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PMS/JPH/HT514/ELENA LECTURER : ELENA ANWAR
PMS/JPH/HT514/ELENA LECTURER : ELENA ANWAR
PMS/JPH/HT514/ELENA LECTURER : ELENA ANWAR

PMS/JPH/HT514/ELENA

LECTURER :

ELENA ANWAR

 In general, tourism can be defined in behavioural terms as individuals who travel away
 In general, tourism can be defined in behavioural terms as individuals who travel away

In general, tourism can be defined in behavioural terms as individuals who travel away from their normal residential region for

a temporary period of at least one night.

Tourist experiences and their meanings vary from person to person.

Knowledge about tourist behaviour is useful for practicing

managers of tourism industries would involve a consideration of various important issues regarding current tourism trends.

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 Demographic  Social  Economic  Cultural  Geographic  Psychographic  Behavioral
 Demographic  Social  Economic  Cultural  Geographic  Psychographic  Behavioral

Demographic

Social Economic

Cultural

Geographic

Psychographic

Behavioral

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 Social  Economic  Cultural  Geographic  Psychographic  Behavioral PMS/JPH/HT514/ELENA
 NORTH AMERICA  CENTRAL AMERICA , THE CARIBBEAN & SOUTH AMERICA  AFRICA 
 NORTH AMERICA  CENTRAL AMERICA , THE CARIBBEAN & SOUTH AMERICA  AFRICA 

NORTH AMERICA

CENTRAL AMERICA, THE CARIBBEAN & SOUTH AMERICA AFRICA

THE MIDDLE EAST

ASIA

AUSTRALASIA & THE PACIFIC RIM

ANTARCTICA

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 1829 – City centre hotels began to develop later, with the first recognized such
 1829 – City centre hotels began to develop later, with the first recognized such

1829 City centre hotels began to develop later, with the first recognized such hotel being the Tremont in Boston 1920 It dates back in the USA

1830 - Opened up the ‘ Wild West ‘ to settlers, commercial travellers and curious tourist

1888 The development of US tourism was also stimulated by

the creation of travel agency chains, beginning with ‘ Ask Foster ‘

1980s the motel concept did not extend to Europe

1914 there were already 2 million private cars on the roads

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 1960 - The region received 749,000 international arrivals, according to the World Tourism Organization.
 1960 - The region received 749,000 international arrivals, according to the World Tourism Organization.

1960 - The region received 749,000 international arrivals, according to the World Tourism Organization. 1970 - Had risen to 2.9 million.

1989 - Had risen more than 7 million.

1990 There were major difference in the place of origin of

tourists visiting different countries with in the region, Mexico.

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 1958 – Cuba was the most successful Caribbean destination with a tourism industry primarily
 1958 – Cuba was the most successful Caribbean destination with a tourism industry primarily

1958 Cuba was the most successful Caribbean destination with a tourism industry primarily controlled by US. Gambling was perhaps the major motivation for these tourists.

Attracted three types of tourism; cruises, beach holidays, VFR.

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 1950 and 1960 – The number of international arrivals grew only from 410,000 to
 1950 and 1960 – The number of international arrivals grew only from 410,000 to

1950 and 1960 The number of international arrivals grew only from 410,000 to 426,000. 1960 It did not really grow dramatically.

1970 2.4 million arrivals.

1989 It was up to around 8 million arrivals.

Cruises were a major product and air travel developed rapidly in

the region between the First and Second World Wars.

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 1920s and 1930s – The two regions which attracted foreign visitors, apart from Egypt.
 1920s and 1930s – The two regions which attracted foreign visitors, apart from Egypt.

1920s and 1930s The two regions which attracted foreign visitors, apart from Egypt.

1960s to 1980s A number of African countries began to attract foreign tourist. * Tunisia and Morocco became popular summer sun destination

* Wildlife holidays were being offered in Tanzania and Botswana.

1980s was to become a popular winter sun destination for British tourists.

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 1962 - This is clearly illustrated by an advertisement placed by the British airline
 1962 - This is clearly illustrated by an advertisement placed by the British airline

1962 - This is clearly illustrated by an advertisement placed by the British airline BOAC. Which described Beirut as an

‘international playground’

1962 and 1970 Israel is still seeing its tourism arrivals growing on its Red Sea coast in resort.

1962 and 1973 The war in Israel and her neighbours.

1970s and 1980s The civil war in Lebanon

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 1980s and 1990s – In countries like Thailand and the Philippines inbound tourism Began
 1980s and 1990s – In countries like Thailand and the Philippines inbound tourism Began

1980s and 1990s In countries like Thailand and the Philippines inbound tourism Began with visiting sailors, followed by the arrival

of package tourism.

1990s Some countries in Asia have begun to attract foreign

tourists in significant numbers, including China and Burma. One of

the most spectacular growth rates in international arrivals have

been seen in Vietnam.

1986 some 5.5 million Japanese were taking foreign holidays

1970 628671 arrivals

1980 1858801 arrivals

1986

2818292 arrivals

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 1960s to the 1990s - Australia and New Zealand, though they have relatively small
 1960s to the 1990s - Australia and New Zealand, though they have relatively small

1960s to the 1990s - Australia and New Zealand, though they have relatively small population, have a long tradition of outbound

tourism, particularly among the younger population of both

countries.

1965 161,692 departures

1975 911,815 departures

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 1950 - The region did not being to attract tourist , while numbers are
 1950 - The region did not being to attract tourist , while numbers are

1950 - The region did not being to attract tourist , while numbers are still small , the growth rate has been dramatic. 1957 - Hall and Johnston in an edited work on Polar tourism ,

present the following picture of the growth of arrivals in Antarctica during the period.

1957

58 194 arrivals

1967

68 147 arrivals

1977

78 845 arrivals

1987

88 2782 arrivals

1992

93 7037 arrivals

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 Visiting friends and relatives  Business tourism  Religious tourism  Health tourism 
 Visiting friends and relatives  Business tourism  Religious tourism  Health tourism 

Visiting friends and relatives

Business tourism

Religious tourism Health tourism Social tourism Educational tourism Cultural tourism Scenic tourism Hedonistic tourism Activity tourism Special interest tourism

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 The concept of tourist behaviour can be explained in relation to topics associated with
 The concept of tourist behaviour can be explained in relation to topics associated with

The concept of tourist behaviour can be explained in relation to topics associated with consumer behaviour. The purpose of consumer behavior models is to attempt to give a

simplified version of the relationship of the various factors that influence consumer behavior.

Various models have been develop to described consumer

behavior with the intention of trying to control the behavior patterns.

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Initial Framework Conceptual alternatives gathering Definition of assumptions Fact Design of stimulus Forecast of
Initial Framework Conceptual alternatives gathering Definition of assumptions Fact Design of stimulus Forecast of
Initial Framework Conceptual alternatives gathering Definition of assumptions Fact Design of stimulus Forecast of
Initial Framework
Conceptual alternatives
gathering
Definition of assumptions
Fact
Design of stimulus
Forecast of consequences
Cost benefits of alternatives
Decision
Outcome

FIGURE 1 : A linear model of the tourism decision making process.

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