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# Flow in pipes

## Laminar & Turbulent Flows

Laminar flow: orderly, in layers Turbulent flow: disorderly, eddies Transitional: intermittently turbulent Criteria: Reynolds number Critical Re = 2000

Flow films
LaminarTurbulentFaucetFlow.MOV LaminarPipeFlow.MOV TurbulentPipeFlow.MOV TransitionalPipeFlow.MOV LaminarTurbulentCombo.MOV TurbulentFlowAroundUs.MOV

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## Laminar and turbulent flow visualization

A = cross-sectional area P = wetted perimeter (length of boundary in contact with water)

## Hydraulic Radius: Rh = A/P

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FOR PIPE FLOW A = D2/4 , P = D2, Rh = A/P = D/4

Example

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## Head losses and shear stress

hf = head loss in length L o= wall shear stress = specific weight Rh = hydraulic radius

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o L hf = R h
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## Smooth and rough walls

Examples:
Glass Plexiglass PVC

## Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow -1

Examples:
Copper Concrete Rough walls characterized by an absolute roughness (e)

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## Head losses in circular conduits

Start from
hf = C f L V Rh 2 g
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## For a circular pipe, Rh = D/4 Replace Cf = f/4 Darcy-Weisbach equation:

L V2 hf = f D 2g
f = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Cf = 4f = Fanning friction factor (used in gas flow)

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## Head losses and shear stress

hf = head loss in length L o= wall shear stress = specific weight Rh = hydraulic radius

## Shear stress distribution

Equilibrium of forces on an element of radius r , steady flow.

## Applies to: Any x-section Laminar or turbulent flow

o L hf = R h
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Fx = ma x , a x = 0

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## Shear stress linear distribution

From an ealier result: Also, With Rh = D/4 = ro/2

## Wall shear stress and friction factor

Combine the result

L hf = o R h
hf = 2 (r ) L r

hf =

o L o L = Rh (D / 4)

With Darcy-Weisbach

L V2 hf = f D 2g

r (r ) = o ro
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o = V 2
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## Friction in non-circular conduits

Use D = 4Rh in Darcy-Weisbach

## Laminar flow in a circular pipe

With

L V2 L V2 = f hf = f D 2g 4 Rh 2 g
Re =

VD V 4 Rh =
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## Combining Hagen-Poiseuille with Darcy-Weisbach

32LV hf = gD 2
1. hf ~ V 2. Equation involves no empirical coefficient 3. Equation involves only fluid properties, g, and V
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Exercises - 1

Exercises - 2

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Exercises - 3

Rounded entrance produces uniform flow (inviscid flow behavior) Velocities at the wall are zero (no-slip condition) A viscous boundary layer develops, but an inviscid core remains before flow is fully developed
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