperature alloys Magnesium alloys Nickel alloys Refractory alloys Stainless steels Steels Titanium alloys W-s/mm 0.41.1 1.65.5 1.43.3 3.38.5 0.40.6 4.96.8 3.89.6 3.05.2 2.79.3 3.04.1
3

hp-min/in. 0.150.4 0.62.0 0.51.2 1.23.1 0.150.2 1.82.5 1.13.5 1.11.9 1.03.4 1.11.5

Temperature Distribution and Heat Generated


Figure 8.19 Typical temperature distribution the cutting zone. Note the steep temperature gradients within the tool and the chip. Source: G. Vieregge.

mean temperature in orthogonal cutting : T= 1 .2Y f

Vt o K

mean temperature in turning : T V a f b Carbide tool : a = 0.2, b = 0.125 HSS tool : a = 0.5, b = 0.375

Temperature Distributions

Figure 8.21 Temperatures developed n turning 52100 steel: (a) flank temperature distribution; and (b) tool-chip interface temperature distribution. Source: B. T. Chao and K. J. Trigger.

Typical Energy Distibution vs. Cutting Speed


Figure 8.22 Percentage of the heat generated in cutting going into the workpiece, tool, and chip, as a function of cutting speed. Note that the chip carries away most of the heat.

Increase of cutting speed short time for the heat to be dissipated more heat in chip

Examples of Wear and Tool Failures


Figure 8.24 (a) Schematic illustrations of types of wear observed on various types of cutting tools. (b) Schematic illustrations of catastrophic tool failures. A study of the types and mechanisms of tool wear and failure is essential to the development of better tool materials.

Forces, temperature, sliding Tool wear Surface quality, economics Chipping: breaking away Tool condition monitoring Direct: toolmakers microscope Indirect: acoustic emission

Flank and Crater Wear


(a) (b) (c) Figure 8.25 (a) Flank and crater wear in a cutting tool. Tool moves to the left. (b) View of the rake face of a turning tool, showing nose radius R and crater wear pattern on the rake face of the tool. (c) View of the flank face of a turning tool, showing the average flank wear land VB and the depth-of-cut line (wear notch). See also Fig. 8.24. (d) Crater and (e) flank wear on a carbide tool. Source: J.C. Keefe, Lehigh University.

(d)

(e)

Flank wear

Tool Life

Figure 8.26 Effect of workpiece microstructure and hardness on tool life in turning ductile cast iron. Note the rapid decrease in tool life as the cutting speed increases. Tool materials have been developed that resist high temperatures such as carbides, ceramics, and cubic boron nitride, as described in Chapter 21.

F.W.Taylor: VT n Modified tool life:

=C

VT n d x f y = C T = C1 nV 1 n d x n f y n C 7V 7 d 1 f 4

Figure 8.27 Tool-life curves for a variety of cutting-tool materials. The negative inverse of the slope of these curves is the exponent n in the Taylor tool-life equations and C is the cutting speed at T = 1 min.

Tool Wear
TABLE 8.5 Range of n Values for Various Tool Materials High-speed steels 0.080.2 Cast alloys 0.10.15 Carbides 0.20.5 Ceramics 0.50.7
TABLE 8.6 Allowable Average Wear Land (VB) for Cutting Tools in Various Operations Allowable wear land (mm) Operation High-speed Steels Carbides Turning 1.5 0.4 Face milling 1.5 0.4 End milling 0.3 0.3 Drilling 0.4 0.4 Reaming 0.15 0.15 Note: 1 mm = 0.040 in.

Recommended cutting speed: V that gives a tool life of 60-120 min for HSS tool, and 30-60 min for carbide tools

Crater Wear
Figure 8.29 Relationship between crater-wear rate and average tool-chip interface temperature: (a) Highspeed steel; (b) C-1 carbide; and (c) C-5 carbide. Note how rapidly crater-wear rate increases as the temperature increases. Source: B. T. Chao and K. J. Trigger.

Location of maximum temperature location of maximum crater wear

Figure 8.30 Cutting tool (right) and chip (left) interface in cutting plain-carbon steel. The discoloration of the tool indicates the presence of high temperatures. Compare this figure with Fig. 8.19. Source: P. K. Wright.

Surface Roughnesses

Surface finish and integrity - finish: geometry - integrity: fatigue, corrosion,

Figure 8.33 The range of surface roughness obtained in various machining processes. Note the wide range within each group, especially in turning and boring. See also Fig. 9.31.

Surfaces Produced by Cutting


(a) (b)

Figure 8.34 Surfaces produced on steel by cutting, as observed with a scanning electron microscope: (a) turned surface and (b) surface produced by shaping. Source: J. T. Black and S. Ramalingam.

BUE: surface damage Ceramic and diamond tools: less BUE

better surface finish

Dull Tool in Orthogonal Cutting and Feed Marks


Figure 8.35 Schematic illustration of a dull tool in orthogonal cutting (exaggerated). Note that at small depths of cut, the positive rake angle can effectively become negative, and the tool may simply ride over and burnish the workpiece surface.

Small depth of cut : negative rake angle Rubbing: heat residual stresses

Higher f, smaller R

larger feed marks

Figure 20.23 Schematic illustration of feed marks in turning (highly exaggerated). See also Fig. 20.2.

Cutting-Tool Materials and Cutting Fluids

VIDEO

Cutting Tool Material Hardnesses


Figure 8.37 The hardness of various cutting-tool materials as a function of temperature (hot hardness). The wide range in each group of materials is due to the variety of tool compositions and treatments available for that group. See also Table 21.1 for melting or decomposition temperatures of these materials.

Required characteristics Hardness at elevated temp. Toughness: interrupted cutting Wear resistance Chemical stability or inertness

Typical Properties of Tool Materials


Table 8.7
Carbides
Property Hardness High-speed steels 83 86 HRA Cast alloys 82 84 HRA 46 62 HRC WC 90 95 HRA 1800 2400 HK TiC 91 93 HRA 1800 3200 HK Ceramics 91 95 HRA 2000 3000 HK 2750 4500 400 650 345 950 50 135 < 0.1 <1 310 410 45 60 4000 4500 0.14 0.16 100 Cubic boron nitride 4000 5000 HK Single-crystal diamond* 7000 8000 HK

Compressive strength MPa 4100 4500 1500 2300 4100 5850 3100 3850 3 600 650 220 335 600 850 450 560 psi x10 Transverse rupture strength MPa 2400 4800 1380 2050 1050 2600 1380 1900 3 350 700 200 300 150 375 200 275 psi x10 Impact strength J 1.35 8 0.34 1.25 0.34 1.35 0.79 1.24 in.- lb 12 70 3 11 3 12 7 11 Modulus of elasticity GPa 200 520 690 310 450 6 psi x10 30 75 100 45 65 Density 3 kg/m 8600 8000 8700 10,000 15,000 5500 5800 3 0.31 0.29 0.31 0.36 0.54 0.2 0.22 lb/in. Volume of hard phase, % 7 15 10 20 70 90 Melting or decomposition temperature C 1300 1400 1400 F 2370 2550 2550 Thermal conductivity, W/ 30 50 42 125 17 mK Coefficient of thermal 12 4 6.5 7.5 9 6 expansion, x10 C * The values for polycrystalline diamond are generally lower, except impact strength, which is higher.

6900 1000 700 105 < 0.5 <5 850 125 3500 0.13 95

6900 1000 1350 200 < 0.2 <2 820 1050 120 150 3500 0.13 95

2000 3600 29 6 8.5

1300 2400 13 4.8

700 1300 500 2000 1.5 4.8

General Characteristics of Cutting-Tool Materials


TABLE 8.8 General Characteristics of Cutting- Tool Materials. These Tool Materials Have a Wide Range of Compositions and Properties; Thus Overlapping Characteristics Exist in Many Categories of Tool Materials.
Carbon and low- to medium- alloy steels High speed steels Cast- cobalt alloys Uncoated carbides Coated carbides Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride

Ceramics

Diamond

Hot hardness Toughness Impact strength Wear resistance Chipping resistance Cutting speed Thermal-shock resistance Tool material cost Depth of cut

Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Light to heavy Rough Cast and HIP sintering

Light to medium Rough Wrought

Light to heavy Rough Wrought, * cast, HIP sintering

Light to heavy Good Cold pressing and sintering

Light to heavy Good CVD or PVD

Light to heavy Very good Cold pressing and sintering or HIP sintering Grinding

Light to heavy

Finish obtainable Method of processing

Very good High-pressure, high-temperature sintering

Very light for single crystal diamond Excellent High-pressure, high-temperature sintering

Fabrication

Machining and grinding

Machining and grinding

Grinding

Grinding

Grinding and polishing

Grinding and polishing

Source : R. Komanduri, Kirk- Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology , (3d ed.). New York: Wiley, 1978. * Hot- isostatic pressing. Chemical- vapor deposition, physical- vapor deposition.

Operating Characteristics of Cutting-Tool Materials


TABLE extra
Tool materials High-speed steels General characteristics High toughness, resistance to fracture, wide range of roughing and finishing cuts, good for interrupted cuts High hardness over a wide range of temperatures, toughness, wear resistance, versatile and wide range of applications Improved wear resistance over uncoated carbides, better frictional and thermal properties High hardness at elevated temperatures, high abrasive wear resistance High hot hardness, toughness, cutting-edge strength Hardness and toughness, abrasive wear resistance Modes of tool wear or failure Flank wear, crater wear Limitations Low hot hardness, limited hardenability, and limited wear resistance

Uncoated carbides

Flank wear, crater wear

Cannot use at low speed because of cold welding of chips and microchipping

Coated carbides

Flank wear, crater wear

Cannot use at low speed because of cold welding of chips and microchipping Low strength, low thermomechanical fatigue strength Low strength, low chemical stability at higher temperature Low strength, low chemical stability at higher temperature

Ceramics

Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (cBN) Polycrystalline diamond

Depth-of-cut line notching, microchipping, gross fracture Depth-of-cut line notching, chipping, oxidation, graphitization Chipping, oxidation, graphitization

Source: After R. Komanduri and other sources.

Carbon and medium-alloy steels High-speed steels Cast-cobalt alloys


Figure 8.39 Typical carbide inserts with various shapes and chip-breaker features; round inserts are also available (Fig. 8.6). The holes in the inserts are standardized for interchangeability. Source: Courtesy of Kyocera Engineered Ceramics, Inc., and Manufacturing Engineering Magazine, Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Carbide Inserts

High hardness over wide range of temperature Low thermal expansion High elastic modulus High thermal conductivity Tungsten carbide (WC) Titanium carbide (TiC)
Figure 8.40 Examples of inserts attached to toolholders with threadless lockpins, which are secured with side screws. Source: Courtesy of Valenite.

Edge Strength
Figure 8.41 Relative edge strength and tendency for chipping and breaking of insets with various shapes. Strength refers to the cutting edge shown by the included angles. Source: Kennametal, Inc.

Figure 8.42 Edge preparation of inserts to improve edge strength. See also Section 23.2. Source: Kennametal, Inc.

Classification of Tungsten Carbides


Table 8.9 Classification of Tungsten Carbide According to Machining Applications. See also Chapters 22 and 23 for Cutting Tool Recommendations
ISO Standard ANSI Classification Number Materials to be machined Machining Operation Type of carbide Characteristics of

Cut

Carbide

K30-K40 K20 K10 K01

C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4

Cast iron, nonferrous metals and nonmetallic materials requiring abrasion resistance

Roughing General purpose Light finishing Precision machining

Wear-resistant grades; generally straight WC-Co with varying grain sizes

Increasing Cutting speed

Increasing hardness and wear resistance

Increasing Feed rate P30-P50 P20 P10 P01 C-5 C-6 C-7 C-8 Steels and steel alloys requiring crater and deformation resistance Roughing General purpose Light purpose Precision finishing Crater-resistant grades; various WC-Co compositions with TiC and/or TaC alloys Increasing Cutting speed

Increasing strength and binder content Increasing hardness and wear resistance

Increasing Feed rate

Increasing strength and binder content

Note: The ISO and ANSI comparisons are approximate.

ISO Classification of Carbide Cutting Tools According to Use


TABLE 8.10 Designation in increasing order of wear resistance and decreasing order of toughness in each category, in increments of 5 P01, P05 through P50 M10 through M40 K01, K10 through K40

Symbol P M K

Workpiece material
Ferrous metals with long chips Ferrous metals with long or short chips; nonferrous metals Ferrous metals with short chips; nonferrous metals; nonmetallic materials

Color code Blue Yellow Red

Effect of Coating Materials


Figure 8.43 Relative time required to machine with various cutting-tool materials, indicating the year the tool materials were introduced. Source: Sandvik Coromant.

Coating material: TiN, TiC, Al2O3 Diamond New: TiCN, TiAlN, CrC, ZrN, Thickness: 2-10 m Coating method: CVD, PVD,

Multiphase Coatings
Figure 8.45 Multiphase coatings on a tungsten-carbide substrate. Three alternating layers of aluminum oxide are separated by very thin layers ot titanium nitride. Inserts with as many as thirteen layers of coatings have been made. Coating thicknesses are typically in the range of 2 to 10 m. Source: Courtesy of Kennametal, Inc., and Manufacturing Engineering Magazine, Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Properties for Groups of Tool Materials


Figure 8.46 Ranges of properties for various groups of tool materials. See also Tables 21.1 through 21.5.

Cubic Boron Nitride


Figure 8.47 Construction of a polycrystalline cubic boron nitride or a diamond layer on a tungsten-carbide insert.

Figure 8.48 Inserts with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tips (top row) and solid polycrystalline CBN inserts (bottom row). Source: Courtesy of Valenite.

Approximate Cost of Selected Cutting Tools


TABLE extra Tool High-speed steel tool bits Carbide-tipped (brazed) tools for turning Carbide inserts, square 3/16"thick Plain Coated Ceramic inserts, square Cubic boron nitride inserts, square Diamond-coated inserts Diamond-tipped inserts (polycrystalline)

Size (in.) 1/4 sq.x 2 1/2 long 1/2 sq. x 4 1/4 sq. 3/4 sq. 1/2 inscribed circle 1/2 inscribed circle 1/2 inscribed circle 1/2 inscribed circle 1/2 inscribed circle

Cost ($) 12 37 2 4 59 610 812 6090 5060 90100

Machining Processes Used to Produce Round Shapes

VIDEO

Cutting Operations
Figure 8.51 Various cutting operations that can be performed on a late. Not that all parts have circular symmetry. Cutting speeds: 0.15-4 m/s Roughing cuts: to>0.5 mm, f=0.2-2 mm/rev. Finishing cuts: lower depth of cuts and feeds

General Characteristics of Machining Processes


TABLE extra General Characteristics of Machining Processes Described in Chapters 22 and 23 Process Characteristics Turning Turning and facing operations on all types of materials; uses single-point or form tools; requires skilled labor; low production rate, but medium to high with turret lathes and automatic machines, requiring lessskilled labor. Boring Internal surfaces or profiles, with characteristics similar to turning; stiffness of boring bar important to avoid chatter. Drilling Round holes of various sizes and depths; requires boring and reaming for improved accuracy; high production rate; labor skill required depends on hole location and accuracy specified. Milling Variety of shapes involving contours, flat surfaces, and slots; wide variety of tooling; versatile; low to medium production rate; requires skilled labor. Planing Flat surfaces and straight contour profiles on large surfaces; suitable for low-quantity production; labor skill required depends on part shape. Shaping Flat surfaces and straight contour profiles on relatively small workpieces; suitable for low-quantity production; labor skill required depends on part shape. Broaching External and internal flat surfaces, slots, and contours with good surface finish; costly tooling; high production rate; labor skill required depends on part shape. Sawing Straight and contour cuts on flat or structural shapes; not suitable for hard materials unless saw has carbide teeth or is coated with diamond; low production rate; requires only low labor skill. Commercial tolerances(mm) Fine: 0.050.13 Rough: 0.13 Skiving: 0.0250.05 0.025 0.075 0.130.25 0.080.13 0.050.13 0.0250.15 0.8

Right-Hand Cutting Tool


Figure 8.52 (a) Designations and symbols for a right-hand cutting tool; solid high-speed-steel tools have a similar designation. Right-hand means that the tool travels from right to left as shown in Fig. 8.51a. (continued) Rake angle: chip flow, strength of tool tip side vs back Relief angle: interference and rubbing at the tool-workpiece interface Cutting edge angle: chip formation, tool strength, cutting forces Nose radius: surface finish, tooltip strength

Right-Hand Cutting Tool (cont.)

Figure 8.52 (continued) (b) Square insert in a right-hand toolholder for a turning operation. A wide variety of toolholders are available for holding inserts at various angles. Source: Kennametal Inc.

Schematic Illustration of a Turning Operation

Figure 8.53 (a) Schematic illustration of a turning operation showing depth of cut, d, and feed, f. Cutting speed is the surface speed of the workpiece at the tool tip. (b) Forces acting on a cutting tool in turning. Fc, is the cutting force, Ft is the thrust or feed force (in the direction of feed, Fr is the radial force that tends to push the tool away from the workpiece being machined. Compare this figure with Fig. 8.12 for a two-dimensional cutting operation.

marerial removal rate, MRR = Davg dfN

General Recommendations for Turning Tool Angles


TABLE 8.11 High-speed steel Side and end cutting edge 5 5 15 15 15 5 15 15 10 10 Carbide (inserts) Side and end cutting edge 15 15 15 15 45 15

Material Aluminum and magnesium alloys Copper alloys Steels Stainless steels High-temperature alloys Refractory alloys Titanium alloys Cast irons Thermoplastics Thermosets

Back rake 20 5 10 5 0 0 0 5 0 0

Side rake 15 10 12 810 10 20 5 10 0 0

End relief 12 8 5 5 5 5 5 5 2030 2030

Side relief 10 8 5 5 5 5 5 5 1520 1520

Back rake 0 0 5 50 5 0 5 5 0 0

Side rake 5 5 5 55 0 0 5 5 0 15

End relief 5 5 5 5 5 5 55 5515 2030 5

Side relief 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1520 5

10 15

Summary of Turning Parameters and Formulas


TABLE 8.14 N = Rotational speed of the workpiece, rpm f = Feed, mm/rev or in/rev v = Feed rate, or linear speed of the tool along workpiece length, mm/min or in/min =fN V = Surface speed of workpiece, m/min or ft/min = Do N (for maximum speed) = Davg N (for average speed) l = Length of cut, mm or in. Do = Original diameter of workpiece, mm or in. Df = Final diameter of workpiece, mm or in. Davg = Average diameter of workpiece, mm or in. = (Do +Df ) /2 d = Depth of cut, mm or in. = ( Do +Df ) /2 t = Cutting time, s or min =l/f N 3 3 MRR = mm /min or in /min = Davg d fN Torque = Nm or lb ft = ( Fc )( Davg /2 ) Power = kW or hp = (Torque) (w) , where w=2p radians/min Note: The units given are those that are commonly used; however, appropriate units must be used and checked in the formulas.

Cutting Speeds for Various Tool Materials


Figure 8.54 The range of applicable cutting speeds and feeds for a variety of tool materials. Source: Valenite.

Components of a Lathe
Figure 8.55 Components of a lathe. Source: Courtesy of Heidenreich & Harbeck

VIDEO

General Recommendations for Turning Operations


TABLE extra
General-purpose starting conditions Feed Cutting speed Depth of cut mm/rev m/min mm (in.) (in./rev) (ft/min) 1.5-6.3 0.35 90 (0.06-0.25) (0.014) (300) " " 245-275 (800-900) " " 185-200 (600-650) " " 105-150 (350-500) " 0.25 395-440 (0.010) (1300-1450) " 0.30 215-290 (0.012) (700-950) 1.2-4.0 0.30 75 (0.05-0.20) (0.012) (250) " " 185-230 (600-750) " " 120-150 (400-500) " " 90-200 (300-650) " 0.25 335 (0.010) (1100) " 0.25 170-245 (0.010) (550-800) Range for roughing and finishing Depth of cut Feed Cutting speed mm mm/rev m/min (in.) (in./rev) (ft/min) 0.5-7.6 0.15-1.1 60-135 (0.02-0.30) (0.006-0.045) (200-450) " " 120-425 (400-1400) " " 90-245 (300-800) " " 60-230 (200-750) " " 365-550 (1200-1800) " " 105-455 (350-1800) 2.5-7.6 0.15-0.75 45-120 (0.10-0.30) (0.006-0.03) (150-400) " " 120-410 (400-1350) " " 75-215 (250-700) " " 45-215 (150-700) " " 245-455 (800-1500) " " 105-305 (350-1000) Workpiece material Low-C and freemachining steels Cutting tool Uncoated carbide Ceramic-coated carbide Triple coated carbide TiN-coated carbide Al2O3 ceramic Cermet Medium and high-C steels Uncoated carbide Ceramic-coated carbide Triple coated carbide TiN-coated carbide Al2O3 ceramic Cermet

General Recommendations for Turning Operations (cont.)


TABLE extra (continued)
Workpiece material
Cast iron, gray

Cutting tool
Uncoated carbide Ceramic-coated carbide TiN-coated carbide Al 2O 3 ceramic SiN ceramic

General-purpose starting conditions Feed Cutting speed Depth of cut mm/rev m/min mm (in.) (in./rev) (ft/min)
1.25-6.3 (0.05-0.25) " " " " 1.5-4.4 (0.06-0.175) " " 2.5 (0.10) " " " " " 0.32 (0.013) " " 0.25 (0.010) 0.32 (0.013) 0.35 (0.014) " 0.30 (0.012) 0.15 (0.006) " " " " " 90 (300) 200 (650) 90-135 (300-450) 455-490 (1500-1600) 730 (2400) 150 (500) 85-160 (275-525) 185-215 (600-700) 25-45 (75-150) 45 (150) 30-55 (95-175) 260 (850) 215 (700) 150 (500)

Range for roughing and finishing Depth of cut Feed Cutting speed mm mm/rev m/min (in.) (in./rev) (ft/min)
0.4-12.7 (0.015-0.5) " " " " 0.5-12.7 (0.02-0.5) " " 0.25-6.3 (0.01-0.25) " " " " " 0.1-0.75 (0.004-0.03) " " " " 0.08-0.75 (0.003-0.03) " " 0.1-0.3 (0.004-0.012) " " " " " 75-185 (250-600) 120-365 (400-1200) 60-215 (200-700) 365-855 (1200-2800) 200-990 (650-3250) 75-230 (250-750) 55-200 (175-650) 105-290 (350-950) 15-30 (50-100) 20-60 (65-200) 20-85 (60-275) 185-395 (600-1300) 90-215 (300-700) 120-185 (400-600)

Stainless steel, austenitic

Triple coated carbide TiN-coated carbide Cermet Uncoated carbide Ceramic-coated carbide TiN-coated carbide Al 2O 3 ceramic SiN ceramic Polycrystalline CBN

High-temperature alloys, nickel base

General Recommendations for Turning Operations (cont.)


TABLE extra (continued)
Workpiece material
Titanium alloys

Cutting tool
Uncoated carbide TiN-coated carbide Uncoated carbide TiN-coated carbide Cermet Polycrystalline diamond Polycrystalline diamond Uncoated carbide Ceramic-coated carbide Triple-coated carbide TiN-coated carbide Cermet Polycrystalline diamond

General-purpose starting conditions Feed Cutting speed Depth of cut mm/rev m/min mm (in.) (in./rev) (ft/min)
1.0-3.8 (0.04-0.15) " 0.15 (0.006) " 35-60 (120-200) 30-60 (100-200) 490 (1600) 550 (1800) 490 (1600) 760 (2500) 530 (1700) 260 (850) 365 (1200) 215 (700) 90-275 (300-900) 245-425 (800-1400) 520 (1700)

Range for roughing and finishing Depth of cut Feed Cutting speed mm mm/rev m/min (in.) (in./rev) (ft/min)
0.25-6.3 (0.01-0.25) " 0.1-0.4 (0.004-0.015) " 10-75 (30-250) 10-100 (30-325) 200-670 (650-2000) 60-915 (200-3000) 215-795 (700-2600) 305-3050 (1000-10,000) 365-915 (1200-3000) 105-535 (350-1750) 215-670 (700-2200) 90-305 (300-1000) 45-455 (150-1500) 200-610 (650-2000) 275-915 (900-3000)

Aluminum alloys, free machining

1.5-5.0 (0.06-0.20) " " " " 1.5-5.0 (0.06-0.20) " " " " "

0.45 (0.018) " " " " 0.25 (0.010) " " " " "

0.25-8.8 (0.01-0.35) " " " " 0.4-7.51 (0.015-0.3) " " " " "

0.08-0.62 (0.003-0.025) " " " " 0.15-0.75 (0.006-0.03) " " " " "

High silicon Copper alloys

General Recommendations for Turning Operations (cont.)


General-purpose starting conditions Feed Cutting speed Depth of cut mm/rev m/min mm (in.) (in./rev) (ft/min)
2.5 (0.10) " 1.2 (0.05) " 1.9 (0.075) " 0.2 (0.008) " 0.12 (0.005) " 0.2 (0.008) " 75 (250) 85 (275) 170 (550) 395 (1300) 200 (650) 760 (2500)

Workpiece material
Tungsten alloys

Cutting tool
Uncoated carbide TiN-coated carbide TiN-coated carbide Polycrystalline diamond TiN-coated carbide Polycrystalline diamond

Range for roughing and finishing Depth of cut Feed Cutting speed mm mm/rev m/min (in.) (in./rev) (ft/min)
0.25-5.0 (0.01-0.2) " 0.12-5.0 (0.005-0.20) " 0.12-6.3 (0.005-0.25) " 0.12-0.45 (0.005-0.018) " 0.08-0.35 (0.003-0.015) " 0.12-1.5 (0.005-0.06) " 55-120 (175-400) 60-150 (200-500) 90-230 (300-750) 150-730 (500-2400) 105-290 (350-950) 550-1310 (1800-4300)

Thermoplastics and thermosets

Composites, graphite reinforced

Source: Based on data from Kennametal, Inc. Note: Cutting speeds for high-speed steel tools are about one-half those for uncoated carbides.

General Recommendations for Cutting Fluids for Machining


TABLE 8.13
Material Aluminum Beryllium Copper Magnesium Nickel Refractory Steels (carbon and low alloy) Steels (stainless) Titanium Zinc Zirconium Type of fluid D, MO, E, MO FO, CSN MC, E, CSN D, E, CSN, MO FO D, MO, MO FO MC, E, CSN MC, E, EP D, MO, E, CSN, EP D, MO, E, CSN CSN, EP, MO C, MC, E, CSN D, E, CSN

Reduction of friction, wear improving tool life and surface finish Reduction of forces and energy consumption Low temperature and distortion Wash away the chips Protection of machined surfaces from environmental corrosion

Note: CSN, chemicals and synthetics; D, dry; E, emulsion; EP, extreme pressure; FO, fatty oil; and MO, mineral oil.

Typical Capacities and Maximum Workpiece Dimensions for Machine Tools


TABLE extra Machine tool Maximum dimension (m) Lathes (swing/length) Bench 0.3/1 Engine 3/5 Turret 0.5/1.5 Automatic screw 0.1/0.3 Boring machines (work diameter/length) Vertical spindle 4/3 Horizontal spindle 1.5/2 70 Drilling machines Bench and column (drill diameter) 0.1 Radial (column to spindle distance) 3 Numerical control (table travel) 4 Note: Larger capacities are available for special applications. Power (kW) <1 70 60 20 200 1000 10 Maximum rpm 3000 4000 3000 10,000 300

12,000

Collets

VIDEO

Figure extra (a) and (b) Schematic illustrations of a draw-in type collet. The workpiece is placed in the collet hole, and the conical surfaces of the collet are forced inward by pulling it with a draw bar into the sleeve. (c) A push-out type collet. (d) Workholding of a part on a face plate.

Mandrels

Figure extra Various types of mandrels to hold workpieces for turning. These mandrels are usually mounted between centers on a lathe. Note that in (a), both the cylindrical and the end faces of the workpiece can be machined, whereas in (b) and (c), only the cylindrical surfaces can be machined.

Turret Lathe

VIDEO
Figure extra Schematic illustration of the components of a turret lathe. Note the two turrets: square and hexagonal (main). Source: American Machinist and Automated Manufacturing.

VIDEO
(horizontal turret lathe) (a)

Examples of Turrets
(b)

VIDEO
(vertical turret lathe)

Figure extra (a) A turret with six different tools for inside-diameter and outsidediameter cutting and threading operations. (b) A turret with eight different cutting tools. Source: Monarch Machine Tool Company.

Computer Numerical Control Lathe


Figure 8.56 A computer numerical control lathe. Note the two turrets on this machine. Source: Jones & Lamson, Textron, Inc.

VIDEO

Examples of Parts Made on CNC Turning Machine Tools

Figure 8.57

Machining of Various Complex Shapes


TABLE extra Example: Machining of Various Complex Shapes Operation Cutting speed (a) OD 160 m/min roughing 1150 rpm (525 fpm) OD finishing Lead roughing Lead finishing (b) Eccentric roughing Eccentric finishing (c) Thread roughing Thread finishing 250 (820) 45 (148) 45 (148) 5-11 m/min (16-136 fpm) 5-11 (16-36) 70 m/min (230 fpm) 70 (230) Depth of cut 3 mm (0.12 in.) Feed 0.3 mm/rev (0.012 ipr) 0.15 (0.0059) 0.15 (0.0059) 0.15 (0.0059) 0.2 mm/rev (0.008 ipr) 0.05 (0.0020) 0.15 mm/rev (0.0059 ipr) 0.15 (0.0059) Tool

K10 (C3)

1750

0.2 (0.008) 3 (0.12) 0.1 (0.004) 1.5 mm (0.059 in) 0.1 (0.004) 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) 0.1 (0.004)

K10 (C3)

300

K10 (C3) Diamond compact

300

200 rpm

K10 (C3)

200

K10 (C3) Coated carbide

800 rpm

800

Cermet

Typical Production Rates for Various Cutting Operations


TABLE 8.15 Operation Rate Turning Engine lathe Very low to low Tracer lathe Low to medium Turret lathe Low to medium Computer-control lathe Low to medium Single-spindle chuckers Medium to high Multiple-spindle chuckers High to very high Boring Very low Drilling Low to medium Milling Low to medium Planing Very low Gear cutting Low to medium Broaching Medium to high Sawing Very low to low Note: Production rates indicated are relative: Very low is about one or more parts per hour; medium is approximately 100 parts per hour; very high is 1000 or more parts per hour.

Dimensional Tolerances
Figure extra The range of dimensional tolerances obtained in various machining processes as a function of workpiece size. Note that there is an order of magnitude difference between small and large workpieces. Source: Adapted from Manufacturing Planning and Estimating Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 1963.

General Troubleshooting Guide for Turning Operations


TABLE extra Problem Tool breakage Excessive tool wear Rough surface finish Dimensional variability Tool chatter Probable causes Tool material lacks toughness; improper tool angles; machine tool lacks stiffness; worn bearings and machine components; cutting parameters too high. Cutting parameters too high; improper tool material; ineffective cutting fluid; improper tool angles. Built-up edge on tool; feed too high; tool too sharp, chipped or worn; vibration and chatter. Lack of stiffness; excessive temperature rise; tool wear. Lack of stiffness; workpiece not supported rigidly; excessive tool overhang.

Examples of Threads

Figure extra (a) Standard nomenclature for screw threads. (b) Unified National thread and identification of threads. (c) ISO metric thread and identification of threads.

Types of Screw Threads

Figure extra Various types of screw threads.

Cutting Screw Threads

Forming for large quantity

Figure extra (a) Cutting screw threads on a lathe with a single-point cutting tool. (b) Cutting screw threads with a single-point tool in several passes, normally utilized for large threads. The small arrows in the figures show the direction of feed, and the broken lines show the position of the cutting tool as time progresses. Note that in radial cutting, the tool is fed directly into the workpiece. In flank cutting, the tool is fed into the piece along the right face of the thread. In incremental cutting, the tool is first fed directly into the piece at the center of the thread, then at its sides, and finally into the root. (c) A typical carbide insert and tool holder for cutting screw threads. (d) Cutting internal screw threads with a carbide insert. (See also Figs. 21.2 and 21.3.)

Threading Die

Figure extra (a) Straight chasers for cutting threads on a lathe. (b) Circular chasers. (c) A solid threading die.

Swiss-Type Automatic Screw Machine

Figure extra Schematic illustration of a Swiss-type automatic screw machine. Source: George Gorton Machine Company.

High production rate of screws Similar threaded parts

Boring
Figure 8.58 (a) Schematic illustration of a steel boring bar with a carbide insert. Note the passageway in the bar for cutting fluid application. (b) Schematic illustration of a boring bar with tungsten-alloy inertia disks sealed in the bar to counteract vibration and chatter during boring. This system is effective for boring bar length-to-diameter ratios of up to 6. (c) Schematic illustration of the components of a vertical boring mill. Source: Kennametal Inc.

Producing circular internal profiles in hollow workpieces or on a hole

Horizontal Boring Mill


Figure extra Horizontal boring mill. Source: Giddings and Lewis, Inc.

For large workpieces

Drills

VIDEO
High length-to-diameter ratio deep holes Other types: Counterboring drill Countersinking drill Core drill Center drill Crankshaft drill Trepanning technique

MRR =

D 2
4

fN

Figure extra Various types of drills

Drill Point Geometries

Figure 8.59 (a) Standard chisel-point drill indicating various features. The function of the pair of margins is to provide a bearing surface for the drill against walls of the hole as it penetrates into the workpiece; drills with four margins (double- margin) are available for improved drill guidance and accuracy. Drills with chip-breaker features are also available. (b) Crankshaft-point drill. (c) Various drill points and their manufacturers: 1. Fourfacet split point, by Komet of America. 2. SE point, by Hertel. 3. New point, by Mitsubishi Materials. 4. Hosoi point, by OSG Tap and Die. 5. Helical point.

General Recommendations for Drill Geometry


TABLE extra General Recommendations for Drill Geometry for High-Speed Twist Drills Workpiece Point Lip-relief Chisel-edge material angle angle angle Aluminum alloys 90118 1215 125135 Magnesium alloys 70118 1215 120135 Copper alloys 118 1215 125135 Steels 118 1015 125135 High-strength steels 118135 710 125135 Stainless steels, 118 1012 125135 low strength Stainless steels, 118135 710 120130 high strength High-temp. alloys 118135 912 125135 Refractory alloys 118 710 125135 Titanium alloys 118135 710 125135 Cast irons 118 812 125135 Plastics 6090 7 120135 Helix angle 2448 3045 1030 2432 2432 2432 2432 1530 2432 1532 2432 29

Point Standard Standard Standard Standard Crankshaft Standard Crankshaft Crankshaft Standard Crankshaft Standard Standard

Drilling and Reaming Operations


Figure 8.60 Various types of drilling and reaming operations.

Gun Drilling
Figure extra (a) A gun drill showing various features. (b) Method of gun drilling. Source: Eldorado Tool and Manufacturing Corporation.

Special drill for cutting fluid and chips Hole depth-to-diameter ratios ~ or > 300

Trepanning

Figure extra (a) Trepanning tool. (b) Trepanning with a drill-mounted single cutter.

Removal of disk-shaped piece

Capabilities of Drilling and Boring Operations


TABLE extra Diameter range (mm) 0.5150 25150 250 40250 31200 Hole depth/diameter Typical 8 30 100 10 5 Maximum 50 100 300 100 8

Tool type Twist Spade Gun Trepanning Boring

General Recommendations for Speeds and Feeds in Drilling


TABLE extra Surface speed Workpiece material Aluminum alloys Magnesium alloys Copper alloys Steels Stainless steels Titanium alloys Cast irons Thermoplastics Thermosets m/min 30120 45120 1560 2030 1020 620 2060 3060 2060 ft/min 100400 150400 50200 60100 4060 2060 60200 100200 60200 Feed, mm/rev (in/rev) Drill Diameter 1.5 mm (0.060 in.) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.010 (0.0004) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 0.025 (0.001) 12.5 mm (0.5 in.) 0.30 (0.012) 0.30 (0.012) 0.25 (0.010) 0.30 (0.012) 0.18 (0.007) 0.15 (0.006) 0.30 (0.012) 0.13 (0.005) 0.10 (0.004) 1.5 mm 640025,000 960025,000 320012,000 43006400 21004300 13004300 430012,000 640012,000 430012,000 RPM 12.5 mm 8003000 11003000 4001500 500800 250500 150500 5001500 8001500 5001500

Note: As hole depth increases, speeds and feeds should be reduced. Selection of speeds and feeds also depends on the specific surface finish required.

General Troubleshooting and Drill Life


TABLE extra General Troubleshooting Guide for Drilling Operations Problem Probable causes Drill breakage Dull drill; drill seizing in hole because of chips clogging flutes; feed too high; lip relief angle too small. Excessive drill wear Cutting speed too high; ineffective cutting fluid; rake angle too high; drill burned and strength lost when sharpened. Tapered hole Drill misaligned or bent; lips not equal; web not central. Oversize hole Same as above; machine spindle loose; chisel edge not central; side pressure on workpiece. Poor hole surface finish Dull drill; ineffective cutting fluid; welding of workpiece material on drill margin; improperly ground drill; improper alignment.

Figure extra The determination of drill life by monitoring the rise in force or torque as a function of the number of holes drilled. This test is also used for determining tap life.

Drilling Machines
(a)

Figure extra Schematic illustration of components of (a) a vertical drill press and (b) a radial drilling machine.

CNC Drilling Machine

Figure extra A three-axis computer numerical control drilling machine. The turret holds as much as eight different tools, such as drills, taps, and reamers.

Reamers
Figure 8.61 (a) Terminology for a helical reamer. (b) Inserted-blade adjustable reamer.

To improve: Dimensional accuracy Surface finish of existing holes

Tapping and Taps


Figure 8.62 (a) Terminology for a tap. (b) Tapping of steel nuts in production.

Internal threads in workpieces

Machining Processes Used to Produce Various Shapes

Examples of Parts Produced Using the Machining Processes in the Chapter

Figure 8.63 Typical parts and shapes produced with the machining processes described in this chapter.

Examples of Milling Cutters and Operations


Figure extra Some of the basic types of milling cutters and milling operations.

Milling cutter: multitooth tool number of chips in one revolution Efficient way of machining various shapes

Example of Part Produced on a CNC Milling Machine


Figure extra A typical part that can be produced on a milling machine equipped with computer controls. Such parts can be made efficiently and repetitively on computer numerical control (CNC) machines, without the need for refixturing or reclamping the part.

Conventional and Climb Milling: slab milling


Figure 8.64 (a) Schematic illustration of conventional milling and climb milling. (b) Slab milling operation, showing depth of cut, d, feed per tooth, f, chip depth of cut, tc, and workpiece speed, v. (c) Schematic illustration of cutter travel distance lc to reach full depth of cut.

Up milling: no effect of surface contamination on tool life, smooth process upward (clamping), tendency to chatter Down milling: holding the workpieces impact force (rigid setup)

Summary of Milling Parameters and Formulas


TABLE 23.1 N = f = D = n = v = V = Rotational speed of the milling cutter, rpm Feed, mm/tooth or in./tooth Cutter diameter, mm or in. Number of teeth on cutter Linear speed of the workpiece or feed rate, mm/min or in./min Surface speed of cutter, m/min or ft/min = D N f = Feed per tooth, mm/tooth or in/tooth =v /N n l = Length of cut, mm or in. t = Cutting time, s or min =( l+lc ) v , where lc =extent of the cutters first contact with workpiece MRR = mm3 /min or in.3/min =w d v , where w is the width of cut Torque = N-m or lb-ft ( Fc ) (D/2) Power = kW or hp = (Torque) ( ), where = 2 N radians/min Note: The units given are those that are commonly used; however, appropriate units must be used in the formulas.

Face Milling
Figure extra Face- milling operation showing (a) action of an insert in face milling; (b) climb milling; (c) conventional milling; (d) dimensions in face milling. The width of cut, w, is not necessarily the same as the cutter radius. Source : Ingersoll Cutting Tool Company.

Figure 8.65 A face- milling cutter with indexable inserts. Source : Courtesy of Ingersoll Cutting Tool Company.

Effects of Insert Shapes

Figure extra Schematic illustration of the effect of insert shape on feed marks on a face-milled surface: (a) small corner radius, (b) corner flat on insert, and (c) wiper, consisting of a small radius followed by a large radius which leaves smoother feed marks. Source: Kennametal Inc. (d) Feed marks due to various insert shapes.

Face-Milling Cutter

Figure 8.66 Terminology for a face-milling cutter.

Effect of Lead Angle


Figure 8.67 The effect of lead angle on the undeformed chip thickness in face milling. Note that as the lead angle increase, the chip thickness decreases, but the length of contact (i.e., chip width) increases. The insert in (a) must be sufficiently large to accommodate the contact length increase.

decrease of undeformed chip thickness increase of contact length Lead angle: 0o to 45o for most face-milling cutters

Increase of lead angle

Cutter and Insert Position in Face Milling


Figure 8.68 (a) Relative position of the cutter and insert as it first engages the workpiece in face milling, (b) insert positions towards the end of the cut, and (c) examples of exit angles of insert, showing desirable (positive or negative angle) and undesirable (zero angle) positions. In all figures, the cutter spindle is perpendicular to the page.

Cutters for Different Types of Milling


Figure 8.69 Cutters for (a) straddle milling, (b) form milling, (c) slotting, and (d) slitting with a milling cutter.

Figure extra (a) T-slot cutting with a milling cutter. (b) A shell mill.

Arbors
Figure extra Mounting a milling cutter on an arbor for use on a horizontal milling machine.

For slab, face, straddle and form milling

Capacities and Maximum Workpiece Dimensions for Machine Tools


TABLE extra Typical Capacities and Maximum Workpiece Dimensions for Some Machine Tools
Machine tool Milling machines (table travel) Knee-and-column Bed Numerical control Planers (table travel) Broaching machines (length) Gear cutting (gear diameter) Maximum dimension m (ft) 1.4 (4.6) 4.3 (14) 5 (16.5) 10 (33) 2 (6.5) 5 (16.5) Power (kW) 20 Maximum speed 4000 rpm

100 0.9 MN

1.7

Note: Larger capacities are available for special applications.

TABLE extra Approximate Cost of Selected Tools for Machining*


Tools Drills, HSS, straight shank Size (in.) Cost ($) 1/4 1.002.00 1/2 3.006.00 Coated (TiN) 1/4 2.603.00 1/2 1015 Tapered shank 1/4 2.507.00 1 1545 2 8085 3 250 4 950 Reamers, HSS, hand 1/4 1015 1/2 1015 Chucking 1/2 510 1 2025 1 1/2 4055 End mills, HSS 1/2 1015 1 1530 Carbide-tipped 1/2 3035 1 4560 Solid carbide 1/2 3070 1 180 Burs, carbide 1/2 1020 1 5060 Milling cutters, HSS, staggered tooth, wide 4 3575 8 130260 Collets (5 core) 1 1020 *Cost depends on the particular type of material and shape of tool, its quality, and the amount purchased.

Approximate Cost of Selected Tools for Machining

TABLE extra
General-purpose starting conditions Feed Speed mm/tooth m/min (in./tooth) (ft/min)
0.130.20 (0.0050.008) 120180 (400600)

Workpiece material
Low-C and freemachining steels Alloy steels Soft

Cutting tool
Uncoated carbide, coated carbide, cermets Uncoated, coated, cermets Cermets, PCBN

Range of conditions Feed Speed mm/tooth m/min (in./tooth) (ft/min)


0.0850.38 (0.0030.015) 90425 (3001400)

General Recommendations for Milling Operations

Hard Cast iron, gray Soft Hard Stainless steel, austenitic High-temperature alloys, nickel base Titanium alloys Aluminum alloys Free machining High silicon Copper alloys Thermoplastics and thermosets

0.100.18 (0.0040.007) 0.100.15 (0.0040.006) 0.1010.20 (0.0040.008) 0.100.20 (0.0040.008) 0.130.18 (0.0050.007) 0.100.18 (0.0040.007) 0.130.15 (0.0050.006) 0.130.23 (0.0050.009) 0.13 (0.005) 0.130.23 (0.0050.009) 0.130.23 (0.0050.009)

90170 (300550) 180210 (600700) 120760 (4002500) 120210 (400700) 120370 (4001200) 30370 (1001200) 5060 (175200) 610900 (20003000) 610 (2000) 300760 (10002500) 270460 (9001500)

0.080.30 (0.0030.012) 0.080.25 (0.0030.010) 0.080.38 (0.0030.015) 0.080.38 (0.0030.015) 0.080.38 (0.0030.015) 0.080.38 (0.0030.015) 0.080.38 (0.0030.015) 0.080.46 (0.0030.018) 0.080.38 (0.0030015) 0.080.46 (0.0030.018) 0.080.46 (0.0030.018)

60370 (2001200) 75460 (2501500) 901370 (3004500) 90460 (3001500) 90500 (3001800) 30550 (901800) 40140 (125450) 3003000 (100010,000) 370910 (12003000) 901070 (3003500) 901370 (3004500)

Uncoated, coated, cermets, SiN Cermets, SiN, PCBN Uncoated, coated, cermets Uncoated, coated, cermets, SiN, PCBN Uncoated, coated, cermets Uncoated, coated, PCD PCD Uncoated, coated, PCD Uncoated, coated, PCD

Source: Based on data from Kennametal Inc. Note: Depths of cut, d , usually are in the range of 18 mm (0.040.3 in.). PCBN: polycrystalline cubic boron nitride; PCD: polycrystalline diamond. Note: See also Table 22.2 for range of cutting speeds within tool material groups.

General Troubleshooting Guide for Milling Operations


TABLE extra
Problem Tool breakage Tool wear excessive Rough surface finish Tolerances too broad Workpiece surface burnished Back striking Chatter marks Burr formation Breakout Probable causes Tool material lacks toughness; improper tool angles; cutting parameters too high. Cutting parameters too high; improper tool material; improper tool angles; improper cutting fluid. Feed too high; spindle speed too low; too few teeth on cutter; tool chipped or worn; built-up edge; vibration and chatter. Lack of spindle stiffness; excessive temperature rise; dull tool; chips clogging cutter. Dull tool; depth of cut too low; radial relief angle too small. Dull cutting tools; cutter spindle tilt; negative tool angles. Insufficient stiffness of system; external vibrations; feed, depth, and width of cut too large. Dull cutting edges or too much honing; incorrect angle of entry or exit; feed and depth of cut too high; incorrect insert geometry. Lead angle too low; incorrect cutting edge geometry; incorrect angle of entry or exit; feed and depth of cut too high.

Surface Features and Corner Defects

Figure extra Surface features and corner defects in face milling operations. Source: Kennametal Inc.

Horizontal- and Vertical-Spindle Column-andKnee Type Milling Machines


Figure 8.70 Schematic illustration of a horizontal-spindle column-and-knee type milling machine. Source: G. Boothroyd.

Figure 8.71 Schematic illustration of a verticalspindle column-and-knee type milling machine (also called a knee miller). Source: G. Boothroyd.

Bed-Type Milling Machine


Figure extra Schematic illustration of a bed-type milling machine. Note the single vertical-spindle cutter and two horizontal spindle cutters. Source: ASM International.

Additional Milling Machines


Figure 23.18 A computer numerical control, verticalspindle milling machine. This machine is one of the most versatile machine tools. Source: Courtesy of Bridgeport Machines Division, Textron Inc.

Figure 23.19 Schematic illustration of a five-axis profile milling machine. Note that there are three principal linear and two angular movements of machine components

Examples of Parts Made on a Planer and by Broaching


Figure extra Typical parts that can be made on a planer.

Large workpieces with flat surfaces or various crosssections with grooves and notches

Shaping with multiple teeth internal and external surfaces: holes of circular, square or irregular section, keyways,
Figure 8.72 (a) Typical parts made by internal broaching. (b) Parts made by surface broaching. Heavy lines indicate broached surfaces. Source: General Broach and Engineering Company.

Broaches

Figure 8.73 (a) Cutting action of a broach, showing various features. (b) Terminology for a broach.

pitch = k l

l: surface length k: 1.76 for l in mm, 0.35 for l in inches 150~350 mm

Push broaches: shorter Pull broaches: longer

Chipbreakers and a Broaching Machine


Figure extra Chipbreaker features on (a) a flat broach and (b) a round broach. (c) Vertical broaching machine. Source: Ty Miles, Inc.
(a) (c)

(b)

Internal Broach and Turn Broaching

Figure 23.24 Terminology for a pull-type internal broach used for enlarging long holes. Figure 8.74 Turn broaching of a crankshaft. The crankshaft rotates while the broaches pass tangentially across the crankshafts bearing surfaces. Source: Courtesy of Ingersoll Cutting Tool Company.

Broaching Internal Splines

Figure extra

Sawing Operations
Figure extra Examples of various sawing operations. Source: DoALL Company.

VIDEO

Types of Saw Teeth

Figure 8.75 (a) Terminology for saw teeth. (b) Types of tooth set on saw teeth, staggered to provide clearance for the saw blade to prevent binding during sawing.

Saw Teeth and Burs


Figure 8.76 (a) High-speed-steel teeth welded on steel blade. (b) Carbide inserts brazed to blade teeth.

Figure extra Types of burs. Source: The Copper Group.

Gear manufacturing by cutting

Spur Gear
Figure extra Nomenclature for an involute spur gear.

Gear Generating
Figure 8.77 and 8.78 (a) Producing gear teeth on a blank by from cutting. (b) Schematic illustration of gear generating with a pinionshaped gear cutter. (c) Schematic illustration of gear generating in a gear shaper using a pinionshaped cutter. Note that the cutter reciprocates vertically. (d) Gear generating with rackshaped cutter.

Gear Cutting With a Hob


Figure 8.78 Schematic illustration of three views of gear cutting with a hob. Source: After E. P. DeGarmo and Society of Manufacturing Engineers

Cutting Bevel Gears

Figure extra (a) Cutting a straight bevel-gear blank with two cutters. (b) Cutting a spiral bevel gear with a single cutter. Source: ASM International.

Gear Grinding
Figure extra Finishing gears by grinding: (a) form grinding with shaped grinding wheels; (b) grinding by generating with two wheels.

Economics of Gear Production


Figure extra Gear manufacturing cost as a function of gear quality. The numbers along the vertical lines indicate tolerances. Source : Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Machining and Turning Centers, Machine-Tool Structures, and Machining Economics

Examples of Parts Machined on Machining Centers


Figure 8.79 Examples of parts that can be machined on machining centers, using various processes such as turning, facing, milling, drilling, boring, reaming, and threading. Such parts would ordinarily require a variety of machine tools. Source: Toyoda Machinery.

Horizontal-Spindle Machining Center


Figure 8.80 A horizontal-spindle machining center, equipped with an automatic tool changes. Tool magazines can store 200 cutting tools. Source: Courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron, Inc.

VIDEO

Five-Axis Machining Center


Figure 24.3 Schematic illustration of a five-axis machining center. Note that in addition to the three linear movements, the pallet can be swiveled (rotated) along two axes, allowing the machining of complex shapes such as those shown in Fig. 8.79. Source: Toyoda Machinery.

Touch Probes
Figure 24.6 Touch probes used in machining centers for determining workpiece and tool positions and surfaces relative to the machine table or column. (a) Touch probe determining the X-Y (horizontal) position of a workpiece, (b) determining the height of a horizontal surface, (c) determining the planar position of the surface of a cutter (for instance, for cutter-diameter compensation), and (d) determining the length of a tool for tool-length offset. Source: Hitachi Seiki Co., Ltd.

Vertical-Spindle Machining Center


Figure extra A verticalspindle machining center. The tool magazine is on the left of the machine. The control panel on the right can be swiveled by the operator. Source: Courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron, Inc.

Pallets

VIDEO (handling)

Figure 8.81 (a) Schematic illustration of the top view of a horizontal-spindle machining center showing the pallet pool, set-up station for a pallet, pallet carrier, and an active pallet in operation (shown directly below the spindle of the machine). (b) Schematic illustration of two machining centers with a common pallet pool. Various other arrangements are possible in such systems. Source: Hitachi Seiki Co., Ltd.

Swing-Around Tool Changer


Figure 8.82 Swing-around tool changer on a horizontal-spindle machining center. Source: Cincinnati Milacron, Inc.

CNC Turning Center VIDEO (series


machining)

VIDEO
(multi spindle)

Figure 8.83 Schematic illustration of a threeturret, two-spindle computer numerical controlled turning center. Source: Hitachi Seiki Co., Ltd.

Chip-Collecting System

Figure 24.9 Schematic illustration of a chip-collecting system in a horizontal-spindle machining center. The chips that fall by gravity are collected by the two horizontal conveyors at the bottom of the troughs. Source: Okuma Machinery Works Ltd.

Machine-Tool Structure and Guideways


Figure 24.11 An example of a machinetool structure. The boxtype, one-piece design with internal diagonal ribs significantly improves the stiffness of the machine. Source : Okuma Machinery Works Ltd.

Figure 24.12 Steel guideways integrally-cast on top of the cast-iron bed of a machining center. Because of its higher elastic modulus, the steel provides higher stiffness than cast iron. Source : Hitachi Seiki Co., Ltd.

Machining Outer Bearing Races on a Turning Center


Figure 8.84

Chatter
Figure 8.85 Chatter marks (right of center of photograph) on the surface of a turned part. Source: General Electric Company.

Chatter (self-excited vibration) [ interaction of chip-removal process and machine tool structure] very high amplitude surface finish, dimensional accuracy, premature wear, chipping, damage to components, noise to increase the dynamic stiffness Forced vibration [ periodic applied force: components of machine tool, periodic engagement of cutting tool] to isolate or remove the forcing element

Internal Damping of Structural Materials


Internal damping: energy loss in materials during vibration

Figure 8.86 The relative damping capacity of (a) gray cast iron and (b) epoxy-granite composite material. The vertical scale is the amplitude of vibration and the horizontal scale is time. Source: Cincinnati Milacron, Inc.

Damping: the rate at which vibrations decay Joints in machines: frictional energy dissipation External damping: vibration absorbers

less significant

Joints in Machine-Tool Structures


Figure 8.87 The damping of vibrations as a function of the number of components on a lathe. Joints dissipate energy; the greater the number of joints, the higher the damping capacity of the machine. Source: J. Peters.

More joints

greater amount of energy dissipation

higher damping

Machining Economic s
Figure 8.88 Graphs showing (a) cost per piece and (b) time per piece in machining. Note the optimum speeds for both cost and time. The range between the two is known as the highefficiency machining range.

VT n = C : tool-life equation
Total cost per piece: Cp=Cm +Cs +Cl+Ct for machining, setting up, loading, tooling Optimum V and T:

C p V

=0

Vo = .... (8.54) To = .... (8.55)

VIDEO (FMS)

Machining time: Tp=Tl+Tm+Tc/Np for loading, machining and tool change Np: no of parts machined per tool grind Optimum V and T:

Vo = .... (8.57) TP =0 To = .... (8.58) V

Examples of Machining Complex Shapes

Figure 8.89