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.. .In 1867, with the union of three L ,:-ish!

orLl'\meri~(ill colonies through cL';:ratiot1, Canada was formed as a:" .Jera~ domini 11 of four provinces ....
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A fire brl)k~out at 11 :30 o'clock last night in


the !4r~e \\'oo.jau block at Ih.e corner ot Yord and caroliDe etreets, wtucb, lOit6thl"r with {boa ll"l!lIing. bOUI~1I occupied by C. n. (;01.1UtlA.!'f~. ill Carotinustreet, and Mn. 1,,< S. llQUlUi. on Ford fttl'~flt. aUtl
tb~ barns snl'olltbui.ldin~'j Cl1nUtK'il>1j witb tho N~j d~UC61 named, and. al80 thOllll in the rC!H:' of Dr D. !w{cMO~.OE:LB. J. B. Osrsns, WM_ 8T.EVS!;ON 1Ul.d. H,

eonsumea. I-h.? blorlt in wbich tbe flff) orlgioato~ W$~ OWOftJ by EnWUlD nA,DI.. o\~. aDd kno'lf"n la Uadh,m Wort. It wall occupred by J. D. WooLEr, ~JC(lr; J, U.
Ba.o~L'Er. flour harnr-6!HHo.re; P(}(1t Office .. and and feed

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New York Times 1868

The Grey Lady or The Gray Lady may refer to: The Gray Lady, a nickname for 171(' .Yell' York Timn newspaper, referring to its historical tendency to present a higher-than-usual proportion of text to graphics
]2~ri:-.Clpe, e.g. "dancing with the grey lady".

The Grey Lady, a nickname for a submarine http. en.\\.ikipedia.,)rc\\ikil1'le


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The association ofthe name "Gray Lady" obviously points to the fact that it's editorial policy is controlled by the Grey Nuns, i.e. "Most Ancient Matron". Rigaud, Quebec is the center of the Grey Nuns's "gore" (afterwards a triangle whose comers are Montreal, Ottawa, and Ogdensburg remain the property of the Canadian government).

The Ogdensburg Agreement is an agreement signed on August 17, 1940, between Prjm~ TvilJ].istcr \faCKL'1ZIC l( 'g of .,canac(J and l nited States PreSident Fra'lklin Rooseyelt in! '''U eltol~ near C,!!deJ' 'r un!, Ie" York.

History and Rationale


Although Canada and the United States had long been economic partners, Canada had always considered ~L r:: '-i :,1 as its primary military partner. While Canada had been ,::-"anted independ~l1c,: in its. f()_:eil!!1 oolicx 11:0 r :)"im::~~~: I, Canada's membership in the ConlmOJ1\\calth oL'\Ja1i':2.!1", the strength of the British E'l1PiI~,and the historic and cultural ties between them made a military alliance with the United States seem unnecessary. Most Canadians believed that Britain could provide for all of Canada's defense needs.
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Canada had declared war on _, elZ! \..I :rmm.:!:..shortly after the Seconcl ,Vorl d \Var began in early September 1939 but the United States remained neutral. By mid-1940, the situation in Europe had grown dire; Germany's military successes had led to the occupation of most of Europe, and most importantly, ~.'"c l':e, ' 051' .:.rreLsixed in J un.:: 1940. With . Germany in control or allied with nearly all of continental Europe, it began to develop plans for an ~~' )1, _ -,hp.3 ;",<{ 'slc~. Germany's seemingly unstoppable military, its ~~,l'hrine Ca1n.I~iu: . [ins! j iIisJ me 1:t ':>hirnim.., and its :'cutra;;l\' 'J'.ct \\ ;th tnc )0' I L li-.!l, convinced many, including American President Fl~anklin ROQse\dt, that Britain itself would soon be invaded or forced to surrender.
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OGDENSBURG IS CANADIAN "OUTLIER"


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(lc~tri,J,}'Cfl. Mr. CIWIIHIIIA ~lit the proprt1.iH to:.:o II~ $1;000. Wf\R int1l1l'tH\ ~-:'.?tSOI,) n tho fumlturo and uulldillU'. Many of the in o il\l.tc~ lO!lL nil th~'y tHJ:I~C~:icrl. It wm~re-ll0rtI'd tlmt f[otn(J IHW~t)l1'" IHlri"IU.'l\ III t he H~!I!~Rt hut. thll report. i'J tl;JulMlll. A tll'f'l'divt) ~.'himlloy ('f\Ufj(l(l tlJu 11n.. elm',
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~d;,'it~i!;~; ~crJ.l!.!-ll~gin Mi3thlo.l'OW. p Th; fi!'C hl',.,ho ()U~ :l ~[.:~Ijha UlliO nud {' J1HlUn!lLl t1H... ud4lHim.l!il ~ sortioun ot :lh!'h!tq:lJw. L'v;';!:' ;'~;iO,OOO. New York Times 1867

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada is a __ ' _ ~_:_1 country consisting of ~-.:-"- c\..'_ -=-"L': territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the world's seconcl-l'~~ c~untr'v bv total drla, and its : '.Hnt,1..!1l border with the lJnited States is the world's longest land border.
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Canada (IC

By July 1940, Canad~<1~l?rin;c ?vlinislc. \,illial11 L\ur~ Mackenzie Kim .. along with a , growing number of Canadians, was becoming increasingly concerned that the Britain would fall and that Canada, with its small population and natural resources, would become Germany's next target. In addition to transferring its gold reserves to Canada at the beginning of the war, the British government had also prepared a contingency plan (which was largely kept secret to avoid hurting morale) to evacuate the Royal family, the government and as many critical military and scientific personnel to Canada as possible if the British Isles fell to Germany. These factors only increased concerns that Germany would eventually target Canada for its next conquest. Both Canada and the United States recognized this threat. Subsequently, it was the United States that initiated preliminary military discussions that became formative in July 1940. On August 18, Roosevelt and King met in the border town ofQgdcl1sbu u.T\e'l YOl'l~. Roosevelt outlined his plan to create a joint board to oversee the defence of both nations, not just for the duration of the current crisis, but as a permanent body. King immediately agreed, and the 'I.. lL." ~~] '~3 Il. c! Defe, le was created.
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Most Canadians supported this agreement, which was soon known as the Ogdensburg Agreement, as they deemed it necessary not only for security purposes but also to improve relations with the United States (it was also hoped that the agreement would help pull the United States into the war). However, some Canadians, most notably former Conservative prime minister ~,2.{th\!I'!.ls:i u len were furious - they argued that by signing this agreement, Canada was not only abandoning Britain but was effectively placing itself under the control of the United States. British Prime Minister \' "nSl )C. C urchill was also angry, stating that "all these transactions will be judged [at the end of the war] in a mood different to that prevailing while the issue still hangs in the balance." King's government recognized these concerns; Canadian negotiators resolutely refused to give the United States control of Canada's forces, and rejected proposals to integrate much of the country's defences into Washington's Northeast and Northwest Defence Commands. King's approach satisfied most Canadians - although co-operation with the United States was essential, it did not mean abandoning Canada's national interests.

Since World War II


The agreement inaugurated closer Canadian-American military co-operation and established the PLT!11.Jl '11 .It i t Board of )efence, which remains as the senior advisory body on continental security and which is composed of two national sections made up of diplomatic and military representatives. For seven decades its meetings have served as a window on Canada-US defence relations. Canadian-American military cooperation was further enhanced by the creation of the North ~tiantic Treaty Oruanization (NATO) in 1949 but the Board continued to serve in an important capacity for bilateral military relations and coordination. Initially, it was argued that Ogdensburg Agreement involved Canada abandoning Britain in favour of the United States on matters of defense. However, the creation of the N011h :-' :101 j' ~rUll\ C/ :...~,l1i':J.ior (NATO) in 1949 (which linked Canada and the United

States into a collective security agreement with Britain and Western Europe) helped to alleviate these concerns. The Board has examined virtually every important joint defence measure undertaken since the end of the World War II, including construction ofthe Distant Early Warning Line of radars, the creation of the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in 1958, the bi-national operation of the underwater acoustic surveillance system and high-frequency direction finding network, and the decision to proceed with the North American Air Defence Modernization program in 1985. http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogdensburg Agreement

ARCTIC SOVEREIGNTY AND THE COLD WAR http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/rnrnh/arcticsovereignty/ogdensburg.cfrn


Created and developed by John WoitkowilZ

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I Credits
The Ogdensburg agreement of August 18, 1940 was devised to provide a framework for closer continental defense cooperation in the face of World War II between Canada and the United States. Underlining the close relationship between Prime Minister Mackenzie King and President Roosevelt, the agreement was struck in a "most informal character during which the President and the Prime Minister conferred in Mr. Roosevelt's private car while it stood on a siding in the village of Heuvelton, N.Y., within sight of the St. Lawrence River," the New York Times reported in 1940 (Ht~). At the heart ofthe brief Ogdensburg statement lay the establishment of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense (PlBD),

us - Canada Permanent Joint Board M Defcase. a! Ounwa. ~6 Au~usl

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(First meeting of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense in Ottawa, August 26, 1940, Source: '--,." '

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The Ogdensburg Agreement:

Declaration by the Prime Minister of Canada and the President of the United States of America regarding the establishing of a Permanent .Joint Board on Defence made on August 18, 1940 The Prime Minister and the President have discussed the mutual problems of defence in relation to the safety of Canada and the United States. It has been agreed that a Permanent Joint Board on Defence shall be set up at once by the two countries. This Permanent Joint Board on Defence shall commence immediate studies relating to sea, land, and air problems including personnel and material. It will consider in the broad sense the defence of the north half of the Western Hemisphere. The Permanent Joint Board on Defence will consist of four or five members from each country, most of them from the services. It will meet shortly. (Source: Canado-American Treaties)

which comprised Canadian and American military and civil research personnel. The PJBD was to serve as a communication forum between Canada and the United States as well as a device to produce assessments of "'the defence of the north half ofthe Western Hemisphere. "' It is important to note that the establishment of the board was intentionally designed to outlive the war (Granatstein, 9f).

The Frederick Remington Museum in Ogdensburg, as part of its ongoing exhibit of Remington's collection of paintings and brass sculptures, featured a painting, the first one of two, by Remington, entitled "The Outlier" (c. 1908).
A description of "The Outlier" (Brooklyn Museum) describes this painting as ; ... " The

Indian in "The Outlier" rises well above the horizon line* and dominates the picture space"... (* SEE ISOSTASI / ISOSTASy) (Remington and Russell: The Sid Richardson Collection, page 50) The second Outlier painting is featured at the Brooklyn Museum. The first painting that Remington painted entitled "The Outlier" was removed from public exhibition at the Ogdensburg Remington Museum last summer. Its current location is unknown. It is only one of the many symbols disappearing from public view in the latter part of 2012 around the town of Ogdensburg, New York.