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INDIO general Seeger: Suy (article) Suya: 130 persons akia & ngere: akia = solo song by men

in a group (strongly cacophonic) , competing, singing for their sisters. ngere = unisono in group, it means ceremony/music/dance Time for survival: 3-4 hours per day Time for music: 3-4 hours per day General points (from?) Indians are monolingual but multimusical

Bastos in Bauman
Kamayura: 2 villages, 450 persons ANUP = world hearing (opp. world view) anup = hear, comprehend, conceive, understand, obey cak = see, know, identify Apap = your own name < a=1st person + p <blow / play ute> + ap hearing Sonic: human / natural / supernatural active monitoring of environment = auditory in the forest high speed walking + talking to each other but esp to the animals rich vocabulary of forest, waters, animals, mamae (spirits) sacred utes: male domain women may hear but never see them. women sing the ute pieces of the men ihu = any sound ihu noise yeeng (linguagic sound) human, birds, spirits yeeng (linguistic sound) maraca (musical sound) sound description: 3D (volume)

Kamayura Musicology
From: Jos Luiz Martinez / Wim van der Meer

Rafael Menezes Bastos A Musicolgica Kamayur, which can be tentatively translated as Kamayur Musicologic (as music plus logic). The approach adopted is a description of the Kamayur conceptions of sound and music according to a theory of the anthropology of communication. The semiotic basis of the work includes ideas of Saussure, Lvis-Strauss, Chomsky, Jakobson and Eco; as well as musical applications of Boils and Nattiez, among the classical ethnomusicologists. The Kamayur are a people living in central Brazil, nowadays in the National Park of Xingu. The Kamayur language is a branch of the Tupi-Guarani. It was from the study of the language with the cultural and musical practices of the Kamayur that Menezes Bastos developed his Kamayura Musicologic, revealing a richness of concepts covering detailed facts of acoustic perception, cognition and music making according to the Kamayur world view. I will post here just a brief description of some of those concepts, recommending Menezes Bastos book to all who can Portuguese. The basis of Kamayur system of acoustic knowledge is the notion of ihu, translated by Bastos as sound stream. According to the Kamayur: When whatever two things get into contact by means of movement, this movement being done with some minimum

force, there originated ihu. Once begun, it walks through the air, arriving latter to the iapy, ear, that the apy listen to, this path being done through the two nami, external ears, and the iapyaikwat, ear channel. Everything that so manifests is ihu: the voice of any bird or other animal, the sound of any and all marakatap, musical instrument, the sounds of any and all people, the haem, shout, of the mamae [spirits], that is, all and every sound, of a natural thing - animal, people - or supernatural. [Page 129] Deriving from this general concept of 1. ihu there are two other concepts: 1.1 ihu as any kind of ordinary sound, and 1.2 neeng language. The later is attribute of only birds and humans (would Thomas Sebeok agree with this?). Neeng, language, branches in two concepts: 1.2.1 neeng, verbal language, and 1.2.2 maraka, music. It is remarkable that the Kamayur conceived maraka, music, as a specialization of the more general concept of neeng, language. In all music situations in the Kamayur culture, musical meaning is related to the festivals and rituals. The main ones are: Kwaryramaraka, music for celebrating the myth of Kwaryp; Yakuiamaraka, music for the Yakui; Tawurawanaamaraka, music for the Tawurawana; etc. A particular kind of maraka is kewere, pray, which is performed as musical therapy by the moangakwahapap, the one who knows all the medicines, who sings and prescribes herbs to the patient. The rst two rituals are the most known, in special the Kwaryp, the celebration to the deceased (in reference to the myth of Mawucini and the creation of the human beings) has been widely studied and documented. Among other festivities, songs and dances, there is in the Kwaryp the playing of long (2.2 m.) urua utes, in a duet of two sets of double bamboo utes. The Kamayur have an elaborated system of musical concepts, used for description and analysis (see pages 133-141). According to Bastos, there are three dimensions, or sound parameters, dened in Kamayur language. The rst, is the size or extension of a sound, which can varies in a continuous from tapiaca, small, to tuwiap, big; the second, strength or intensity, from mewe, weak, to agy strong; and the third, origin or timbre, which subdivides in three parameters, modes of sound generation (homopang, to hit; homocine, to shake; neeng, to use the voice; etc.); consistency, as ata, hard, ipyy soft; and density, as moyepetewat, concentrated, ayagwat diffuse. Using this matrix of concepts, the Kamayur can operate a scheme of cognitive decisions in regard to the identication of each ihu (Bastos, pg. 135). It is particularly interesting the conception of the rst parameter, the dimension of a sound, not in linear terms as we do in the Western culture in regard to frequency, but volumetrically. Thus, Bastos writes how a Kamayur musician explained to him that the short pipe of a ute produced a small sound, small as a seed of corn; while the long pipe sounded as big as Bastos backpack. In fact, the high/low distinction is a linear simplication used by us to identify a phenomenon far complex, to which the Kamayur refer as tridimensional, small, light, weak, as a piece of corn. So here you can have an idea of how the Kamayur considers music to be a language and how music can be described in their acoustic parameters. There are also more specic terms in Kamayur music, as the idea of ypi, or musical theme.