Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19
This course is designed for scientists , engineers and other technical personnel who would like
This course is designed for scientists , engineers and other technical personnel who would like

This course is designed for scientists, engineers and other technical personnel who would like to gain an introductory level understanding of basic air pollution meteorology. Specifically, this course focuses on the meteorological aspects that affect air pollution transport and dispersion in the ambient atmosphere. This course includes information on basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and the use of meteorology in regulatory programs.

Contents

Figures

v

Tables

vii

Notation

viii

Unit Conversion Factors

x

Course Description

xi

Lesson 1

Meteorology and the Atmosphere

1

Introduction

1

Composition of the Atmosphere

2

Layers of the Atmosphere

2

The Importance of Air Pollution Meteorology

3

Review Exercise

3

Lesson 2

Heat Balance of the Atmosphere

7

Radiation and Insolation

7

Solar Constant

8

Transparency

9

Daylight Duration

13

Angle of Rays

14

Heat Balance

15

Heat Distribution

15

Differential Heating

16

Transport of Heat

16

Global Distribution of Heat

16

Review Exercise

18

Lesson 3

The Dynamic Structure of the Atmosphere

22

Introduction

22

Atmospheric Circulation

23

Air Pressure

23

Wind

24

Coriolis Force

24

Pressure Gradient Force

25

Friction

26

Pressure Systems

29

Effects of Pacific High and Bermuda High on Air Pollution

30

General Circulation

30

Air Masses

33

Fronts

35

Frontal Trapping

38

Topographical Influences

39

Flat Terrain

40

Mountain/Valley

42

Land/Water

45

Urban

48

Review Exercise

49

Lesson 4

Vertical Motion and Atmospheric Stability

55

Introduction

55

Principles Related to Vertical Motion

56

Parcel

56

Buoyancy Factors

56

Lapse Rates

57

Dry Adiabatic

57

Wet Adiabatic

58

Environmental

59

Mixing Height

61

Atmospheric Stability

62

Unstable Conditions

62

Neutral Conditions

64

Stable Conditions

65

Conditional Stability and Instability

66

Illustration of Atmospheric Stability Conditions

66

Inversions

68

Radiation

68

Subsidence

69

Frontal

70

Advection

71

Stability and Plume Behavior

72

Review Exercise

76

Lesson 5

Meteorological Instruments

85

Introduction

85

Wind Speed

86

Rotating Cup Anemometers

87

Vane-Oriented and Fixed-Mount Propeller Anemometers

87

Wind Speed Transducers

88

Wind Direction

89

Wind Vanes

89

Fixed-Mount Propeller Anemometers

90

Wind Direction Transducers

90

Siting and Exposure of Wind Measuring Instruments

90

Temperature and Temperature Difference

92

Classes of Temperature Sensors

92

Temperature Difference

92

Siting and Exposure of Instruments to Measure Temperature and Temperature Difference

92

Radiation

93

Siting and Exposure of Radiation Measuring Instruments

94

Mixing Height

94

System Performance

94

System Accuracy

95

Response Characteristics of On-Site Meteorological Sensors

96

Quality Assurance and Quality Control

97

Review Exercise

99

Lesson 6

Plume Dispersion and Air Quality Modeling

104

Introduction

104

Plume Rise

105

Momentum and Buoyancy

106

Source Effects of Plume Rise

107

Formulas

108

Dispersion Estimates

108

Air Quality Dispersion Models

109

Gaussian Distribution

110

Stability Classifications

112

Screening Level Modeling

113

Refined Modeling

113

Long Range Transport

114

Review Exercise

115

Lesson 7

Use of Meteorology in Air Quality Regulatory Programs

121

Introduction

121

State Implementation Plans

121

New Source Review

122

Air Quality Modeling

123

Visibility

123

Pollutant Deposition

124

Vapor Plume Induced Icing

124

Emergency Planning and Response

125

Review Exercise

126

Glossary

130

Figures

Figure 1-1.

The four atmospheric layers

3

Figure 2-1.

Wavelengths at which the sun radiates 99% of its energy

8

Figure 2-2.

Two factors that reduce atmospheric transparency

9

Figure 2-3.

Relationship of transparency to latitude

12

Figure 2-4.

Seasonal effect of transparency at a particular location

12

Figure 2-5.

Seasonal variations in daylight duration

13

Figure 2-6.

Oblique and vertical rays

14

Figure 2-7.

The mean annual radiation and heat balance of the atmosphere relative to 100

units of incoming solar radiation

15

Figure 2-8.

Distribution of heat latitudinally

17

Figure 3-1.

Isobars around areas of low and high pressure

23

Figure 3-2.

The Coriolis force

24

Figure 3-3.

The deflection of large-scale winds in the Northern and Southern

Hemispheres

25

Figure 3-4.

Pressure gradients

26

Figure 3-5.

Balance of forces resulting in geostrophic wind

27

Figure 3-6.

The Coriolis force combines with friction to balance the horizontal pressure

gradient force

28

Figure 3-7.

The Ekman spiral of wind in the Northern Hemisphere

29

Figure 3-8.

Surface air flow around low and high pressure systems

29

Figure 3-9.

Hypothetical planetary air circulation for nonrotating earth of uniform surface

31

Figure 3-10.

General atmospheric circulation patterns including mean surface winds

32

Figure 3-11.

Trajectories of air masses into North America

33

Figure 3-12.

Advancing cold front

35

Figure 3-13.

Advancing warm front

36

Figure 3-14.

Occluded front

36

Figure 3-15.

Cold and warm front occlusions

37

Figure 3-16.

Stationary front represented on a map

37

Figure 3-17.

The life of a cyclone

38

Figure 3-18.

Topography

39

Figure 3-19.

Topographical effects on heat and wind flow

39

Figure 3-20.

Flat terrain

40

Figure 3-21.

Examples of variations of wind with height over different surface roughness

elements

41

Figure 3-22.

Differential heating

41

Figure 3-23.

Mountain/valley complex terrain

42

Figure 3-24.

Wind flow over and around mountains (geometric effect)

43

Figure 3-25.

Thermal effect in valley

44

Figure 3-26.

Diurnal variations in mountain/valley flow due to solar heating

44

Figure 3-27.

Thermal effect at land/water interface

45

Figure 3-28.

Sea breeze due to differential heating

46

Figure 3-29.

Land breeze due to differential heating

46

Figure 3-30.

Mechanical effect at land/water interface

47

Figure 3-31.

Thermal and mechanical effects of cities

48

Figure 4-1.

Dry adiabatic lapse rate

58

Figure 4-2.

Wet adiabatic lapse rate

59

Figure 4-3.

Environmental lapse rate

60

Figure 4-4.

Temperature inversion

60

Figure 4-5.

Relationship of adiabatic lapse rate to air temperature

61

Figure 4-6.

Mixing height

62

Figure 4-7.

Enhanced buoyancy associated with instability (superadiabatic lapse rate)

63

Figure 4-8.

Unstable conditions

63

Figure 4-9.

Neutral conditions

64

Figure 4-10.

Stable conditions

65

Figure 4-11.

Conditional stability

66

Figure 4-12

Atmospheric stability conditions

67

Figure 4-13.

Temperature inversion

68

Figure 4-14.

Diurnal cycle

69

Figure 4-15.

Subsidence inversion

70

Figure 4-16.

Frontal inversion (cold front)

71

Figure 4-17.

Surface-based advection inversion

71

Figure 4-18.

Terrain-based advection inversion

72

Figure 4-19.

Looping plume

73

Figure 4-20.

Fanning plume

73

Figure 4-21.

Coning plume

74

Figure 4-22.

Lofting plume

74

Figure 4-23.

Fumigation

75

Figure 5-1.

Two types of anemometers

87

Figure 5-2.

Fixed mount (uvw) anemometer

88

Figure 5-3.

Wind vanes

89

Figure 5-4.

Distance siting criteria for wind measuring instruments

91

Figure 5-5.

Recommended mounting locations for wind instruments

91

Figure 5-6.

Pyranometer

93

Figure 6-1.

Plume rise

105

Figure 6-2.

Wind speed affects entrainment

106

Figure 6-3.

Two examples of downwash

107

Figure 6-4.

Gaussian distribution

110

Figure 6-5.

Schematic representation of Gaussian plume

111

Figure 6-6

Horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients

113

Figure 6-7.

Northeast ozone transport region

114

Tables

Table 1-1.

Chemical composition of dry atmospheric air

2

Table 2-1.

Values for solar constant

9

Table 2-2.

Albedo values for various surfaces

10

Table 2-3.

The greenhouse gases

11

Table 3-1.

Classification of air masses

34

Table 3-2.

Examples of different surface roughness

40

Table 5-1.

Recommended system accuracies and resolutions

95

Table 5-2.

Recommended response characteristics for meteorological sensors

97

Table 6-1.

Key to stability categories

112

Notation

Units of Measurement

Abbreviation

Unit

Btu

-

British thermal unit

cal

-

calorie

cm

-

centimeter (10 -2 meter)

°C

-

degree Centigrade

ft

-

feet

°F

-

degree Fahrenheit

in.

-

inch

in. Hg

-

inches of mercury

km

-

kilometer

kJ

-

kilojoule

kP

-

kilopascal

m

-

meter

mb

-

millibar

mi

-

mile

min

-

minute

mm

-

millimeter (10 -3 meter)

µm

-

micrometer (10 -6 meter)

nm

nanometer (10 -9 meter)

ppm

-

parts per million

psi

-

pounds per square inch

s

-

second

W

-

Watt

Symbols

Symbol

F

-

g

-

H

-

h s

-

h

-

Q

-

σ

y

-

σ

z

-

T

s

-

T

a

-

u

-

u

-

V

-

x

-

χ

-

y

-

z

-

π

-

Definition

buoyancy flux

gravitational constant (acceleration due to gravity), 9.8 m/s

effective stack height

physical stack height

plume rise (above stack)

mass of pollutant emitted per unit time

standard deviation in y direction

standard deviation in z direction

temperature of stack gas

temperature of ambient air

wind speed

average wind speed

volumetric flow rate of stack gas

downwind distance from the stack/source (Briggs’ plume rise eq.)

ground level pollutant concentration (g/m 3 )

distance in horizontal direction (Gaussian distribution eq.)

distance in vertical direction (Gaussian distribution eq.)

pi (3.14156)

Unit Conversion Factors

Concentration

ppm

10 4

Distance

= concentration in % of total

1 in.

=

2.54 cm

1 yd

=

0.9144 m

1 mi

=

1.6093 km

1

m

=

3.2808 ft

1

km

=

0.62137 mi

Heat

1

Btu

=

252 cal

Pressure

 

1

atm

=

1013 mb

 

=

1.013 kP

=

14.7 psi

=

29.92 in. Hg

Temperature Conversions

°C = (°F32)/1.8

°F = 32 + 1.8 (°C)

Course Description

This course is designed for scientists, engineers and other technical personnel who would like to gain an introductory level understanding of basic air pollution meteorology. Specifically, this course focuses on the meteorological aspects that affect air pollution transport and dispersion in the ambient atmosphere. This course includes information on basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and the use of meteorology in regulatory programs. Major topics covered in this course include:

• Solar and terrestrial radiation

• Heat balance of the atmosphere

• Wind speed and direction

• Cyclones, anticyclones, frontal systems, and air masses

• Atmospheric circulation

• Vertical structure of the atmosphere

• Atmospheric stability and turbulence

• Meteorological instrumentation

• Plume rise and effective stack height

• Air quality models

• Use of meteorology in regulatory programs

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to do the following:

1. Briefly describe the heat balance of the earth-atmosphere system including the effect of solar radiation.

2. Describe the relationship of atmospheric pressure and wind.

3. Describe the general circulation of the atmosphere.

4. Describe how topographical features influence wind flow and affect pollutant dispersion.

5. Describe the importance of turbulence in the atmosphere for dispersing air pollutants and explain the different classifications of atmospheric stability.

6. Briefly describe how the vertical temperature distribution influences atmospheric stability.

7. Identify the key meteorological instruments that are used to collect data for air pollution studies.

8. Briefly define plume rise and effective stack height.

9. Describe how air quality models utilize meteorological data and how these models are used to make quantifiable dispersion estimates of air pollutant concentrations.

Audience

This course is designed for scientists and engineers who work in the air pollution field and require a basic understanding of meteorology and the role it plays influencing ambient air quality.

Course Length and CEUs

This course will take approximately 20 hours to complete. The number of Continuing Education Units (CEUs) awarded with successful completion of the course is 2.0.

Prerequisites

Course SI: 409 is one of the initial courses included in the APTI curriculum. Accordingly, there are no strict prerequisites. However, it is recommended that one of the following courses be completed prior to starting Course

SI:409:

or

452 Principles and Practices of Air Pollution Control which is a classroom course. A description of this course can be found at: http://epa.gov/air/oaqps/eog/catalog/cc452.html

Air Pollution Control Orientation course, which can be found at http://epa.gov/apti/course422/indexb.html

Required Materials

Self-Instructional Manual, Basic Air Pollution Meteorology which is available at:

http://yosemite.epa.gov/oaqps/eogtrain.nsf/DisplayView/SI_409_0-5?OpenDocument

Taking the Course

Proceed sequentially through the manual until you have completed Lesson 7. The review exercises located at the end of every lesson test your mastery of the objectives covered in the lesson. Review the material for any review questions that you answer incorrectly.

Completing the Course

After you have completed the course, a final examination is available online. Passing the final exam with a score of 90% or better allows you to print a certificate of completion for the course.

If you would like to receive CEU credits, and have met all 3 CEU eligibility criteria below, you can do so by providing your name, PIN and email address after completing the final exam.

Registering with the Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI)

Users who would like to receive CEU credit for a course must be registered with APTI and have a valid PIN. New users can register with APTI online (http://www.epa.gov/air/oaqps/eog/apti/training.html). The registration process only needs to be completed one time. In registering, you will need to assign a PIN, which should be a maximum of 10 digits. In order to receive CEU credits, you must meet 3 criteria:

1)

You are employed by a state, local or tribal agency

2)

You are a registered APTI user

3)

You obtain 90% or better on the final exam.

If you have registered with APTI, but forgotten your PIN, contact at 919-541-2497 or fabiano.rose@epa.gov.

Registrar - EPA/State Agency

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mailcode E 143-01 Research Triangle Park, NC

27711

www.epa.gov/apti

Lesson 1

Meteorology and the Atmosphere

This lesson introduces you to meteorology and provides a general overview of the atmosphere. This lesson also explains how meteorology is a vital component of understanding air pollution transport and dispersion.

Goal

To provide an overview of the atmosphere and air pollution meteorology and to explain the importance of meteorology in air pollution studies.

Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to do the following:

1. Define the term meteorology.

2. Define the term air pollution meteorology.

3. Describe how air pollution meteorology is used.

4. Name the four layers of the atmosphere and identify which layer is most important in air pollution meteorology.

Introduction

Meteorology is the science of the atmosphere. The atmosphere is the media into which all air pollution is emitted. Atmospheric processes such as the movement of air (wind) and the exchange of heat (convection and radiation for example) dictate the fate of pollutants as they go through the stages of transport, dispersion, transformation and removal. Air pollution meteorology is the study of how these atmospheric processes affect the fate of air pollutants.

Knowledge of air pollution meteorology is used to manage and control the release of pollutants into the ambient air. Managing the release of air pollutants helps ensure that ambient pollutant concentrations comply with ambient air quality standards. Knowledge of air pollution meteorology is essential in order to understand the fate and transport of air pollutants.

Composition of the Atmosphere

The atmosphere surrounds the earth and rotates with the earth as it orbits the sun. As Table 1-1 shows, dry air consists of about 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen and one percent argon. Trace gases such as carbon dioxide, neon and helium also exist as does water vapor. Although the water vapor content of the air is fairly small,

it absorbs six times more radiation than any other atmospheric constituent and is therefore a very important component of the atmosphere.

Table 1-1.

Chemical composition of dry atmospheric air

Substance

Concentration (ppm) 1

Nitrogen

780,900

Oxygen

209,400

Argon

9,300

Carbon dioxide

315

Neon

18

Helium

5.2

Methane

2.3

Krypton

0.5

Hydrogen

0.5

Xenon

0.08

Nitrogen dioxide

0.02

Ozone

0.01-0.04

1. ppm is an abbreviation for parts per million. To convert from a concentration expressed as ppm to a concentration expressed as a percent of a total, divide the ppm concentration by 10,000. Source: Handbook of Air Pollution 1968.

Layers of the Atmosphere

The atmosphere is divided into four distinct layers: the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere (Figure 1-1). The lowest layer is called the troposphere which accounts for about three quarters of the mass of the atmosphere and contains nearly all of the water associated with the atmosphere (vapor, clouds and precipitation). The troposphere, where air masses, fronts, and storms reside, is the most unsettled layer and provides earth its weather. The depth of the troposphere varies with latitude and season. The top of the troposphere (tropopause) is about 16.5 km (54,000 ft) on average over the equator and about 8.5 km (28,000 ft) over the poles. Seasonal changes affect the thickness of the troposphere causing it to be thicker in summer (when the air is warmer) than in winter. The depth of the troposphere changes constantly due to changes in atmospheric temperature.

Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Figure 1-1. The four atmospheric layers Source for data: Moran and Morgan,
Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Figure 1-1. The four atmospheric layers
Thermosphere
Mesosphere
Stratosphere
Figure 1-1.
The four atmospheric layers

Source for data: Moran and Morgan, 1994

Virtually all air pollution is emitted within the troposphere. Air pollution transport is governed by the speed and direction of the winds. The rate of dispersion is influenced by the thermal structure of the atmosphere as well as by mechanical agitation of the air as it moves over the different surface features of the earth. Transformation of the emitted air pollutants is impacted by exposure to solar radiation and moisture as well as other constituents in the atmosphere. The removal of pollutants depends not only on the pollutants’ characteristics but also on weather phenomena such as rain, snow and fog. These interactive meteorological phenomena are studied as part of air pollution meteorology.

The Importance of Air Pollution Meteorology

Since the atmosphere serves as the medium into which air pollutants are released, the transport and dispersion of these releases are influenced significantly by meteorological parameters. Understanding air pollution meteorology and its influence in pollutant dispersion is essential in air quality planning activities. Planners use this knowledge to help locate air pollution monitoring stations and to develop implementation plans to bring ambient air quality into compliance with standards. Meteorology is used in predicting the ambient impact of a new source of air pollution and to determine the effect on air quality from modifications to existing sources.

When meteorological conditions develop that are not conducive to pollutant dispersion, governmental air pollution agencies must act fast to ensure that air pollutants don’t build up to unacceptable levels in the air we breathe. When pollutant levels become excessively high, an air pollution episode results and emissions into the atmosphere must be curtailed. Donora, Pennsylvania provides an extreme example of this situation. In 1948, Donora suffered a disastrous air pollution episode. Donora is located in the bottom of a valley surrounded by rolling hills. The townspeople were accustomed to receiving some emissions from the local steel mill, zinc smelter, and sulfuric acid plant. But, they were not prepared for the dangerously high concentrations of pollutants that built up and became

trapped over the town. The meteorological conditions in Donora during this five-day period (high pressure system and strong temperature inversion) produced light winds and dense fog. The air was not able to move horizontally or vertically and just lingered over the town. The factories continued to operate, releasing their pollutants into the air. Many people became ill and 22 people died. Finally, high concentrations of pollutants subsided as the weather pattern broke, winds picked up and the valley experienced rain (Ahrens 1993).

Review Exercise

1. The two major components of the atmosphere are

and

2. What atmospheric constituent absorbs more radiation than any other?

3. What are the four layers of the atmosphere?

4. True or False? The stratosphere is the lowest atmospheric layer where virtually all air pollutants are emitted.

a. True

b. False

5. Define meteorology.

6. Define air pollution meteorology.

Review Exercise Answers

1. Nitrogen

Oxygen

The two major components of the atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen.

2. Water vapor

Water vapor absorbs more radiation than any other atmospheric constituent.

3. Troposphere

Stratosphere

Mesosphere

Thermosphere

The four layers of the atmosphere are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.

4. b. False

The troposphere is the lowest atmospheric layer where virtually all air pollutants are emitted.

5. Meteorology is the science of the atmosphere.

6. Air pollution meteorology is the study of how atmospheric processes affect the fate of air pollution.