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Flow in pipes

Pipe flow in water supply

A lecture by Gilberto E. Urroz March 2006

Pipe flow in irrigation

Pipe flow in dams

Pipe flow in dams

Pipes and pumps

Pipes over rivers

Pipes in industrial setups

Laminar & Turbulent Flows


Laminar flow: orderly, in layers Turbulent flow: disorderly, eddies Transitional: intermittently turbulent Criteria: Reynolds number Critical Re = 2000

Flow films
LaminarTurbulentFaucetFlow.MOV LaminarPipeFlow.MOV TurbulentPipeFlow.MOV TransitionalPipeFlow.MOV LaminarTurbulentCombo.MOV TurbulentFlowAroundUs.MOV

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Laminar & turbulent flow out of a faucet

Laminar flow in a pipe

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Turbulent flow in a pipe

Transitional flow in a pipe

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Laminar and turbulent flow visualization

Hydraulic Radius - 1
A = cross-sectional area P = wetted perimeter (length of boundary in contact with water)

Hydraulic Radius: Rh = A/P


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Hydraulic Radius - 2
FOR PIPE FLOW A = D2/4 , P = D2, Rh = A/P = D/4

Example

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Analysis of motion of pipe flow

Head losses and shear stress


hf = head loss in length L o= wall shear stress = specific weight Rh = hydraulic radius

Applies to: Any x-section Laminar or turbulent flow


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o L hf = R h
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Smooth and rough walls


Examples:
Glass Plexiglass PVC

Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow -1

Examples:
Copper Concrete Rough walls characterized by an absolute roughness (e)

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Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow -2

Head Losses in Pipe Flow

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Head losses in circular conduits


Start from
hf = C f L V Rh 2 g
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Analysis of motion of pipe flow

For a circular pipe, Rh = D/4 Replace Cf = f/4 Darcy-Weisbach equation:

L V2 hf = f D 2g
f = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Cf = 4f = Fanning friction factor (used in gas flow)

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Head losses and shear stress


hf = head loss in length L o= wall shear stress = specific weight Rh = hydraulic radius

Shear stress distribution


Equilibrium of forces on an element of radius r , steady flow.

Applies to: Any x-section Laminar or turbulent flow

o L hf = R h
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Fx = ma x , a x = 0

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Shear stress linear distribution


From an ealier result: Also, With Rh = D/4 = ro/2

Wall shear stress and friction factor


Combine the result

L hf = o R h
hf = 2 (r ) L r

hf =

o L o L = Rh (D / 4)

With Darcy-Weisbach

L V2 hf = f D 2g

r (r ) = o ro
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o = V 2
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Friction in non-circular conduits


Use D = 4Rh in Darcy-Weisbach

Laminar flow in a circular pipe

With

L V2 L V2 = f hf = f D 2g 4 Rh 2 g
Re =

VD V 4 Rh =
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Velocity and shear stress distributions

Centerline and mean velocities discharge and head losses

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Hagen-Poiseuille law for laminar flow

Combining Hagen-Poiseuille with Darcy-Weisbach

32LV hf = gD 2
1. hf ~ V 2. Equation involves no empirical coefficient 3. Equation involves only fluid properties, g, and V
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Exercises - 1

Exercises - 2

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Exercises - 3

Rounded entrance produces uniform flow (inviscid flow behavior) Velocities at the wall are zero (no-slip condition) A viscous boundary layer develops, but an inviscid core remains before flow is fully developed
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Exercise in flow development

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