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# Chapter 12: Digital Modulation and Modems

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. FSK stands for: a. Full-Shift Keying b. Frequency-Shift Keying ANS: B 2. PSK stands for: a. Pulse-Signal Keying b. Pulse-Shift Keying ANS: D 3. QAM stands for: a. Quadrature Amplitude Modulation b. Quadrature Amplitude Masking ANS: A 4. In the equation I = ktB, I is measured in: a. amperes b. amperes per second ANS: C 5. In the equation C = 2Blog2M, M is the: a. margin of noise b. modulation index ANS: C 6. An "eye pattern" shows a good channel when: a. the eye is maximally open c. the eye is half open b. the eye is maximally closed d. the eye alternately opens and closes ANS: A 7. What you see in an eye pattern is the effect of: a. too many bits high c. intermodulation distortion b. too many bits low d. intersymbol interference ANS: D 8. High-frequency radioteletype systems commonly use: a. FSK c. PSK b. AFSK d. QAM ANS: A c. number of possible states per symbol d. maximum number of symbols per second c. bits d. bits per second c. Quadrature Amplitude Marking d. none of the above c. Phase-Signal Keying d. Phase-Shift Keying c. Full-Signal Keying d. none of the above

9. Instead of a single bit, a QPSK symbol contains: a. a byte c. a dibit b. 4 bits d. a Q-bit ANS: C 10. To reduce the need for linearity, /4 DQPSK uses: a. angles of 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees c. angles of /4, 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 b. angles of 45, 135, 225, and 315 degrees d. double phase-shift angles ANS: B 11. For QAM, a "constellation diagram" shows: a. location of symbols in "symbol space" b. separation of symbols in "symbol space" ANS: D 12. For QAM, the two dimensions of its symbol space are: a. amplitude and frequency c. frequency and phase angle b. amplitude and phase angle d. I-bits and Q-bits ANS: B 13. The specs of the old Bell type 103 modem were: a. 300 bps, full-duplex, FSK c. 1200 bps, full-duplex, FSK b. 600 bps, full-duplex, FSK d. 1200 bps, half-duplex, FSK ANS: A 14. ITU is an abbreviation for: a. International Telephony Unit b. International Telephony Union ANS: C 15. The ITU is under the auspices of: a. CCITT b. the U.N. ANS: B 16. High-speed modems equalize the line to compensate for: a. noise and interference b. uneven phase and frequency response c. low SNR d. inconsistent bit rates at either end of channel ANS: B 17. The bits sent to allow equalization are called: a. Gaussian bits b. random bits c. a training sequence d. a random sequence c. IEEE d. ANSI c. International Telecommunications Union d. International Telecommunications Units c. effects of noise on symbols d. all of the above

ANS: C 18. The V.90 standard is issued by: a. the EIA b. the TIA ANS: C 19. MNP2, MNP3, MNP4, and MNP10 are all: a. data-compression schemes b. error-correction protocols ANS: B 20. MNP5 and V.42 bis are both: a. data-compression schemes b. error-correction protocols ANS: A 21. In RS-232, flow control is done using: a. RTS/CTS handshake b. XON/XOFF characters ANS: C 22. The official name for RS-232C is: a. RS-232C b. EIA-232D ANS: B 23. In RS-232, a modem would be: a. a DTR b. a DSR ANS: C 24. In RS-232, a personal computer would be: a. a DTR b. a DSR ANS: D 25. On a DB-9 RS-232 connector, signal ground is pin: a. 1 c. 5 b. 3 d. 7 ANS: C 26. On a DB-25 RS-232 connector, signal ground is pin: a. 1 c. 5 b. 3 d. 7 c. a DCE d. a DTE c. a DCE d. a DTE c. ISO-232C/D d. ANSI-232C c. both a and b d. none of the above c. both a and b d. none of the above c. both a and b d. none of the above c. the ITU d. the ISO

ANS: D 27. The minimum lines required for RS-232 are: a. TD and RD b. TD, RD, and signal ground ANS: B 28. Hardware flow control uses: a. XON and XOFF b. TD and RD ANS: C 29. Software flow control uses: a. XON and XOFF b. TD and RD ANS: A 30. Which voltage represents a binary zero on an RS-232 data pin: a. +15 volts c. +9 volts b. +12 volts d. all of the above ANS: D 31. DSL stands for: a. Data Signal Line b. Digital Signal Line ANS: C 32. ADSL stands for: a. Asynchronous DSL b. Asymmetrical DSL ANS: B 33. In a CATV system, HFC stands for: a. Head Frequency Control b. Hybrid Frequency Control ANS: C 34. In a CATV system, CMTS stands for: a. Cable Modem Terminal Server b. Cable Modem Transmission System ANS: A 35. A "splitter" at the subscriber end is not required for: a. Any DSL scheme c. ADSL Lite b. ADSL d. none of the above c. Cable Modem Terminal System d. Cable Modem Transmission Server c. Hybrid Fiber-Coax d. Hybrid Fiber Control c. Analog DSL d. All DSL c. Digital Subscriber Line d. Double-Speed Loop c. RTS and CTS d. DSR and DCD c. RTS and CTS d. DSR and DCD c. TD, RD, DSR, and signal ground d. TD, RD, RTS, CTS, and signal ground

ANS: C COMPLETION 1. RTS means Request To ____________________. ANS: Send 2. The response to RTS is ____________________. ANS: CTS 3. FSK stands for Frequency-Shift ____________________. ANS: Keying 4. DSR stands for ____________________ Set Ready. ANS: Data 5. QAM stands for ____________________ Amplitude Modulation. ANS: Quadrature 6. The number of symbols per second is called the ____________________ rate. ANS: baud 7. The 2 bits of information in a QPSK symbol is called a ____________________. ANS: dibit 8. QPSK uses ____________________ different phase angles. ANS: four 9. DPSK stands for ____________________ PSK. ANS: Delta 10. The QAM amplitude-phase combinations are shown with a ____________________ diagram. ANS: constellation 11. ITU stands for International _________________________ Union. ANS: Telecommunications 12. In QAM modems, ____________________ coding adds extra bits to improve performance on a noisy line.

ANS: Trellis 13. ____________________ is used in a high-speed modem to compensate for uneven frequency and phase response on a line. ANS: Equalization 14. The maximum allowed speed for a modem on a dial-up line is about ____________________ bps. ANS: 54k 15. The nominal maximum speed on an RS-232 cable is ____________________ bps. ANS: 20k 16. In RS-232, the ____________________ line is asserted when the analog carrier from another modem is being received. ANS: CD DCD RLSD 17. Between hardware flow control and software flow control, ____________________ flow control is preferred. ANS: hardware 18. A voltage higher than ____________________ volts should be considered a high on an RS-232 receiver. ANS: 3 19. A ____________________ modem cable is used to connect two DTEs via their serial ports. ANS: null 20. ADSL stands for ____________________ DSL. ANS: Asymmetrical 21. A typical CATV system is organized as a ____________________ network. ANS: tree 22. In a CATV system using cable modems, a ____________________ is used to put several channels of data onto a fiber-optic backbone. ANS: CMTS 23. ____________________ is the process of synchronizing transmitted data from cable modems to a CMTS.

ANS: Ranging 24. ____________________ systems send high-speed data over a POTS line while sharing the line with dialup service. ANS: ADSL 25. The ____________________ version of ADSL does not require a splitter at the subscriber end. ANS: lite 26. ____________________ modulation divides the line bandwidth into many narrow bands called tones or bins for ADSL. ANS: DMT 27. A DSLAM is a DSL Access ____________________. ANS: Multiplexer SHORT ANSWER 1. Calculate the bits per second capacity of a system sending 1000 symbols per second with 16 possible states per symbol. ANS: 4000 2. How many points will be on the constellation diagram of a QAM system using 8 phase angles and 2 amplitude levels? ANS: 16 3. A CATV system has 100 cable-modem customers sharing a single channel with a data rate of 36 Mbps. If half the modems are active at any given time, what bit rate can a customer expect? ANS: 720 kbps 4. A DMT system uses 4.3-kHz bins on a 1-MHz cable. Approximately how many bins are there? ANS: 230 5. Assuming a maximum symbol rate of 400 per second, how many possible states must a symbol have to achieve a data rate of 1200 bps? ANS: