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How to Build Preventive Maintenance Program

OLEH

ISMAIL YUSOF

Determine Preventive Maintenance


PM SHOULD DETERMINE A MAJOR PORTION OF THE WORK PERFORMED
- O N A DAY- TO - DAY O R W E E K - TO - W E E K

BASIS. - THE WORK IS PRE -PLANNED. - L A B O R E S T I M AT E S , M AT E R I A L , A N D - TO O L R E Q U I R E M E N T S A R E K N O W N .

Determine Preventive Maintenance


P M I S T H E M O S T I M P O R TA N T W O R K P E R F O R M E D D U R I N G A N O R M A L W O R K D AY S O M E T I M E S RECEIVES CHUCKLES FROM PEOPLE WHO WORK IN MAINTENANCE. - P M WO R K I S T H E F I R S T TO B E D I S P L AC E D F RO M THE SCHEDULE BY EMERGENCY WORK OR OTHER S O C A L L E D " M O R E I M P O R TA N T W O R K " . - T H E L O W R E G A R D P M H A S I N S O M E P L A N T S M AY B E D ER IV ED F RO M A L AC K O F Q UA L ITY A N D F O C U S O N T H E E F F O R T. L O T S O F T I M E G O E S I N T O T H E I N I T I A L S A L E O F A P M E F F O R T, B U T L I T T L E T I M E I N TO T H E AC T UA L WO R K P E R F O R M E D
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Initial Step
- S M A L L S T E P S TO W A R D A C O M P L E T E

PROGRAM CAN BE EVEN MORE EFFECTIVE T H A N F I R S T E S TA B L I S H I N G A " M A S T E R PLAN". - H O W E V E R , P R I O R I T I Z I N G YO U R E F F O R T S H O U L D B E A N I N I T I A L S T E P.

Identify
IDENTIFY THE EQUIPMENT WITH - HIGH DOWNTIME, - HIGH MAINTENANCE, OR - R E P E T I T I V E R E PA I R S . T H I S I S U S U A L LY A S M A L L P E R C E N TA G E O F T H E T O TA L E Q U I P M E N T I N T H E P L A N T. A B C A N A LY S I S ( 8 0 - 2 0 R U L E ) O R O L D FA S H I O N E D " FAT F I L E S " M AY H E L P I N T H I S I D E N T I F I C AT I O N .

Review
TA K E O N LY T H E T O P O N E O R T W O P I E C E S O F E Q U I P M E N T O N T H E L I S T A N D AT T E M P T T O ID ENTIFY THE ROOT C AUSE OF THE PROB LEM S M O S T C O M M O N LY E N C O U N T E R E D . - A D E TA I L E D R E V I E W O F W O R K O R D E R H I S T O R Y M AY Y I E L D T H E S O U R C E . - A B R A I N S T O R M I N G S E S S I O N W I T H O P E R AT I O N S AND MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL CAN BE JUST AS PRODUCTIVE. - PM PROGRAMS WHICH ARE DEVELOPED WITH THE I N V O LV E M E N T O F O P E R AT I O N S H AV E P R OV E N T O BE THE MOST SUCCESSFUL.
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Develop Preventive Procedure


D E V E L O P A S O L I D P M P R O C E D U R E TO C O M B AT T H E R O O T C A U S E OF THE PROBLEM. A PM WORK ORDER I S HANDED TO A MAI NTENANCE WORKER W I T H O U T A N Y M O R E D E TA I L T H A N A S TAT E M E N T S U C H A S , "PM THE PLANT AIR COMPRESSOR", OR "INSPECT THE G E A R B OX " . THE MECHANI C I S EXPECTED TO DRA W ON PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE OF EQUIPMENT AND DO ALL THE PREVENTIVE W O R K R E Q U I R E D . W H AT I S A C T U A L LY A C C O M P L I S H E D C A N V A R Y W I D E L Y F R O M O N E E M P L O Y E E T O T H E N E X T, A N D T H E W O R K P E R F O R M E D M AY N O T E V E N B E T H E W O R K I N T E N D E D B Y THE MANAGER. T H E T I M E T A K E N O U T O F T H E N O R M A L W O R K D AY T O P E R F O R M P M S H O U L D B E P R O D U C T I V E . T O I M P R O V E T H E P R O D U C T I V I T Y, THE WORK NEEDS TO BE WELL DEFINED. A WRITTEN P R O C E D U R E W I T H A DATA S H E E T S H O U L D B E D E V E L O P E D F O R MOST PM WORK.

The following types of PM procedures should be considered:


INSPECTIONS : - A N I N S P E C T I O N I S U S U A L LY P E R F O R M E D O N O P E R AT I N G M A C H I N E R Y U S I N G T H E B A S I C S E N S E S O F S I G H T, S O U N D , A N D T O U C H . - T H E Q U A L I T Y O F T H E I N S P E C T I O N I S T O TA L LY DE P E N DE N T O N T H E S E N S I T I VI T Y O F T H E I N S P E CTO R TO P OT E N T I AL E Q U I P M E N T P RO BL E M S . - A S S O C I AT E D C H E C K L I S T S U S E D O N I N S P E C T I O N S A R E O F T E N J U S T A L I S T O F E Q U I P M E N T, T H E S Y M P T O M AT I C C O N D I T I O N S T O B E L O O K E D F O R , A N D A L O C AT I O N O N T H E CH E CK L I S T W H E RE A " CH E CK M ARK " I S TO BE ENTERED. SUCH CHECKLISTS OFTEN BECOME ABUSED, W I T H I N S P E C T O R S H U R R I E D LY F I L L I N G I N T H E C H E C K MARKS OR EVEN COMPLETING THE FORMS BACK IN THE S H O P.

The following types of PM procedures should be considered:


INSPECTIONS : - CAN BE ENHANCED BY ADDING GAUGES OR INSTRUMENT I N S P E C T I O N S T O T H E R O U T E . R O T AT I N G C O M P O N E N T S O R D R I V E B E LT S C A N B E I N S P E C T E D U N D E R T H E " F R E E Z I N G " A C T I O N O F A B AT T E R Y P O W E R E D S T R O B E L I G H T. - B E L T D R I V E I N S P E C T I O N C A N B E E X PA N D E D T O I N C L U D E T H E U S E O F S H E AV E G AU G E S A N D B E LT T E N S I O N G AU G E S . - C R I T I C A L T E M P E R AT U R E L I M I T S O N B E A R I N G S O R C O M P R E S S O R VA LV E S C A N B E D E T E R M I N E D B Y U S I N G A N I N E X P E N S I V E T E M P E R AT U R E I N F R A R E D P Y R O M E T E R . - V I B R AT I O N C H E C K S U S I N G L O W C O S T, P E N S I Z E D M E T E R S CAN BE USED TO DETECT BEGINNING PROBLEMS IN E Q U I P M E N T D U E T O I M B A L A N C E , M I S A L I G N M E N T, O R - L O O S E N E S S . A D D I N G S U C H I N N O V AT I O N S T O A N INSPECTION OFTEN RAISES THE INTEREST LEVEL OF THE INSPECTOR AS WELL AS HEIGHTENS THE QUALITY OF I N F O R M AT I O N R E T U R N E D .

Adjustment
A D J U S T M E N T S I N V O LV E T H E O P T I M I Z AT I O N O F O P E R AT I N G E Q U I P M E N T. - IT COULD BE A SIMPLE FINE TUNING OF CAM O N A L I M I T S W I T C H , O R C O U L D I N V O LV E T H E TUNING OF A BOILER COMBUSTION CONTROL S Y S T E M T O M A X I M I Z E F U E L E F F I C I E N C Y. - A RECORD OF ADJUSTMENTS MADE CAN BECOME THE BASIS FOR OPTIMIZING THE PM F R E Q U E N C Y, O R C A N P O I N T T O T H E N E E D F O R C O M P O N E N T R E P L AC E M E N T I F TO O F R E Q U E N T ADJUSTMENTS MUST BE MADE.

Testing
T E S T S A R E U S E D T O V E R I F Y T H AT E Q U I P M E N T I S P E R F O R M I N G A C C O R D I N G T O S P E C I F I C AT I O N S A N D A R E O F T E N A S S O C I AT E D W I T H S A F E T Y C O N T R O L S O R E N V I R O N M E N TA L E Q U I P M E N T. - A T Y P I C A L P M O F T H I S T Y P E M I G H T B E U S E D TO V E R I F Y T H E A U T O M AT I C S H U T D O W N C O N T R O L S ON A BOILER STEAM DRUM. - D O C U M E N TAT I O N I S O F T E N R E Q U I R E D W H E N PERFORMING THESE TYPES OF TESTS. THEY SHOULD INCLUDE A FORM WHICH SHOWS THE D AT E A N D R E S U LT S O F T H E T E S T, A N D S H O U L D B E SIGNED BY THE TESTER.
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Calibration
- C A L I B R AT I O N V E R I F I E S O R C O R R E C T S T H E

A C C U R A C Y O F C R I T I C A L I N D I C ATO R S , C O N T R O L I N S T R U M E N TAT I O N , O R F I N A L ELEMENTS. - A DATA S H E E T S H O U L D B E I N C LU D E D W H I C H I N D I C AT E S " A S F O U N D " , "CORRECT", AND "AS LEFT" CONDITION. - THESE SHEETS SHOULD BE SIGNED AND DAT E D .

Rebuild
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R E B U I L D I N VA R I A B LY R E Q U I R E S E Q U I P M E N T D O W N T I M E . DURING A REBUILD, CRITICAL DIMENSIONS ARE C H E C K E D A N D W O R N PA R T S R E P L A C E D . T H E G OAL O F A RE BU I L D I S TO RE S TO RE E Q U I P M E N T TO "LIKE NEW" CONDITION. REBUILDS ARE SOMETIMES T U R N E D OV E R TO A N O U T S I D E V E N D O R . T H E V E N D O R M AY B E T H E O R I G I N A L E Q U I P M E N T M A N U FA C T U R E R ( O E M ) O R A S E R V I C E V E N D O R FA M I L I A R W I T H T H E M AC H I N E RY ' S M A I N T E N A N C E R E Q U I R E M E N T S . IN EITHER CASE, THE CONCLUSION OF THE REBUILD SHOULD INCLUDE A D E TA I L E D R E P O R T C O V E R I N G W H AT W A S D O N E , W H AT W A S F O U N D , W H AT W A S R E P L A C E D , A N D W H AT S H O U L D BE CHECKED ON THE NEXT REBUILD.

Replacement
R E P L A C E M E N T P M S C A N I N V O LV E T H E P E R I O D I C REPLACEMENT OF DISPOSABLE COMPONENTS, S U C H A S A I R , O I L , O R F U E L F I LT E R S . - REPLACEMENT PMS CAN ALSO INCLUDE REPLACE IN-KIND FOR INEXPENSIVE BUT CRITICAL E Q U I P M E N T. O F T E N , S U C H R E P L A C E M E N T S A R E E C O N O M I C A L LY J U S T I F I E D O V E R M O R E F R E Q U E N T INSPECTIONS. - A TYPICAL REPLACEMENT PM WOULD BE REPLACEMENT OF INEXPENSIVE POSITIVE D I S P L A C E M E N T F U E L O I L P U M P S AT T H E BEGINNING OF THE WINTER SEASON.
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Good PM procedures should incorporate the following elements:

1 . A L I S T O F T O O L S , PA R T S , O R I N S T R U M E N T S R E Q U I R E D

T O P E R F O R M T H E P M S H O U L D B E P R O V I D E D AT T H E B E G I N N I N G O F E V E RY P RO C E D U R E 2 . A F O R M M U S T B E P ROV I D E D I F T H E P M P RO C E D U R E I N C L U D E S TA K I N G M E A S U R E M E N T S O R R E A D I N G S , S O T H I S I N F O R M AT I O N C A N B E R E C O R D E D . 3 . I F M E A S U R E M E N T S O R R E A D I N G S A R E TA K E N , T H E D ATA F O R M M U S T I N C L U D E A L I M I T O R R A N G E O F VA L U E S , W H I C H W I L L I N D I C AT E W H E T H E R O R N O T T H E MEASUREMENT OR READING IS NORMAL 4 . S A F E T Y C O N S I D E R AT I O N S S H O U L D B E L I S T E D , S U C H A S " L O C K - O U T " O R " H O T- W O R K " P R O C E D U R E S .

The following sources will help in the development of PM procedures:


1. VENDOR RECOMMENDED PM: THE MAINTENANCE MANUALS PROVIDED BY EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ARE INVALUABLE WHEN TRYING TO BUILD A PM PROCEDURE. HOWEVER, THE PROCEDURE IN THE MANUAL SHOULD NOT BE USED IN ITS ORIGINAL FORM. ADDITIONAL TESTS, REPAIRS OR INSPECTIONS SHOULD BE ADDED WHICH REFLECT THE SPECIAL USE OF THE MACHINE IN YOUR FACILITY. AS AN EXAMPLE, IF A COMPRESSOR NORMALLY OPERATES AT AN OVERLOAD, ROUTINE INSPECTIONS SHOULD BE MORE FREQUENT THAN SUGGESTED BY THE MANUFACTURER. ALSO, IT MAY BE ADVISABLE TO PERFORM TESTS ON THE OIL TO DETERMINE SERVICEABILITY, RATHER THAN AUTOMATICALLY REPLACING THE OIL.

The following sources will help in the development of PM procedures:


2. PLANT EXPERIENCE: - MECHANICS WHO WORK ON EQUIPMENT AND THE O P E R AT O R S W H O R U N I T C A N H E L P D E F I N E P M T H AT M I G H T BE S P E CI F I C TO T H E E Q U I P M E N T 'S E N V I R O N M E N T. - WO R K I N G TO G E T H E R , T H E Y O F T E N D I S C OV E R P M P R O C E D U R E S T H AT W O U L D N O T O T H E R W I S E B E OBVIOUS. T H E O P E R AT O R M I G H T B E A W A R E O F A S P E C I F I C S Y M P T O M T H AT P R E C L U D E S A P R O B L E M . T H E M E C H A N I C M AY B E A B L E T O R E L AT E T H E S Y M P T O M T O A FA I L I N G C O M P O N E N T.

The following sources will help in the development of PM procedures:


THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PM PROCEDURE IS NOT COMPLETE UNTIL IT HAS BEEN PERFORMED AND CORRECTED. - S O L I C I T T H E R E M A R K S O F P E R S O N S R E Q U I R E D TO PERFORM THE PROCEDURE. IF THE PROCEDURE DOESN'T WORK FOR THEM, IT WON'T BE A S U C C E S S F U L E F F O R T. - A D D I T I O N A L LY, R E A C T I N G T O T H E I R C O M M E N T S AND GIVING THEIR EFFORTS VISIBILITY WILL I M P R OV E I N V O LV E M E N T I N T H E P R O G R A M .
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Preventive Maintenance Frequency


1. AFTER THE PROCEDURE IS CORRECTED, THE FREQUENCY OF

T H E P M M AY H A V E T O B E A D J U S T E D . 2 . I F A FA I L U R E H A S O C C U R R E D B E T W E E N P M I N S P E C T I O N S , THE PM PROCEDURE AND FREQUENCY SHOULD BE R E V I E W E D . L E S S O B V I O U S , B U T E Q U A L LY I M P O R T A N T, I S T H E I D E N T I F I C AT I O N O F P M W O R K W H I C H I S P E R F O R M E D TOO OFTEN. 3 . A S A R U L E , A N E F F E C T I V E P M P R O G R A M W I L L G E N E R AT E THREE CORRECTIVE ACTION WORK ORDERS, OR ON -THES P O T R E PA I R S , F O R E V E R Y T E N I N S P E C T I O N S P E R F O R M E D . I F A P R O C E D U R E D O E S N ' T S E E M T O B E PAY I N G O F F I N T H I S W AY, T H E T I M E B E T W E E N I N S P E C T I O N S S H O U L D B E EXTENDED. 4. FREQUENCIES LEFT UNCORRECTED UNDERMINE THE CREDIBILITY IN THE PROGRAM FOR THE PERSONS PERFORMING THE WORK AND THOSE BENEFITING FROM THE E F F O R T.

Preventive Maintenance Frequency


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O N C E YO U R F I R S T P R O C E D U R E I S O F F A N D R U N N I N G , R E T U R N T O YO U R L I S T O F E Q U I P M E N T C A N D I D AT E S F O R P M WORK AND ADD NEW EQUI PMENT AND PROCEDURES TO THE PROGRAM. WHEN IS THE PROGRAM COMPLETE? MANY RIGHT M I N D E D I N D U S T R I A L O R G A N I Z AT I O N S H AV E A D O P T E D T H E S E E M I N G LY U N AT TA I N A B L E G O A L O F " A L L A C C I D E N T S A R E P R E V E N TA B L E . " T H E Y K N O W T H AT T H E G OA L H E L P S P E O P L E F O C U S O N T H E W AY S T O P R E V E N T A C C I D E N T S , I . E . R E D U C I N G U N S A F E CONDI TI ONS AND UNSAFE ACTS. A SI MI LAR APPROACH SHOULD B E T A K E N W I T H R E S P E C T T O E Q U I P M E N T FA I L U R E S I N A P L A N T. F O C U S I N G O N A G O A L S U C H A S " A L L FA I L U R E S A R E P R E V E N TA B L E " , O R " A L L D O W N T I M E I S P R E V E N TA B L E " , L E A D S P L A N T P E R S O N N E L T O I D E N T I F Y T H E C A U S E S O F FA I L U R E S A N D D I S C O V E R W AY S T O R E D U C E T H E M . C H A N C E S A R E Y O U W I L L N E V E R I D E N T I F Y A N D S O LV E A L L YO U R E Q U I P M E N T P R O B L E M S , BU T W I T H YO U R E Y E O N T H E G OA L YO U ' L L B E H E A D E D I N T H E RIGHT DIRECTION.

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