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### Simplified Models of the Synchronous Machine Below is a summary of the different models that we will discuss:

 # Youngs IEEE ID Description G-cct? Dmpr No. of States ID (d.q) wdgs? states What we derived in 1 Model 2.2 Full model with G-cct. Yes Yes 8 δ,ω,λ d ,λ F ,λ D ,λ q , FluxLinkageEquations III λ Q ,λ G What A&F derived 2 2.1 Full model without G- No Yes 7 δ,ω,λ d ,λ F ,λ D ,λ q , in Section 4.12. cct. λ Q See pg. 127 of A&F 3 Model 1.1 Machine with solid round Yes No 6 δ,ω,λ d ,λ F ,λ q ,λ G for a few remarks. II rotor 4 1.0 E'q model: Same as #3 No No 5 δ,ω,Λ d ,Λ q ,E' q except for a salient pole machine. 5 2.1 E'' model: for a salient No Yes 5 δ,ω,E'' d , Λ d ,E' q pole machine & dλ d /dt= dλ q /dt=0 6 1.1 2-axis model: for a machine with solid round rotor & dλ d /dt= dλ q /dt=0 Yes No 4 δ,ω,E' d ,E' q 7 1.0 One axis model: Same as #6 but without G-cct. No No 3 δ,ω,E' q 8 Model I 0.0 Classical No No 2 δ,ω

Note that the IEEE ID is useful: d.q, where d indicates how many direct-axis rotor circuits are modeled (F, D) and q indicates how many quadrature-axis rotor circuits are modeled (G, Q). Note that these numbers do not include the stator windings (d, q). You can get the number of electrical states from these numbers according to:

E=d+q+2-N

where “2” is for the d and q winding states and N is the number of these for which the transient is assumed to be too fast for consideration. Then, the total number of states is E+M where M=2 is the number of mechanical states.

d

d

d

d

q

F

F

F

F

F

F

### λ + v

F

 d (4.126) (4.128)

1

D

D

D

D

D

D

(4.129)

q

q

q

q

AQ

d

q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

AQ

G

G

G

G

G

G

AQ

& =

T

m

+

j

⎢ ⎣

AQ

l

q

3

j

d

l

d

3

j

q

⎦ ⎥

+

⎡ − D

⎣ ⎢

j

⎥ ⎦

(4.130)

(4.131)

(4.131’)

(4.133)

MD

d

d

MD

F

F

MD

D

D

MD

d

F

D

(4.102)

AQ

L

MQ

l

q

q

L

MQ

l

Q

Q

L

MQ

l

G

G

MQ

AQ

q

Q

G

d

d

d

d

q

d

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

2

(4.126)

(4.128)

D

D

D

D

D

D

(4.129)

q

q

q

q

AQ

d

q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

AQ

m

j

AQ

q

j

d

d

j

q

j

(4.130)

(4.131)

(4.133)

## δ & = ω − 1

MD

d

d

MD

F

F

MD

D

D

MD

d

F

D

(4.102)

AQ

MQ

q

q

MQ

Q

Q

MQ

AQ

q

Q

3

&

d

r

= −

l

d

d

+

r

l

d

q

v

d

&

F

= −

r

F

l

F

F

+

r

F

l

F

+ v

F

&

q

r

= −

l

q

q

+

r

l

q

AQ

d

v

q

G

G

G

G

G

G

AQ

& =

ω

T

m

+

τ

j

⎢ ⎣

λ

AQ

l

q

3

τ

j

λ

d

λ

l

d

3

τ

j

λ

q

⎥ ⎦

+

⎡ − D

⎢ ⎣

τ

j

⎥ ⎦

ω

MD

d

d

MD

F

F

(4.126)

(4.128)

(4.130)

(4.131’)

(4.133)

(4.102)

AQ

MQ

q

q

MQ

G

λ
G

and

MD

d

F

MQ

AQ

q

G

4

q

F

3
L
F

(4.203)

L

aF

=

M

F

cos θ =

M

F

cos ω

Re

t

λ

aF

= L

aF

i

F

5

λ

d

aF

d

(

L

aF

i

F

)

=

dt

dt

λ

d

aF

dt

= i

F

d

(

L

aF

)

dt

### (4)

d
λ
d
(
M
cos
ω
t
)
aF
F
Re
=
i
= − i
M
ω
sin
ω
t
(5)
F
F
F
Re
Re
dt
dt
And we see that the peak value of the induced a-phase voltage is
E
= i
M
ω
(6)
peak
F
F
Re
The RMS value of this voltage would be V peak /sqrt(2), i.e.,
1
E
=
i
M
ω
(7)
rms
F
F
Re
2

### If we multiple both sides by sqrt(3), we get

3
3 E
=
i
M
ω
rms
F
F
Re
2
But recall our familiar k=sqrt(3/2), therefore
E
= i
kM
ω
rms
F
F
Re

E = i

F

kM

F

ω

Re

• E

q

=

λ

F

• L F

kM

F

ω

Re

E

q

= E V

qu

B

,

kM

F

= kM

Fu

M

FB

,

L

F

= L

Fu

L

FB

,

λ = λ λ

F

Fu

FB

= λ L

Fu

FB

I

FB

3

E

qu

V
B

=

λ

Fu

L

FB

I

FB

L

Fu

L

FB

kM

Fu

M

FB

ω

Re

3

E

qu

=

λ

Fu

I

FB

V

B

L

Fu

kM

Fu

M

FB

ω

Re

3 E

qu

=

λ

Fu

L

Fu

kM

Fu

M

FB

I

FB

ω

Re

• V B

I

FB

1

=

V

B

t

B

M

FB

3 E ′ =

qu

λ

Fu

• L Fu

kM

Fu

M

FB

1

λ

Fu

=

M

FB

L

Fu

kM

Fu

• 3 E

q

=

λ

F

• L F

L

E = i

F

kM

F

ω

Re

kM

F

ω

Re

FD

L
v
F
3
r
F

(4.209)

⎡ v ⎤
0
0
v
=
3
V
sin
α
d
v
3
V
cos
α
⎣ ⎢
⎦ ⎥
⎢ ⎣
⎥ ⎦
q

(4.43)

d

λ
λ
d
q
Λ =
q
3
3

d

v
d
V
q
3

v
d
3

(4.212)

8

⎡ Λ ⎤

&

&

d

Λ

q

E & ′ ⎥ =

q

&

ω

&

δ

1

τ

j

r

L

d

ω

ω

r

L

q

L

d

L

d

τ

L

d

0

d

0

Λ

q

1

L

d

1

L

q

⎞ − E

q

τ

j

L

d

0

0

r

L

d

0

0

0

L

d

τ

L

d

0

d

0

0

0

D

τ

j

1

0

0

0

0

0

⎡ Λ ⎤

d

Λ

q

E

⎥ ⎣

q

ω

δ

⎥ +

V

d

V

q

1

τ

'

d 0

E

FD

1

τ

j

T

m

1

9

d

d

d

q

q

q

q

d

d

q

q

d

d

q

10

q

11

' '

d

d

'

q

' '

d

d

'

q

12

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