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Contributing to Climate Change Solutions

Seeds of Knowledge
SeedsoIKnowledge:ContributingtoClimateChangeSolutions
2012UnitedNationsEnvironmentProgramme
ISBN:978-92-807-3307-5
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SeedsoIKnowledge:ContributingtoClimateChangeSolutions
United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi. Published November 2012
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Seeds of Knowledge
Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
iv
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Statement by State Secretary for the Environment, Spain (President of UNEP Governing Council)
Statement by UN Under-Secretary-General and UNEP Executive Director
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Theme: Capacity Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strengthening capacity for conflict prevention and the protection of
natural resources in Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Strengthening institutional capacity to adapt to climate change in the Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Theme: Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Communication protects the environment in Nicaraguas
BOSAWAS Biosphere Reserve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Radio and climate change meet in the Andes in Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Theme: Ecosystems Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Multi-disciplinary teams bring agricultural adaptation to climate change in China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Trends of forest ecosystems and their services in Senegal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Theme: Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Egypt tackles climate change through energy-efficient transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Theme: Environment Mainstreaming and Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Environmental planning for protecting Bosnia and Herzegovina, one town at a time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Mauritania converts national policies into concrete action on
natural resource management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Theme: Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Ethiopian female pastoralists unite to fight climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Gender and communications combat climate change in Nicaragua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
v
Theme: Partnerships with Civil Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Community based adaptation to climate change in Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Managing Ecuadors Yasun Biosphere Reserve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Theme: Partnerships with Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Generating synergies to tackle climate change in Guatemala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Strengthening capacity to adapt to climate change in Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Theme: Partnerships with Local Communities and Indigenous People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Community mobilization helps protect Afghanistans natural resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
The guardians of adaptation and seed custodians of Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Theme: Project Cycle Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Ownership of climate change adaptation strategies in Jordan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Flexibility and responsiveness to climate change adaptation in Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Theme: Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Managing the risk of climate change impacts in Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Early Warning System for the Chucunaque River in Panama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Theme: Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Managing climate change impacts on groundwater in Chinas Hebei Province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Irrigated and integrated production systems help Mozambique
adapt to climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Theme: Exit Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
MDG-F Environment and Climate Change Joint Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Authors and Reviewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Thank you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
vi
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Statement by Spains State Secretary for the
Environment (President of UNEP Governing
Council)
InSeptember2000,theGeneralAssemblyadoptedtheUnited
Nations Millennium Declaration committing their nations
to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty and
setting out a series oI time-bound targets - with a deadline
oI 2015 - that have come to be known as the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). These Goals have achieved
importantresultssothattheworldhasmetsomeimportant
targetsaheadoIthedeadline.ThetargetoIreducingextreme
poverty by halI has been reached fve years ahead oI the 2015
deadline,ashasthetargetoIhalvingtheproportionoIpeople
wholackdependableaccesstoimprovedsourcesoIdrinking
water. Conditions Ior more than 200 million people living
in slums have been ameliorated, twice as many as targeted
by2020.PrimaryschoolenrolmentoIgirlsequalledthatoI
boys, and we have seen accelerating progress in reducing
child and maternal mortality. However, the progress is still
uneven in many areas and much work lies ahead oI us to
achievetheobjectivesby2015.
The Millennium Development Goals tackle many diIIerent
issues and their implementation involves diIIerent UN
bodies, including the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP). Specifcally, MDG-7 aims to ensure
environmental sustainability, which represents the major
interestoIUNEP,andsetsdiIIerenttargetsIorthisaimsuch
as integrating the principles oI sustainable development
into country policies and programmes and reversing the
loss oI environmental resources; signifcantly reducing the
rate oI loss by 2010, halving, by 2015, the proportion oI
the population without sustainable access to saIe drinking
water and basic sanitation; and achieving, by 2020, a
signifcant improvement in the lives oI at least 100 million
slum dwellers. Attaining environmental sustainability is a
major challenge oI the MDGs and is also crucial to ensure
sustainable development at a larger scale. Progress on the
MDGs can only be sustained by a healthy planet, which is
why the MDG-7 is so important.
Since the beginning, Spain has attached great importance
to the fnal achievement oI the Millennium Development
Goals, with a special Iocus on implementation. In order to
accomplish and accelerate progress on the MDGs at the
country level, an international cooperation mechanism,
the Millennium Development Goal Fund (MDG-F), was
established by Spain with substantial contributions that
H.E. Mr. Federico Ramos de Armas, State Secretary for the Environment, Spain
vii
refect the importance that our country attaches to the
achievementoItheMDGs.
TheMDG-Fsupportsnationalgovernments,localauthorities
and citizen organizations in their eIIorts to tackle poverty
andinequalitythrough130jointprogrammesatthecountry
level, organized in eight thematic areas that refect the
prioritiesoItheMDGs.TheareassupportedbytheMDG-F
are the Iollowing: Children, Food Security and Nutrition,
GenderEqualityandWomensEmpowerment,Environment
and Climate Change, Youth, Employment and Migration,
Democratic Economic Governance, Development and the
Private Sector, Confict Prevention and Peacebuilding and
CultureandDevelopment.
Each oI the above-mentioned thematic programme areas is
thereIoreconvenedbyaUNbodywiththerelevantcapacity
andexpertise.
In this regard, UNEP is the convenor oI the Environment
andClimateareaoItheMDG-Fwhichhashadanallocation
oI US$89.5 million to support 17 Joint Programmes in
AIghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, China, Colombia,
Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Jordan, Mauritania,
Mozambique, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Philippines,
Senegal and Turkey. The 17 Joint Programmes under this
area constitute 13 percent oI all Joint Programmes. The
activities under this area contribute to achieving MDG-7
on environmental sustainability, particularly the target oI
integrating the principles oI sustainable development into
country policies and programmes and reversing the loss oI
environmental resources. Mainstreaming issues related to
climate change is also the main Iocus oI most oI the Joint
Programmes under this thematic area, including working
with local-level governments and communities on issues
suchasclimatechangeanditspossibleeIIectsonagricultural
production,tourismandhealth.
These Joint Programmes also deal with adaptation measures
to cope with various issues oI climate change. Major
concernsinthisregardhavebeencommunitypreparedness,
Ioodsecurity,landdegradationandsoilIertility,landerosion
and desertifcation, air pollution, change in native species
dynamics, wildfres, drought and fooding, changes in rain
patterns, rising sea levels and acidifcation
All the Joint Programmes will be completed
bytheendoIDecember2012.Inanticipation
oI this and to underline the outcomes oI
this valuable experience at the country
level, UNEP is publishing this booklet that
compiles the lessons learned Irom each Joint Programme.
This publication, along with other available material, will
serveasanimportantresourcetohighlightnotonlytheUN
DeliveringasOneInitiativebutalsotheSpanishMDGFund
andSouth-Southcooperationexperiences.
The international community remains Iully committed
to meet the MDGs and Ioster sustainable development.
This has been recently reaIfrmed in the declaration 'The
FutureWeWant,adoptedduringthe2012UNConIerence
on Sustainable Development (Rio20) last June. In this
sense, the Heads oI State and Government and high-level
representatives remain frmly committed to the Iull and
timelyachievementoItheMDGs,underscoringthattheyare
a useIul tool in Iocusing the achievement oI specifc gains as
part oI a broad development vision and Iramework Ior the
developmentactivitiesoItheUnitedNations.
Enormous progress has been made towards achieving the
MDGs,whicharemakingarealdiIIerenceinpeopleslives
and,withstrongleadershipandaccountability,thisprogress
canandmustbeexpandedinmostoItheworldscountries
by the target date oI 2015. AIter that date, the post-2015
development agenda will have to be clearly defned in close
coordinationwiththerecentRio20outcomes,andeIIorts
toachieveaworldoIprosperity,equity,Ireedom,dignityand
peace will have to continue unabated. But beIore that, and
asasolidIoundationoIallIuturework,weneedtomakeas
muchprogressaspossibleonthecurrentMDGs.Thereare
still three years to go beIore the 2015 deadline and Iurther
progress will be needed on those targets that have not yet
beenmet.
Withthatspirit,andasacontributiontothisprocess,UNEP
ispublishingthisbookletasacompilationoIlessonslearned
and a practical example oI concrete experiences at the
countrylevel.SpainisveryproudoIitscontributionandits
gooduseby,amongothers,UNEP.Anysuccessstorycounts.
H.E.Mr.FedericoRamosdeArmas
SpainsStateSecretaryIorEnvironment(PresidentoIUNEPGoverningCouncil)
viii
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Statement by the UN Under-Secretary-General
and UNEP Executive Director
When the United Nations established the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) in 2002, the world rallied
around the call to action to dramatically reduce poverty,
hungeranddiseaseby2015.Toreachthosegoalsahealthy
planetisaprerequisite.
TheUNEnvironmentProgramme(UNEP)hasbeenworking
with other UN agencies to achieve the goal that ensures
environmental sustainability - MDG-7 - which integrates the
principlesoIsustainabledevelopmentintonationalpolicies
in order to reverse the loss oI our natural resources, which
areultimatelythewealthoIthepoor.
The Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund
(MDG-F) was established in 2006 to accelerate eIIorts
at the country level Ior reaching the MDGs. It was an
unprecedentedopportunitythatwasmadepossiblethanksto
generousIundingbytheGovernmentoISpain.
UNEP is a proud partner oI the MDG-F and the convenor
Ior its Environment and Climate Change programme area.
Working together with the UN Iamily, Governments and
nationalpartners,UNEPhasassistedtheimplementationoI
17 Joint Programmes in AIghanistan, Bosnia & Herzegovina,
Columbia, China, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guatemala,
Jordan, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Panama,
Peru, Philippines, Senegal and Turkey. The Programmes
address the impacts oI climate change worldwide on poor
communities and introduce adaptation and mitigation
measures that will protect the vulnerable and ensure
sustainabledevelopment.
AtthecenteroIthiseIIort,andakeylegacyoItheMDG-F,
is the knowledge that has been generated by these Joint
Programmes.ThroughaWiki,anonlineinteractivewebsite,
and innovative methodologies such as Weeks in Focus,
UNEP has Iacilitated the sharing oI best practices among
the Joint Programmes on cross-cutting environmental issues.
Thismulti-lingualinitiativehasestablishedauniquevirtual
communityoIpracticethatcrossescontinentsinthesearch
Iorsolutions.
This is in line with the outcome oI the UN ConIerence on
Sustainable Development, or Rio20, which Iocused the
worlds attention on practical measures Ior implementing
sustainable development and poverty eradication. It is
clear that rapid growth is necessary to meet the urgent
development needs oI the most vulnerable but growth will
not be sustainable in the long run unless it is both socially
inclusive and green. UNEPs work on an inclusive Green
Economy is evolving in support oI these aims to ensure
thattheearthsnaturalassetswillprovidetheresourcesand
environmentalservicesthathumanityneedsIoritssurvival.
AscountriesgatherIortheUNClimateConIerenceinDoha
(COP18), we are reminded once again oI the importance
oI sustainable development and the critical need to trigger
a new phase oI climate action and fll the gaps in the
internationalpolicyresponsetoclimatechange.Butweneed
moreinIormationandtheabilitytoaccessandshareit.To
this end, UNEP is pleased to present this booklet which is
a compilation oI the lessons learned Irom each oI the Joint
Programmes. By sharing the best practices oI others, we
can contribute to the knowledge that ensures a sustainable
environmentandultimatelyahealthierplanet.
AchimSteiner
UNUnder-Secretary-GeneralandUNEPExecutiveDirector
Mr. Achim Steiner, Executive Director of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
01
TheMDG-FhasIundedawiderangeoIprojectsintendedto
advance the achievements oI the Millennium Development
Goals and the implementation oI the UN Delivering as
OnereIorm.UndertheEnvironmentandClimateChange
window oI the MDG-F, 17 UN Joint Programmes (JP)
developed53lessonslearnedonclimatechangeadaptationat
nationalandlocalcommunitylevels.Thisbookletdescribes
the experience that was gained and its impact at the global
andpolicymakinglevels.

Methodology
The Joint Programme participants wrote lessons learned
on topics where they Ielt they had important knowledge
to share. The lessons then went through an interactive and
consultative process oI review. To ensure consistency,
quality and relevance oI the lessons, three review criteria
wereapplied:
1. Context: a clear defnition oI the situation Irom which
thelessonoriginated;
2. Evidence: available inIormation that supports the
argumentoIthelesson;
3. Replicability: an explanation oI the conditions
necessarytoreplicatethelessoninothercontexts.
Adaptation
AdaptationasaconceptinvolvesawiderangeoIactivitiesin
responseto,orinpreparationIor,climatechange.Sensitivity
oI environments and communities to impending changes
resultsinvulnerability,especiallyiIthecapacitytoadaptis
constrained.
Challenges
The high diversity and complexity oI approaches among
the 17 Joint Programmes was a strength, representing the
diIIerent socio-economic, political and ecological contexts
oItheactivities.SomedirectimpactsoItheadaptationwork
will be visible on a short time scale and work intended to
catalyze behavioral or structural change in policies and
institutionswilltakemuchlongertobecomeevident.
Policy Implications
The cross-sectoral and collaborative nature oI the Joint
Programmes has provided strong support Ior tackling
climate change adaptation issues at national, regional and
local levels. Local ownership oI the work being done and
oIthepolicyoutcomesisessentialIorsuccessIuladaptation.
Partnerships
The diversity oI adaption needs requires that a country or
community bring a diversity oI capacities in order to be
successIul in adaptation. The Joint Programmes primarily
Iocusedongovernmentandnon-governmentalorganizations
atthelocallevel;however,itisimportanttorecognizealso
the role oI the private sector in climate change adaptation
eIIorts, particularly given the global Iorce oI the Green
Economy. It was evident that cooperation among all
stakeholdersisabsolutelynecessarywhenresourcesaretobe
sharedandwhenmanyareaskedtoexercisenewbehaviour.
The JP partners and stakeholders had a wide range oI existing
capacity and skills but there were signifcant gaps. Matching
capacity-building and tools Ior adaptation, like knowledge
management, with the roles played by diIIerent partners is
importantIorachievingsustainableresults.
Sustainability
Ensuring the sustainability oI their interventions was a
common concern Ior all Joint Programmes. It became clear
that achieving sustainability required use oI a participatory
approachthatincludedtheparticipationoIlocalcommunities
and governments. This broad participation ultimately was
the cornerstone Ior the local ownership needed Ior long-
term sustainability. The 24 lessons learned that Iollow are
basedoncountry-levelchallengesandsuccessesachievedin
protectingtheenvironmentandadaptingtoclimatechange.
TheseexperiencesarealsoapartoIaneasy-to-accessonline
knowledge base and are witness to humanitys eIIorts to
adapt to Iuture climatic conditions. We hope readers will fnd
thisinIormationuseIul,willshareitandwillreplicateitin
theircommunitiesandintheircountries.
Lessons from the MDG-F Environment and
Climate Change Window: Global Problems and Local Solutions
INTRODUCTION
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
02
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Capacity building helps to bridge gaps and
strengthen skills and competencies at an
individual and institutional level. With enhanced
capacities, individuals can build on existing
knowledge and learn and adapt to change.
Capacity building supports and strengthens
institutions in forming sound policies that
reflect the needs of the population. The
MDG-F project showcases the importance
of capacity building for improving the living
conditions of local communities and ensuring
sustainable development.
Capacity Building
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
04
Strengthening capacity for conflict prevention and
the protection of natural resources in Peru


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The Santo Toms River basin, scope of PC Peru
The Solution
It was recognized that eIIective communication and confict
resolution strategies were necessary to reverse the trend oI
socio-environmental conficts. The UN Joint Programme
oI the MDG-F sought to engage the local authorities and
the general public on the prevention and resolution oI the
increasing number oI socio-environmental conficts. The
Joint Programme targeted nine municipalities in the Cusco
andApurimacregionandthroughcollaborationwithPerus
Ministry oI Justice, conducted capacity training on the legal
aspects oI institutionalization and confict resolution.
Initially, the UN Joint Programme targeted key stakeholders,
including civil society representatives, private entities,
and government authorities, with an initiative that would
help them to understand, prevent and manage socio-
environmental conficts in the region. Manuals and training
material adapted to local conditions were produced and a
seriesoIworkshopswereconducted.Inasecondphase,and
duetogreatdemandIromthelocalstakeholders,additional
trainings on the extrajudicial settlement oI disputes were
conductedand,tothatpurpose,amoduleonthemanagement
oI socio-environmental conficts in the Andean Region was
created.
The Problem
TheSantoTomasRiverBasinislocatedbetweentheCusco
and Apurimac regions in Peru. Located in the southern
Andeanhighlandsat3,000meters,thisareaisrichinnatural
resources that are increasingly a source oI confict. The
growingextractionoImineraldeposits,andresultingnegative
impactsonwaterresourcesandlocalwildliIe,isleadingto
socio-environmental conficts. These circumstances are
also increasing the vulnerability, oI this already vulnerable
population,toclimatechange.
TheproblemsthatareemergingincludetheIollowing:
1. Conficts caused by the intervention oI mining
companiesinthearea;
2. Conficts related to land control and tenure;
3. Conficts caused as a result oI inequitable access and
distributionoIwaterinthelocalcommunities.
IIthecurrenttrendcontinues,itislikelythatinthecoming
years provinces in this region, like Chumbivilcas, which
is one oI the poorest in Peru, will become a mining center
with increasing socio-environmental conficts related to the
accessanduseoInaturalresourcessuchaslandandwater.
05
As a result, Ior the frst time in Peru, there was training and
capacity-building on extrajudicial conciliation Ior socio-
environmental conficts. Forty people were trained including
membersoIlocalandregionalgovernments.Intheend,the
UN Joint Programme graduated 36 court conciliators, all oI
them recognized by the Ministry oI Justice oI Peru.
TheUNinitiativealsoran13workshopsoncommunication
and socio-environmental confict management Ior over
300 people Irom nine municipalities in the provinces oI
Cotabambas and Chumbivilcas in the Santo Tomas River
Basin.Withcapacitiesstrengthenedinthetechniquesneeded
Ior the constructive management oI socio-environmental
conficts, the local authorities and the general public oI
the local communities are now increasingly able to work
together to prevent Iuture conficts.
Lessons Learned
EIIective communication and capacity building in the feld
oI confict prevention are both necessary to strengthen
the socio-environmental analytic capabilities and
communication skills oI the local authorities, proIessionals
and inhabitants oI theseAndean rural communities. While
communication itselI is important, the capacity building
Ior confict resolution has helped the diIIerent stakeholders
to develop an objective analysis oI the confict itselI. This
hastaughtthemhowtoprevent,manageandtransIormthe
socio- environmental conficts.
Organizing these activities had to be planned well in
advance,takingintoconsiderationkeystakeholdersaswell
as the specifc needs oI the territorial area. OIfcial support
andrecognitionIromtheauthoritiesisamust.Forexample,
all oI the work had to be done with the support oI the OIfce
oI the Ombudsman and Mediation Center and with the
recognition oI the Ministry oI Justice. To consolidate and
ensure implementation oI the Joint Programme, an OIfce oI
Peace and Prevention oI Socio-Environmental Conficts was
createdwithintheRegionalGovernmentoICusco.Thishas
helped to provide legitimacy to activities, as well as long-
terminstitutionalization.
ThisisanewexperienceandthereIoretechnicalproIessionals
andpoliticalsupportwereneededtosystematizealternative
mechanisms Ior institutionalizing socio-environmental
confict resolution in the regions and local communities.
Replication
The experience in Cusco and Apurimac
regions in Peru could be applied in other
regionsandlocalitiesoIPeru.TheIollowing
steps Ior replication can also be Iollowed
byothercountriesandareaswherethereareenvironmental
conficts.
Development oI a baseline study oI the situation oI
the socio-environmental confict which would include
participatoryassessments.
Design an intervention strategy to guide the
implementationoIthetraining.Thisactivityshouldbe
coordinatedwiththerepresentativesoIthemunicipalities,
Iorexample,theMunicipalEnvironmentalCommissions
or the Municipal Environmental Management Units.
It should also include civil society and private sector
representatives.
It is important to coordinate with the OIfce oI
Extrajudicial Conciliation oI the Ministry oI Justice and
withtheOmbudsman,orequivalentbodies,inorderto
conduct a joint extrajudicial conciliators training. This
process should be designed to target the municipal
authorities, civil society, private sector, as well as
universitystudentsandthegeneralpublic.
Appropriatematerialscontainingthetheoryandpractice
oI confict prevention are necessary and should be used
inworkshopsrunbyexperiencedproIessionals.
Finally, it is important to interact with other relevant
stakeholders.ThecountrysParliamentisakeypartner,
sinceitcanenactthenecessaryregulationsIorcreating
alternative mechanisms Ior socio-environmental confict
resolution, including environmental conciliation,
arbitrationandnegotiation.Allthishastobedonewith
the support by the Ministry oI Justice and recognized
legal oIfces.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-CapBuild-Peru
On Joint Programme Peru, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Peru
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
06
Strengthening institutional capacity to adapt to
climate change in the Philippines


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todesignaclimatechangeresilientsocialinIrastructureIor
the vulnerable urban communities living in the barangays,
orvillages,aroundSorsogon.
The inIormation campaign raised awareness about climate
change and its impact on the livelihoods and housing oI
the population living near the coastal areas. Considering
that climate change is a technical and scientifc concept,
it was important to popularize the inIormation in order to
reach a much wider audience. Materials were produced
and distributed to about 64 barangays to inIorm coastal
settlementsabouttheimpactsoIclimatechangeandtheneed
Ioradaptationmeasures.
In addition, Automated Weather Stations to improve the
planning and monitoring Ior disaster risk reduction were
set up and a number oI personnel Irom the City Planning
OIfce were given training on climate change and disaster
riskrelatedsubjects.
Throughout implementation, an emphasis was made on
developing a participatory approach. By including the
community in the planning stages, their needs were taken
intoconsideration.
The Problem
SorsogonislocatedinthesouthernmostprovinceoILuzon
in the Philippines. Its geographical position - on the Pacifc
Oceantothewestandeast,andtheAlbayGulIandtheChina
SeathroughtheSorsogonBay-makesithighlyexposedand
vulnerable to the growing natural disasters as a result oI
climatechange.In2006,Sorsogonwashitbysupertyphoon
Milenya that destroyed over 10,000 houses, and again in
2009 by Typhoon Dante which brought heavy rains and
massive fooding.
ManyoItheurbanpooroISorsogonlivealongtheesteros,
whichareriversandcoastalareashighlyvulnerabletonatural
hazards such as typhoons, fooding and storm surges. Most oI
theseareasaremadeupoIinIormalsettlementsoIshanties,
built with light materials that can be easily destroyed and
swept away, endangering the lives and livelihoods oI the
dwellers.
The Solution
Usingacommunicationcampaignaswellasaparticipatory
planning approach, the UN Joint Programme under the
MDG-Fengagedthelocalgovernmentandlocalcommunities
07
ApilotschemeresultedintheIollowing:
1. TheIormulationoIacityshelterplan;
2. The site selection and design Ior a model climate-
resilientcoastalsettlement/community;
3. The construction oI a pilot project on climate change-
resilienthouses;
4. Documentation oI a well-designed, climate-resilient
humansettlement;
5. TheIormulationoIguidelinesongreeninIrastructure.
By engaging the local community and Iollowing a
participatory approach in designing the adaptive measures
totackletheimpactsoIclimatechange,Sorsogonwasable
tobuildclimatechangeresilientsocialinIrastructureIorthe
citysvulnerablecommunities.
TherearealsolocalordinancesinplaceIorthedevelopment
oI resilient settlements and the Philippine Institute Ior
Environmental Planning, together with local architects,
willhelptoharnessIurthersupporttoestablishingplanning
standardsandguidelines.
Lessons Learned
A key Iactor Ior the success oI the pilot project lies in its
participatory approach and inIormation campaign. There
was ownership oI the project by the local government as
well as cooperation by the inhabitants, who were involved
intheplanningandimplementationprocess.Thecampaign
alsomadethetargetaudiencesawareoIclimatechangeand
itspotentialimpactstotheirhousesandlivelihoodsthereby
motivatingthemtoparticipateinbuildingresilience.
The sustainability oI retroftting homes was also made
possible by providing subsidies and establishing an
acceptable repayment scheme Ior those who participated.
Only halI oI the total cost oI retroftting will be collected
in installment payments Irom the owners oI the retroftted
houses. The amount collected will then be used to retroft
othervulnerablehouses.
Itwasalsorecognizedthatdisplacementisclearlynotalways
thesolution,eveninsuchvulnerableareas.ItwasIoundthat
retroftting housing structures will work best especially Ior
socialized housing units where dwellers own, or have the
opportunity to own, their houses. For inIormal settlements,
where the dwellers tend to move, or are
relocated,Iacilitatingaparticipatoryprocess
to defne resettlement agreements guided by
thelocalgovernmentauthoritiesworkedbest.
Replication
The participatory approach can be used Ior the successIul
bridging oI climate science and community adaptive
behaviour in the specifc case oI building climate change
resilient social inIrastructure Ior vulnerable urban
communities in a coastal city. However, certain conditions
areneededIoritssuccess:
1. Ownership oI property and/or security oI land tenure
isessentialinordertoensurethatthedwellershavean
incentive to pay Ior retroftting their homes.
2. Implementation and the potential replication oI
retroftted housing structure became more viable with
theparticipationandinvestmentoIIundsbyspecialized
partneragencies.
3. Providing appropriate fnancing schemes, such as
subsidies or acceptable repayment schemes, will also
improve the viability oI these retroftting projects.
4. Participation and appropriate communication, such as
aninIormationcampaign,arecriticalIactorsinensuring
appropriatelevelsoIunderstandingandsupportIorsuch
activities.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-CapBuild-Philippines
On Joint Programme Philippines, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Philippines
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
08
09
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Communication is an essential component of
the Joint Programmes and must be included
from the start. It is the tool for building
support for the activities of the project
and fosters a greater understanding and
stronger collaboration, which are critical for
reaching the goals. How one communicates
the Programme is essential for expanding the
audience, building a cohesive Programme
and also for replication in other countries.
Ultimately, it is the communication that will
lead to the replication that will lead to the
overall global achievements of the MDG-F.
Communication
10
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Communication protects the environment in
Nicaraguas BOSAWAS Biosphere Reserve


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assessmentstounderstandthecommunicationtrendsinthe
Waspam and Bonanza municipalities with the conclusion
thatintheseruralareas,radiostationsaretheonlysourceoI
inIormation,althoughthetargetaudienceoItheradioswas
mostly the urban population where radio signal coverage
was stronger. The results oI the assessments were shared
and validated with local stakeholders and with diIIerent
key communicators in the area to create awareness oI the
situation.
Against this backdrop, the Joint Programme helped to
develop the capacities, skills and knowledge oI the local
radio broadcasters with the aim to develop an inclusive
communicationIorurbanandruralpopulations.Theinitiative
also worked with the Sustainable Development Network, a
nationalorganizationwithexperienceinmediatraining.
A communications network was created in the area with
radio programmes to improve the quality and the content
oI radio communications in the Reserve. As a result, the
municipalities oI Waspam and Bonanza strengthened their
communication structures and experienced an evolution in
radioprogrammingtailoredtomeetlocalneeds.
The Problem
The BOSAWAS Biosphere Reserve is located in northern
Nicaragua and was designated a biosphere reserve by
UNESCO in 1997. At approximately 20,000 square
kilometres in size, the hilly terrain is rich in largely
unexplored biodiversity and comprises about 15 percent oI
the countrys total land area, making it the second largest
rainIorest in the Western Hemisphere, aIter theAmazon in
Brazil.
The Reserve is also home to the Sumos and the Miskito,
two indigenous populations oI Nicaragua, who depend on
thenaturalresourcesoItheregionIortheirlivelihoods.But
endemic poverty and a growing population has threatened
theconservationoItheareathroughoverhuntingoIwildliIe,
unsustainable land-clearing Ior agriculture and human-
wildliIe confict.
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme under the MDG-F aimed to
improve the quality and quantity oI the communication
on sustainable development in the BOSAWAS Biosphere
Reserve. Initially, the Programme conducted participatory
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11
In the three years since the Joint Programme was started,
theskillsoIthemediaandradiobroadcastershasimproved
dramatically, with a stronger Iocus on sustainable
development. The broadcasts also targeted diIIerent
audiences, such as women, youth, and Iarmers with
specialized topics that Iocused on the sustainable use oI
naturalresources.
The three radio broadcasts - Voice oI Environmental
Education(VEA),RadioBonanzaandYaitiTasba-arestill
on air even aIter the closing oI the Joint Programme. Radio
Bonanza and Yaiti Tasba (literally, Mother Earth Radio)
workonhigherIrequencieswhichallowIormorecoverage
and longer broadcasting hours. The three radio stations
continue to be fnancially supported and managed by the
localGovernments,withIundingalsocomingIromthesale
oIservicesandadvertising.
Lessons Learned
Setting up a communications network in the Biosphere
ReserveIacedmanyobstacles.Ruralradiobroadcasterswere
veryinexperiencedinthebasictechniquesoIcommunication.
Sometimesthebroadcastswerenotinthelocallanguages,or
happenedattimeswhenpeoplewereatworkandnotathome.
Inaddition,thethreeexistinglocalradioprogrammesinthe
municipalities were targeting the urban population rather
thanthemajoritylivinginruralareas,withcontentIocusing
mainly on entertainment rather than on local and national
news. Moreover, the content did not take into account that
theruralpopulationlivesanddependsentirelyonaccessto
natural resources, or the sustainable management oI those
naturalresourceswhicharecriticaltotheirlivelihoods.
In addressing these challenges, there were a number oI
lessons learned Irom the Joint Programme`s experience.
Firstly,aparticipatoryassessmentiskeytodeterminingthe
needs Ior and roles oI communication. Secondly, capacity
training oI local broadcasters is critical Ior ensuring high-
qualityprogrammeswhicharetailoredtomeettheneedsoI
the local community. Thirdly, community leaders and the
media, including local radio broadcasters, are important
partners in developing a communications strategy. Finally,
theradioisthebestmediumIorreachingruralpopulations,
especially in areas that have limited inIrastructure in
communications.
Replication
While the Joint Programme is an example oI
how communications can change attitudes
andbehaviortowardsclimatechange,poverty
reduction and environmental sustainability,
it also showcases how radio communication is especially
useIul in remote regions that have limited access to media
inIrastructure.
For replication purposes, it is important to recognize that
the approach is not a one size fts all`. A preliminary
assessment is crucial Ior understanding the needs oI the
specifc community and the audience who should be
allowed to express what they need Irom the media and the
radiobroadcasters.Onlybylisteningtothecommunitycan
the activity begin to Ioster respect and trust and long-term
sustainability.Ultimately,themessagesIromthebroadcasts
mustbetailoredtotheaudienceandmeetlocalneeds.
ToreplicatethedevelopmentoImediacapabilities,itisalso
important to collaborate with all stakeholders (journalists,
media institutions, universities and local community
leaders)whocanhelpaswellinguidingthecontent.Forthe
sustainability oI the radio programmes, local governments
arealsovaluablepartnerswhocanbothmanageandpartly
fnance the broadcasts. Additional Iunding can come Irom
the sale oI services and advertisements Irom the private
sectorandcivilsociety.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Comm-Nicaragua
On Joint Programme Nicaragua, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Nicaragua
12
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions


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Iourliveradiobroadcasts,trainingoIruralcommunicators,
inIormation and awareness campaigns aiming to address
environmentalissuescausedbyclimatechange,acapacity-
building programme Ior teachers and specialists in
educationalinstitutionsandtheelaborationoIaproposalIor
school curricula.As a result, the radio broadcast popularly
knownasPachamamanchista Munakusun(Protecting
MotherEarth)nowairsdailyinQuechua,thelocallanguage,
andSpanish,toencourageIarmingcommunitiestoidentiIy
localproblemsandproposewaysIoradaptingandmitigating
theimpactsoIclimatechange.
The broadcasts motivate Iarmers to implement adaptation
measuressuchaswaterharvesting,reIorestationwithnative
species, protection oI biodiversity and prevention oI Iorest
fres and overgrazing. The radio broadcasts also share
successIul experiences in using adaptation measures that
include traditional knowledge regarding indigenous plants,
and using crops more resistant to changing climate and
highertemperatures.
As a complement to the radio broadcast initiative, the UN
Programme organized several awareness campaigns and
19 workshops Ior teachers and educational institutions on
The Problem
Rural indigenous communities in the southern Andean
highlands oI Perus Cusco and Apurimac regions have
been hit hard by climate change. Endemic poverty and a
relianceonsubsistenceagriculturemeansthattheseremote
communities cannot aIIord a bad harvest. Yet, in recent
years sudden changes in weather are impacting traditional
cropslikepotato,maizeandquinoa,agrainhighinproteins
and other valuable nutrients. In the Santo Tomas River
Basin several problems related to natural resources have
emerged, and include the Iollowing: inappropriate use oI
water resources, Iorest and grassland fres, overgrazing, and
deIorestation.
The Solution
LivingataltitudesoIover3,000meters,thesecommunities
are Iar Irom urban knowledge hubs that are researching
solutions Ior dealing with climate change and they largely
relyontheradioIorinIormation.Withthisinmind,theUN
Joint Programme oI the MDG-F in February 2010 launched
an integrated communications approach, using non-Iormal
(inIormation campaigns) and Iormal educational activities
to build awareness about climate change and adaptation
measures.Theintegratedapproachincluded:thebroadcastoI
Radio and climate change meet in the Andes in
Peru
13
climate change so as to incorporate the issues into school
curriculum.Nowthatpeoplearesensitizedtoclimatechange
and encouraged to manage their natural resources better,
there is more interest to maintain the broadcasts and more
appropriation oI the Programme by stakeholders. While
theUNProgrammehasended,threeradioprogrammesare
still on air, thanks to the support oI local municipalities.
In addition, the municipalities are now using radio spots
to highlight climate change, environmental protection and
other social impacts. The awareness campaigns have also
been taken over by the local governments Environmental
ManagementUnit.
Finally, international radio programmes on climate
change are also now being transmitted to Peru via the
Pachamamanchista Munakusunbroadcast.
Lessons Learned
Given the location oI these rural communities and limited
accesstoinIormation,theradiowasconsideredtobethebest
mediumIorcommunication.However,tobesustainable,the
IocusneededtobenotjustontheradioprogrammeitselI,but
more importantly on building the capacities to develop the
programmeusinglocalskillsandnetworks.Forthisreason,
the Joint Programme emphasized that the radio programmes
neededtobemanagedbythelocalcommunities.Therewas
also a Iocus on training rural broadcasters who know the
realityoItheregion.Thisgavemorecredibilitytothestories,
andalsohelpedtocaptureaudiences.
Itwasimportanttoorganizeaswellanawarenesscampaign
in partnership with the local governments Environmental
ManagementUnits.TomakethecampaignsuccessIul,itwas
importanttocreateaworkplantogetherwiththecitycouncils
andprivateandpublicinstitutionstoavoidduplicationand
tocoordinateonayearlyandstrategicbasis.
An important element oI the Programme was the inclusion
oI Iormal educational institutions. Teachers were clearly
an important target audience Ior the Programme as they
will teach the students the importance oI protecting the
environment and the adoption oI responsible consuming
habits. However, any activity related to the work oI the
teachers has to be planned at the beginning oI the school
yearinordertoensuretheirpresence.
Replication
ThisUNinitiativecanbereplicatedinother
Andean regions and rural areas, in order to
inIormandsensitizeremotecommunitiesand
authoritiesabouttheimportanceoIknowing
andactingonclimatechange.Whenreplicating,however,it
isimportanttoconsidertheIollowing:
The need to implement an integrated communications
approach, using non-Iormal (radio and inIormation
campaigns) and Iormal educational activities to
build awareness about climate change and adaptation
measures.
The need to train rural radio broadcasters beIore
launching the radio programmes and to schedule the
broadcastsaccordingtotheagriculturalcalendarwhich
givesmorecredibilityandwillcapturetheinterestoIa
wideraudience.
The need to build partnerships with the local
governments Environmental Management Units,
whoseparticipationensurestheinvolvementoIthelocal
authoritiesincombatingclimatechange.
The need to identiIy and choose - by agreement with
civil society - the appropriate channels, media, modes
andlanguagesIoreachmessageineacharea.
The need to involve educational institutions which are
keytoassuretheparticipationoIyouthintheawareness
campaigns.
The need to strengthen the knowledge oI the teachers
on climate change and environmental issues. Teachers
areimportantplayersIorthesensitizationoItheyouth
andaretheoneswhoinstillthevaluesinthestudentsIor
protectingtheenvironment.
The need to plan any activity with the teachers at
the beginning oI the school year so as to ensure their
participation.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Comm-Peru
On Joint Programme Peru, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Peru
14
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
15
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Ecosystems Management is an approach to
natural resource management that focuses
on sustaining ecosystems to meet both
ecological and human needs in the future.
It is adaptive to changing needs and new
information and promotes the shared vision
of a desired future by integrating social,
environmental and economic perspectives
to managing geographically defined natural
ecological systems.
Ecosystems
Management
16
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme oI the MDG-F chose to address
the challenges in the Yellow River basin by introducing
agricultural practices that are both environmentally sound
and resilient to climate change impacts. One oI the most
eIIectivemeasureswasusingmulti-disciplinaryteamswhich
were made up oI not only experts in the feld oI agriculture,
but also specialists in the felds oI water management,
climate change, environment and economics. These teams
developed solutions Ior sustainable and climate resilient
agriculturalproduction(C-RESAP)whichwereproposedto
theChineseGovernmentIorimplementation.TheC-RESAP
takesintoconsiderationclimatechangethreatsandthestatus
oInaturalresourcessothatagriculturalyieldsaremaximized,
emissionsandwastesarereduced,andthenegativeimpacts
to ecosystems are minimized, resulting in saIe agricultural
practices.
ThestrategyusedachievedtheIollowing:
1. Improved coordination mechanisms between diIIerent
institutionsandlevelsoIwork;
2. Research and analysis oI the challenges that the
agricultural sector Iaces in relation to climate change
The Problem
The Yellow River, or Huang He, is known as the cradle
oI civilization in China.As the second longest river in the
countryandthesixthlongestintheworld,itrunsover5,000
kilometersandcutsthroughnineprovinces.Itsimportance
andsizearematchedbythegrowingpopulationlivingalong
its riverbanks. But population pressure and increases in
agricultural production have accelerated degradation oI the
naturalresourcesalongtheriver.By2000,about26percent
oItheYellowRiverbasinhadalreadybeenurbanized,with
groundwaterextractionsreachingthreateninglevels.
Climate change is impacting the already Iragile water
resource, changing the conditions Ior crop growth, and
aIIecting crop yield with the possibility oI changing the
distribution oI crop species. Currently, irrigated agriculture
covers10percentoIthetotalareaoItheYellowRiverbasin
butconsumes95percentoIthewaterresources.Increasingly,
agriculture and downstream ecosystems are suIIering Irom
water shortages. Growing demand Ior industrial and urban
watersuppliesaroundtheYellowRiverbasinisalsocausing
increasedwaterpollutionIromwastewater.
Multi-disciplinary teams bring agricultural
adaptation to climate change in China

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17
and natural resource use in Iour pilot provinces
(Henan,Ningxia,ShaanxiandShandong).Theresearch
revealedadeclineinwaterresources,over-extractionoI
groundwater, loss oI soil Iertility, salinization and soil
andwaterpollutionduetoexcessiveuseoIIertilizers.
3. A comprehensive needs and environmental assessment
that identifed the C-RESAP practices which could be
employedintheseandsimilarregions.
4. Over 1,000 Iarming households, 400 technicians and
140 local oIfcials were given training in C-RESAP in
13pilotsitesintheIourpilotprovincesinordertohelp
thembetterunderstandthechallengesposedbyclimate
changeandnaturalresourcedegradation.
5. ProvincialActionPlansIorC-RESAPonhowtomake
agriculture less polluting and more productive and
resilienttoclimatechangewerepreparedineachoIthe
Iour pilot provinces with the participation oI Iarmers,
feld technicians, local authorities and researchers.
These plans were also shared at the national level to
serveasexamplesIorotherprovinces.
Ior implementing all the activities at the
provincial levels, including delivery oI
training, provision oI technical advice and
services. They also compiled the situational
analysisreportsthatusedinIormationonthe
YellowRiverbasinandIocusedonthebio-physical,socio-
economic and technological aspects provided by diIIerent
stakeholders.
OneoIthemainchallengeswasthattheProgrammestartedin
the middle oI the year instead oI in January which was not in
syncwiththecropcycleandrequiredamajorreorganization
oI the initiative. However, having a fexible approach to
the projects activities, as well as committed participants,
allowedtheactivitiestobecarriedoutsuccessIully.
Replication
GiventheIar-reachingimpactsoIclimatechangeondiIIerent
parts oI society and the economy, a multi-disciplinary
approachisrecommendedIorreplicationpurposes.
Specifcally, with respect to the implementation oI C-RESAP
activities,itisimportanttocareIullyidentiIythepilotsites,
astherearemanychallengesassociatedwiththis,including
theabilityoItheProgrammetosynchronizewithcropcycles.
UnknownIactors,suchaschangingweatherconditions,can
lead to the delay oI activities. Due to such uncertainties,
Ior implementing C-RESAP activities the Iollowing is
recommended:
1. IdentiIy Iarmers and technicians who have a very strong
interest and are committed to both improving their
agricultural practices and dedicating their time to the
multipletrainingsnecessary.
2. Use awareness raising to ensure all participants are
inIormed oI the requirements and potential delays in
implementingC-RESAP.
3. Allow Ior fexibility in the project`s activities and timing to
allowIorunplannedeventssuchasbadweather.

For more information


Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-EcosysMgmt-China
On Joint Programme China, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-China

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Lastly, the inter-agency relationships which were
establishedthroughtheProgrammehaveallowedIorbetter
communicationandcoordinationoIC-RESAPintheIuture.
Lessons Learned
The main lesson learned is that in implementing climate
resilientandenvironmentallysoundagriculturalproduction,
it is necessary to have multi-disciplinary teams. The
introduction oI the C-RESAP approach was meant to help
the Iormation oI these teams, which would be responsible
6HGLPHQWVRIWKH<HOORZ5LYHU&KLQD
18
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Trends in forest ecosystems and their services
in Senegal


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In order to strengthen national capacity and ensure the
qualityoIassessingtheconditionandtrendsoIIorestsinthe
country, the Joint Programme established working groups to
conductaIorestbiodiversityassessment.Thegroupswere
made oI experts Irom national organizations with diversifed
andrelevantexperienceinIorestconservationandsupported
by an international expert to steer the scientifc accuracy oI
the assessment.These working groups were in turn guided
by a scientifc panel in charge oI reviewing fndings and
Iacilitatingcommunicationwithpolicymakers.
The working groups were an innovative approach in
Senegal, where all work in the past was Iocused around
one task manager.As a result, national organizations were
empowered and committed to the fndings oI the assessment.
The outcome oI the fnal assessment has contributed to the
designandrecommendationtopromoteaneco-taxpolicy
toolthatwill,intheIuturewhenitisimplemented,helpto
improvetheoverallmanagementoIthecountrysIorest.
The Problem
Senegal is known Ior its Iorests, which cover 44 percent
oI the country, oI which 18 percent is primary Iorest and
richinbiodiversity.However,adramaticdeclineinrainIall
is contributing to Irequent droughts which are threatening
Senegals natural resources, such as Iorests. In addition to
the unIavorable climate, human activities, such as illegal
logginganddeIorestation,arealsohavinganegativeimpact
onthehealthoIthecountrysIorests.Since1990,thisWest
AIricannationhasbeenlosingIorestcoveratanaverageoI
over43,000hectaresperyear.
The Solution
Usingacommunicationscampaignaswellasaparticipatory
approach, the UN Joint Programme oI the MDG-F recognized
thatIoreIIectivemanagementoIthecountrysIorests,there
was an urgent need to monitor the changes in the Iorest
ecosystem and its signifcant decline. However, to achieve
this, the Joint Programme also recognized that the country
Iacedtwochallengesinthisregard:alackoIaccuratedata
on the Iorests, and an insuIfcient capacity to ensure regular
monitoring.
19
Lessons Learned
While there were good outcomes and the design oI an
eco-tax policy, there were still a number oI challenges
to overcome. The major lesson learned was how to better
select and engage the members oI the working groups and
ensure their commitment in order to deliver a high quality
assessment. Some members oI the working groups were
not Iully engaged in the project or inIormed about it when
their expertise was needed. Issues, such as this, had not
been anticipated by the Joint Programme and as a result, the
quality oI the fnal assessment could have been stronger.
Inaddition,theimplementingpartnerswerenotselectedina
competitiveprocesstoensureahighqualityassessmentnor
didtheinternationalscientistprovideenoughguidancetothe
fnal outcome. All oI this raised concerns about the quality oI
theoverallassessment.
ToaddressthequalityissuesoItheresultsobtained,remedial
stepsweretakentoimplementacomplementaryassessment
withtheIocusasIollows:
1. Outcomes need to be up-scaled so that they can reach
policy-makinglevels.
Timber from a forest


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2. The overall quality oI the assessment
hastobeimprovedandhastohavemore
relevantdataonIoresttrends.
3. The assessment has to be closely
monitored by international experts on
biodiversity.
Replication
ThereisawindowIorreplicationoIthisexperienceinother
countries with similar conditions. However, it should be
done with corrective measures to emphasize both national
ownership and capacity-building, in order to ensure the
quality oI the fnal product.
Based on experience in the Senegal Joint Programme, it is
recommended that replication oI similar Iorest ecosystem
assessments should consider the Iollowing in the design
stages:
National partners should be identifed based on expertise
andinacompetitiveprocessratherthanthroughpersonal
networks.
In the project`s log Irame, the fnancial allocation oI
resources should go against the activity without the
specifc name oI a partner institution mentioned. There
isaseriouschallengetochangeanimplementingpartner
whenexpectationsareraisedduetothebudgetalready
allocatedintheprojectlogIrame.
From the early stage oI preparation, constant quality
assessment oI the outcomes with the eIIective
backstoppingoIimplementingpartnersisneeded.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-EcosysMgmt-Senegal
On Joint Programme Senegal, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Senegal
20
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
21
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Energy is an inter-sectoral issue that cuts
across the traditional divides of many
development projects and programmes,
therefore providing a good entry point
for joint efforts. However, the technical
terminology and the engineering aspects of
energy projects can act as a communications
barrier in such cross-sectoral work. In
designing projects it is important to focus on
the development services that energy makes
possible. Clean water, better health care,
improved communications, and employment
opportunities are all made possible by
energy. These and other services have to
be put in the forefront of the Programmes
design.
Energy
22
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
multi-prongapproachwaschosenIortacklingtheseenergy
issues, with a heavy emphasis on energy eIfciency (EE) and
renewableenergysources(RES)inpublicbuildings.
TheIocusonpublicbuildingswasdeemedahighpriorityIor
threemajorreasons:
1. Buildings are responsible Ior a signifcant amount oI the
countrysoverallenergyconsumption;
2. The standards oI eIfciency are quite low, so the relative
benefts oI any upgrade are high;
3. Local authorities and other stakeholders want to
mainstreamtheseissuesinacomprehensivemanner.
Grant windows were introduced within the Joint Programme
Ior municipalities to implement EE/RES projects in public
Iacilities and 28 projects were implemented in thermal
insulation, biomass Iurnaces, solar panels, and LED street
lighting.
Municipalities were also strongly encouraged to think
and act strategically. The Joint Programme supported the
development oI Sustainable EnergyAction Plans (SEAPs)
in fve municipalities and Local Environment Action Plans
The Problem
Bosnia and Herzegovina suIIers Irom signifcant economic
and environmental losses because oI the low-energy eIfciency
standards Iound in both residential and publicly-managed
buildings, which typically have very high expenditures. In
addition, owners and decision-makers are not suIfciently
aware oI the situation, nor equipped to properly control or
manage these energy costs more eIfciently.
Asacountryineconomictransition,BosniaandHerzegovina
cannot aIIord to have ineIfcient use oI energy which directly
counters eIIorts to reduce poverty. The latest studies show
thatenergyconsumptionwithinthebuildingsectorcomprises
57 percent oI the country`s total energy consumption. The
samerateIortheEuropeanUnionstandsat40percent.Such
statisticsbecomeevenmoreimportantintheglobalcontext,
considering that the building sector is responsible Ior 74
percentoIworldwidegreenhousegasemissions.
The Solution
The main objective oI the activities oI the UN Joint
ProgrammeundertheMDG-FwastoreduceIossilIuelusage,
decrease CO
2
emissions, and reduce energy costs in public
buildingsthatwouldalsocutpublicexpenditure.Aunique,
Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources
in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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23
(LEAPs) in 37 municipalities, and made sure that energy
issuesweregivenahighpriority.
To build in sustainability, an Energy Management
InIormationSystem(EMIS)wassetupsothatinIormation
oIeachlocalEE/RESprojectcouldbeenteredintoanational
database to highlight the best practices Ior replication.The
long-term objective is to provide the EMIS soItware to the
municipalities so that all public buildings and Iacilities are
integrated into the centralized system. The comprehensive
datasetgeneratedbythissystemwillthenbeusedtomonitor
nationwide energy consumption trends, and to encourage
IutureEE/RESeIIortsinboththepublicandprivatesectors.
EuropeanUnion(EU)integrationremainsastrongmotivation
Ior EE/RES measures in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the
authoritiesrealizethattheymustraisetheirlocalstandards
tomeettheinternationalrequirements.
Lessons Learned
Whenitcomestoenvironmentalprotection,andparticularly
energyissues,itisnotnecessarilytruethatbiggerisbetter
i.e.large-scaleprojectsandinvestmentsarenotnecessarily
the best solutions. In many cases, such as in Bosnia and
Herzegovina, several smaller-scale projects can have a
greater impact and be invaluable role models to the rest oI
thecountry.
The initiative showed that the energy sector does not
necessarilyhavetobesolelythejurisdictionoIhigher-level
authorities. It also showed that there are issues which are
notexclusivelysolvedthroughcapitalinIrastructureprojects
but rather can be eIIectively addressed via smaller-scale
investments, which oIten have shorter payback periods
and more decentralized impacts which beneft the local
communitiesbetter.
AnotherlessonlearnedistheimportanceoImainstreaming
newapproachessuchasEE/RESinasystematicway,which
allows Ior greater uptake and sustainability. The greatest
impact achieved by the Joint Programme is that stakeholders
at all levels in the Government are fnally playing a role
and taking responsibility Ior the sector. It is also clear that
EE/RES measures help to reduce poverty in the region as
municipalities and individuals are spending less on energy
costs.
Finally, the importance oI local ownership
and responsibility cannot be understated. A
prime example is that personnel Irom local
communities were the ones who actually
maintain the EMIS database, which shows
the success oI this approach. This is also refected by the
local municipalities, who were co-fnancing their projects
andtherebyclaimingownershipoItheenergyissuesintheir
regions.
Replication
The Joint Programme`s energy components have strong
possibilities Ior replication, within the country, and
worldwide, especially in locations that are undergoing
economic transition, have outdated public inIrastructure
or lack a tradition oI energy eIfciency (and thereIore have
plentyoIroomIorimprovement).
The SEAPs and LEAPS are concepts borrowed Irom other
countries and have been designed Ior easy duplication in
other locations. In Iact, both types oI strategic plans have
already started to spread around the country, as other
municipalities see the benefts to long-term planning, even
intheenergysector.
The pilot projects provide practical examples on how to
properlyimplementmeasuresIromsuchplans,regardlessoI
the location. In a place like Bosnia and Herzegovina, they
serve as innovative ideas Ior other towns to Iollow.At the
same time, local communities can fnally claim ownership
oItheirenergyissueswithouthavingtowaitIorhigher-level
interventionorlarge-scaleinvestmentsanddonations.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
h t t p : / / w i k i . m d g I u n d . n e t / E C C - E n e r g y -
BosniaandHerzegovina
On Joint Programme Bosnia and Herzegovina, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-BosniaandHerzegovina
24
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
The Problem
Finding a taxi in Cairo - Egypts largest city - is never a
problem. Totaling 80,000, they are easy to spot. But their
vastnumbersalsocontributetothedailygridlockandtheir
Iumesleavethedriver,thepassengersandthecitystruggling
Iorcleanair.ThetaxisarepartoIthemorethan1.5million
vehicles polluting this ancient city oI over 17 million people.
Thetransportationsectoraloneemits26percentoIthetotal
greenhousegasesinthecountry.
But knowing the problem is easier than fnding the solution.
Upgradingtheseoldtaxis,mostoIwhichwereover15years
old and suIIer Irom Irequent breakdowns, is Iar too costly
Iorindividualdrivers.Moreover,buildingsocialawareness
Ior energy-eIfcient cars in a country where energy is highly
subsidized by the Government is diIfcult.
The Solution
WiththeaimtoexpandEgyptsaccesstotheglobalcarbon
tradingmarketasawaytoreducetheburdenoIGovernment
subsidies in the energy sector and mitigate against climate
change,theEgyptianGovernmenttargetedthetransportation
sector where old vehicles were a signifcant source oI carbon
emissions.
Egypt tackles climate change through energy-
efficient transportation
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TheEgyptianEnvironmentalAIIairsAgency(EEAA)hadat
frst targeted the country`s polluting taxis in a pilot project in
2005 when 763 taxis were upgraded, resulting in a reduction
oI nearly 26,000 tons oI CO
2
equivalent over a ten-year
period.

ThesuccessoItheprojectbroughtinotherinstitutions,such
as the Ministry oI Finance, which approached the World
Bankin2008Iorassistanceonsubmittingtheprojecttothe
UNFrameworkConventiononClimateChange(UNFCCC)
Iorcarboncredits.
The Egyptian Government, working with the UN Joint
ProgrammeoItheMDG-F,helpedtostrengthenthereduction
oI greenhouse gases by establishing a Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM)Awareness and Promotion Unit within
the EEAA to support the CDM project registration. This
was done mainly by providing technical assistance Ior the
lengthyandspecializedregistrationprocess.
As a result, the CDM Awareness and Promotion Unit
supported the registration oI the Vehicle Scrapping and
RecyclingProgrammewiththegoaltoreduceCO
2
emissions
25
by replacing old ineIfcient vehicles with new ones and
the scrapping oI the old vehicles. AIter three years in the
registration process, the CDM Awareness and Promotion
Unit succeeded to Iormally register the programme with
the UNFCCC as a carbon credit initiative, which was the
frst CDM-registered transport project worldwide. In 2012,
over 40,000 taxis were replaced with new energy-eIfcient
cars.TheremainingoldtaxisinCairoarenowexpectedto
beupgradedwiththeaimtoreducecarbonemissionsby1.4
milliontonsoverthenextdecade.Today,thestreetsoICairo
hum with new taxis that oIIer more comIort and a cleaner
city.
Another impact oI the Vehicle Scrapping and Recycling
Programme was that its visible success has led to positive
spin-oIIs in Egypts energy sector and the drive towards
a greener economy. Through the political support oI the
nationalSupremeEnergyCouncil(SEC),thisinitiativenow
serves as a model to institutionalize an energy-eIfciency
programmeintwoothersectors:housingandtourism.AIter
monitoringtheexperiencesinthesesectorsoverthenexttwo
years,itishopedthatsimilarmeasureswillbeimplemented
inallenergy-consumingsectors.
Lessons Learned
There were several challenges to overcome. One came at
the community level. Many people were concerned about
a non-proft organization, like the CDM Awareness and
PromotionUnit,tryingtoreducegreenhousegaseswhichare
notincludedinthecountrysenvironmentalcompliancelaw.
However, the UN Joint Programme contributed to improved
awareness on the benefts oI carbon trading and as a result
helped to win the support at the community level. In Iact,
theVehicleScrappingandRecyclingProgrammemanaged
togainthepoliticalsupportoItheMinistersoItheSEC,the
keynationalpolicy-makinginstitutionIorapprovingenergy
-eIfciency activities.
Another lesson learned is that energy eIfcient programmes
are most successIul when there is a centralized technical
support, like the CDM Awareness and Promotion Unit,
withintheGovernment.Thisunitwasakeyplayer,ableto
actasanetworkingagenttopromotecarbontradingandat
thesametimeprovidedahigh-leveloIexpertiseinobtaining
theregistrationapprovaloItheUNFCCC.
Replication
The experiences oI the CDM Awareness
and Promotion Unit show that such energy
programmes are Ieasible but only through
a centralized technical unit that can be a
networking agent to promote carbon trading. By ensuring
that such measures are implemented through the existing
governance Iramework, long-term sustainability can be
ensured. Moreover, the technical unit in Egypt was not
reliant on external support only, but rather it was set up as
part oI the national governance Iramework, and now has a
highleveloIexpertiseanddomesticownership.
Inaddition,althoughpilotprojectsareimportantincreating
confdence and proving success, the success on its own
cannotguaranteeIurtherreplicabilitywithouthavingstrong
politicalsupport.ThepositiveexampleoIsuccessshowcased
throughtheVehicleScrappingandRecyclingProgramme,
notonlyhelpedtogaininterestandsupportinIurtherCDM
projects,butalsohelpedtogainpoliticalsupportintheSEC,
whichprovedkeytotheProgrammessuccess.
Finally,intermsoIenergygoals,thelessoninEgyptisvery
relevant to countries which have similar energy systems
i.e. energy that is highly subsidized by the Government,
making it diIfcult to create interest in energy eIfciency
improvements. In such a case there is a need to create
positiveincentivesonbothdemandandsupplysidesinorder
to encourage change in behavior towards energy eIfciency.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Energy-Egypt
On Joint Programme Egypt, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Egypt
26
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
27


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A key challenge for the MDG-Fs success is
the mainstreaming of environmental concerns
and poverty reduction measures into national
and sub-national development plans,
programmes and budgets. Mainstreaming is a
slow, multi-year process, requiring capacity-
building, the generation and communication
of evidence, and institutional coordination.
It also requires persistence, flexibility, and
attention to detail. Governments around
the world, and the wider international
development community, can take inspiration
from the successful examples highlighted
in this booklet, which demonstrate that
mainstreaming is possible.
Environmental
Mainstreaming
and Governance
28
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
BeIore the UN Joint Programme oI the MDG-F was
launchedinthecountryattheendoI2009,only61oIthe142
municipalities(about40)hadadoptedLEAPs,orwerein
the process oI adopting one. As a result, the Joint Programme
Ielt that the LEAP process needed to be re-examined and
updated, and established that the two main areas in LEAP
development in need oI change were approaches Ior defning
problems,goalsandmeasures,andpublicparticipation.
The Programme selected 37 municipalities Ior developing
re-vampedLEAPsthatwouldempowerlocalauthoritiesand
the community to fnd solutions on environmental issues,
rather than wait Ior top-down remedies Irom the national
Government.
Lessons Learned
It became clear during implementation that upgrading the
LEAP methodology was not the only thing necessary. The
coordination between the national and local levels, and the
roleoILEAPswithinthewiderstrategicplanningprocesses
hadtobeaddressed,aswell.
BasedontheexperienceoIthecountry,whileharmonizing
nationalandcommunityprocessesiscriticallyimportant,it
The Problem
While Bosnia and Herzegovina is slowly transitioning
Irom a socialist, state-centered model, it is a country
that in recent years has made signifcant strides towards
economic stabilization and national cohesion. The
environment, however, has typically never been a priority
and instead has suIIered Irom inadequate environmental
policies, poorly developed management, negligible public
participation in environmental decision-making and a lack
oIreliableinIormationanddata.Indeed,theenvironmental
sector is critically stagnant and represents one oI the most
serious obstacles on the countrys road to European Union
integration.
The Solution
The development oI Local Environmental Action Plans
(LEAPs) is an established method oI strategic planning
Ior addressing issues concerning how society aIIects its
environment.WhileLEAPshavelongbecomeapartoIthe
legislativelandscapeinBosniaandHerzegovina,theyhave
not been adequately enIorced nor have suIfcient incentives
beenintroducedtosupportcompliance.
Environmental planning for protecting
Bosnia and Herzegovina, one town at a time


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29
is, in Iact, very diIfcult to achieve. Numerous administrative
layers complicate any integration eIIorts. As a result, the
IocusoItheUNinitiativehashadtobedirectedonbuilding
linkages and inIormation fows to ensure that national policy
iseIIectivelyinterpretedandimplementedatthelocallevel
and, conversely, that local-level experiences Ieed into and
infuence higher-level policy development.
It also became apparent in implementation that simply
pushing municipalities to create a LEAP is insuIfcient by
itselIiIitisnotIramedwithinalonger-termcontext.Instead,
what is needed is Ior them to be continually exposed to
strategic-planning principles over a period oI several years
and covering a range oI sectors. Only aIter such exposure
would they be able to realize not just the beneft oI such
methods,butalsoactuallybeabletocontinuetodevelopsuch
plans without the need Ior outside guidance or assistance,
perhaps even being able to oIIer their expertise to mentor
neighboring municipalities wishing to develop their own
LEAPsorotherstrategies.
Furthermore, it was Iound that showing by doing is a
powerIul approach to ensuring the sustainability oI the
outcomes oI the initiative. By highlighting municipalities
which are now successIully able to institute planning
processes on their own and those which have benefted
in capacity and/or Iunding through such endeavors, it is
expectedthatothermunicipalitieswillIollowsuit.


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It was Iound that overall, the Iour key
ingredientsIoramunicipalitytomoreeasily
developitsownLEAPare:
1. Real support Irom the municipal
administrationtoenactpositivechange;
2. Activenon-municipalstakeholderswillingandcapable
tocontributemeaningIully;
3. An experienced staII led by a confdent coordinator; and
4. AchampionthatothermunicipalitiescanlearnIromin
apeer-to-peerprocess.
Replication
Even outside the context oI Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is
clear that the sustainability oI strategic-planning processes
andoILEAPsinparticular,needstobeaddressedinaway
that emphasizes the necessity oI linking the development
processtotheactualimplementation.Potentialopportunities
exist Ior resolving this issue by stressing the need Ior the
municipalities to prioritize environmental action in their
budgets, and also by underscoring to higher-level donors/
actors the need Ior them to provide municipalities with
Iunding windows to bridge budgetary gaps that they are
unable to fnance on their own.
Forreplication,theIollowingisrecommended:
1. The LEAP development should be tied to budgeting
processes,Iollow-upswithconcreteactionanddetailed
reviews and revisions Ior branching out with strategic
planningpracticesintoothersectors.
2. Strategicplanningprocesses,suchasLEAPs,shouldbe
championed,withexperiencedlocalauthoritiesacting
as mentors to others, while also advocating the long-
termvalueoIenvironmentalprotection.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
h t t p : / / wi k i . md g I u n d . n e t / E CC- E n v Ma i n s t r -
BosniaandHerzegovina
On Joint Programme Bosnia & Herzegovina, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-BosniaandHerzegovina
30
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Mauritania converts national policies into
concrete action on natural resource management
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme targeted the three regions oI
Trarza, Brakna, Assaba, which were selected based on a
vulnerability survey done by the World Food Programme
(WFP), United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), OSA
and the United Nations Development Programme-United
NationsEnvironmentProgrammePovertyandEnvironment
Initiative(UNDP-UNEPPEI).
The Joint Programme initiative took one year to plan with
theIollowingobjectives:
1. To implement participative environmental and poverty
reduction projects designed to achieve the sustainable
management oI natural resources, and the promotion oI
hygiene and sanitation, while giving priority to national
ownershipandsustainabledevelopment.
2. To enhance national capacity Ior the improved
mainstreamingoIenvironmentalchallengesintothecentral
anddecentralizedplanningprocesses.
3. Toenhanceincomegenerationandlivelihoods,andcombat
poverty with the improved management oI the countrys
naturalresources.
The Problem
Mauritania remains among the worlds poorest countries
despite being rich in natural resources. Trarza, Brakna,
Assaba are three regions in the country that highlight
Mauritanias overall plight: high poverty rates, recurrent
drought, desertifcation, Iood insecurity, pressure on
natural resources, lack oI environmental inIrastructure and
insuIfcient capacity to address these problems at the policy
level.
Since2000,theMauritanianGovernmenthaddesignedmany
environmentalpoliciestomeettheMillenniumDevelopment
Goalsbuttheyhavenotbeenimplemented,andinsteadthe
most vulnerable populations have continued to suIIer Irom
the growing degradation oI natural resources. Instead, the
Iocushasbeenonpaperplanswithlittlepracticalimpact.
Yetenvironmentalmainstreamingisnotjustaboutincluding
environmental issues into policies or plans, but rather the
goal is to institutionalize this way oI thinking so that it
becomes normalized, not only on paper but also through
actionsandchangesinpeopleshabits.
Re-afforestation site in Birette, Mauritania


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31
With this approach, positive results were achieved and
the local communities in the three targeted areas were
empowered. Visible results oI the initiative include: 600
hectares oI dunes were stabilized; 295 hectares oI pastures
were restored and now protected; 47,000 hectares oI land has
been restored and managed in the delta region; and 28,000
peoplenowhaveaccesstodrinkablewater.
The impact oI the UNs coordinated work on the ground
alsoresultedintherealizationonthepartoIthenationaland
sub-national partners that cross-sectoral and government
coordination can lead to more eIIective natural resource
managementandpovertyreduction.Theimproveddialogue
andworkbetweenallsectorshasbroughtchangetothemost
vulnerableandpoorestareasoIthecountry,andsuccessIully
reversed the trend oI natural resource degradation with
strongerpoliciesthathaveresultedintangibleactions.
Additionally, despite the initial challenges in working
together, the seven UN agencies who were involved in
the Programme have now aIfrmed their commitment to
continuingtheirjointworkevenbeyondthecurrentIunded
project.
Lessons Learned
The outcome oI the Mauritania Joint Programme had three
mainlessons:
1. Environmental mainstreaming can be considered
successIul,notsimplyiIthisappearsinpolicies,butalso
once the norms have been institutionalized and people
choose to continue the approach/activities even aIter
theIormalendoIaproject.Toenhancethispossibility,
domestic ownership at all levels (Irom the national to
thelocal)shouldbeemphasizedthroughouttheprojects
liIecyclethroughparticipatorymechanisms.
2. Best practices Irom pilot projects at the local level
shouldbeincludedintokeylocalplanningdocuments,
such as LocalAgenda 21, which can help to orientate
Iuture natural resource management in a way which is
notdependentonexternalhelp.
3. UN agencies not only improved their coordination
mechanisms during the liIe cycle oI the Joint Programme,
butalsorecognizedthatthereisstillsubstantialroomIor
improvementinimplementingtheirjointinitiatives.By
committingthemselvestocontinuingtoworktogether,
they will improve upon their learning
and also enhance the results oI Iuture
programmes.
Replication
The experience gained by the Mauritania Joint Programme
canbeuseIultootherswhowouldliketoenhancethevalue
oI environmental mainstreaming, to normalize the concept
andgothenextstepindevelopingconcreteinterventions.
ThekeyIactorstoconsiderinreplicationare:
1. Mainstreaming the environment into policies or
strategies is a necessary, but not suIfcient part, oI
ensuring better environmental and natural resource
management.Mainstreamingonpapercanandmustbe
supplemented by concrete interventions that recognize
poverty-environment linkages. The best practices
derived Irom these feld activities can be used as a basis
IorIurtherreplication.
2. Ownership oI environmental mainstreaming activities
isanessentialcomponenttoensurethattheconceptis
normalizedandtakenupbydomesticpartners.Thiscan
be achieved by emphasizing a participatory approach
throughouttheprojectsliIecycle.
3. UN agencies themselves must also mainstream and
normalize the concept oI integrated environmental
management. This can also act as a good example
oI cross-sectoral collaboration Ior other related
organizationsatboththenationalandcommunitylevels.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-EnvMainstr-Mauritania
On Joint Programme Mauritania, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Mauritania
32
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
33
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Including gender equality in programming
directly correlates to improved programme
planning. However, gender mainstreaming
requires specialized expertise, training, and
coordination with gender theme groups at
the country level. Gender equality must also
be included in programme planning, and
included as at least one of the key outcome
areas with indicators to measure progress
and with activities also linked to measurable
results. Lastly, baseline studies and mid-
term evaluations are important tools for
making adjustments to the Programmes
achievements and gender-equality results,
even when these were not planned for at the
outset.
Gender
34
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Ethiopian female pastoralists unite to fight
climate change
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme oI the MDG-F targeted 17 pastoral
villagesinsomeoIthemostvulnerablepartsoIEthiopiaand
sought to mainstream gender in all oI the activities. To do
this, the Programme designed a special project Ior women
empowerment by creating additional sources oI income.
Women already organized into groups were given the
supportoIseedmoneyandgiventrainingtostarttheirown
businesses, which included bee keeping, milk processing,
smallirrigationIorgardenIarmingandpettytrades.
The Joint Programme also introduced mechanisms Ior women
that would assist in increasing livestock productivity and
improvedaccesstomarkets.Inaddition,accesstoIunctional
waterwasIacilitatedintheselectedpastoralvillagessothat
womennolongerhavetotravellongdistancestoIetchwater.
Female benefciaries have now Iormed 21 cooperatives in the
selectedvillagesoIwhichIourareIemale-headedpastoralist
households.
GiventhehistoricalmarginalizationoIpastoralists,whohave
littleaccesstoeducation,cleanwaterandhealthservices,the
Joint Programme also engaged the Government to reduce the
The Problem
Pastoral communities have a close relationship with the
natural environment and move their livestock in relation
to the availability oI water and Iood. While pastoralists
have historically had to adapt to hostile climates inAIrica,
adaptation capacities today have been eroded due to their
marginalization.Asaresult,pastoralistshavebecomeeven
more susceptible to the impacts oI climate change where
droughtcanleadtoIamineandextremepoverty.
InEthiopia,thepastoralistsliveandworkinstrongtraditional
communitiesandmostactivitiesaremanagedalonggender
lines. While household activities, such as the collection
oI water and Iuelwood, are done by women, the men take
care oI hunting and livestock, as well as making decisions
about access to and management oI natural resources with
littleconsultationwithwomen.Indeed,thereisaculturethat
restrictswomenIrommeetingwithmentodiscussresource
management or any other common issues impacting their
lives. At the same time, as the impacts oI climate change
are bringing increased vulnerability to the pastoral system,
in some cases women are taking up the traditional role oI
men,wholeavethevillagestoseekbetterIoodsourcesIor
theanimalsorworkoutsidethecommunity

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35
gapsinsocialservicesthroughitsdevelopmentprogrammes
andtheachievementoItheMillenniumDevelopmentGoals,
withaspecialemphasisonwomenempowerment.
Lessons Learned
A major challenge Iaced in implementation was due to the
traditional submissiveness oI women to men, which has
restricted some women Irom engaging with the UN Joint
Programme.Forexample,duringtheProgrammesbaseline
survey and the assessment Ior income generation, women
werenotwillingtotakepartinthediscussionsthatinvolved
men.
Replication
The income-generating activities
demonstrated through livestock marketing
cooperatives can be the best practice Ior
changing the lives oI pastoral communities,
especiallywomenwhoaremorevulnerabletoclimatechange
impacts.Itisespeciallyapplicabletopastoralcommunities
worldwidewhoaresimilarlyvulnerabletoclimatechange.
It is also recommended that awareness-raising on the
enhanced role oI women needs to start on a practical level
incommunitieswherethereisinequitableaccessIorwomen
toopportunitiesandresources.Forthispurpose,community
trainingsshouldbeprovidedonaregularbasis.


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This challenge was addressed and the situation improved
Iollowing training with community leaders on the benefts
oI involving women in all socio-economic endeavors as
wellastheroleoIwomeninclimatechangeadaptationand
mitigationactivities.Thishasresultedinoverallattitudinal
changes that have allowed Ior a greater participation oI
womenindecisionmakinginthecommunity.
ByIocusingonempoweringwomeninthewholedecision-
making process oI the community, it can be seen that the
lives oI pastoral women in the areas targeted by the Joint
Programmearechangingdramatically.WomenhaveIormed
their own cooperatives, and have engaged in a range oI
income-generating activities which have helped to reduce
inequalityandincreasetheirownindependence.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Gender-Ethiopia
On Joint Programme Ethiopia, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Ethiopia
/RFDOIDUPHUVDQGPHPEHUVRIWKH$ZDVK)HQWDOHDJURSDVWRUDOLVWFRPPXQLW\LQWKH$IDU
region of Ethiopia
36
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Gender and communications combat climate
change in Nicaragua
The Solution
TheroleoIwomenintheday-to-dayliIeoIthecommunity
in Waspam is critical so that when launching the UN Joint
Programme there was an eIIort to engage the womens
movement in the area in a creative initiative that would
strengthen communication on climate change but with a
genderIocus.
Astherewasnogenderspecialist,norwastheretheresource
to hire one, the Joint Programme collaborated with Wanki
Tangni, a local womens indigenous organization with 800
membersandapresenceinalmosteverycommunityinthe
area. The members oI the Wanki Tangni include teachers,
politicians, religious leaders, journalists, lawyers and
housewives,alloIwhomprovidedsupportandadvicetothe
UNProgramme.
Wanki Tangni, working together with the Joint Programme,
developed an artistic technique to create awareness on
environmental issues including climate change. The
womensmovementrecognizesthatwhencommunicationis
accompaniedbyartitismoreentertainingandeIIective.The
artIormsoIcommunicationusedbythemovementinclude
The Problem
The municipality oI Waspam on the banks oI the Coco
RiverinnorthernNicaraguaisinoneoIthepoorestregions
oIthecountryandthemostvulnerabletonaturaldisasters.
In November 2010, villages around Waspam were hit by
foods that inundated 80 percent oI the agricultural crop and
threatenedtheIoodsecurityoIthearea.
Though it can be a source oI natural disasters, the Coco
RiveralsosustainsthelivelihoodsoIthelocalcommunities
by providing a means oI transport, a source oI Iood Irom
fshing and a constant supply oI water Ior the agricultural
crops.Thecommunitieswouldnotbeabletosurvivewithout
theriverandtheIorestalongit.
The women living near the Coco River are particularly
sensitive to its importance. They are the ones who carry
thewaterhome,useitIorcooking,housekeepingandchild
care.Theyalsounderstandthatthedeteriorationinthewater
quality oI the river represents a health risk they cannot
aIIord. II the water is contaminated, their Iood security is
also threatened and they have to walk Iurther to get clean
water.
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Nicaragua


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localtraditionsindrama,drawings,poetry,storytellingand
songs.
There were a number oI positive results oI the initiative
whichincluded:
1. Nicaraguas Ministry oI Environment recognized
WankiTangniasthelocalcounterpartIorimplementing
EnvironmentalProtectionandclimatechangesolutions
inthearea.
2. The Biodiversity Youth Research Network was
established under the Joint Programme in collaboration
with the Ministry oI Environment as a way to engage
youth on climate change issues and to strengthen
environmentaleducationintheschools.
3. ThewomensmovementisleadingthelocalCommunity
Committee and Youth Research Network on climate
change as well as monitoring the biodiversity oI
Waspam.
Lessons Learned
Programmessuchasthismustrecognizeandcapitalizeupon
local movements such asWankiTangni, which can help to
notonlyimproveoutcomesbutalsoenhancelegitimacyand
thesustainabilityoItheactivities.Inthiscase,eventhough
a gender specialist was unattainable, the activities were
delivered with a strong gender Iocus, empowering women
throughthecommunicationwork.Moreover,itwasimportant
tohaveaparticipatoryapproach,andtobeculturallysensitive
indevelopinganeIIectivecommunicationstrategy.
The importance oI creativity, openness and fexibility in the
organizationoItheProgrammewasalsocritical.Forexample,
although it was not initially anticipated, it was Iound that
poetry was an extremely popular mode oI communication
among the women. So popular, that the Joint Programme
invited Christian Santon, a well-known Nicaraguan poet
whoisalsoanenvironmentalist,andwhoheldaworkshop
on the art oI poetry Ior the women oI Waspam. It was the frst
timethatNicaraguaheldsuchaworkshopIacilitatedbythe
countrysmostIamousbardIorwomeninthepoorestregion.
TheimpactoIpoetryhasnowmovedevenbeyondtheinitial
targetgroup.TheuseoIpoetrytoraiseawarenessonclimate
changeandtheimproveduseoInaturalresourceshashadan
enormousimpactaswellonboththeyouthandeldersinthe
communities. For example, youth are now
putting music to the environmental poetry
and the songs have become very popular
among community members and the poetry
isgoingtobepublished.
Replication
The experience oI the Joint Programme represents a Iorm
oI communication that respects traditional knowledge and
traditions including gender roles. In addition, it develops
diIIerent art Iorms such as music, poetry and storytelling,
which are well accepted among community members and
hasastrongpotentialIorreplication.
SomerecommendationsIorreplicationinclude:
1. As climate change is a topic oI particular interest to
ruralcommunities,adaptationandmitigationeIIortsare
especially eIIective iI they are led by the community
in its own language, culture and socio-economic
context. Gender and generational identities have to be
incorporated into the solutions, and Programmes must
recognizelocalIorcessuchaslocalmovements.
2. The art oI storytelling and drawing are eIIective
techniquesIorcreatingawarenessandadvocacyonthe
environmentandclimatechange.
3. Art Iorms oI communication such as drawing, poetry,
songs, storytelling and theater also revive local
traditionalpractices.
4. Partnershipswithlocalandnationalauthoritiesarekey
totheProgrammessustainability.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Gender-Nicaragua
On Joint Programme Nicaragua, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Nicaragua
38
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
39
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Establishing partnerships with civil society in
the implementation of the Joint Programmes
crystalizes the participation and inclusion of
stakeholders into national and sub-national
development processes. Stakeholders are
thus empowered through their involvement
in planning, designing, and implementing
the Programme, and can take ownership
of the development process ensuring its
sustainability as well as its replicability.
Partnerships built from local communities
and stakeholders within civil society are
crucial in undertaking a reality check which is
often needed in implementing development
programmes.
Partnerships with
Civil Society
40
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Community based adaptation to climate change in
Colombia
ThestrategyemphasizedtheimportanceoItheKnowledge
Dialogues as a powerIul method to collect explicit
inIormationIromthecommunitiesinordertoimprovelocal
adaptationstrategies.
The strategy implemented a consultative participatory
approachinordertochangethestatusoIthelocalcommunity
Irom being benefciaries` to being partners` in the overall
decision-making process. This included the creation oI
inter-cultural teams that are comprised oI members oI the
indigenous communities, Iarmers, UN technicians and
Government oIfcials. Using this approach, the process was
recognizedandsupportedbythetraditionalauthoritiesoIthe
localcommunities.
The UN Programme at the same time strengthened the
capacity oI the indigenous community and Iarming
associations to address existing vulnerabilities to climate
change and improve their current response capacity.
However, Ior the initiative to continue there is a need Ior
Iurther modifcations, particularly the need to strengthen
therelationshipoItheindigenousauthoritieswithtechnical
institutionsandpolicymakers.
The Problem
TheCaucaDepartmentinsouthwestColombiahasbeenhit
hardbyclimatechangewithalossoIprecipitationoIupto0.3
percentperannumandtemperaturerisesoIsome0.2degrees
celsius per decade. This is having direct consequences on
theagriculturaleconomyaswellasonthebiodiversityand
glaciersthatmakeupthissteepmountainousregion.
TheimpactsoIextremeweathereventsIromclimatechange
andElNio/LaNiaSouthernOscillation(ENSO)include
growing desertifcation, shortages oI drinking water, Iood
insecurity, loss oI ancestral knowledge, agricultural land
expandingintoconservationareasandanincreaseindiseases
impactinghealthcareintheregion.
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme oI the MDG-F developed an
adaptation strategy that targeted the most vulnerable
populations oI the region - the Iarmers and the indigenous
communities-andIocusedonactivitiesthatwouldincrease
theirroleinthedecision-makingprocessonclimatechange
adaptation measures and strengthen national capacities as
wellasregionalandlocalknowledgerelatingtoconservation
andthesustainableuseoInaturalresources.


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Lessons Learned
It is clearly always important to respect the traditional
knowledge oI the local communities and to adjust to local
realities. It is also important that the technical experts
addresstheissuesIromalocalperspectiveusingaclearand
simple language. The exchange oI inIormation throughout
the Knowledge Dialogues also has to be done on equal
terms in order to reach mutually benefcial outcomes.
RespectIorbelieIsandpracticeshelpsIorachievingthegoal
Iordevelopingsociallegitimacyandgovernancestructures.
Working directly with the local communities helped to
Iacilitate the spread oI inIormation on climate change
adaptationmeasureswhichcanleadtoresilienceandsocial
transIormation.
However, at frst the steps taken to approach the indigenous
and Iarming organizations were challenging. The political
and organizational context oI the communities required a
coordinated and consistent inter-agency intervention that
includedmutualunderstanding,horizontaldialogueandthe
articulation oI needs and interests. Moreover, there was a
need to move Irom a consultative participatory approach
with the communities to the decision-making process and
a key step taken was to include them in decision-making
entities such as the Steering Committee and the feld teams.
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The neutrality oI the UN and partner
organizations was instrumental Ior gaining
acceptanceinthissensitiveregion.
Replication
The UN Joint Programme is now an example Ior a
community-basedadaptationinitiative.Thisexperiencecan
bereplicatednationallyandgloballybutespeciallyinremote
areasinwhichthepresenceoIthegovernmentalinstitutions
are weak and the cultural identity oI the local population
is strong. Indeed, the adaptation strategy must recognize
cultural diIIerences and respect the social situation already
inplace.
InplaceswherethepresenceoItheindigenouscommunity
is strong, a bottom-up approach is necessary and should
includetheIollowing:
The role oI traditional authorities and political
organizations;
The level oI autonomy oI the territory, including the
lawsandpracticesoIselI-governance;
The cultural context Ior building the process with the
localcommunity;
CapacitybuildinginthelocalcommunitythatallowsIor
therepresentationoItheirinterests;
TheKnowledgeDialogueasamethodtocollectexplicit
knowledge Irom the communities in order to improve
localadaptationstrategies;
Thelocalperspective;
TheuseoIaclearandsimplelanguage.
These are the starting points Ior building trust, fnding
points oI aIfnity and identity between the stakeholders and
generatingthemeansIorasustainableenvironment.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Par-CivSoc-Colombia
On Joint Programme Colombia, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Colombia
42
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Managing Ecuadors Yasuni Biosphere
Reserve
concerns at a national level in a way that could infuence
policymaking.
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme under the MDG-F Iocused its
eIIorts at the legal, political and local levels. Firstly, the
Programme clarifed the legal and institutional Iramework Ior
theYasuniBiosphereReserve,andIorthreeotherbiosphere
reserves in the country. This work has been boosted by oIfcial
recognitionbytheMinistryoIEnvironmentoIEcuador,by
thelegalizationandIormalrecognitionoItheManagement
CommitteeandbytheIormationoItheNationalNetworkoI
BiosphereReserves.

Politically, the UN Joint Programme created more awareness,


both at the national and local levels, about sustainable
livelihoodsinaIragileecosystemliketheYasuniBiosphere
Reserve.Theinitiativealsoensuredthatagreementsbetween
the Government and the local communities were oIfcially
recognized, Ior example through the promotion oI the
Management Committee oI theYasuni Biosphere Reserve,
anexistingorganizationwhichwasIormednearlytenyears
ago and included 120 indigenous groups but which lacked
The Problem
EcuadorsYasuniBiosphereReserveispossiblyoneoIthe
mostbiologicallydiverseplacesontheplanetwithover9,000
squarekilometersoIprimarilyrainIorest.Itisalsohometo
thelasttwoknownindigenousgroupsstilllivinginvoluntary
isolationinEcuador-theTagaeriandTaromenane.Butthe
Reserve, with its wealth oI timber and oil, is also a place
in which the negative impacts oI the extractive industries
and military interventions are becoming all too common,
threateningnotonlytheenvironmentbutalsothelivelihoods
oIthevulnerableindigenouspopulation,whoalreadysuIIer
IromhighlevelsoIpovertyandpooraccesstoeducationand
health.
WhilethetitleoIBiosphereReservewasgiventoEcuador
by UNESCO in 1989, the institutionalization oI the
management oI this unique region has lacked clarity and
thelegalchannelstobepartoIthedecision-makingprocess.
As a result, the commercialization oI wildliIe and other
environmentalcrimeshavebecomeriIeandtheindigenous
population has suIIered the consequences. Moreover, with
their diverse languages, the local communities have not
been able to fnd a common language to communicate their

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eIIectiveness. This Committee was oIfcially recognized
by a Ministerial Agreement, which also established clear
responsibilities Ior the management and sustainable
developmentoItheReserve.TheManagementCommittee
was Iurther strengthened through the Iormation oI the
Iollowing:
1. A representative and inclusive Board, including the
AssociationoIWomenWaoranioIEcuador;
2. ATechnicalAdvisoryGrouptosupportitsinstitutional,
academic, and scientifc experience;
3. Four thematic working groups on land-use planning,
control and surveillance as well as sustainable
livelihoodsandtourism.
By strengthening the governance structure oI the
Management Committee, the Joint Programme helped to
address the institutional weaknesses and helped to achieve
theIollowing:
1. The active participation oI all stakeholders in the
territoryandtheircontributiontopublicpolicyrelating
totheYasuniBiosphereReserve;
2. The establishment oI the Fourth General Assembly,
which represents three provinces, fve municipalities,
more than 22 parish councils and more than 60
communities;
3. ThedevelopmentoIactivities-andresourceallocation
-IorlandmanagementintheYasuniBiosphereReserve;
4. The prevention oI environmental crimes arising in
the Biosphere through an awareness campaign using
advocacyproductssuchastelevisionandradiospotsas
wellasbillboardadvertisements;
5. ThedevelopmentoIStrategicGuidelinestopreparethe
ManagementPlanoItheReserve,withtheinclusionoI
local-levelplanningwhichwaspreviouslymissing.
Finally, a study on the fnancial sustainability oI the Reserve
andaguidelineIorsustainabletourismwerealsocreated.

Lessons Learned
The highly participatory approach taken by the Joint
ProgrammewaskeytoitssuccessasaresultoItheIollowing:
1. Creation oI more awareness, both at the national and
local levels, about sustainable livelihoods in a Iragile
ecosystemliketheReserve;
2. Identifcation oI public, private and civil society
organizations working in the area and
the establishment oI a Iramework oI
commoninterestaswellasthedesignoI
localstrategies;
3. Establishment oI a common language
Iorcommunicationbetweenthelocalcommunitiesand
governmentalorganizations;
4. Establishment oI clear responsibilities and rules that
allow Ior a participatory and inclusive management
process;
5. TheinitialmistrustoItheProgrammebytheManagement
Committee was overcome through discussions that
allowed Ior the development oI local strategies that
addressedlocaldemandsandstrengthenedtheeIIortsoI
localandnationalstakeholders.
Replication
TheexperienceoItheManagementCommitteeoItheYasuni
BiosphereReserveisbeingreplicatedintheremainingthree
reserves in Ecuador. Additionally, this experience can be
replicated Ior the management oI Biosphere Reserves in
othercountrieswiththeIollowingconsiderations:
1. Creation oI awareness, both nationally and locally,
on how to live in a Biosphere Reserve and practice
conservation;
2. Strengtheningandempoweringlocalstakeholders;
3. Optimizing and developing capacity building and the
searchIorcommoninterests;
4. Designingstrategiesinordertomeetlocaldemandsand
realitiesandincludelocalparticipation;
5. UsageoIacommonlanguagethatcansupportthedialogue
between the local communities and governmental
organizations, including a communications strategy
whichincludesallshareholders;
6. Establishment oI clear responsibilities and rules that
allows Ior a participatory and inclusive management
process.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Par-CivSoc-Ecuador
On Joint Programme Ecuador, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Ecuador
44
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
45


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Partnerships with governments provide an
enabling framework for successful results as
well as the Programmes sustainability. The
successful implementation of a Programme
often requires political will and strong
strategic leadership at the local level.
Governments therefore have a critical role
to play in removing policy, regulatory and
technical barriers that prevent Programmes
from happening, and also in ensuring
that local governments can make their
contributions. Environmental sustainability
increases in countries where governments
take strong leadership in setting pro-active
policies and regulations, and simultaneously
support innovative solutions.
Partnerships with
Governments
46
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Generating synergies to tackle climate change in
Guatemala
levels oI action.A new strategy was chosen to address the
issuesallowingIortheIollowing:
1. Changes in the management, administration and
coordinationstructure;
2. ChangesoItheResultsFramework;
3. AbudgetaryreviewandtransIeroIIunds.
In this context, UN organizations and governmental
institutions taking part in the implementation oI the Joint
Programme realized that this initiative provided a good
opportunity to generate synergies and shared learning Ior
securingthemosteIIectiveresultsthatcouldtackleclimate
changesothatinsteadoIonecoordinatingbody,therewere
two:
1. TheManagerialCommitteeresponsibleIorpoliticaland
strategicaspects;
2. The Technical Programme Committee responsible Ior
thetechnicalandoperationalaspects.
The Technical Programme Committee was created aIter a
substantive revision adopted on July 2009 by the National
SteeringCommittee(NSC)todealwithtechnicaloperations,
therebyleavingtheProgrammesManagerialCommittee,to
dealwiththepoliticalandstrategicaspectsatitsownpace.
The Problem
Inthepast,UNorganizationsandgovernmentalinstitutions
in Guatemala traditionally gave preIerence to their own
prioritiesandoperationalmanagementstyles.Asaresult,the
collaboration oI the international organizations with oIfcial
institutionstoprovideajointsolutionwasachallenge,like
in the case with climate change which impacts a variety
oI sectors - health, education, natural resources and the
environment.
The UN Joint Programme under the MDG-F was frst
designed with a single Managerial Committee, which was
madeupoIseniorrepresentativesoIGovernment,including
deputyministersandtechnicians.TheworkoItheProgramme
dependedontheadviceoIthisCommittee.Asaresult,there
wereconstraintsIorreachingagreementsontheoperational
management oI the Programme as the discussions mixed
strategicandpoliticalorientations.
The Solution
Eleven months aIter the start oI the Joint Programme there
were clearly operational management diIfculties and it was
recognized that a Iundamental revision was required that
couldhavemorecorrelationbetweenthediIIerentareasand

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47
The results oI this Iundamental revision became evident
once the Joint Programme began to develop into a true
strategycreatingsynergies,sharedlearningandperIorming
at acceptable levels. In January 2011, the Secretary oI
the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund
(MDG-F)grantedasix-monthextensionontheProgrammes
implementationdeadlinetoallowIorcompleteoutcomes.
The work with local communities, including community
leadersandwomensgroups,alsomadeagreementseasierto
reachandactionsplanseasiertoimplement.TheProgramme
also concentrated operations in a common geographical
area,andasaresultIacilitatedtheoverallcoordinationand
the impact oI the initiative. Furthermore, environmental
policies and development plans, were developed through
participatoryassessments.
The Joint Programme oIfcially ended in February 2012, with
the completion oI 96 percent oI its fnancial implementation
and99percentoIitsoutcomesobtained.TheseperIormance
levelswouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutthereIormand
reorientation oI both the Programmes Results Framework
and its administration, thereby converting the Joint
Programme into an example oI the benefts oI the 'joining
oIIorces.
Lessons Learned
The main lesson learned is clearly the importance oI
separating political and technical levels in order to ensure
that the technical work oI the operational management
is carried out successIully, while the political work oI the
strategicmanagementmovesatitsownpace.
Initially, the design oI the Joint Programme caused tension.
The procedures oI participating UN agencies are diIIerent
IromthecapacitiesoIparticipatinggovernmentalinstitutions.
ThereIore, diIIerent operational modalities and diIIerent
workingrhythmswereimplemented,givingtheimpression
that each organization was implementing diIIerent projects
inacommonareaoIintervention.AndeIIorthadtobemade
toensurecollaborationwhichsometimesaIIectstheinitial
planning.
The Iormation oI a Technical Programme Committee
responsible Ior the operational coordination was a key
elementinensuringcollaborationandadding
tothelearningprocess.Thispoliticaldecision
was essential Ior the Joint Programme to
trulybecomecollaborative.
Replication
Joint Programmes in Guatemala are a new experience
both Ior the UN system and Ior governmental and other
organisations that participate in their implementation.
SuccessIul implementation requires structures that are
designed at the beginning oI the Programme to ensure that
the work does not stagnate as a result oI the politicking
withtheinterestsoIvariousothersectorsinvolved.
TherealsoneedstobeaseparationoIpoliticalandtechnical
levels, to ensure that the operational management and
technical work are suIfciently carried out, while strategic
managementandpoliticalworkcanalsotakeplaceattheir
ownpace.
When Programmes involve ownership and alignment at
the national level, and when administrative procedures are
sloweddown,theIollowingchangesneedtobeconsidered:
1. Adapting the products to the changes that will impact
theresults;
2. BudgetaryandIund-transIerreIorms;
3. Structural changes to regulations governing
management,administrationandcoordination.
Otherimportantaspectstobeconsideredwhenreplicating:
Workingwithlocalcommunities;
Developpoliciesandactionsplanthroughparticipatory
assessments involving local stakeholders, especially
communityleadersandwomensgroups;
Focusoperationsinacommongeographicalarea.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Par-Gov-Guatemala
On Joint Programme Guatemala, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Guatemala
48
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Early on in the implementation phase, it became clear that
thesethreediIIerentcomponentswouldhavetobeintegrated
tocreatemoreeIIectiveandsustainableresults.Asaresult,
the schedule Ior the delivery oI the relevant outputs was
revisedandalloIthethreecomponentswereintegratedinto
oneworkplanwiththedevelopmentoIaNationalAdaptation
StrategybecomingtheIulcrumoItheentireintervention.
The integrated approach oI all three components led to the
development oI the Ioundation oI the countrys National
Adaptation Strategy that has taken into Iull account the
fndings oI a needs-assessment as well as the fndings Irom
reviewingtheexistinglegislation.Fullpoliticalsupportand
ownership, as well as integration, were Iundamental to the
successIulandsustainableoutcomesandthereIoretheywere
careIullybuiltintotheprojectIromthestart.

Lessons Learned
In order to Iacilitate sustainable and successIul outcomes,
particularly when a project has a strong policy component,
thereisaneedtointegratepolicy,legislationandcapacity-
building and to make sure that national stakeholders have
Iull ownership oI the project Irom the design stages.
The Problem
TheconsequencesoIclimatechangehavebeendistinctively
observed in Turkey in recent years, and are likely to be
exacerbated in the near Iuture. Some expected impacts are
risingtemperatures,changesinprecipitationleadingtoboth
drought and foods, land degradation and coastal erosion.
Theseareexpectedinturntoimpactvirtuallyalleconomic
sectors, including on Iood production and security, and
ultimately on the countrys overall development. There is
thereIoreaneedtoadoptastrategic,inter-sectoralapproach
toaddresstheseongoingandexpectedchanges.
The Solution
To respond to these challenges, and adapt to the ongoing
and expected changes, the UN Joint Programme oI the
MDG-FsupportedTurkeyinadoptingastrategicapproach.
The Programme aimed to develop the Iollowing three
componentsbasedonparticipatoryprocesses:
1. DevelopmentoIaNationalAdaptationStrategy;
2. Building the capacity Ior implementing adaptation
measures;
3. Reviewing the countrys legislation that would ensure
thesustainabilityoItheadaptationstrategy.
Strengthening capacity to adapt to climate change
in Turkey

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Replication
The lessons learned can be applicable to projects with a
strong policy component. For those trying to implement
similaractivities,therecommendationsareasIollows:
1. Create mechanisms Ior integration oI various
components, especially oI a policy nature, during the
planningstagesoItheprojectandmakesureintegration
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In particular, it became clear very early in the projects


implementation that both reviewing the legislation and
capacity-buildingwerecrucialcomponentsIordevelopinga
NationalAdaptationStrategy.
Furthermore, it was recognized that while the review oI
legislation could be done through the work oI consultants,
its revision - i.e. introducing new or amended provisions
into the existing legal Iramework - was a much more
ambitious undertaking, which required a high degree oI
political support as well as very strong participation and
ownershipIromallrelevantnationalauthoritiesthroughout
the implementation oI the project. Such a revision could
not be delivered within the liIe and limits oI the project.
Instead,theprojectdeliveredrecommendationsonareasIor
improvinglegislationwhichcanbeusedbythecountryinits
Iurther steps towards adaptation, Iollowing the completion
oItheproject.
is clear and in a logical Iramework.
At the same time, ensure that a certain
degree oI fexibility is kept in order to
be able to adjust the methodology oI
implementation.
2. At the outset, create very strong ownership by all
crucial national actors Ior any interventions in the felds
oI policy, law and governance and conduct a needs
assessment during the planning stages oI the project
to identiIy and integrate the wide range oI national
stakeholders;
3. Secure Iull integration oI project objectives into the
regular work oI the institutions involved and oI the
project implementation team with the institutions
involved.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Par-Gov-Turkey
On Joint Programme Turkey, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Turkey
50
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
51
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Partnerships with
Local Communities
& Indigenous
People
Participation and inclusion of all actors across
generations and the respect for traditional
knowledge and experience, as well as diverse
perspectives, will plant the seeds towards a
creative change in development programmes.
The inclusion of such perspectives will also
lead to the sustainability of the programme.
It is all about learning from each other and
the will to share knowledge towards making
a project a replicable success.
52
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
The Solution
The purpose oI the UN Joint Programme oI the MDG-F
was to enable the government oIAIghanistan to introduce
policy-level sustainable planning in the development and
management oI environmental and natural resources. The
aimwastocreatesuitablepolicyIrameworks,aswellasthe
capacitybuildingthatisnecessarytoinstitutionalizepolicies
and mainstream environmental concerns into the national
andsub-nationalplanninginthecountrys34provinces.
The UN Joint Programme coordinated activities with the
GovernmentandUNpartnersatthesub-nationallevel,using
thenationallyrecognizedProvincialEnvironmentalAdvisory
Councils (PEACs), which also include women, elders and
religious scholars, as a vehicle Ior sustainable planning.
Through institutions like the PEACs, the communities are
nowlinkedwiththenationalGovernmentandcanhavetheir
voicesheardinthedecision-makingprocess.
The Joint Programme also trained the communities in the
management oI natural resources, such as the restoration
oI the degraded rangeland, and also organized trainings on
kitchen gardening, poultry raising, agriculture Ior income
The Problem
Rangelands in AIghanistan cover some 70 percent oI the
country and are mainly used Ior livestock grazing as well
asIorsupplyingwater,woodandwildliIe.Theirimportance
inthecountrycannotbeunderestimatedasalargesegment
oI the population depends on the rangelands Ior livestock
grazing. As a result, the rangelands have been overgrazed
Ior years, exposing the soil to rainstorms and erosion,
leadingtothepoorproductivityoIlivestockandultimately
growingpoverty.AsthemajorityoIthepopulationisrural
(over80),itisclearthatenvironmentalmanagementand
mainstreamingcannotonlybetargetedatthenationallevel.
Indeed, the majority oI environmental challenges Iaced by
the country are in rural areas and despite national goals to
improve environmental management, there are still many
challenges in practical implementation. Moreover, because
oI its cross-cutting nature, environmental management
and mainstreaming requires coordinated action Irom all
stakeholders. In AIghanistan, inadequate coordination
between and among governmental departments has slowed
therateoIenvironmentalmainstreaminginplanningatthe
provinciallevel.
Community mobilization helps protect
Afghanistans natural resources


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53
generationandtheprotectionoInaturalresources.Asaresult,
the local management oI environmental resources has now
improvedandthelocalcommunitiesareempoweredtomake
decisionsregardingthemanagementoItheenvironmentand
naturalresources.
Within AIghanistan the environment is one oI the six
cross-cutting issues which are being mainstreamed in to
the AIghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS),
and it is now clear that the approach taken by the UN Joint
Programme will be replicated throughout the country.
There are already plans to replicate this approach in other
provinces, with the PEAC being a key mechanism through
whichthiswillbeachieved.
Lessons Learned
The UN initiative involved Government partners at both
nationalandsub-nationallevelswiththemainlessonlearned
that iI communities are not aware oI the environmental
priorities oI the national Government - and vice versa -
then the over-arching goals cannot be achieved. Working
together,ontheotherhand,withbothcommunityandhigher
governmentallevelscreatesamuchstrongerIoundationIor
themanagementoIthecountrysnaturalresources.
The main challenge Iaced by the Joint Programme was how
tolinkthelocalcommunitieswiththenationalGovernment
Iorabottom-upapproachtoplanning,andtohavethevoices
oIthecommunitiesheardinpolicy-makingatbothnational


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and sub-national levels. This challenge
was overcome with the establishment oI
the PEACs and the Environmental Sub-
Committeesatthedistrictandvillagelevels.
Another lesson learned is that community-based work and
centralized environmental activities, such as environmental
mainstreaming, iI carried out in isolation Irom one another
willhavelimitedlong-termeIIectiveness.Theenvironmental
actionandvoicesoIthecommunitiesmustbeconnectedto
acentralizedmanagementIramework,whichcreateastrong
IoundationIorthelong-termIutureinthemanagementoIthe
countrysnaturalresources.
Replication
The lessons learned Irom the initiative can be useIul Ior
other contexts even outside AIghanistan. The frst point
Ior replication is that linking dispersed communities with
the provincial and central governmental authorities and,
ultimatelywiththedecision-makingprocess,isparticularly
importantincountrieswherethemajorityoIthepopulation
is still rural. Environmental management can be achieved
by creating two-way communication between the central
decision-making powers and local communities more
sustainable.
While the specifc institutional mechanisms by which this is
beingachievedinAIghanistanmaynotbeexactlyreplicable
inothercontexts,thesecondkeymessageIorreplicationis
that there must be a Iormalized structure, and commitment
on the part oI diIIerent stakeholders, in order to maximize
thepotentialoIsuchlocal-to-nationallevelpartnerships.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Par-LocCom-AIghanistan
On Joint Programme AIghanistan,
pleasesee:http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-AIghanistan
54
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
The guardians of adaptation and seed custodians
of Colombia
with the indigenous Seed Custodians to create a network
and knowledge base oI agricultural practices, which can
strengthenIoodsecurity.TheCustodiansliveinthecentral
part oI the Cauca Department and are well known in their
communities as people with traditional and ancestral
knowledge on the diIIerent types oI species that survive
extreme climactic variations and which can be used in
conserving agro-biodiversity and as traditional medicinal
plants.
Until recently, the Seed Custodians worked in isolation
without any organizational or strategic planning. However,
attherequestoItheAssociationoIIndigenousCouncilsoI
Central Genaro Sanchez (AGS), the Joint Programme helped
tostrengthenthetraditionalpositionoItheCustodiansaswell
asprovidesupportinorganizationalandstrategicplanning.
Today,theSeed Custodians have a fve-year work plan which
emphasizes promoting alliances with indigenous councils,
youthandotherregionalandnationalorganizationsandthey
are planning to scale up activities in order to attract other
communitiestorecoverthetraditionalknowledgeoInative
speciesresistanttoclimatechange.
The Problem
The Cauca Department in southwest Colombia has
experiencedadramaticlossoIprecipitationinrecentyears
andanincreaseintemperatureswhicharehavingdirectimpact
on the biodiversity and glaciers in this high mountainous
region,hometoalargeindigenouscommunityequivalentto
21percentoIcountryspopulation.Theincreasinglyextreme
weatherconditionsasaresultoIclimatechangeandElNio/
La NiaSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) are also leading to
growing desertifcation, shortages oI drinking water, Iood
insecurity and increasing the overall poverty oI the local
communities.
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme oI the MDG-F chose the Cauca
Department as a pilot project designed to help the local
communityadapttoclimatechangeandusetheirtraditional
production systems as an adaptation measure Ior ensuring
Ioodsecurity.
The UN initiative recognized that the dissemination oI
traditionalknowledgeiskeyIorstrengtheningtheresilience
oI the indigenous communities to the extreme impacts
oI climate change. In particular, the Programme worked


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The Alliance of Seed Custodians of the High Basin of the
Cauca River is also planning to disseminate their lessons
learned and will scale-up activities in order to attract other
communities Ior recovering their traditional knowledge oI
resistantnativespeciestoclimatechange.
The adaptation measures Iacilitated through the Alliance
include:
TherescueandrehabilitationoItheculturalpracticesoI
productionandtraditionalknowledge;
ThestrengtheningoItheplanningandsowingoIcrops
resistanttoclimatechange;
TheuseoIthenaturalcycleoInutrients;
The use oI organic resources in the preparation oI
organicIertilizers;
TherelationshipoItheproductioncyclewiththeLunar
calendar;
The promotion oI seed exchanges and the successIul
acclimatizationoIseedsintheregion;
Creation oI an inventory oI seed varieties resistant to
climatechange.
The Joint Programme also provided the fnancial support
andgeneratedopportunitiesIortheexchangeoIexperiences,
knowledgeanddialoguewiththelocalcommunities.These
exchanges helped in defning the methods Ior the improved
managementoIlandandresourcesintheregion.
Lessons Learned
The UN Programme showed that fexibility was a critical
Iactor Ior working with the indigenous councils. Initially,
the vision was to create a network oI custodians, but the
development oI such a network needs more time than the
three years designated Ior the UN Joint Programme. AIter
severalconsultations,however,itwasadvisedtoIormabody
that identifes with the Seed Custodiansand,asaresult,the
Alliance of Seed Custodians of the High Basin of the Cauca
Riveremerged,whichisaninIormalorganization,butwitha
propername,managementandplanningstructure.
The purpose oI the Alliance was to build coordination in
ordertostrengthentheworkoItheindigenouscommunities
Ior building resilience to extreme climate changes.Among
themembersareadults,withtheirexperienceandtraditional
knowledge, and youth who are open to
learning new concepts to strengthen the
IutureoIthecommunity.
TheUNinitiativesemphasisonworkingwith
traditionalknowledgehelpedtobringthelocalcommunity
intothediscussionsaboutclimatechangeandthemeasures
thatcanbeusedtobuildresiliencetoitsimpacts.Moreover,
the local community now sees the importance oI reviving
their traditional knowledge and building on it. Indeed, 77
Iamiliesintheareaareparticipatinginthisprocessandhave
nowadoptedkeyclimatechangeadaptationpractices,which
havehelpedtoboostIoodsecurity.
Replication
TheuseoItraditionalknowledgeisemergingasapowerIul
practicetocombatclimatechangeandstrengthenthelocal
communities.ThereisalsogreatpotentialIorreplicationiI
theIollowingisconsidered:
1. Itisimportanttorespectandrecognizethatindigenous
communities have their own ways Ior managing their
regions and natural resources Ior adapting to climate
change
2. Itisalsoimportanttopromoteallianceswithindigenous
councils and rural organizations in the area, with non-
governmental, regional and national organizations and
withyouthtopromotegenerationalsustainability
3. Finally, it is critically important to ensure the local
communitiesthattheyhaveownershipoItheProgramme
andcanchoosetheadaptationoptionsthatworkbestIor
them.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Par-LocCom-Colombia
On Joint Programme Colombia, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Colombia
56
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
57


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Project Cycle Management refers to the
management of activities and decision-
making process used during the life-cycle of a
Programme. The effective implementation of
a Programme often requires a willingness to
take corrective action throughout the life of
the Programme. What has always been done
or what had been planned may not provide
the optimal path to the desired results,
yet this fact might not become apparent
until the Programme is already underway.
Wisdom, fed by broad consultation and
active listening, must guide every decision
to revise an agreed implementation strategy.
The work must be based on real needs. We
should not be afraid to adjust our thinking to
the unanticipated realities on the ground.
Project Cycle
Management
58
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Reviewadaptationstrategiestoprotecthealth;
Developresponsestrategies;
Develop a work plan Ior the implementation oI these
strategies;
TrainstaIIinthehealthsectorandotherconcernedsectors
ontheimplementationoIthesestrategies;
Disseminate these adaptation strategies to the public
throughworkshopsandotheroutreachactivities.
InarecentworkshopIorthedisseminationoItheaccumulated
resultsandoutcomesoItheactivity,theMinisteroIHealth
declaredthattheupdatedhealthstrategywillbeIullyadopted
and implemented throughout Jordan. He also indicated that
climate change issues are becoming an integral part oI the
planningprocessoItheMOHandtheywillbeincludedinto
allMOHactionplans.
Lessons Learned
Initially, the Joint Programme planned to have external
consultantsIorcarryingouttheactivitiesoItheProgramme
thatwouldassistthecountrysMinistryoIHealthinupdating
its climate change adaptation strategy. However, there was
reluctance to have external consultants, who would be
The Problem
Jordan is classifed as a semi-arid and arid region with scarce
waterresourcesthatdependmainlyonprecipitation.Climate
changeisexpectedtonotonlyincreasetemperaturesbutalso
change precipitation patterns, potentially threatening the
alreadypreciouswatersupply.Withgrowingwaterscarcity,
alsocomesincreaseduseoIwastewater,whichhasadirect
impact on the health oI Jordanians.
Whilethecountry,withapopulationoIover6.6million,has
made signifcant advances towards the achievement oI the
MillenniumDevelopmentGoals,buttheirachievementsare
alsocompromisedbycripplingwaterscarcity.Moreover,the
current Health Strategy oI Jordan does not address climate
changeissuesandimpactsonhealth.
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme has been working with Jordan`s
Ministry oI Health (MOH) to include climate change
impacts on human health in the countrys National Health
Strategy. The Joint Programme is designed to work with
key governmental institutions to enhance the capacity Ior
adaptationbycarryingouttheIollowingactivities:
Ownership of climate change adaptation
strategies in Jordan

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59
available only Ior a short period oI time and not be Iully
awareoIthecountrysneedsorthehealthsector,developa
plan.Asaresult,amoreinnovativeapproachwasadopted,
which included the partnering oI government oIfcials and
experts who could update the strategy and ensure that Jordan
alsohadownershipoItheoutcomes.
The revised approach to updating the National Health
StrategyinternallyhasIocusedonestablishingsixMinistry
oI Health National Technical Teams, which are composed
oI proIessionals, and a Technical Coordination Team. All
the teams meet periodically to discuss fndings and share
outcomes.
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By having ownership oI the process, the Jordanian
Government is also able to institutionalize the updated
strategy into the day-to-day work oI the Ministry oI
Health. The inclusion oI high-level decision makers Irom
the Government to head the six thematic committees Ior
developingaNationalStrategyandPlanoIActiontoProtect
Health Irom Climate Change means that the process will
continue to be updated even aIter the UN Joint Programme
ends. Moreover, replicability oI this approach has become
easiersinceitisdevelopedinternallywithinthecountryand
there are now some 40 proIessionals trained in the process
anditsimplementation.
TheapproachoIhavingtaskIorceshaseven
been expanded to additional implementing
ministries within the programme, including
theMinistryoIEnvironmentandtheMinistry
oIWaterandIrrigation.
Replication
The experience in Jordan has shown that the utilization
oI internal capacities can be very IruitIul and maximum
sustainabilityandownershipcanbeachieved.
In terms oI replicability to external contexts, a key point
to keep in mind is the value oI conducting preliminary
capacity surveys. The involved entities Irom the Jordan
Joint Programme recommend that a survey oI the local and
national capacities needed to be carried out frst in order to
gaugesuitabilityIorcarryingoutintendedactivities.While
itmightturnoutthattheexternalhelpisneededIorcertain
tasks,suchsurveyshelptodeterminewherelocalcapacities
exist and how these can be utilized to the greatest extent
possibletoensuremaximumsustainabilityandownership.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-PCM-Jordan
On Joint Programme Jordan, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Jordan
60
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
The Problem
The UN Joint Programme under the MDG-F in Mozambique
soughttheengagementandownershipoItheprovincialand
district government oIfcials as well as the local communities
inplanningandimplementingactivitiesthatwouldhelpthe
remoteChicualacualadistrictadaptbettertotheimpactsoI
climatechange.Thedistrict,whichislocatedontheLimpopo
River, has been badly hit by both droughts and fooding in
recentyears.
Due to the pressure oI time constraints in planning the Joint
Programme, Iew local government oIfcials or communities
were consulted during the project design stage, threatening
the eIIectiveness and overall sustainability oI the UN
initiative.
The Solution
Throughout the implementation oI the UN Joint Programme,
the approach oI the partners was to engage the local
governmentandcommunitiesinstrategicdiscussionsandto
showopennesstotheirinputsandemergingrequests.
Fortunately, the fexibility oI the Joint Programme in its
implementation guidelines allowed Ior the incorporation
oI several activities not originally envisaged in the project
document but requested by the communities and local
government partners at a later stage. These interventions
included, Ior example, the construction oI rainwater
harvesting tanks, the introduction oI integrated fsh Iarming,
therehabilitationandequippingoIameteorologicalstation
and the building oI a multi-purpose resource center in the
district.
Capacity development in climate change mainstreaming
also helped to sensitize the Government and the public on
the impacts oI climate change. The result has been that
Ior the frst time in Mozambique environment and climate
changehavebecomecross-cuttingthemesthatarenowbeing
builtintoplansandpolicies.Atthedistrictlevel,trainingin
adaptation measures as a way to deal with climate change
and tackle poverty has helped the rural communities in
ChicualacualadistrictstrengthenanddiversiIytheircoping
strategiesandlivelihoods.
As the interventions oI the UN Joint Programme refect the
requests Irom stakeholders, the key is now to ensure the
sustainabilityaItertheProgrammeends.Theimplementation
oIanexitstrategy,includingtrainingandhandoveractivities,
Flexibility and responsiveness to climate change
adaptation in Mozambique

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61
However,consultationscanbecostlyanditisimportantIor
governments,implementingpartnersanddonorstoallocate
Iundstosupporttheparticipatoryapproachwhichwillensure
the sustainability oI the project in incorporating climate
changeadaptationmeasuresthatensureIutureresilience.
Therewerecontinuouschallengestostrikeabalancebetween
responding to the local demands and ensuring the Iulfllment
oI the original plan. However, the project log Irame and
workplanareimportantguidestoensurethatobjectivesare
met in a timely Iashion, while also contributing directly to
theachievementoIoverallprojectobjectives.
haspavedthewayIorthemaintenanceandcontinuationoI
theProgrammesinterventions.
Lessons Learned
Perhaps the most obvious lesson learned is the importance
oI inclusive consultations with all stakeholders in
the development oI a project, and fexibility to adapt
interventions to meet local demands. During the frst two
yearsoIimplementation,abetterunderstandingwasgained
oItheneedsonthegroundthankstoimproveddialoguewith
stakeholders.Asaresult,thesecondpartoItheProgramme
saw strengthened engagement oI the government partners
with the benefciaries in the implementation oI the activities.
It is hoped that the long-term sustainability oI the Joint
Programme`s outcomes will beneft Irom this.
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Replication
There is high potential Ior any project to
strengthen dialogue with the stakeholders
and improve responsiveness to emerging
needs. In particular, it may be helpIul to
consider integrating such fexibility already at the project
design stage, Ior example, by leaving some room in the
work plan and budget Ior possible emerging issues. There
is also potential Ior donors to encourage such innovations
by allowing greater fexibility in project implementation
throughtheirguidelinesandprocedures.
For others trying to implement similar programmes, the
Iollowingisrecommended:
Programme design should be careIully considered,
taking into account realistic timelines, logistical
arrangementsandbudgets.Reconnaissancevisitstothe
projectsites,activeengagementwithlocalstakeholders,
and assessment oI available baseline data are essential
togainabetterunderstandingonwhatisneededIorthe
successoItheproject.
SuIfcient time needs to be allocated to project design
andIormulation,duringtheinceptionphase,inorderto
prevent costly ineIfciencies during implementation.
Buy-in Irom the local government and benefciaries
is necessary Irom the very start oI the project. Project
design should allow suIfcient time to engage with
local communities and stakeholders in order to ensure
an understanding oI the expected benefts oI the
programme.
It is important to create a balance between achieving
overarching objectives, while also being fexible to
emergingdemands.LogIramesareuseIultoolstoalign
changingprojectactivitiestooveralloutcomes.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-PCM-Mozambique
On Joint Programme Mozambique, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Mozambique
62
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
63
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A risk is an uncertain event or condition that
might occur, and which - if it did - would
have an adverse effect on results. Risks bring
negative impact when they take place. In
rare instances some risks can have positive
impacts, in which case they are regarded
to as opportunities. The potential impacts
of the risks can be anticipated, monitored
and managed, through a variety of risk
management techniques and strategies. Risk
management is an ongoing process in the
life-cycle of any Programme to effectively
anticipate and mitigate the risks that can
impact the goals.
Risk Management
64
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
process was led by national and provincial governments,
with the Joint Programme giving technical support, to ensure
integrationoIkeyaspectsintonationalpolicy-making.This
hasalsohelpedthediIIerentlevelsoIgovernmenttoreplicate
theexerciseintoothersectors.
TheinIormationproducedintheriskmappingexercisewas
disseminated through Iormal trainings and workshops and
helpedtoincreasetheawarenessinthecommunitiesonkey
aspectsoItheenvironmentthatrelatedtoclimatechangeand
natural disasters. The inIormation also helped in territorial
planningIorlocalstrategiesandpolicies.
As a result oI the work oI the Joint Programme, there is now
detailed risk analysis inIormation on droughts and foods Ior
12 vulnerable districts in the Limpopo and Zambezi River
basins, with corresponding maps at the district level that
is ready Ior contingency planning purposes. This includes
zoningmapsoIdisaster-proneareasandthetotalpopulation
at risk. In addition, there are now ten technicians who are
trained in risk analysis at the government level with the
governmentleadingtheprocessatthedistrictlevel.
Themappingmethodologyhasbeenimprovedanddatabases
The Problem
Continued climatic uncertainty, extreme weather events
and endemic poverty continue to be a serious challenge in
Mozambique, a country with 23.7 million people, which is
alreadyoneoIthepoorestintheworld.Remoteareaslikethe
district oI Chicualacuala are Irequently hit by drought and
by foods with little contingency planning and lack oI risk
analysis,resultinginenormouscatastropheincludinglossoI
livesandlivelihoods.
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme under the MDG-F decided to help
set up a system to manage these cyclical calamities hitting
the country. A risk mapping exercise identifed the areas
most vulnerable to droughts and fooding and defned levels
oIrisk,includingthedelineationoIrisklevelsandimpacts
on communities. This was Iollowed by the identifcation
oI adaptation strategies that could be integrated into local
policiesandplans.
The pilot risk mapping exercise in Chicualacuala made a
signifcant contribution to the territorial planning exercise
Iorthedistrict,aswellaspavingthewayIorreplicatingthe
same approach in 11 Iurther semi-arid districts. The entire
Managing the risk of climate change impacts in
Mozambique

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65
Secondly,astheintentwastodevelopamulti-sectoraland
multi-agencyapproach,therewasachallengeinharmonizing
thediIIerentactivitiesandagenciesinvolved.Asaresult,the
activities were designed to align with governmental policy
andstrategies.Whilethiswasnotalwayspossibleduringthe
implementation oI the Joint Programme, eIIorts have been
made to ultimately ensure a harmonized approach with the
Governments planning and budgeting cycles in order to
avoidduplication.
Lastly, a major achievement was the collaboration in
feld monitoring which ensured that all decisions taken
are now available at the national level where they can be
revised and updated. The replication oI the same exercise
is ongoing Ior other districts selected by the Government,
usingdiIIerentIundingsources.
Lessons Learned
While the process overall had positive results, there were
some challenges in implementation. First, inIormation on
riskanalysisinMozambiqueisonlyavailableatthenational
level which was not useIul Ior planning purposes at the
districtlevel.Moreover,thedatathatwasavailablewasnot
alwaysappropriateIorclimaticanalysispurposes.Giventhe
lackoIinIormationIorthedataneededtodoriskanalysis,
there is a need Ior more feld work which will incur higher
coststotheoverallprocess.Thischallengewasovercometo
someextentbyincreasingtheparticipationoIthecommunity
members, government oIfcials and others who were part oI
theProgramme.
Focus group discussion with a group of women during a risk mapping training in
Chicualacuala district
were made on a collective basis, making
all partners accountable Ior their actions.
The joint monitoring proved to be an
innovative element that strengthened the
partnerships between the UN agencies and
theGovernment.
Replication
TheparticipatorymethodoIthisapproachwillbereplicated
in other districts and can also be replicated in other
countries. However, an important consideration should
be the costs Ior developing risk maps, particularly where
signifcant inIormation and data gaps exist. In this situation,
considerable eIIort and Iunding must be given towards
technical assessments and/or participatory based data
collection. ThereIore, beIore implementing such projects,
a cost-beneft analysis oI the exercise is crucial refecting
the immediate, medium and long-term objectives oI the
inIormationthatwillbeproduced.
The risk mapping exercise based on the Mozambique
experience will be shared and presented at diIIerent
international Iora. Already several countries with some
similar conditions are ready to adopt this participatory
methodologyIorriskanalysis.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-RiskMgmt-Mozambique
On Joint Programme Mozambique, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Mozambique

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Erosion
66
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
Early warning system for the Chucunaque river
in Panama
The Problem
Darin province in eastern Panama, Ied by the mighty
Chucunaque River, is lush with vegetation and renowned
Ior its great biological and cultural diversity as well as an
abundance oI water. The province is home to some oI the
mostimportantrainIorestsoICentralAmerica.
While the Chucunaque River basin is one oI the countrys
largest, it also runs through some oI Panamas poorest
regions, making its inhabitants extremely vulnerable to
climate change. Impacts such as drought and fooding are
happening more Irequently and with greater intensity.
Indeed, in 2010 foods in Darin washed away houses and
animals and contaminated drinking water. The fooding also
Iorced the closure - Ior the frst time in 21 years - oI the
PanamaCanal.
The Solution
While the December 2010 disaster was tremendous, the
eIIects could have been worse. A community-based early
warning system using weather satellite-transmissions,
rain gauges, limnimetric scales, solar panels and a radio
communication system had been set up in 2009 by a UN
Joint Programme operating under the MDG-F. The Joint
Programme provided technical advice on environmental
issues through the expertise oI UNEP, UNDP, FAO, and
PAHO/WHO, which worked with national counterparts
oI Iour Panamanian institutions to set up a climate change
inIormationsystem.
Entitled Incorporation of Measures for Adaptation and
Mitigation of Climate Change, the UN Joint Programme in
associationwithETESA,theStateElectricityTransmission
Company, introduced the early warning system, as well
as a climate change monitoring system with the latest
meteorological technology, around the Chucunaque River
basin, all oI which helped to limit the impacts oI the fooding
onthelocalpopulation.Theearlywarningsystemincludes
base radios, limnimetric scales and various accessories in
order to monitor and communicate changes in the rivers
behaviorandpatterns.
TheinstallationoIradioequipmentwasdoneinkeyplaces
that are oIten hit by fooding. In remote areas like Darin,
radio communication is still the best source oI inIormation
and the Joint Programme has made the most use oI it. Thanks


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67
casesitwasinstalledathomes.Childrenand
women, who usually spend more time at
home, were able to use the equipment and
to inIorm or alert other communities and
SINAPROC, the national civil protection
system,incasesoIdanger.
Replication
Theearlywarningsystemandcommunityworkcanbetaken
as an example to be implemented in other communities.
From the Joint Programme experience in Panama there are
theIollowingconclusionsandrecommendations:
1. Programmesmustbeplannedstrategicallyaccordingto
the needs oI the communities and in partnership with
leadinginstitutionsinthearea,localauthoritiesaswell
as benefciaries. These Programmes should also be
suIfciently fexible to deal with unexpected variations,
includinganypotentialpoliticalchanges.
2. Each oI the institutions involved should monitor the
early warning system and share inIormation among
themandwiththelocalauthoritiesandcommunities.
3. The empowerment oI the project by the community
is necessary, as they need to be aware oI the risks
conIronting them, and should be prepared to address
theserisks.
4. RiskManagementshouldbeimbuedinnationalpolicy
and protocols and early warning systems should be
developedatthecountrylevel.
5. Political changes that could aIIect monitoring the
projectsatthecommunitylevel,needstobeconsidered.
The Programme must ensure periodic updates,
particularly oI the plans, trainings, warning systems
and drills installed in the communities covered by the
Programme.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-RiskMgmt-Panama
On Joint Programme Panama, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Panama
totheradiocommunicationsystem,endangeredcommunities
can now be inIormed ahead oI time on the cresting oI the
Chucunaque River. As a result, in the fooding that took
place in 2010, there was a smooth evacuation and no loss
oIlives.
The Joint Programme has also promoted the exchange
oI knowledge on the impacts oI climate change and the
solutions within smaller communities. This has led to the
setting up oI a climate change communications network,
whichgoesbeyondthewatershedregions.
Lessons Learned
The Joint Programme had to consider a number oI aspects
Irom the outset, which also Iormed key lessons learned
Ior the Programme. Firstly, the rivers basin areas are not
only remote, but access to some oI them is very limited.
So, strategic plans had to be suIfciently fexible to deal
withunexpectedevents,andtobetterservetheneedsoIthe
communities.
Secondly, Panama has several indigenous communities
living in these areas, so the challenge was to organize
prevention measures according to the traditional way oI
liIe. The involvement oI local authorities and community
members in implementing the Joint Programme and respect
Ior traditional knowledge were careIully considered.
The early warning systems were installed in partnership
with national institutions, local authorities, universities,
community leaders and the community. Empowering the
communityintheprojectwasthekeytoitssuccess.
Lastly, a communication strategy was also developed to
encourage the local participation and dialogue on climate
change. Considering the two characteristics mentioned
above, inIormation was simplifed and translated into the
two indigenous languages to increase the diIIusion oI
the messages. Moreover, rather than imposing a strictly
scientifc` communication oI climate change, the Joint
Programme also sought to interweave this thinking with
the more traditional paradigms Iound in the indigenous
communities.
It was particularly important to train children and women
ontheuseoIthecommunicationequipment,sinceinsome
68
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
69
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Water is a key and essential element for
environmental sustainability and socio-
economic development. It is important
to demonstrate that water development
and management projects can generate
specific social and economic benefits for
the local communities. Water development,
in particular, should be clearly positioned
in all social, economic, rural and urban
development programmes.
Water
70
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
sewage have threatened this vital natural resource, and the
cityisnowurgentlytryingtomonitoritsgroundwaterwith
the aim oI maintaining a saIe water supply and sustainable
groundwateruse.
The Solution
The UN Joint Programme oI the MDG-F conducted a pilot
project in Cangzhou Ior managing the impacts oI climate
changeongroundwater,withtheIocusprimarilyonbuilding
capacityIormonitoring,datacollectionandanalysisinorder
todevelopamodel,aswellasconcreteadaptationmeasures
andregulationsbasedonthis.
To launch the project, the Joint Programme team frst built
up the necessary local capacities Ior updating monitoring
systems and installing portable water quality meters. It
also provided technical assistance and on-site training Ior
technicians on groundwater monitoring, water sampling,
data storage and analysis. With the improved capacity,
the relevant data necessary Ior modelling and developing
adaptationmeasureswasthencollectedIromthepilotsite.
Based on the data collected and through a statistical
The Problem
Groundwater is an essential water resource, making up 20
percent oI the worlds Ireshwater supply, and is naturally
recharged by precipitation, streams and rivers. At 760 billion
cubicmetres,groundwaterresourcesaccountIor26.8percent
oIChinastotalwaterresources.However,inmanypartsoI
thecountry,especiallyinthenorth,thelong-termexploitation
oI precious groundwater has resulted in a serious drop in
the water table and other geological and environmental
problems, including an increase in ground sedimentation,
an intrusion oI seawater and desertifcation. Pollution Irom
agricultureandindustryhasalsocontributedtothedeclining
qualityoIgroundwater.Climatechangeimpactsareadding
to the problem with more Irequent extreme droughts, foods
and other natural disasters impacting the groundwaters
rechargingrates.
Cangzhoucityin northeasternHebeiProvincehasbeenhit
particularly hard by climate change.A dramatic long-term
decrease in the water fow oI the Grand Canal that passes
throughthecityhasmeantthatgroundwaterhasnowbecome
themajorsourceIorthelocalwatersupply.However,over-
exploitation and contamination by industrial and domestic
Managing climate change impacts on
groundwater in Chinas Hebei Province

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71
analysis oI long-term historical meteorological data, the
Joint Programme team was able to prepare Ior the Iuture
impacts oI climate change on groundwater in Cangzhou.
Furthermore,theteamexploredtheeIIectsoIclimatechange
andhumanactivityonchangesinprecipitation,temperature,
evaporationandgroundwatertableoverthepast40years.
A conceptual model Ior groundwater simulation and
management was created and scenarios were identifed
on the impact oI climate change on groundwater. Based
on the results oI the pilot project, technical regulations on
groundwatermonitoringwererevisedandrecommendedIor
adoptionthroughoutChina.Theresultsweresharedatthe4
th

InternationalYellowRiverForumin2009andattheGlobal
Water Partnerships high-level Roundtable ConIerence on
ClimateChangeandWaterSecurityin2012.
Lessons Learned
MonitoringisonestepintheprocessoIwatermanagement
andallowsIoranimprovedanalysisoIasituationbutthereis
agreatneedtostrengthenthiscapacityinCangzhou.Beyond
this, the city needs to implement more active measures,
includingadoptingwatersavingpractices,usingalternative
waterresourcesandincreasinggroundwaterrechargeduring
thewetseasonsothatmorewaterisretainedIromrunoIIin
the felds.
Another lesson learned was the recognition that a greater
understanding is still needed on the interaction between
the direct and indirect infuences oI climate change on
groundwater. Groundwater modeling needs to take into
account both these infuences. Further eIIorts should be
made to make existing data on groundwater inIormation
available to all relevant stakeholders while also enhancing
groundwaterrelatedresearchandtraining.
AwarenessoItheimpactsoIclimatechangeongroundwater
shouldalsobepromoted,asshouldtheinteractionbetween
climatechangeandhumanactivities.
The results oI the Joint Programme`s pilot project concluded
that the Chinese Government should develop more
comprehensive and integrated policies Ior the management
oIbothsurIaceandgroundwater.Suchpolicieswouldallow
Ior the proper management oI water abstraction licenses,
water metering and emergency responses
to natural disasters. The Government has
developed some polices on groundwater
management already, however, they are still
very rudimentary and do not Iully take into
accounttheimpactsoIclimatechange.
Replication
The overarching message Ior replication is to promote
an integrated and comprehensive approach to water
management. Such management approaches must also
considerthedirectandindirecteIIectsoIclimatechangeon
waterresources.
Replication oI the pilot project on groundwater monitoring
and/ormanagementshouldalsoconsidertheIollowing:
1. Capacity building to improve groundwater monitoring
and to allow Ior better data analysis, modelling and
scenariodevelopment,whichisoIgreatimportanceinthe
identifcation oI eIIective adaptation measures in countries
withscarcewaterresourcesorareatriskIromtheeIIects
oIclimatechange.
2. Greater eIIorts should be made to make existing data
availabletoallrelevantstakeholderswhilealsoenhancing
groundwater related research and training and enhancing
advocacyandeducationoIgroundwaterknowledge.
3. All monitoring and management eIIorts should be done
within a Iramework that emphasizes an integrated water
management approach, which includes both surIace and
groundwater.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Water-China
On Joint Programme China, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-China

72
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
The Solution
By 2008, when the remote district oI Chicualacuala on the
LimpopoRiverwasselectedastheIocusareaIortheMDG-F
work on environment in Mozambique, it had experienced
increasingunpredictabilityinthetimingandintensityoIthe
rainy seasons. To help the Iarmers in this semi-arid region
cope with climate change, the UN set up a Joint Programme
thatmadethebestuseoIexistingwaterresources.
TheProgrammeworkedinIourruralcommunitiesnearthe
Limpopo River, bringing local government oIfcials together
with the community to discuss ways to improve Iood
securitywithclimatechangeadaptationmeasures.Irrigated
production was identifed as a priority given the proximity
oI the river, but the communities also identifed other needs
such as fsh Iarming, crop irrigation systems, livestock
productionandIorestrymanagement.
One Iar-reaching innovative measure was a fsh Iarming
project, where pig sties, duck pens and rabbit cages were
also built on the banks oI the fsh tanks. These integrated
production systems used waste products to Ieed the fsh and
otheranimals,andinreturnmanureIromtheanimalswent
to Iertilize the felds.
The Problem
Mozambiques unpredictable climate maniIests in Irequent
extreme weather events. Between 2000 and 2009 alone,
the country suIIered Irom six droughts and fIteen foods.
ThedroughtsimpactedthelivesoIover3.2millionpeople,
whereas the foods aIIected over six million people.
In 2010, the country was again hit by both droughts and
foods. The double shock leIt 465,000 people in need oI Iood
assistance and wiped out 30 percent oI the cultivated land
to the extent that Iood insecurity has become a norm in a
country that already had a 37 percent undernourishment rate.
Although the country is blessed with abundant water
resources, the use oI the water Irom Mozambiques major
rivers,liketheLimpopo,Iorirrigatingagriculturalproduction
has been, until recently, very limited. Agricultural land
aroundtheLimpopoRiverhasinsteadbeenlargelyrain-Ied
andvulnerabletounpredictableratesoIprecipitation.When
the rains Iail to come, many Iarmers leave their withered
crops and turn to the Iorests Ior charcoal and income,
contributingtothegrowingIorestdegradation.
Irrigated and integrated production systems help
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As a result oI the improved agricultural system, between
2009 and 2011 over 400 tons oI vegetable crops were
producedinthecommunitiesinChicualacuala.Fencingalso
helpedtoraiseproductionandimproveincomes,dietsand,
very importantly, reduced the pressure on Iorest resources.
WhereasinthepasttheIarmersincomecameIromcutting
trees and selling charcoal, today they have the option oI
producing Iood all year round and boosting their income
through the sale oI crops. And with increased income,
Iarmers are now improving their homes and sending their
childrentobetterschools.
Diversifcation oI the livelihood measures using irrigated
systemsthatcombinedcrops,livestockandIorestresources
willplayanimportantpartinadaptingtoclimatechangein
Chicualacualadistrictandcanbereplicatedinotherregions.
This initiative serves as an example oI what is possible
in a country where water exists. In Mozambique, with its
abundance oI water sources, there is clearly tremendous
potential to increase Iood production and improve Iood
security.
Lessons Learned
Whileoveralltherewassuccess,therewerealsochallenges.
For example, while crop production improved, marketing
the crops was not easy. Over-production in 2009, coupled
with poor market access resulted in the spoilage oI tons oI
produce.Theseproblemswerenotanticipatedsoremediatory
measureswereintroduced,includingthetrainingoIIarmers
in agro-processing, especially in the drying and storage oI
excess crops, and the introduction oI fsh Iarming.
There were also mixed results with the integrated fsh
Iarming as market access was a challenge. However, the
Joint Programme provided a tractor and trailer which were
usedIorlandcultivationandthetransportoIproductstothe
railwayline18kilometersaway.
Thisexperiencehasshownthatwhereadequatewater,such
as a perennial river, exists in arid or semi-arid areas, the
potentialIorproducingIoodthroughthejudicioususeoIthis
water is very high. Intensive, integrated crop and livestock
production in these areas can signifcantly improve Iood
securityatthedistrictlevel,increasehouseholdincomesand
assistruralcommunitiesadapttothenegative
eIIectsoIclimatechange.
Replication
The Joint Programme recommends the Iollowing based on
experiencesinMozambique:
1. Current and Iuture water resources must be scientifcally
assessedandusedsustainablyinordertoadapttoclimate
change and support long-term development. Future
projectIormulationandsiteselectionshouldalsoassess
the water availability potential, as it will signifcantly
infuence adaptive capacity to climate change.
2. Flexibility in climate change adaptation programmes
is increasingly important, to incorporate changing
conditions and to help build resilience. For example,
integrated fsh Iarming with other livestock and
agro-Iorestry products, although not envisaged as an
intervention by the project in the planning stage, was
developedbasedonlocaldemandsandrequests.
3. Agro-fsh Iarming is an important area Ior Iurther studies.
It has signifcant potential Ior building resilience and
developing crop-livestock synergies in a smallholder
system operating under gravitational water systems
Irom perennial water bodies, and where livestock are
crucialresourcesinadaptation.Forthesesystemstobe
viable, however, consideration must be given to Iood
preservation techniques as well as market access Ior
surplusproduce.
For more information
Onthelessonlearned,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Water-Mozambique
On Joint Programme Mozambique, please see:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-Mozambique
74
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
75


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An exit strategy is the principal tool
for communicating the intention of the
MDG-F projects and for holding ourselves
accountable for our actions. It is developed
at the start of each project and clearly
identifies the sustainable actions we will strive
to reach throughout the projects life-cycle.
A successfully implemented exit strategy
builds bonds between all the stakeholders,
empowering those partners to gradually take
over responsibilities and to carry the project
to its end, thereby sustaining the results that
make for its success.
Exit Strategy
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Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
The Strategy
The exit strategy is an agreed plan between the diIIerent
stakeholders to bridge the gap between the completion oI
the projects activities and achieving the impact and long-
term sustainability. The exit strategy helps all stakeholders
tounderstandwheretheroleoItheprojectends,whentolet
other stakeholders take more ownership and accountability
Ior it, and when to Iully handover the responsibility Ior
the work that will continue beyond the closure oI the
initiative. Ideally, the exit strategy should be developed at
thebeginningtoenablegradualhandoverduringtheliIeoI
the Joint Programme.
The Joint Programmes under the Environment and Climate
Change window oI the MDG-F Iormulated their exit
strategiesatvariousstagesintheliIespanoItheprojectsand
sharedtheseexperiencesandlearningsothatanexitstrategy
checklist with 16 interlinked elements could be developed.
Thislessonwaswrittenbasedonthem.
Selection of the scale and scope of activities
TheselectionoIactivitiesthatshouldbesustainedaIterthe
projectsclosureisanessentialelementoIanexitstrategy.It
hasclearrepercussionsIortheselectionoIpartners,Iunding
and resources, roles and responsibilities and capacity
development. The Joint Programmes chose to do the
selectionbyapplyingscalesIromnationaltolocallevels.For
example, the Programme in China led to the development
oI a national Basic Energy Law at the national level.
Nicaraguas Programme strengthened the administrative
plans oI fve territorial governments, helping them to include
climatechangeresilienceintoprovincialplanning.Similarly,
the Programme in Ethiopia developed tools that target the
locallevelandareuseIulinmainstreamingclimatechange
adaptationintolocalplanning.
Selection of partners for sustainability
II any project intends to infuence the long-term management
oIamajorprotectedareaorlocal-scalearea,theremustbe
a close collaboration with the individuals who make those
decisions,whetherthelocalcommunityand/orgovernmental
agency.Anexitstrategymustmakeexplicitthechoiceand
responsibilitiesoIthepartnerssoastoensuretransparency
andthesustainabilityoItheactivities.Thiswillalsoresultin
a wider acceptance oI the goals and outcomes once the Joint
Programmehasclosed.
Funding
Funding is usually required to sustain the project-related
impacts. Developing Iunding proposals Ior new adaptation


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Exit Strategy
Road towards Sustainability
77
projects, or integrating adaptation criteria into already
existing Iunding mechanisms, are two possible strategies
to achieve this goal. The Joint Programmes oIten chose to
empowertheirpartnerstodevelopIund-raisingskillsandin
some cases developed a grants programme to help provide
Iuture Iunding. For example, the Programme in Colombia,
MozambiqueandPanamaallworkedonlonger-termIunding
toassistthelocalcommunitiestoinvestinadaptation.
Communication
Communication has a strong infuence on sustainability
and can take many Iorms, such as a documentary flm on
themanagementpracticesintheSeyhanRiverBasinanda
series oI shorter video clips on climate change adaptation
inTurkey.Aspeopleingovernment,localcommunitiesand
othertargetgroupscometounderstandthegoalsandresults
oItheproject,theyaremorelikelytodevelopownershipand
participateinongoingactivitiesbeyondtheliIecycleoIthe
project.
Beneficiaries
ThedynamicsoIage,gender,socialstatusandincomedrive
the diIIerence in climate change vulnerability. When the
vulnerable,orminoritygroups,oIapopulationaretargeted
in a Joint Programme, the exit strategy must also contain
explicitreIerenceandelementsthataddressthesegroups.In
Nicaragua,emphasiswasplacedontrainingwomeninorder
todevelopanddeploybestpracticesIorthemanagementoI
micro-watersheds.
Capacity development
CapacitydevelopmentisanessentialpartoIanexitstrategy
andcancomprisethehardIactors,suchaschangesmade
to the inIrastructure, or address the soIt Iactors such as
improved individual and institutional abilities by training,
technical capacity development and Iormal education. The
Joint Programmes in AIghanistan, China and Nicaragua
worked extensively on technical capacity building at the
local level whereas in Turkey the Iocus was on increasing
theabilityoIinstitutionstoassessclimatechangerisks.
Knowledge management and lessons learned
Knowledge management should be given explicit attention
within exit strategies. The knowledge gained and lessons
learnedIromtheactivitiesshouldbecapturedsystematically
andmadeavailabletothepartnerswhowillcarryonthework.
In Colombia, the Joint Programme developed
a system Ior transIerring knowledge
management practices Ior risk mitigation in
agricultural systems, community health and
watermanagement.
Risk management
Due to the severity and unpredictable nature oI climate
change, the importance oI anticipation oI and response to
Iuture risk patterns, cannot be under estimated. Planning
under conditions oI high uncertainty and the need Ior both
disaster preparedness and increased climate resilience
shouldbeanexplicitpartoItheexitstrategy.InPanamaand
Turkey, the Joint Programmes supported the development oI
anationalriskalertanddisasterpreparednesssystems.
Asset management
Most oI the Joint Programmes accumulate a series oI
assets. The process oI returning the assets to the Iunder or
transIerring them to stakeholders needs to be transparent.
Ideally, this should be explicit Irom the early stages oI
the project. The Programmes in Ethiopia and Guatemala
developedIormalagreementsthatcoordinatedinventoryand
thehandoveroItheprojectassets.
Legal and contractual arrangements
TherewereexplicitcontractstoclariIylinesoIaccountability
in the hand-over oI activities at the project closure. The
AIghanistan Programme signed a Memorandum oI
UnderstandingwiththelocalGovernment,spellingouttheir
responsibility versus the Governments responsibility. In
Ethiopia, the Joint Programme handed over all duties to the
localcommunity.
Replication
Each oI the UN Joint Programmes had a vision to bring long-
term change beyond the restricted liIe and resources oI the
initiatives.TheIormulationoIexitstrategieshasenabledthe
Programmestoworktowardsthisvisiontogetherwiththeir
partners.Applyingtheirlearningandusingtheexitstrategy
checklist is recommended Ior Iuture initiatives oI a similar
nature.
For more information
OnExitStrategy,pleasesee:
http://wiki.mdgIund.net/ECC-ExitStr
78
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
MDG-F Environment and Climate Change
Joint Programmes


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Country Joint Programme
Afghanistan
Strengthened Approach for the Integration of Sustainable Environmental
Management into the ANDS/PRSP (SAISEM)
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Mainstreaming Environmental Governance: Linking Local and National
Action in Bosnia and Herzegovina
China The China Climate Change Partnership Framework (CCCPF)
Colombia
Integration of Ecosystems and Adaptation to Climate Change in the
Colombian Massif
Ecuador
Conservation and Sustainable Management of the Natural and Cultural
Heritage of the Yasun Biosphere Reserve
Egypt Climate Change Risk Management in Egypt (CCRMP)
Ethiopia
Enabling Pastoral Communities to Adapt to Climate Change and Restoring
Rangeland Environments
Guatemala
Strengthening Environmental Governance in the Face of Climate Risks
in Guatemala
Jordan Adaptation to Climate Change to Sustain Jordans MDG Achievements
Mauritania Mainstreaming Local Environmental Management in the Planning Process
Mozambique Environment Mainstreaming and Adaptation to Climate Change
Nicaragua
Local and Regional Environmental Management for the Management of
Natural Resources and Provision of Environmental Services
Panama
Integration of Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Measures in the
Management of Natural Resources in Four Priority Watersheds of Panama
Peru
Integrated and Adaptive Management of Environmental Resources and
Climatic Risks in High Andean Micro-Watersheds
Philippines
Strengthening the Philippines Institutional Capacity to Adapt to
Climate Change
Senegal
Expanding Access to Environmental Finance - Reversing the Decline in
Forest Ecosystem Services
Turkey Enhancing the Capacity of Turkey to Adapt to Climate Change
80
Seeds of Knowledge - Contributing to Climate Change Solutions
MDG-F Knowledge Management Team
AUTHORS AND REVIEWERS
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
KatiAutere
Johara Bellali
CharlesDavies
DamarisKinyoki
DiannaKopansky
CarmelaLanza
MonicaMwove
StephenNdeti
RoshniPeshavaria
DavidePiga
MiaTurner
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
SarahCzunyi
LesliePaas
Jim Perry
LaszloPinter
Authors
Afghanistan Joint Programme
MamunulHaqueKhan
AimalKhaurin
FazalRahmanTasal
Bosnia and Herzegovina Joint Programme
SladjanaBundalo
AlisaGrabus
AminaOmicevic
SinisaRodic
GeorgeStiII
China Joint Programme
YaqiongHu
Han Jiang
Jun Lei
ClemenciaLinconaManzur
CatherineWong
YangboZen
YanZha
Colombia Joint Programme
DorisConstanzaAlejo
GermanAvirama
Jos Domingo Caldon
MariaPatriciaCuervo
Javier Espitia
OlgaLuciaFuentes
CarlosGodIrey
ZoraidaGolodrino
CesarHidalgo
ClaudiaCaperaLayton
LuisAlIredoLondoo
RicardoManzano
ManuelMonpotes
LuisAlIonsoOrtega
AndrsGonzalezPosso
AntonioQuilindo
Asociacion de Cabildo Genaro Sanchez
81
Ecuador Joint Programme
ZornitzaAguilar
Monica Hernandez
Gabriel Jaramillo
Egypt Joint Programme
MonaElagizy
Ethiopia Joint Programme
Mesfn Berhanu Alemu
TsegayeWoldegiorgis
Guatemala Joint Programme
MarioGaitan
CarmenGonzales
Jordan Joint Programme
MunjedAl-ShariI
Mauritania Joint Programme
AmathPatheSene
AliouWagu
Mozambique Joint Programme
RaulCumba
AnnaKontorov
AndrewMattick
AnaMenezes
Nicaragua Joint Programme
OscarAlvarez
LeoniArguello
MildredCorrales
DaniaHernandez
CinthiaSoto
WomenMovementWankiTangni
Panama Joint Programme
AndreaBrusco
CarlaChizmar
FriedaW.Dominguez
CinthiaSoto
SINAPROC,NationalCivilProtectionSystem
UNEP, Regional OIfce Ior Latin America & the Caribbean
Peru Joint Programme
AndreaBrusco
CarlaChizmar
AlejandroLaguna
MarcoChevarriaLazo
CinthiaSoto
MontserratValeiras
FlorVilla
UNEP, Regional OIfce Ior Latin America & the Caribbean
Philippines Joint Programme
SheilaMarieM.Encabo
MariaAdelaidaAntonetteMias-Mamonong
Senegal Joint Programme
SidikiDiop
NjankouaWandji
Turkey Joint Programme
MariaCristinaZucca
Reviewers
CharlesAvis
Jan Betlem
BrennanvanDyke
PabloFuentenebro
TakehiroNakemura
FatouNdoye
MarylinePenedo
MaheshPradhan
MarkRadka
AmathPatheSene
MohamedSessay
LaetitiaZobel
We wish to thank the Spanish Government for having the foresight to
generously support the MDG-F and its Environment and Climate Change
window. By funding this critically important work, Spain is witness to the
impressive achievements of the Joint Programmes and, at the same time,
has enabled the Joint Programmes to share their collective knowledge to
help trigger a new phase worldwide to combat climate change and ensure
the sustainability of the planets natural resources.
United Nations Environment Programme
P.O. Box 30552 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
Tel.: +254 20 762 1234
Fax: +254 20 762 3927
e-mail: uneppub@unep.org
www.unep.org
www.unep.org
This booklet is a compilation of 24 lessons learned from the
17 Joint Programmes of the Millennium Development Goals
Achievement Fund (MDG-F) with a focus on the environment and
climate change. Each lesson learned is a history at the country-
level of the challenges faced and the successes
achieved in protecting the environment.
These experiences are also a part of an easy-to-access online
knowledge base (http://www.wiki.mdgfund.net/ECC) and are
witness to humanitys efforts to adapt and to find solutions in the
fight against climate change.
We hope readers will find this information useful, will share it and
will replicate it in their communities and in their countries.
ISBN: 978-92-807-3307-5