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Structural Design 266 Steel Design
Structural Design
266 Steel Design

Topic 2 Compression Members (1)

Nominal Section Capacity

Kerri Bland

Structural Design 266 (Steel) COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulation 1969 WARNING This material has been
Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

Copyright Regulation 1969

WARNING

This material has been copied and communicated to you by or on behalf of Curtin University of Technology pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act)

The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further copying or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act.

Do not remove this notice

References:References:

OneSteelOneSteel,, HotHot RolledRolled andand StructuralStructural SteelSteel Products,Products, ThirdThird EditionEdition StandardsStandards Australia,Australia, AS4100AS4100--19981998 :: SteelSteel StructuresStructures

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Steel Structures Code (AS 4100):

Design 266 (Steel) Steel Structures Code (AS 4100): Philosophy Calculate Limit State Actions Anticipate all

Philosophy

266 (Steel) Steel Structures Code (AS 4100): Philosophy Calculate Limit State Actions Anticipate all failure

Calculate Limit State Actions

Anticipate all failure mechanisms

Calculate failure load of each possible failure mechanism

Design capacity = φ * lowest failure load

Design capacity ultimate actions

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Steel Structures Code (AS 4100):

Design 266 (Steel) Steel Structures Code (AS 4100): Philosophy Failure Load A function of yield stress

Philosophy

266 (Steel) Steel Structures Code (AS 4100): Philosophy Failure Load A function of yield stress or

Failure Load

A function of yield stress or ultimate tensile stress

Yield and ultimate tensile stress for different types of sections and steels given in <Table 2.1> of AS4100

Yield and ultimate tensile stress for standard sections are given in Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual

Note that yield and ultimate stresses for different plate thicknesses comply with AS4100

Capacity Factor φ

Different capacity factors for different types of actions, members and components given in <Table 3.4> of

AS4100

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

AS4100-1998:

Structural Design 266 (Steel) AS4100-1998 : Steel Structures Code Design of Compression members Section 6 :

Steel Structures Code

Design 266 (Steel) AS4100-1998 : Steel Structures Code Design of Compression members Section 6 : Members

Design of Compression members

Section 6: Members subject to Axial Compression

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Serviceability limit state Actions of this magnitude can

Serviceability limit state

Actions of this magnitude can occur more than once during the life of the structure Steel remains elastic

Elastic deformation

PL

AE

δ =

axial loads:

(shortening)

Appropriate deflection limits limited by structural form

AE δ = axial loads: (shortening) Appropriate deflection limits limited by structural form Compression Members (1)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Strength (ultimate) limit state Expect structure to just

Strength (ultimate) limit state

Expect structure to just support this load Three possible failure mechanisms

Squashing

Yielding of steel in the member Plastic deformation All steel is at yield stress (f y )

deformation All steel is at yield stress (f y ) Crunching Local plate buckling Squat sections

Crunching

All steel is at yield stress (f y ) Crunching Local plate buckling Squat sections (large

Local plate buckling

Squat sections (large plane area compared to length) but with thin plates that buckle

Buckling

to length) but with thin plates that buckle Buckling Global member buckling Slender member – whole

Global member buckling Slender member – whole member buckles

plates that buckle Buckling Global member buckling Slender member – whole member buckles Compression Members (1)
plates that buckle Buckling Global member buckling Slender member – whole member buckles Compression Members (1)
plates that buckle Buckling Global member buckling Slender member – whole member buckles Compression Members (1)
plates that buckle Buckling Global member buckling Slender member – whole member buckles Compression Members (1)
plates that buckle Buckling Global member buckling Slender member – whole member buckles Compression Members (1)
plates that buckle Buckling Global member buckling Slender member – whole member buckles Compression Members (1)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Strength (ultimate) limit state Three Failure Mechanisms

Strength (ultimate) limit state

Three Failure Mechanisms (compression):

Squashing Crunching Buckling

Compression failure due to squashing or tension failure due to gross yielding of section (depends on f y )

due to gross yielding of section (depends on f y ) Tension failure due to fracture

Tension failure due to fracture

on f u )

on f y ) Tension failure due to fracture on f u ) through holes (depends
through holes (depends
through holes (depends
failure due to fracture on f u ) through holes (depends Compression failure due to bu

Compression failure due to buckling of plate elements (depends on f y and section geometry) or member buckling (depends on member slenderness)

Compression Members (1)

8

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Squash load = A f n y Can

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Squash load = A f n y Can

Squash load

= A f

n

y

Can only be achieved if plates are thick enough so that they don’t buckle

A n =?

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members A n defined in <6.2.1> A n =

A n defined in <6.2.1>

A n

= net area

= gross area – cross section of unfilled holes

(holes with bolts are considered to be filled holes)

Where unfilled holes reduce the section by less than 100{1-[f y /(0.85f u )]}%

(ie: reduced by less than 20-30%)

use A n =A g

(most of the time)

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Squash load = A f n y Can

Squash load

= A f

n

y

Can only be achieved if plates are thick enough so that they don’t buckle

Nominal Section Capacity (N s )

= k A f

f

n

y

Crunching load – limited by local buckling of plate elements k f : form factor; based on effective area k f takes plate element slenderness into account

<6.2.1>

If plates are thick (ie: won’t buckle before full yielding occurs) then k f =1 If plates are just too thin to allow full yielding to occur then k f is just less than 1 If plates are very thin then k f is much less than 1

k f : <6.2.2>

Compression Members (1)

11

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Calculating k f : Consider each individual plate

Calculating k f :

Consider each individual plate in the section separately

b
b
Consider each individual plate in the section separately b Plate with stiffened edges t Plate with

Plate with stiffened edges

in the section separately b Plate with stiffened edges t Plate with only one edge stiffened

t

Plate with only one edge stiffened

Plates with both ends stiffened (ie: web) buckle less readily than those with only one end stiffened (ie: flange outstand)

Buckling is easier for plates with

high b / t ratio

Thus slenderness for any given plate

λ

e

b

t

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Calculating k f : For each plate: Calculate

Calculating k f :

For each plate:

Calculate plate element slenderness :

for each plate element

<6.2.3>

λ

e

=

b ⎛ f ⎞ y ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ t 250 ⎝ ⎠
b
f
y
t
250

(for a flat plate element)

t 1 b 1 b 2 t 2
t
1
b
1
b
2
t
2

Calculate effective width for each plate element:

b

e

=

where λ ey =

b

⎛ λ ⎞ ey ⎜ ⎟ ≤ b <6.2.4> ⎜ ⎟ λ ⎝ ⎠ e
λ
ey
⎟ ≤
b
<6.2.4>
λ
e

Very important to check

yield slenderness limit obtained from <T6.2.4>

Yield slenderness limit is the slenderness at which full yielding of the plate element without buckling just occurs. If the slenderness is any higher (ie: more slender) the plate will buckle before yielding occurs.

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Table taken from AS4100 1998 Refer to slide
Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Table taken from AS4100 1998 Refer to slide

Table taken from AS4100 1998 Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning

Note how flat plates with both longitudinal edges supported have a higher yield slenderness limit, ie: they can reach a higher stress (higher load for the same area) before buckling will occur as they have more support, thus less tendency to buckle

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Calculating k f : k f = A

Calculating k f :

k

f =

A

e

A

g

<6.2.2>

k f : k f = A e A g <6.2.2> b e.flange outstand t web
b e.flange outstand t web b t flange
b e.flange outstand
t
web
b
t
flange

Where:

A g = gross area of the section A e = effective area

e.web

=

(

b t

e

)

=

(

2 2b

e.flangeoutstand

+

t

web

)

.t

flange

+

b

e.web

.t

web

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Nominal Section Capacity: N s = k f

Nominal Section Capacity:

N s = k f A n f y

As

k

f

=

A and usually A
A

e

g

n

N s is determined by A e .f y

=

A

g

, then

k .A

f

n

=

A

e

To rephrase: if a section has slender plate elements, such that they buckle before they yield, in order to calculate the section capacity (the amount of compression force it can take before failure) it would be logical to use the full cross sectional area and multiply it by it’s “plate buckling stress” (a bit tricky to find). However, in order to simplify calculations, the code uses the yield stress (easy to find) and a reduced area (effective area), such that:

section capacity = A g .plate buckling stress = A e .yield stress = k f A n f y (as before)

(Note: plate buckling stress = k f .yield stress)

The relationship between the buckling stress and the yield stress is a function of the slenderness of the plates (cross sectional geometry), and that is used in the determination of the effective plate widths and thus k f

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a

Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section.

1. Determine form factor k f :

a 610 UB 101 section. 1. Determine form factor k f : Table and image taken
a 610 UB 101 section. 1. Determine form factor k f : Table and image taken

Table and image taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning.

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a

Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section.

1. Determine form factor k f → Find effective width of plate elements WEB b
1. Determine form factor k f →
Find effective width of plate elements
WEB
b
f
y
=14.8
Web slenderness:
λ
=
e
t
250
=572
572
320
=602
=
10.6
⎝ 250 ⎠
=228
=
61
Web yield
slenderness limit:
λ
=
45
ey
λ
ey
Effective web width:
b
=
b
⎟ ≤
b
e
λ
e
45
=
572
(<b)
=
422mm
⎝ 61 ⎟ ⎠
Table 16 and image taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled
and Structural Steel Products Manual
Table 6.2.4 from AS4100-1998
Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning.
Compression Members (1)
=10.6

18

Table 16 and image taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Table 6.2.4 from AS4100-1998 Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning.

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a

Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section.

1. Determine form factor k f

FLANGE OUTSTAND

λ

e

=

b f y ⎜ ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ t 250 ⎝ ⎠ 108.7 ⎛
b
f
y
⎜ ⎛ ⎞
t
250
108.7
⎛ 300 ⎞ ⎟ = 8
14.8
250

Find effective width of plate elements

=108.7 =14.8 =572 =602 =10.6
=108.7
=14.8
=572
=602
=10.6

Flange outstand slenderness:

=14.8 =572 =602 =10.6 Flange outstand slenderness: = =228 Flange outstand yield slenderness limit: λ =

=

=228 Flange outstand yield slenderness limit: λ = 16 ey Effective flange outstand width: ⎞
=228
Flange outstand yield
slenderness limit:
λ
=
16
ey
Effective flange
outstand width:
λ ey
b
= b
⎜ ⎛
⎟ ≤
b
e
λ
⎜ ⎝
⎟ ⎠
e
= 108.7 ⎜
⎛ 16 ⎟ ⎞ = 216.4mm
> b
8
b
=
b
=
108.7
e
Slenderness of element less than yield slenderness limit, therefore
flange won’t buckle before yielding, so effective width equals actual
width (don’t need to reduce area to take buckling into account)
Compression Members (1)

19

Image and Table 15 taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning.

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Example

Compression Members

Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Example Compression Members Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610

Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section.

1. Determine form factor k f

Find effective width of plate elements Web effective width = 422 mm

Flange effective width =

228 mm

Find effective area of section

A

e

(

)

2

+

422 * 10.6

2 * 228 * 14.8 = 11220mm

=

=602
=602
=108.7
=108.7

=14.8

=10.6
=10.6

=572

=228

Find form factor k f

k

 

e

A 11220

 

=

=

 

f

g

A 13000

k

f

=

0.863

 
A 11220   = =   f g A 13000 k f = 0.863   Compression
Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a

Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section. 1. Determine form factor k f

k

f =

0.863

Table 16 taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Refer to slide
Table 16 taken from
Onesteel Hot Rolled and
Structural Steel Products
Manual
Refer to slide 2 for
copyright warning.

Note:

As k f is based upon section geometry and geometry for standard sections is known, k f has been calculated for all standard sections and is given in the manuals… Therefore, it is not necessary to calculate k f for standard sections. This example was a demonstration only. k f in manual (0.888) is not exactly the same as what was calculated (0.863). Manual used a different method (more accurate but more comlex) to calculate k f . The k f calculated here is fairly close and slightly conservative – so is acceptable for use. However, would not normally calculate k f for standard sections.

Compression Members (1)

21

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a

Example

Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section.

1. Determine form factor k f

k

f =

0.863

2. Calculate Nominal Section Capacity

N

s

=

=

=

k A f

f

n

y

0.863 * 13000 * 300

3366 kN

N s = = = k A f f n y 0.863 * 13000 * 300
N s = = = k A f f n y 0.863 * 13000 * 300

Tables 15 & 16 taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning.

Structural Design 266 (Steel)
Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Structural Design 266 (Steel) Design of: Compression Members Strength (ultimate) limit state   Squashing = A

Strength (ultimate) limit state

 

Squashing = A n f y

  Yielding of steel in the member
 

Yielding of steel in the member

 

Plastic deformation All steel is at yield stress (f y )

 

Crunching = k f A n f y

  Local plate buckling Squat sections (large plane area compared to length) but with thin
 

Local plate buckling Squat sections (large plane area compared to length) but with thin plates that buckle

 

N s (nominal section capacity) = k f A n f y <6.2.1>

Encompasses squashing and crunching failure mechanisms. Section will fail by crunching unless the local plates are stocky enough to not buckle, in which case k f = 1 and N s = squash load