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PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF OCCUPANT BEHAVIOUR ON THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF DWELLINGS: DATA COLLECTION METHODS

MERVE BEDR, EVERT HASSELAAR, LAURE ITARD

1. INTRODUCTION: CONTEXT, TERMINOLOGY 2. COMPARISON OF MODELS 3. CASE STUDY: IMPLEMENTATION OF DATA COLLECTION MODELS 4. DATA COLLECTION: QUESTIONNAIRE VS MONITORING 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CONTEXT: o EXTENSIVE PROGRESS ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE IN DWELLINGS. o INTENDED ENERGY PERFORMANCE LEVELS ARE NOT ACHIEVED. COULD OCCUPANT BEHAVIOUR BE A REASON? o INFORMATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OCCUPANT BEHAVIOUR AND ENERGY PERFORMANCE IS STILL RATHER LOW.

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

AIM: o EVALUATION OF THE DIFFERENT DATA COLLECTION METHODS ABOUT OCCUPANT BEHAVIOUR o COMPARISON OF THE BEHAVIOUR AND ENERGY PERFORMANCE MODELS

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

RECENT RESEARCH: o SOCIAL: MODELS ON REASONS/MOTIVATIONS OF BEHAVIOUR, OCCUPANT CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE o TECHNICAL: MODELS ON PASSIVE [reaction to comfort level change] AND ACTIVE [actual behaviour] OCCUPANCY EFFECTS ON ENERGY PERFORMANCE

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

BEHAVIOUR [in the context of the research]: o PRESENCE PATTERNS IN A SPACE o THE ACTUAL HEATING [THERMOSTAT SETTING AND RADIATOR CONTROL] o VENTILATION PATTERNS [OPERATION OF WINDOWS, GRIDS, MECHANICAL SYSTEMS] o THE USE OF LIGHTING AND APPLIANCES. REPORTED BEHAVIOUR: QUESTIONNAIRE OBSERVED BEHAVIOUR: MONITORING DEDUCTIVE MODELS: MACRO LEVEL, TOP DOWN INDUCTIVE MODELS: FOCUSED, BOTTOM UP
[Terminology refers to the data hierarchy and data processing track]

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

TOP DOWN MACRO LEVEL

Deductive models
Climate Household characteris0cs Economy:Energybills, income,rent

Inductive models
Presence Circula0on Opera0on

PREDICTION PERCENT: %20-%50

DATA COLLECTION FREQUENCY: 3 MONTHS-1 YEAR

DATA COLLECTION METHOD: OBSERVATION

DATA COLLECTION METHOD: SURVEY

Survey Ques0onnaire Interview Sta0s0cs

Monitoring Observa0on Sta0s0cs Occupant behaviour Simula0on Energy performance

DATA COLLECTION FREQUENCY: DOWN TO 1 MINUTE

PREDICTION PERCENT: %1-%12

Occupantbehaviour energyperformance

BOTTOM UP FOCUSED

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

CASE STUDY HOUSE

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

LONGITUDIONAL SECTION

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

METHODOLOGY:
POST OCCUPANCY EVALUATION ON A CASE STUDY HOUSE IN THE NETHERLANDS

DATA COLLECTION:
1. INVESTIGATION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL PROJECT: architectural
characteristics

2. EPA [Energy Prestatie Advies]REPORT: building physics aspects 3. INSPECTION IN THE DWELLING: nishings, changes from the original
project

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

DATA COLLECTION:
4. QUESTIONNAIRE: o dwelling characteristics o household characteristics o primary energy consumption gures o actual behaviour [heating, ventilation, lighting and equipments] o comfort, heath, satisfaction
Dwelling and household level
Dwelling properties -Dwelling type -Number of rooms -Functions of rooms Household properties -Household size -Age -Presence -Occupation [rooms] -Occupation [duration]

Individual [User] level


Heating behaviour -Heating system type -Radiator use [hours-setpoint] -Thermostat use [hours-setpoint] Ventilation behaviour -System type -Use of windows [room-hoursopening] -Use of grids [room-hours] -Use of exhaust [hour-setpoint] Use of appliances -Appliances in the house -Hours that appliances are used, daily -Hours that appliances are used, weekly Use of lighting -Number of lighting xtures in the living room -Number of lighting xtures in the rest of the house

4. QUESTIONNAIRE

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

DATA COLLECTION:
5. MONITORING: lighting and household appliances, weather conditions

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

DATA COLLECTION:
5. MONITORING: lighting and household appliances, weather conditions
Data collection: plug in sensors Data transfer: GPRS system Data transfer frequency: 10 minutes Data monitoring: online

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

DISCUSSION

REPORTED BEHAVIOUR PRESENCE

Presence patterns in the house, week and weekend

HEATING CONTROL

Thermostat control

Radiator in living room/ entrance

Radiator control in bedrooms INTRODUCTION BEHAVIOUR MODELS CASE STUDY DATA COLLECTION RESULTS

REPORTED BEHAVIOUR VENTILATION CONTROL

Use of grids in living room in winter

Use of windows in bedrooms/ hobby room

APPLIANCES
Appliance
Reported behaviour Duration [daily] [min]
Wireless telephone & fridge TV Computer [monitor] Computer [laptop] Dvd player Extractor hood Gas oven Dish washer Washing machine Always 120 60 60 60 60 30 60 60

Observed behaviour Duration [daily] [min]


Always Week: 194 W.end: 65 33 [1 day] 33 [1 day] Week: 100 W.end: 22 89 31 60 60

Duration [weekly[ [h]


Always 20 10 10 10 10 3 7 7

Duration [weekly[ [h]


Always 18.30 .33 .33 2.02 6.24 3.38 7 1

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

REPORTED BEHAVIOUR VS OBSERVED BEHAVIOUR

PRESENCE AND LIFESTYLE Contradictions between reported and observed behaviour: o The family is actually at home on some weekdays o The master bedroom and the living room are more occupied in the mornings. o The master bedroom is occupied apart from the sleeping hours. o The family cooks and eats more at home during the week than the weekends. o The presence in the hobby room is not mentioned in the questionnaire, but monitoring displays presence. More information obtained from observed behaviour: oThe living room is occupied between 17.00 - 18.00 and 19.00 - 23.00. In the questionnaire, presence in kitchen and living room are mentioned together as between 17.00 and 23.00. oThe kitchen is generally occupied between 18.00 and 19.00, when the dinner is prepared and eaten.

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

REPORTED BEHAVIOUR VS OBSERVED BEHAVIOUR

LIGHTING AND APPLIANCES Contradictions between reported and observed behaviour: o Computer, DVD player, and washing machine are used less than their reported use. o TV in living room is watched almost 3 hours everyday and more use of TV is observed during the weekdays than the weekend. More information obtained from observed behaviour: o Light next to the extractor hood in the kitchen is also used for general lighting. o Dishwasher is used almost everyday, after 23.00, for one hour.

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS

CONCLUSIONS Reported behaviour [questionnaire] provides information on habits and intentions Observed behaviour [monitoring] provides information on discrete behaviour The deductive approach works with the behaviour data collected with a higher time frequency, which gives more information about the habitual behaviour. This might be risky considering that it is not known how inuential habitual and discrete behaviour is on the energy performance of the dwelling. The inductive approach has a drawback of working with a high detail level, which is hard to reach, especially working at household level. Inductive models estimate the inuence of occupant behaviour on the energy performance to be more than the deductive models estimate it to be.
INTRODUCTION BEHAVIOUR MODELS CASE STUDY DATA COLLECTION RESULTS

FUTURE WORK This study is about direct behaviour. However, the other side of the behaviour mentioned as indirect in the literature [reaction to the changes of comfort levels] arise the question of a comparison of energy performance in terms of direct and indirect behaviour. In this respect, it could be predicted that monitoring can also provide more detailed information about indirect behaviour. Comparing the weight of behaviours on the energy performance is important. How to integrate a behaviour model to the building performance simulation programs.

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR MODELS

CASE STUDY

DATA COLLECTION

RESULTS