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Boost Converter 1

Senior Design Project The Boost Converter

By Matthew Johnston Jessica Morales Daniel Uriu

Boost Converter 2

I. Abstract
For the senior design project, we decided to focus on a project that mainly dealt with power, and decided to build a boost converter. The main idea of the boost converter is to input a low voltage and output a high voltage. Specific parameters were given to us in order to be able choose what components are needed to make the boost converter work properly. In addition, we designed and built our own inductor according to the given parameters, and designed the circuit on a PC Board. First, the schematic was given in order to research and better understand the function of every component. As a group, we learned the main concept of the board. After we thoroughly comprehended the circuit, we start to assign values to the resistors, capacitors, and the inductor. We then ran a simulation of the circuit in PSpice to ensure that we have chosen the correct values for each component, noting the current of the inductor, input voltage of the pulse switch, and the output voltage. After acquiring the results needed, we continued to design the circuit board on a PCB. To design the PCB, the program ExpressPCB, was utilized. Our first design attempt was not our best result, reason being that we did not have much knowledge on designing such boards. We moved some components and changed some wiring to improve its performance, before sending it in to be processed. While it was being made we further expanded our knowledge on the circuit and how to build an inductor. After receiving the board we began to assemble the circuit. After some debugging of the board, tests were performed to acquire enough data to make some valuable statements about our circuit board. Testing began by adding an input voltage of 20V. We first ran tests in the Continuous

Boost Converter 3 Conduction Mode (CCM) with 20V. CCM is obtained by having the output current being larger than the current ripple of the inductor. After acquiring sufficient data and waveforms, we realized that our circuit was giving us the desired results. While in CCM, we also ran tests with an input voltage of 40. The efficiency for our circuit was calculated giving us 96%, proving that our circuit was performing to the specifications. Next, we ran tests in the Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). This is done by having a much larger load resistance such that the output current is less than the current ripple of the inductor. We conducted the same tests as in CCM to be able to compare the both modes. We were able to obtain our high output voltage of 70 in both modes by adjusting our load resistance and potentiometer.

II. Introduction
For our project we are to make a boost converter, also known as a step-up converter. We are to design our own circuit layout on ExpressPCB and design our own inductor. Our boost converter is to have an input voltage of 20V to 40V and an output of 70V. We are to increase or decrease the load resistance in order to achieve a continuous conduction mode at a 20 Watt output. The switching frequency of the switch should be 200 kHz and the output voltage ripple should be less than 0.2%. The major components that we are to use for the circuit are the IRF510 for the MOSFET, the MUR415 for the diode, and an output capacitor of 100 uF. For the PWM controller we are to use the very famous SG3524 and the IR4427 for the MOSFET driver. Together with all our components and our own made circuit board we were able to achieve our goal of an output of 70V.

Boost Converter 4

III. Circuit Analysis i. Continuous Conduction Mode

The boost converter, when operating in continuous conduction mode never allows the current through the inductor to fall to zero. The converter operates in two different states within the continuous mode because of the switch. The inductor current fluctuates during switching having a maximum and minimum value, but will never reach zero. When operating in continuous mode the two positions of the switch affect the way the circuit is analyzed as shown below.

In this section, let us call the on state having the switch in position 1 and the off state being position 2. When the switch is at position 1, the circuit consists of only the source voltage and the inductor. The switch creates a ground short circuit not allowing any other part of the circuit to be altered by the voltage source, creating a second circuit with the capacitor and load resistor in parallel. The inductor voltage and capacitor current are then defined by:

v L = Vg
iC = v R

When the switch is in position 2, the circuit changes, breaking the short circuit that was created in the last state. This allows the source voltage to travel through the inductor L, the

Boost Converter 5 diode, the capacitor C, and the load resistance R. The inductor voltage and capacitor current equations are then:

v L = Vg v
iC = i L v R

These equations from the on and off state of the converter are extremely valuable to the analysis of the circuit since they lay the foundation of all other analysis that will be performed. When using the small ripple approximation, in which only the DC component of the signal is used, an average value is used to do the analysis. With the previous equations for inductor voltage and capacitor current, the out put voltage v = V and iL = I. Using the equations from position 1 and 2, one can sketch the waveforms of what the inductor voltage and capacitor current will look like. The switch positions are defined over the time period DTS and DTS, with D being the duty cycle and Ts being the switching period.

By the waveforms, it can be inferred that the output voltage is higher than the input, hence the name boost converter. Therefore the volt seconds over one switching period is defined as being the integral of the inductor voltage with respect to time over the interval of zero to Ts. This equates to:

Boost Converter 6
Ts

v
0

(t ) dt = (V g ) DTS + (V g V ) D ' TS

If applying volt second balance, setting the equation equal to zero will allow solving for the output voltage with respect to the duty cycle D. V = Vg 1 D

This same procedure can be applied to the capacitor current by taking the integral, setting the answer equal to zero and collecting terms, solving for the inductor current I.
Ts

i
0

(t ) dt = (

V V ) DTS + ( I ) D ' TS R R
V (1 D ) R

I=

Next we shall look at the inductor current ripple, or delta iL. Since the waveform of the inductor voltage has already been done, and the current is defined as
di L v L (t ) = dt L

Using the above result for vL while the switch is in position 1 makes di L v L (t ) V g = = . dt L L Similarly, when the switch is in position 2, the same steps can be applied resulting in di L v L (t ) V g V = = dt L L Meaning that delta i L is
i L = Vg 2L DTS

Boost Converter 7 These two solutions for the change in the inductor current can be drawn graphically as a triangle wave. This is plausible since the current is the integral of the voltage, which was a square wave. The inductor current change waveform is shown below.

The same said above can be said for the change in capacitor voltage, dvC. The steps are defined below.
dvC ic (t ) = dt C

Position 1:

dvC iC (t ) V = = dt C RC

Position 2:

dv C iC (t ) I V = = dt C C RC

v C =

V 2 RC

DTS

ii.

Discontinuous Conduction Mode

The boost converter also operates in a second mode called the discontinuous conduction mode. This happens when there is a large enough switching ripple for either the capacitor voltage or the inductor current to cause the polarity of the switch current or the switch voltage to change. In the discontinuous conduction mode, the converter properties change as do the conditions for

Boost Converter 8 operation. These conditions can be found by the finding the ripple for the inductor current or capacitor voltage and the dc components that cause the switch position to change polarity. Based on the conditions of operation of the boost converter in continuous conduction mode, we found that the inductor current is greater than the current ripple. This then means that the inductor current in the discontinuous mode is less than the current ripple.
I < i L For DCM

Now we will define the parameter K as a dimensionless parameter that measures the tendency for a converter to operate in the discontinuous conduction mode. A large value of K leads to a converter operating in the continuous conduction mode while a small value of K would be the discontinuous conduction mode. The boundary between the two modes is defined as Kcrit.

K=

2L RTS

and

K crit = DD' 2

Analysis can now be done to find the conversion ratio of V/Vg. There are three intervals in which the circuit operates when in discontinuous conduction mode. There is the subinterval where 0 <t <D1TS when the switch is turned off and the diode is off creating this circuit.

The analysis on this circuit leaves you with

v L (t ) = Vg
iC (t ) = v(t ) R

Boost Converter 9 Then there is the second subinterval where D1TS < t < (D1+D2)TS and the diode is conducting with the switch turned off. This leaves you with the circuit shown below.

The analysis leaves you with

v L (t ) = Vg v(t )
iC (t ) = i (t ) v(t ) R

During the third subinterval where (D1+D2)TS <t> TS the diode and switch are both in the off state. This leaves you with the circuit shown below.

The network analysis leaves you with these equations.


v L (t ) = 0

iC (t ) =

v(t ) R

These equations from the three different subintervals leave you with this waveform for the voltage.

Boost Converter 10

Using volt second balance to find the average value of the inductor voltage and setting it equal to zero you obtain

D1Vg + D2 (Vg V ) + D3 (0) = 0


Solving for the output voltage V leaves
V = D1 + D2 Vg D2

This leaves you with two unknowns, V and D2. This requires us to use another equation to eliminate the duty cycle to obtain output voltage V. To do this we must also use the capacitor charge balance shown below. To solve for the charge balance, set the diode current equal to the current through the capacitor plus the current through the resistor. In steady state, the dc component of the capacitor current is zero. This is shown below.

i D (t ) = iC (t ) + i D (t ) = V R

v(t ) R

From this information, we have found that the inductor current peaks during the first subinterval, D1Ts. i pk = Vg L D1TS

Boost Converter 11 Then in the second interval, the diode begins to conduct and the inductor current drops to zero and will remain there for the third subinterval. This leads us to the equation of the dc diode current iD(t).

1 < i D >= i pk D2 2
And with some basic substitution of the last few equations leaves the dc load current. V V g D1 D2TS = R 2L Now we have the second equation to find the two unknowns described earlier, V and D2. Solving for the two unknowns leaves a quadratic equation, which when solving we only use the positive solution since it is known that a positive output voltage should be given.
4 D1 1+ 1+ V K = Vg 2
2

where K=2L/RTs

iii.

Pulse Width Modulator

The purpose of the pulse width modulator (PWM) is to produce a square pulse wave and to be able to control the pulse width. The way it accomplishes this is by taking in a reference voltage and comparing it to a saw tooth waveform. When the saw tooth is higher than the reference voltage the PWM outputs a square wave in the on position. When the reference voltage is higher than the saw tooth then the PWM outputs a square wave in the off position. Since the saw tooth waveform continually varies this allows the PWM to output a continuous switching square pulse wave. As the reference voltage from the main circuit raises then the pulse width shortens. This translates into shorter MOSFET on times, which meaning that the inductor has a shorter period

Boost Converter 12 to store current and a longer time to discharge. This also means that the capacitors retain more of their energy as they discharge when the MOSFET is on. This allows the output voltage to remain higher. As the output voltage grows the two resistors (unit 8 and 9, Figure 1) act as a voltage divider and supply a feedback reference voltage to the PWM. Figure 1 shows the main circuit and the reference voltage being supplied to the PWM.

Boost Converter 13 Figure A main circuit

Boost Converter 14 Figure B internal PWM

Figure B shows the internal layout of the PWM. The error amplifier takes in both the feedback voltage from the main circuit and the reference voltage from the variable resistor. When the feedback voltage from the main circuit is higher than the reference voltage then the error operator outputs a voltage of 0V. When the reference voltage from the variable resistor is higher, the error amplifier outputs the reference voltage. The output of the error amplifier is then sent to the comparator where it is compared with the saw tooth waveform. The comparator then outputs a square pulse wave that is fed to two nor gates that are controlled by the oscillator. This signal is then sent to the driver where it amplifies the signal and sends it to the gate terminal of the MOSFET.

Boost Converter 15

iv.

PSPICE Simulation

According to our calculations and to our design we are to input a voltage from 20V to 40V and be able to obtain an output of about 70V. We wanted to make sure that our chosen values for our components were correct and made sure of it by running a simulation on Pspice. We made the value of our inductor to be 200 uH, the load resistance to be 250 ohms, and the input to be 30V.

This is what our schematic on PSpice looked like after giving values to every component. We added an extra resistor after the inductor, with a value of 1 mOhm, to regulate how much current was flowing through the inductor. After setting our values and set our simulation parameters we ran it.

Boost Converter 16

This is a waveform of our output voltage, which is close to 70V. This proves that our theoretical calculations are correct and if our circuit is correct our output voltage will be very close to 70V.

Boost Converter 17

IV. Design i.
Specs:

Stress Analysis
Vgmin 20V Vgmax Vo 40V 70V Power 20W fs 200kHz dvo .1% Vo .07V diL 10% IL .05A

IL(max)= Duty Ratio:

(P/Vgmin)= 1/1-D=Vo/Vg

1A Dmin=

Io=

(P/Vo)= .2857A Dmax= 1-Vgmin/Vo 0.714

1-Vgmax/Vo 0.4286

SWITCH: Vsmax = Vo +dvo= 70.07V Ismax= IL(max) + diL= 1.05A Isrms = IL(max) * sqrt(Dmax) = .8452 A

DIODE: Vdmax = -(Vo + dVo)= -70.07V Idmax = IL(max) + diL= 1.05A Idrms= P/ sqrt(VoVgmin)= .5345A

INDUCTOR: ILmax=

IL(max) + diL= 1.05A Vo/ [8*L*fs]

L >=

[Vg(Vo-Vg)]/ [2*diL*Vo*fs] |worst = Vo/ [8*diL*fs]= .875mH max(Vgmax, Vo- Vgmin)= 50V (40V, 50V)

diL=

VLmax=

CAPACITOR: Vcmax= Vo + dvo= 70.07V max(Io, IL(max) - Io)= 0.7143 dvc= dvo= P*Dmax/[2*Vo*C*fs]= .07V (.2857, .7143) icrms= Io*sqrt(Vo/Vgmin -1)= .4518A

Icmax=

C>=

(Io*D*Ts)/(2*dvo) |worst = (P*Dmax)/ (2*Vo*dvo*fs)

7.289 uF

Boost Converter 18

ii.

Conduction Loss

Conduction loss is a power loss that occurs when current is fed through resistive elements. The sources of the highest conduction loss for our boost converter are the inductor, diode, and MOSFET.

The inductor has conduction loss as it is not an ideal inductor. The wiring that we used to make the inductor as a resistance, which attributes to the inductor conduction loss. This can be modeled as a resistor in series with an ideal inductor of inductance L. This can be seen in figure C.

Figure C)
L 1 2 Rl

To calculate the conduction loss of the inductor both stages of the circuit must be taken into account. When the MOSFET is on the diode is in reverse bias and acts as a cut wire. This means the voltage across the inductor is equal to the following equation.

Equation 1

vl = Vg IRL

In this stage, the current through the capacitor can also be easily calculated, as it is just the negative of the current flowing through the load resistance. This is shown by the following equation.

Boost Converter 19

Equation 2

iC =

V R

When the MOSFET is in the off position the current is redirected through the diode as the MOSFET now acts as a cut wire. This means that the voltage across the inductor changes to the following equation.

Equation 3

v L = Vg IRL V

In this stage, the current through the capacitor will also change and is given by the following equation.

Equation 4

iC = I

V R

Now solving for the average value of the inductor by using equation 5 and setting it to zero we are left with equation 6.

Equation 5 Equation 6

< v L >=

1 v L dt = D (V g IR ) + D ' (V g IR L V ) T 0

Ts

0 = Vg IRL D'V

Boost Converter 20 Next, we solve the average value of the current through the capacitor by using equation 7. When we set this to zero we are left with equation 8.

Equation 7

V V < iC >= D + D' I R R

Equation 8

0 = D' I

V R

Equation 9

1 1 V = R Vg D' 1 + 2L D' R

By combining equations 6 and 8, we are able to solve for the actual gain of the circuit when taking the inductor conduction loss into account. Equation 9 shows the gain of the system in terms of the duty ratio, load, and inductor resistance.

The conduction loss due to the diode can be found through the following equation. Equation 10
Pfd = 1 I g . pk sin( L t ) V ffd (1 D )dt T 0
T

The conduction loss due to the MOSFET can be found through the following equation.

Equation 11

Pmosfet

1 = T

(I
0

g . pk

sin( L t ) ) Ron Ddt


2

iii.

Switching Loss

Boost Converter 21 Within the boost converter, there is a fast switching device called a MOSFET. MOSFET is an acronym that stands for metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. A pulse at the gate terminal of the transistor drives a MOSFET working as a switch. This then determines whether or not the drain and source terminals to connect. In the boost converter, it is the switch that is crucial to the output voltage being at the desired value. However, there is power that is lost in the switching. The turn on and turn off transitions require very minuscule amounts of time usually in the micro or nanoseconds. Even though the switching times are short, an average power loss results. During the switching transient, there are periods where the diode is on and the switch is off, and periods where the switch is on and the diode is off. Therefore, by circuit analysis, during the switching transient, these equations are defined. iL = iS + iD VO = VS VD Therefore, by definition, power is defined as the product of the voltage and the current, which can be used to solve for the power losses across the MOSFET. A waveform of the power is shown below.

Boost Converter 22 The energy lost is the area under the triangle waveform. When the waveform rises, it will be defined as the power when the switch is on. The energy lost in the off state, Woff, and the energy lost during the on state, Won, is the area under the curve. These equations are defined as such.

1 Woff = VO I L (t 2 t1 ) 2
Won = VO I L t r + Vo Qr Now that the energy loss during a full switching period is known as (Woff + Won), then the resulting power loss can be found.

PSW =

1 TS

A Switching Transitions

(t )dt

Where pA is the instantaneous power.

Therefore it can be concluded that

PSW = (Woff + Won ) f S


However, during the switching times, reactive elements such as the capacitor and the inductor can add to the energy lost. For instance, when the switch turns on, the capacitors in parallel with the switch are shorted and lose the energy stored in them. This is the opposite for the inductor as when the switch turns off and when in series with the switch, the stored energy is lost. The stored energy is defined for the capacitor and inductor below.

1 WC = CiVi 2 2 1 WC = CiVi 2 2
For the switching power loss including the parasitic losses by the inductor and the capacitor results in

PSW = (Woff + Won + WC + WL ) f S

Boost Converter 23

iv.

Inductor Design

Within the boost converter is a very crucial piece called an inductor, which opposes change in current. An inductor is made typically by wound copper wire or coiling some other conductive material around a core, which is usually air or a permeable material. An inductor follows the basic rule shown below.

v(t ) = L

di dt

Where v is the voltage over the inductor, L is the value of the inductor in Henrys, and di/dt is the change in current over time in the inductor. In the boost converter we are to create, we will need a 200 uH inductor to supply the right current to the circuit. To do this we will use the air gap method in designing this specific inductor. We used the core Magnetics OP-42213 as the mount and core for the inductor. As seen from the data sheets attached at the end of this document we find that the core area product is 0.639 cm2. To do this area gap method, we must know the DC current, the relative ripple, and the current density J. Some terms for a typical inductor are Ac, the cross sectional area of the core, lc, the mean length of the core, and W, the window area inside the core. Using some electromagnetic theory involving flux, current density, magnetic field intensity, electric field and magnetic flux density, you are able to derive the following equations.

= NBAC = LI ,
which simplifies to

Ac =

LI , NB

fully utilizing the flux capability. Now, utilizing the window area we are left with

Boost Converter 24

kW =
Using the area product equation

NI . J

Ap = AcW
We are able to substitute our previous results leaving the equation Ap = LI 2 where k=0.7 BJk

Now since we know that the input voltage will be between 20 V and 40 V, and the input and output power being 20 W as described in our manual, we know that the current I will be between 0.5 A and 1 A, as defined by power equaling the product of the voltage and current. The first step called core selection, and since we know a 200 H inductor is needed we use the equation above to find the area product. After we find the area product, we then figure out the amount of turns that will be required to make the inductor. This is done with the equation shown below.

N=

L(l g )

o Ac

Now we will check that the area of the wire we are calculating for is greater than or equal to the calculations we want. the wire size we are using in the inductor that will be used in the circuit. The area of the wire should be greater than the current divided by the current density.

Aw >

I J

Since the wire size is smaller than the one we are using, then it will perform the way it is supposed to. Another constraint on the inductor wire is that the radius of the wire must be smaller than the skin depth due to skin effect.
r < =

o f S

Boost Converter 25 Now we must check whether it will fit within the window area of the inductor mold. This is done by multiplying the number of turns by the area of the wire. Wn > N * AW Lastly, the loss must be calculated. This can be calculated using the following formula.

Pcu = ( NP

t )I 2 AW

Where N is the number of turns, t is the mean length per turn data, p is the density of the wire, and I is the current. Taking the parameters assigned to us, we found that we would need a 200 uH inductor that required 22 turns of wire.

V. Layout
We were to design our own circuit layout in ExpressPCB. We did not have any experience in designing circuit layouts so we had to learn to find certain components and make libraries for components that were not yet made in ExpressPCB. After learning how to make the components and to wire them together we started to look up the components and the data sheets. We used the data sheets to make sure we had the right parameters for the components. After we finished our first attempt of our layout, we sent it into our mentor to make sure we were on the right track. After our mentor looked over it, we noticed that we had a couple mistakes that we had to fix. A couple of our mistakes were due to overlapped wiring and the placement of components. We then fixed some of the mistakes and designed our second layout. In addition, we fixed the diameter of the wiring to support a large amount of current running from and to each component. The placement of the components was fixed where it would help

Boost Converter 26 reduce the noise between the components. After fixing the mistakes, we looked over our layout one more time and sent it in to ExpressPCB to be manufactured. ExpressPCB had many purchasing options; however, we only needed one circuit board and had to choose the option of ordering two circuit boards for $100. While we were waiting for our circuit boards to be delivered, the rest of the components were purchased from Professor Smedley for $20. After receiving the components and board, we began soldering and assembling the circuit. During this process, we found that there were still some errors in our circuit. When designing our layout we did not take into account how big the inductor would be for the reason that we were to make our own inductor. We also did not consider how large the heat sink would be for the MOSFET. Another design mistake that we made was that the terminals for the main diode, the MUR415, were larger than expected and did not fit in the contact holes on the board. We had to modify our board by drilling holes and making new connections where needed. One of the variable resistors that we used to make the potentiometer was the wrong one. We used a longer variable resistor and the component given to much shorter and the terminals did not match to the contact holes. We soldered all the necessary pieces into their selected region and made the couple adjustments that needed to be made. However, since we had some pieces that would not fit on the board and had to buy a small board with contact holes from Radio Shack for $1.50. Making sure all the connections and wires were correct decreased the amount of noise we had in our design.

Boost Converter 27

First Design Attempt

Final Design

Boost Converter 28

DATA
Figure_1)

Figure 1 is the saw tooth waveform that is supplied to the Pulse Width Modulator by pin 7 that passes through the timing capacitor. The frequency is 168.6 kHz which is a little below the desired 200 kHz. The waveform has a peak-to-peak value of 3.19V and ranges from a low of 0.715V to maximum of 3.905V. This signal is then compared with the reference voltage that consists of the feedback voltage from the main circuit going into pin 1 and the constant voltage being fed into pin 2.

Boost Converter 29 Figure_2)

Figure 2 is the result of the PWM signal passing through the driver. This can be seen as the maximum voltage is around the Vcc voltage of 12V. This square pulse wave is fed to the gate of the MOSFET which controls its switching. Since the wave goes from 0V to 11.6V this switches the MOSFET on and off.

Boost Converter 30

Vin = 20V
Figure_3)

Figure 3 is the output voltage waveform. This waveform was taken over a load resistance of 245 Ohm. The output voltage around 68V which is a little off from our desired value of 70V. We were unable to reach the desired voltage because as we were adjusting the variable resister the current would get too high and cause the Vin voltage supply to go into overload as it has a safety limit of 1A. The highest voltage that we could attain without the voltage supply being at the brink of overload was 68V. As it is, for an output voltage of 68V the current was 1.019A. Aside from the noise, the current ripple is indeed to a minimum, which is consistent with the design specifications.

Boost Converter 31 Figure_4)

Figure 4 is the waveform of the voltage across the drain to source of the MOSFET. The upper region of the waveform was outside of the range of the oscilloscope and therefore was unable to be recorded.

Boost Converter 32 Figure_5)

Figure 5 represents the current flowing through the inductor. This waveform was taken by placing a 1Ohm resister in series with the inductor and taking the voltage across it. The two different stages of the current through the inductor can be seen by this waveform. When the slope is positive the current in the inductor is building as the MOSFET is in the on position. When the slope is negative the inductor is discharging as it is transferring its stored up current to the load terminal of the circuit as the MOSFET is in the off position. This graph is for when the circuit is in continuous conduction mode as the current is well above ground. The average current is 1.0148A. The graphs for discontinuous mode will be presented later.

Boost Converter 33 Figure_6)

Figure 6 is one of the efficiency tests. To do the different test for efficiency we set the voltage at its desired value and kept it constant. We then calculated the needed load resistance for our constant output voltage and desired output power. For this graph there was an input voltage of 20V, load resistance of 937Ohm, and an output voltage of 68.43V. This resulted in a 5W output power with a 94.25% efficiency rate.

Boost Converter 34 Figure_7)

Figure 7 is one of the efficiency tests. To do the different test for efficiency we set the voltage at its desired value and kept it constant. We then calculated the needed load resistance for our constant output voltage and desired output power. For this graph there was an input voltage of 20V, load resistance of 468Ohm, and an output voltage of 68.43V. This resulted in a 10W output power with a 93.21% efficiency rate.

Boost Converter 35 Figure_8)

Figure 8 is one of the efficiency tests. To do the different test for efficiency we set the voltage at its desired value and kept it constant. We then calculated the needed load resistance for our constant output voltage and desired output power. For this graph there was an input voltage of 20V, load resistance of 312Ohm, and an output voltage of 68.43V. This resulted in a 15W output power with a 93.55% efficiency rate.

Boost Converter 36 Figure_9)

Figure 9 is one of the efficiency tests. To do the different test for efficiency we set the voltage at its desired value and kept it constant. We then calculated the needed load resistance for our constant output voltage and desired output power. For this graph there was an input voltage of 20V, load resistance of 233Ohm, and an output voltage of 67.04V. This resulted in a 20W output power with a 92.33% efficiency rate. The reason why we found such a bad efficiency rate was because when we did the calculations to find the necessary load resistance we found a load resistance of 225Ohm. However, when we tried to implement this the circuit could not take it, as there was too much current needed to output that voltage. So to keep the output voltage constant we decided to raise the load resistance. Therefore, our final calculated power is not quite the desired 20 Watts which results in the smaller value for efficiency.

Boost Converter 37 Figure_10


Pow er vs Efficiency 20V Input 0.945

0.94 Efficiency

0.935

0.93

0.925

0.92 0 5 10 Pow er (W) 15 20 25

Figure 10 is the efficiency versus power graph for an input of 20 Volts. Again, the reason for the efficiency being so low for an output of 20W is because we could not run the circuit at the reduced load resistance. The efficiency at 5W is higher than normal due to a calculation error on our part.

Boost Converter 38

Vin = 40V
Figure_11)

Figure 11 is the voltage waveform for load resistance of 245Ohm and input voltage of 40V. It is similar to that of the output waveform for input voltage of 20V. The main difference between the two is duty cycle. Since there was not a need for such a high current level in the circuit the duty was able to be drastically smaller. From the graph it can seen that the duty cycle is less than half the total period length.

Boost Converter 39 Figure_12)

Figure 12 is the waveform of the voltage across the MOSFET from drain to source with an input voltage of 40V. Again, the extremes of the graph are outside of the range of the oscilloscope.

Boost Converter 40 Figure_13)

Figure 13 is the voltage waveform across a 1Ohm resistor that is placed in series with the inductor with an input voltage of 40V. This represents the current that is flowing through the inductor during the different stages. Again we see the current increasing when the MOSFET is on and decreasing when the MOSFET is off. The main difference between this graph and the one for the input voltage of 20V is again that the duty ratio is a lot shorter. This results in slopes that are more equal in magnitude. This also shows how the inductor does not need to store as much current as there is a greater voltage across it. This graph also shows that the average value for the current is half of the amount for an input of 20V.

Boost Converter 41 Figure_14)

Figure 14 is one of the efficiency tests. To do the different tests for efficiency we set the voltage at its desired value and kept it constant. We then calculated the needed load resistance for our constant output voltage and desired output power. For this graph, there was an input voltage of 40V, load resistance of 983Ohm, and an output voltage of 70.03V. This resulted in a 5W output power and an efficiency of 93.23%.

Boost Converter 42 Figure_15)

Figure 15 is one of the efficiency tests. To do the different tests for efficiency we set the voltage at its desired value and kept it constant. We then calculated the needed load resistance for our constant output voltage and desired output power. For this graph, there was an input voltage of 40V, load resistance of 491Ohm, and an output voltage of 70.03V. This resulted in a 10W output power and an efficiency of 93.93%.

Boost Converter 43 Figure_16)

Figure 16 is one of the efficiency tests. To do the different tests for efficiency we set the voltage at its desired value and kept it constant. We then calculated the needed load resistance for our constant output voltage and desired output power. For this graph, there was an input voltage of 40V, load resistance of 327Ohm, and an output voltage of 70.03V. This resulted in a 15W output power and an efficiency of 95.13%

Boost Converter 44 Figure_17)

Figure 17 is one of the efficiency tests. To do the different tests for efficiency we set the voltage at its desired value and kept it constant. We then calculated the needed load resistance for our constant output voltage and desired output power. For this graph, there was an input voltage of 40V, load resistance of 245Ohm, and an output voltage of 70.03V. This resulted in a 20W output power and an efficiency of 95.93%.

Boost Converter 45 Figure_18)


Pow er vs Efficiency 40V Input 0.965 0.96 0.955 Efficiency 0.95 0.945 0.94 0.935 0.93 0 5 10 Pow er (W) 15 20 25

Figure 18 is the efficiency versus output power graph for an input of 40V. This graph is closer to the ideal graph where there is a linear correlation between power and efficiency. The input of 40V made it easier to get ideal readings as there was not as much current flowing through the circuit, which means that there was less loss across the various components such as the MOSFET.

Boost Converter 46

Discontinuous Mode
Figure_19)

Figure 19 shows the circuit in discontinuous mode. Discontinuous mode is characterized by different conditions. One condition is that the current is less than then current ripple. Another condition is that K<Kcritical. We calculated the value of K and did confirm that it was less than Kcritical. K had a value of 0.0373 while Kcritical was 0.114. The graph shows that the circuit is indeed in discontinuous mode as the current falls below ground. This means that the inductor is allowed to fully discharge. We attained this by increasing the load resistance until the current fell below ground. For this graph the load was 2kOhm.

Boost Converter 47

Improvement
Our project had several minor flaws that can easily be corrected in another attempt. First, we would design the board with more caution taking the data sheets and utilizing them more efficiently. This would have eliminated a few of the problems with the design on the board. Also, since we now know the MOSFET requires a large heat sync to allow a high current rating, we would make additional room on the board, or design the board such that the terminals would line up on the opposite side of the board, since both sides of the board can be used.

VI. Budget
As we were designing the layout on ExpressPCB we researched some companies that we could use to send in our layout to be manufactured. We saw that ExpressPCB manufactured boards as well and sent in our layout design to them. They had many purchase options, but because we only needed one board, we choose the option of getting two boards for about $100. We also had to purchase our components, which we received from our mentor, Professor Smedley, for $20. After we started to put the circuit together we noticed that some of the components such as the inductor and the MOSFET with the heat sink would not fit in the board so we purchased one from Radio Shack for $1.50. The total cost of the whole project was about $121.50, but the cost for just one board was $71.50.

VII. Non Technical Issues i. Economics


We researched some of the low cost boost converters that are out in the market. The average price for these low cost boost converters is about $1.50 each for a bulk of 1000 pieces. The reason why our converter was a lot more expensive is because we had to build our circuit

Boost Converter 48 from scratch, including our inductor. The cost to make our board would have been less if we ordered in bulk, but because we only needed one it was more expensive. Another reason why our board cost more is the higher input and output voltage requirements. The low cost boost converters are only made to have an input ranging from 1V to about maximum 20V with a low output voltage. Our circuit was made to have an input ranging from 20V to 40V with a high output voltage of 70V.

ii.

Social/Political Issues
When we first decided to work on this project we did not see the significance of a boost

converter. It was not until we started working on it and researching on its functions that we learned that a boost converter is very important to many electronic devices. The way a boost converter is able to step up the voltage is very important to high output voltage devices. Many electrical devices such as space-constrained electronics, USB, LCD screens, and camera applications use boost converters. An article by Thomas Net Industrial NewsRoom announces the release of a high power boost converter by AnalogicTech. This low cost boost converter is able to supply "up to 4.5W of power, this new converter is the first to take a single-cell Lithium-ion battery voltage and boost it to a 5V/900 mA output in a total solution less than 1 mm in height" (ThomasNet). This boost converter also has an efficiency of about 90%. These types of converters are important to small electrical devices. Boost converters are also used in LCD displays that are in digital cameras and cell phones. The boost converter can regulate how much current goes through the LEDs which make up the picture on the screen. ThomasNet Industrial Newsroom announced the upcoming of converters in the applications of cameras. Up to 5 parallel LEDs can be driven at up to 25 mA

Boost Converter 49 each for LCD backlighting, while 2 LEDs can be driven at up to 200 mA each for camera flash (ThomasNet). Boost converters can be used for more than one application in one device. Applications like these in electronic components are what make boost converters very important to the future of our technology. Boost converters are important to space-constrained electronics and to the future of all digital devices. This project helped us understand the significance of the boost converter and we are glad to have been able to had hands-on experience with it.

VIII. Our Team


As soon as Professor Smedley agreed to be our mentor, we communicated through meetings and email. During fall quarter, she gave us the project that we would work on and explained what she required from us as a group. As soon as we had specifications of our project, we started to analyze every single component to understand the function of each one. We did our own research and Professor Smedley answered any questions that we had. We kept meetings every week to make sure we were on the right path. We believe these weekly meetings helped us stay on track with our work and Professor Smedley was great answering any questions that we had and helping us get our project done. All three of us knew each other from previous classes and decided to be a group. We all discussed what we each wanted to do for our senior project and we all agreed we wanted to do something that specialized in power. After looking at every project we decided we wanted Professor Smedley's project. From the first assignment, we made sure the workload was distributed fairly. We also made sure we all understood every function of the circuit and the main components. We believe we did great as a team and had fun working on the project.

Boost Converter 50

IX. Conclusion
With the analysis completed and the board fully designed and built, we found that our group successfully created a boost converter. A low input voltage was applied and a high voltage was output according to the specifications that were given to us. As a group, we designed a functioning PCB with only minor errors. Considering that we had no prior design experience, the boards minor errors were typical and could easily be corrected on another design. According to Professor Smedley, she is proud of our work and understands that designing a board requires practice and in many cases, more than one attempt. The boost converter ran with an efficiency of over 90% in all data tests. With this knowledge of power electronics and design, we feel that, as a group, we are better prepared for the future as engineers.

Boost Converter 51

Works Cited

"AnalogicTech Announces High Power DC/DC Boost Converter for Space-Constrained Applications." ThomasNet Industrial Newsroom. 28 Feb. 2007. 10 Mar. 2007 <http://news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/510866/612>.

"Boost-Converter." Interactive Power Electronics Seminar. 16 Jan. 2006. 27 Feb. 2007 <http://www.ipes.ethz.ch/ipes/dcdc/e_Boost.html>.

"DC/DC Converter Drives LCD Backlighting and Camera Flash." ThomasNet Industrial Newsroom. 16 June 2006. 10 Mar. 2007 <http://news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/485214/612>.

Erickson, Robert W., and Dragan Maksimovic. Fundamentals of Power Electronics. 2nd ed. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 2001.

Li, Dong, and Xinbo Ruan. "A High Efficient Boost Converter with Power Factor Correction." Power Electronics Specialists Conference 2.20-2 (2004): 1653-1657.

Mohan, Ned, Tore M. Undeland, and William P. Robbins. Power Electronics. 3rd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.

22mm x 13mm
DIMENSIONS
inches A B .851 .015 .264 .004 mm 21.6 .38 6.7 .10 2D E inches .362 min. .705 min. mm 9.2 min. 17.9 min.

2B C D

.528 .008 .590 nom. .181 min.

13.4 .20 15 nom. 4.59 min.

F G H

.370 max. .118 min. .179 .004

9.40 max. 2.99 min. 4.55 .10

MAGNETIC DATA
MAGNETIC PATH LENGTH (cm) EFFECTIVE 2 AREA (cm ) 3.12 CORE WEIGHT (grams per set) 13

.639
3

Wa Ac (cm )
Product of window area & core area, 1sec. Standard bobbin.

.187

VOLUME (cm )

2.00
2

Note: Minimum core area .509 cm

AL VALUES FOR UNGAPPED CORES


CORE NO. A-42213-UG D-42213-UG AL (mH/1000T) 1800 25% 3600 25% CORE NO. P-42213-UG F-42213-UG AL (mH/1000T) 3300 min. 4900 25%

G-42213-UG K-42213-UG R-42213-UG

4600 25% 2120 min. 3030 min

J-42213-UG W-42213-UG

6825 min. 11,200 min. (B = 5G) 19,500 Ref. nom.* (B = 217G)

*@1kHz, 100 Turns, 0.5 mA

GAPPED CORE DATA CORE NO. **-42213-A063 **-42213-A100 **-42213-A160 **-42213-A250 **-42213-A315 **-42213-A400 **-42213-A630 AL (A) 63 100 160 250 315 400 630 e 25.1 39.8 63.5 99.5 125 159 250.7 Typical Gap (in.) .072 .035 .021 .014 .009 .006 .004

TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS CORE NO. A-42213-A063 A-42213-A100 A-42213-A160 A-42213-A250 D-42213-A160 D-42213-A250 D-42213-A315 D-42213- A400 D-42213-A630 TCe (B) 25 - 75 40 - 119 63 191 100 - 298 57 - 134 90 - 209 112 - 262 143 - 334 226 - 526 CORE NO. G-42213-A160 G-42213-A250 G-42213-A315 G-42213-A400 G-42213-A630 -45 -70 -88 -111 -175 TCe (B) to + 45 to + 70 to + 88 to + 111 to + 175

**Add material code to part no. TCe values are based on - 30C to + 70C for D material and from +20C to + 70C for A and G materials. Any practical gap is available. See pages 1.6 and 1.7.

FOR PREFERRED PARTS, SEE INSIDE BACK COVER

MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

6.13

22mm x 13mm
TUNING ASSEMBLY DIMENSIONS

Material: screw: Polypropylene base: Polyoxymethylene

(All dimensions are in inches - nominal) For these AL values: 100, 160, 250, 315 250, 315, 400 PART NUMBER TC-G2213-C2 Core TB-P2213 Base TC-F2213-B1 TB-P2213 Core Base TYPE NO. 1 COLOR Black Black Red Black A .471 B .169 C .160 D .146 E .206
AL 100 160 250 315 400

MAXIMUM TUNING RANGE


TC-G2213-C2 24% 21% 14% 11% 15% TC-F2213-B1 25% 20%

.396

.169

.160

.160

.190

Flangeless base is also available. See page 8.10.

STANDARD BOBBINS

Material: Delrin (UL 94 HB rated) DIMENSIONS IN INCHES PART NUMBER B2213-01 B2213-02 B2213-03 A MAX. .702 .702 .702 B MAX. .359 .359 .359 C MIN. .373 .373 .373 D MAX. .421 .421 .421 E NOM. .320 .151 .095 Nominal Winding Area Per Section in2 cm2 .0453 .0214 .0135 .292 .138 .087 Average Length of Turn ft .145

This bobbin available in a flame-retardant version, Material Crastin S660FR, PBT unreinforced, UL 94 V-0 rated. Part no. B2213-01FR.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOBBINS

Bobbin Material: Glass-filled nylon (UL 94 V-0 rated - 1 & 2 sections) (UL 94 HB - 3 sections) Pin Material: Tin coated brass

NOTE:When ordering, insert suffix of pin length desired, (*1 or *2) into part no.

See page 5.7 for bobbin assembly


PART NUMBER Basic Bobbin SizePin Lengt h DIMENSIONS IN INCHES * X1 NOM. * X2 NOM (1) Y1 NOM. (1) Y2 NOM. Nominal Winding Area Per Section in2 .043 1.071 .402 .990 .187 .281 .023 .117 .02 .013 cm2 .28 .13 .08 .144 Averag e Length of Turn ft

Sections

A MAX.

B MAX.

C MAX.

D NOM. .307

E MAX.

F MAX.

G NOM.

PC-B2213- * 1 PC-B2213- * 2 PC-B2213- * 3

.7 0 1

..421

.354

.145 .091

If short pin (X1) is desired, part no. is -11, -12, or -13. If long pin (X2) is desired, part no. is -21, -22, or -23.

(1) Y-Pin length available under board for soldering, using spring clip mounting (on 1/16" board).

6.14

MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

MOUNTING CLAMPS

22mm x 13mm

Figure 1

Figure 2 (Printed circuit board type)

Material: Spring Steel, .014 inches thick Mounting Brackets are made to allow for tuning adjusters. If these adjusters are not used, a polypropylene washer must be inserted to take up extra space. The part number and dimensions of the washer are: Part Number W-2213-24 Diameter .840 .008
(All dimensions in inches)

Thickness .025

PART NUMBER C2213-14 (1) P-C2213-14

FIGURE 1 2

A NOM. .585 .585

B NOM. .876 .876

C NOM. .820 .820

D .020 1.100 .846

F NOM. 1.300 .141

(1) Mounting Holes (Figure 1) = #4-40 Machine Screw Impressions.

MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

6.15

Section 1.

What are Ferrites?


Ferrites are dense, homogeneous ceramic structures made by mixing iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) with oxides or carbonates of one or more metals such as manganese, zinc, nickel, or magnesium. They are pressed, then fired in a kiln at 2000F, and machined as needed to meet various operational requirements.

MAGNETICS Ferrites
Ferrites described in this catalog are the manganese-zinc type used for communications (frequencies from 1KHz to 1000 KHz) and for power applications such as in switching power supplies.

Advantages of Ferrites
Ferrites have a paramount advantage over other types of magnetic materials: high electrical resistivity and resultant low eddy current losses over a wide frequency range. Additional characteristics such as high permeability and time/temperature stability have expanded ferrite uses into quality filter circuits, high frequency transformers, wide band transformers, adjustable inductors, delay lines, and other high frequency electronic circuitry. As the high frequency performance of other circuit components continues to be improved, ferrites are routinely designed into magnetic circuits for both low level and power applications. Another factor in choosing ferrites is the higher cost of magnetic metals. For the most favorable combination of low cost, high Q, high stability, and lowest volume, ferrites are the best core material choice for frequencies from 10 KHz to 50 MHz. Ferrites offer an unmatched flexibility in magnetic and mechanical parameters.

Summary of Ferrite Advantages


1. LOW COST 2. LARGE SELECTION OF MATERIALS 3. SHAPE VERSATILITY 4. ECONOMICAL ASSEMBLY 5. TEMPERATURE AND TIME STABILITY 6. HIGH RESISTIVITY 7. WIDE FREQUENCY RANGE (10 KHz to 50 MHz) 8. HIGH Q/SMALL PACKAGE

TYPICAL MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FERRITE MATERIALS


Mechanical Data Bulk Density Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Youngs Modulus Hardness (Knoop) Resistivity Thermal Data Coef. of Linear Expansion Specific Heat (25) Thermal Conductivity (25-85C) 10.5 x 10 - 6 1100 .26 3500-4300 35-43 .0083-.010 4.85 5.0 7.0 x 10 45 63 x 10 12.4 x 10 1 . 8 x 1 07 650 Typical 10-10 Units gm/cm kgf.mm - 2 Ibs.in - 2 kgf.mm- 2 lbs.in - 2 kgf.mm - 2 Ibs.in- 2 ohm-cm Units C - 1 J.kg - 1 C- -11 cal.g - 1. C W.mm - 1 C - 1 . mW.cm - 1.C - 1 cal.s-.cm - 1 .C - 1

MAGNETIC BUTLER, PA

Above properties are averages measured on a range of commercially available MnZn ferrite materials.
1.1

Section 2. Materials
Material Characteristics (1)
INDUCTORS AND LOW LEVEL APPLICATIONS MATERIALS Initial Permeability Maximum Usable Frequency (50% roll-off) Relative Loss Factor *Curie Temperature * Relative Temp. Factor - 30C to +20C + 20C to +70C *Flux Density @ 1194 A/m (15 Oe) * Remanence * Coercivity Disaccommodation Factor * Resistivity * Density *Power Loss (PL), Sine Wave, in mW/cm (typical) A 750 20% <9 <12 (.5MHz) <20 (1MHz) >260 2.0 to 4.0 (Typ.) 1.0 to 3.0 Bm Br Hc DF G mT G mT Oe A/m 10-6 4600 460 2300 230 0.7 56 <15 4 4.5 D 2000 20% <4 <6 (.1MHz) >145 .9 to 2.1 9 to 2.1 3800 380 1000 100 0.25 20 <2.0 3 4.7 G 2300 20% <4 <6 (.1MHz) >180 EMI/RFI FILTERS AND BROADBAND TRANSFORMERS J 5000 20% <1 <20 (100kHz) >140 W 10000 30% <.25 <7 (10kHz) >125 H 15000 30% <.15 <15 (10kHz) >120

i
f tan iac Tc /C

MHz 10-6 C 10 /C
-6

-. 7 to +.7 4600 460 1300 130 0.15 12 <3.5 8 4.7

4300 430 1000 100 0.1 8 <3 1 4.8

4300 430 800 80 0.04 3 <3 .15 4.8

4200 420 800 80 0.04 3 <2.5 .1 4.9


25kHz 200mT (2000G) 100kHz 100mT (1000G) 500kHz 50mT (500G) 700kHz 50mT (500G) Available in: Pot Cores RS Cores DS Cores RM Cores EP Cores E, U Cores EC, ETD Cores PQ Cores Toroids Blocks

-m
g/cm3 @25C @60C @100C @120C @25C @60C @100C @120C @25 C @80C @100 C @120 C @25C @60C @100C @120C

225 275 375

X X

X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X

NOTE (1). These characteristics are typical for a 42206 size (0.870" O.D.) toroid. Specific core data will usually differ from these numbers due to the influence of geometry and size. Characteristics with * are typical.

2.1

MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

Material Characteristics (cont.) (1)


INDUCTORS AND POWER TRANSFORMERS MATERIALS Initial Permeability Maximum Usable Frequency (50% roll-off) Relative Loss Factor * Curie Temperature * Relative Temp. Factor 30C to +20C +20C to +70C * Flux Density @ 1194 A/m (15 Oe) * Remanence * Coercivity Disaccommodation Factor *Resisitivity *Density *Power Loss (PL), Sine Wave, in mW/cm (typical)
j
f tan iac Tc /C K 1500 25% <2 R 2300 25% <1.5 P 2500 25% <1.2 F 3000 20% <1.3 <8(100kHz) >230 >230 >230 >250

MHz 10 -6 C 10- 6 /C

Bm Br Hc DF

G mT G mT Oe A/m 10 -6
-m

4600 460 900 90 0.2 16

5000 500 1100 110 0.18 14

5000 500 1100 110 0.18 14

4900 490 1200 120 0.2 16

20 4.7

6 4.8 130 85 70 85

5 4.8 120 90 95 130 125 90 125 165 300 250 275 350

2 4.8 90 160 240 100 180 225

25kHz 200mT (2000G) 100kHz 100mT (1000G) 500kHz 50mT (500G) 700kHz 50mT (500G)

g/cm @25C @60C @100C @120C


@25C @60C @100C @120C @25C @60C @100C @120C @25C @60C @100C @120C

100 90 110 130 100 100 120 140 180 200 220 290 X X X X X X X X X X

140 100 70 90 375 300 250 300

Available In: Pot Cores RS Cores DS Cores RM Cores EP Cores E, U Cores EC, ETD Cores PQ Cores Toroids Blocks
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

2.2

Graph 1 Relative Loss Factor vs. Frequency

Graph 2 Initial Permeability (i)

vs.

Temperature

Temperature C

Frequency (kHz)

Graph 3A Frequency Response Curves

Graph 3B Frequency Response Curves

Frequency (kHz)

Frequency (kHz)

Graph 3C Frequency Response Curves

Frequency (kHz)

2.3

MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

Saturation Flux Density - gausses 5000 ( at 15 oersted, 25 C) (500 mT) Coercive Force - oersted . . . . . . . . 0.18 (14A/m) Curie Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230C

P Material i 2500 25%


Note: The core loss curves are developed from empirical data. For best results and highest accuracy, use them. The formula on page 2.11 yields a fair approximation and can be useful in computer programs.

PERMEABILITY vs. TEMPERATURE

CORE LOSS vs FLUX DENSITY

TEMPERATURE (C)

CORE LOSS vs. TEMPERATURE

TEMPERATURE (C)

PERMEABILITY vs. FLUX DENSITY


FLUX DENSITY GAUSS

FLUX DENSITY vs. TEMPERATURE

FLUX DENSITY GAUSS


MAGNETIC BUTLER, PA

TEMPERATURE (C) See page 2.12 for B-H Data


2.6

CORE LOSS INFORMATION


Included on Pages 2.4-2.10 are material characteristics for the various Magnetics power and inductor materials. For computer programming purposes, the core loss curves can be represented by the equation below. The factors indicated in the chart are split into discrete frequency ranges, so that the equation offers a close approximation to the core loss curves on the above pages. CORE LOSS EQUATION: PL=af c B d PL is in mW/cm3 B is in kG f is in kHz

FACTORS APPLIED TO THE ABOVE FORMULA a K Material f<500 kHz 500 kHz<f<1 MHz f>1 MHz R Material f<100 kHz 100 kHz<f<500 kHz f>500 kHz P Material f<100 kHz 100kHz<f<500 kHz f>500 kHz F Material f<10 kHz 10 kHz<f<100 kHz 100 kHz<f<500 kHz f>500 kHz J Material f<20 kHz f>20 kHz W Material f<20 kHz f>20 kHz H Material f<20 kHz f>20 kHz 0.0530 0.00113 1.77*100.074 0.036 0.014 0.158 0.0434 7.36*10 0.790 0.0717 0.0573 0.0126 0.245 0.00458 0.300 0.00382 0.148 0.135
-7 9

c 1.60 2.19 4.13 1.43 1.64 1.84 1.36 1.63 3.47 1.06 1.72 1.66 1.88 1.39 2.42 1.26 2.32 1.50 1.62

d 3.15 3.10 2.98 2.85 2.68 2.28 2.86 2.62 2.54 2.85 2.66 2.68 2.29 2.50 2.50 2.60 2.62 2.25 2.15

2.11

MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

B vs. H Curves (dc)

H-oersted

H-oersted

H-oersted

H-oersted

CONVERSION TABLE

Multiply number of Oersteds Oersteds Gausses Gausses Teslas

by 79.5 .795 .1 10 - 4 10 4

to obtain A/m A/cm milli Teslas Teslas Gausses

H-oersted
MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

2.12

Low Level Applications Pot Cores


The information contained in this section is primarily concerned with the design of linear inductors for high frequency LC tuned circuits using Ferrite Pot Cores. Magnetics has arranged the data in this section for ease in (1) determining the optimum core for these LC circuits and (2) ordering the items necessary for any particular Pot Core assembly. Featured are magnetic data, temperature characteristics, core

Section 5.

dimensions, accessories, and other important design criteria. Standard Q curves are available on special request, if needed. The data presented in this section are compiled mainly for selecting cores for high Q resonant LC circuits. However, much of this information can also be used to design pot cores into many other applications, including high frequency transformers, chokes, and other magnetic circuit elements.

Pot Core Assembly


A ferrite pot core assembly includes the following items: (1) two matched pot core halves (2) bobbin on which the coils are wound (3) tuning assembly (4) a clamp for holding the core halves together

MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

5.1

The pot core shape provides a convenient means of adjusting the ferrite structure to meet the specific requirements of the inductor. Both high circuit Q and good temperature stability of inductance can be obtained with these cores. The self-shielded pot core isolates the winding from stray magnetic fields or effects from other surrounding circuit elements. The effective permeability ( e ) is adjusted by grinding a small air gap in the center post of the pot core. For transformers and some inductors, no ground air gap is introduced, and the effective permeability is maximized. The effective permeability of the pot core will always be less than the material initial permeability (i ) because of the small air gap at the mating surfaces of the pot core halves. For other inductors where stability of inductance, Q, and temperature coefficient must be closely specified, a controlled air gap is carefully ground into the center post of one or both of the pot

core halves. When fitted together, the total air gap then will determine the effective permeability and control the magnetic characteristics of the pot core. Finer adjustment of the effective permeability (gapped pot core inductance) can be accomplished by moving a ferrite cylinder or rod into the air gap through a hol in the center post. Magnetics ferrites are available in various initial permeabilities ( i) which for filter applications cover frequency ranges into the megahertz region. Magnetics produces a wide variety of pot core sizes which include fourteen (14) international standard sizes*. These range from 5 x 6 mm to 45 x 29 mm, these dimensions representing OD and height of a pair. Each pot core half is tested and matched with another half to produce a core with an inductance tolerance of 3% for most centerpost ground parts.

Advantages of Pot Core Assemblies


1. SELF-SHIELDING Because the wound coil is enclosed within the ferrite core, selfshielding prevents stray magnetic fields from entering or leaving the structure. 2. COMPACTNESS Self-shielding permits more compact arrangement of circuit components, especially on printed circuit boards. 3. MECHANICAL CONVENIENCE Ferrite pot cores are easy to assemble, mount, and wire to the circuit. 4. LOW COST As compared to other core materials, ferrites are easier to make in unusual configurations (such as pot cores), resulting in a lower cost component. In addition, winding a pot core is usually quick and inexpensive because coils can be pre-wound on bobbins. When other costs of assembly, mounting, wiring, and adjustment are added, the total cost is often less than with other core materials or shapes. 5. ADJUSTABILITY Final adjustment is accomplished by moving a threaded core in and out of the centerpost, and adjustment in the field is relatively easy as compared to any other type of construction. 6. IMPROVED TEMPERATURE STABILITY AND Q Air gaps inserted between the mating surfaces of the centerposts provide good temperature stability and high Q.

7. WIDE CORE SELECTION Many combinations of materials, physical sizes, and inductances offer the design engineer a large number of choices in core selection. 8. LOW LOSSES AND LOW DISTORTION Since ferrites have high resistivities, eddy current losses are extremely low over the applicable frequency range and can be neglected. Hysteresis losses can be kept low with proper selection of material, core size, and excitation level.

Special Advantages of Magnetics Pot Core Assemblies


1. UNIQUE ONE PIECE CLAMP Provides simple assembly of the two core halves. Easy bending action allows insertion of the core assembly into the clamp, and spring tension holds the assembly rigidly and permanently in place. Rivet, screw, or circuit board tab mounting is available. 2. CHOICE OF LINEAR OR FLAT TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS Provides a close match to corresponding capacitors. 3. CONSISTENCY AND UNIFORMITY Modern equipment with closely controlled manufacturing processes produce ferrite pot cores that are magnetically uniform, not only within one lot but from lot to lot.

* lEC Publication No. 133 (1961).


5.2
MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

Table 5 Magnet Wire


Wire Size AWG 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Wire Area (Max.)* Heavy Circular Mils 11,470 9,158 7,310 5,852 4,679 3,758 3,003 2,421 1,936 1,560 1,246 1,005 807 650 524 424 342 272 219 180 144 117 96.0 77.4 60.8 49.0 39.7 32.5 26.0 20.2 16.0 13.0 10.2 8.40 7.30 5.30
cm2 10 3

Wire Tables
Turns** per in2 89 112 140 176 220 260 330 410 510 635 800 1,000 1,200 1,500 1,900 2,400 3,000 3,600 4,700 5,600 7,000 8,500 10,500 13,000 16,000 20,000 25,000 32,000 37,000 50,000 65,000 80,000 100,000 125,000 150,000 185.000 per cm 13.8 17.4 21.7 27.3 34.1 40.3 51.2 63.6 79.1 98.4 124 155 186 232 294 372 465 558 728 868 1,085 1,317 1,628 2,015 2,480 3,100 3,876 4,961 5,736 7,752 10,077 12,403 15,504 19,380 23,256 28,682
2

Resistance Ohms/1000' .9987 1.261 1.588 2.001 2.524 3.181 4.020 5.054 6.386 8.046 10.13 12.77 16.20 20.30 25.67 32.37 41.0 51.4 65.3 81.2 104 131 162 206 261 331 415 512 648 847 1,080 1,320 1,660 2,140 2,590 3,348

Current Capacity (ma) @ 750 Cir. Mil/amp 13,840 10,968 8,705 6,912 5,479 4,347 3,441 2,736 2,165 1,719 1,365 1,083 853 681 539 427 338 259 212 171 133 106 85 67 53 42 33 27 21 16 13 11 8.5 6.5 5.5 4.1 @ 500 Cir. Mil/amp 20,768 16,452 13,058 10,368 8,220 6,520 5,160 4,100 3,250 2,580 2,050 1,630 1,280 1,020 808 641 506 403 318 255 200 158 128 101 79 63 50 41 32 25 19 16 13 10 8 6.2

58.13 46.42 37.05 29.66 23.72 19.05 15.22 12.27 9.812 7.907 6.315 5.094 4.090 3.294 2.656 2.149 1.733 1.379 1.110 0.9123 0.7298 0.5930 0.4866 0.3923 0.3082 0.2484 0.2012 0.1647 0.1318 0.1024 0.0811 0.0659 0.0517 0.0426 0.037 0.0269

Table 6 Litz
Litz Wire Size 5/44 6/44 7/44 12/44 20/44 30/44 40/44 50/44 60/44

Wire
Turns*** per in
2

per cm

Litz Wire Size 72/44 80/44 90/44 100/44 120/44 150/44 180/44 360/44

Turns*** per in
2

per cm

28,000 25,000 22,000 13,000 7,400 4,000 3,000 2,300 1,900

4,341 3,876 3,410 2,016 1,147 620 465 356 294

1,500 1,400 1,200 1,100 900 700 500 250

232 217 186 170 140 108 77 38

*Areas are for maximum wire area plus maximum insulation buildup.

**Based on a typical machine layer wound coil.

***Based on a typical layer wound coil.

MAGNETICS BUTLER, PA

5.9

Data Sheet No. PD60177 Rev. E

IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF) DUAL LOW SIDE DRIVER


Features
Gate drive supply range from 6 to 20V CMOS Schmitt-triggered inputs Matched propagation delay for both channels Outputs out of phase with inputs (IR4426) Outputs in phase with inputs (IR4427) OutputA out of phase with inputA and Also available LEAD-FREE
OutputB in phase with inputB (IR4428)

Product Summary

IO+/VOUT ton/off (typ.)

1.5A / 1.5A 6V - 20V 85 & 65 ns

Descriptions
The IR4426/IR4427/IR4428 (S) is a low voltage, high speed power MOSFET and IGBT driver. Proprietary latch immune CMOS technologies enable ruggedized monolithic construction. Logic inputs are compatible with standard CMOS or LSTTL outputs. The output drivers feature a high pulse current buffer stage designed for minimum driver cross-conduction. Propagation delays between two channels are matched.

Packages

8 Lead PDIP 8 Lead SOIC

Block Diagram

NC

NC

INA

OUTA

TO LOAD

IR442x
GND Vs INB OUTB

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IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Absolute maximum ratings indicate sustained limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. All voltage parameters are absolute voltages referenced to GND. The thermal resistance and power dissipation ratings are measured under board mounted and still air conditions.

Symbol
VS VO VIN PD RthJA TJ TS TL

Definition
Fixed supply voltage Output voltage Logic input voltage Package power dissipation @ TA +25C Thermal resistance, junction to ambient Junction temperature Storage temperature Lead temperature (soldering, 10 seconds) (8 Lead PDIP) (8 lead SOIC) (8 lead PDIP) (8 lead SOIC)

Min.
-0.3 -0.3 -0.3 -55

Max.
25 VS + 0.3 VS + 0.3 1.0 0.625 125 200 150 150 300

Units
V

W C/W

Recommended Operating Conditions


The input/output logic timing diagram is shown in figure 1. For proper operation the device should be used within the recommended conditions. All voltage parameters are absolute voltages referenced to GND.

Symbol
VS VO VIN TA

Definition
Fixed supply voltage Output voltage Logic input voltage Ambient temperature

Min.
6 0 0 -40

Max.
20 VS VS 125

Units
V C

DC Electrical Characteristics
VBIAS (VS) = 15V, TA = 25C unless otherwise specified. The VIN, and IIN parameters are referenced to GND and are applicable to input leads: INA and INB. The VO and IO parameters are referenced to GND and are applicable to the output leads: OUTA and OUTB.

Symbol
VIH (IR4426)

Definition
Logic 0 input voltage (OUTA=LO, OUTB=LO) Logic 1 input voltage (OUTA=HI, OUTB=HI) (IR4427) Logic 0 input voltage (OUTA=LO), input voltage (OUTB=HI) (IR4428) Logic 1

Min. Typ. Max. Units Test Conditions


2.7

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IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

DC Electrical Characteristics cont.


VBIAS (VS) = 15V, TA = 25C unless otherwise specified. The VIN, and IIN parameters are referenced to GND and are applicable to input leads: INA and INB. The VO and IO parameters are referenced to GND and are applicable to the output leads: OUTA and OUTB.

Symbol
VIL (IR4426)

Definition
Logic 1 input voltage (OUTA=HI, OUTB=HI) Logic 0 input voltage (OUTA=LO, OUTB=LO) (IR4427) Logic I input voltage (OUTA=HI), input voltage (OUTB=LO) (IR4428) Logic 0

Min. Typ. Max. Units Test Conditions


0.8

VOH VOL IIN+

High level output voltage, VBIAS-VO Low level output voltage, VO Logic 1 input bias current (OUT=HI)

1.2 0.1 15 VIN = 0V (IR4426) VIN = VS (IR4427) VINA = 0V (IR4428) VINB = VS (IR4428)

IIN-

Logic 0 input bias current (OUT=LO)

-10

-30

VIN = VS (IR4426) VIN = 0V (IR4427) VINA = VS (IR4428) VINB = 0V (IR4428)

IQS IO+

Quiescent Vs supply current Output high short circuit pulsed current

1.5

100 2.3

200

VIN = 0V or VS VO = 0V, VIN = 0 (IR4426) VO = 0V, VIN = VS (IR4427) VO = 0V, VINA = 0 (IR4428) VO = 0V, VINB = VS A (IR4428) PW 10 s VO = 15V, VIN = VS (IR4426) VO = 15V, VIN = 0 (IR4427) VO = 15V, VINA = VS (IR4428) VO = 15V, VINB = 0 (IR4428) PW 10 s

IO-

Output low short circuit pulsed current

1.5

3.3

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IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

AC Electrical Characteristics
VBIAS (VS) = 15V, CL = 1000pF, TA = 25oC unless otherwise specified.

Symbol Definition Propagation delay characteristics


td1 td2 tr tf Turn-on propagation delay Turn-off propagation delay Turn-on rise time Turn-off fall time

Min. Typ. Max. Units Test Conditions


85 65 15 10 160 150 35 25 ns figure 4

Functional Block Diagram IR4426


5V

Vs

INA
PREDRV

DRV

OUTA

5V Vs

INB
PREDRV

DRV

OUTB

GND

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IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

Functional Block Diagram IR4427

Vs

INA
PREDRV

DRV

OUTA

Vs

INB
PREDRV

DRV

OUTB

GND

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IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

Functional Block Diagram IR4428


5V

Vs

INA
PREDRV

DRV

OUTA

Vs

INB
PREDRV

DRV

OUTB

GND

Lead Definitions
Symbol Description
VS GND INA INB OUTA OUTB Supply voltage Ground Logic input for gate driver output (OUTA), out of phase (IR4426, IR4428), in phase (IR4427) Logic input for gate driver output (OUTB), out of phase (IR4426), in phase (IR4427, IR4428) Gate drive output A Gate drive output B

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IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

Lead Assignments

INA GND INB

OUTA VS OUTB

INA GND INB

OUTA VS OUTB

INA GND INB

OUTA VS VS OUTB

8 Lead PDIP

8 Lead PDIP

8 Lead PDIP

IR4426

IR4427 Part Number

IR4428

Lead Assignments

INA GND INB

OUTA VS OUTB

INA GND INB

OUTA VS OUTB

INA GND INB

OUTA VS VS OUTB

8 Lead SOIC

8 Lead SOIC

8 Lead SOIC

IR4426S

IR4427S Part Number

IR4428S

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IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

INA (IR4426, IR4428) INB (IR4426) INA (IR4427) INB (IR4427, IR4428) OUTA OUTB

Figure 3. Timing Diagram

INA (IR4426, IR4428) INB (IR4426)

INA (IR4427) INB (IR4427, IR4428) td1 tr td2 tf

OUTA OUTB

Figure 4. Switching Time Waveforms

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IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION
VS = 15V VS = 15V

4.7UF 0.1UF

4.7UF 0.1UF

INA 2 7 OUTA CL = 1000PF

INA 2 7 OUTA CL = 1000PF

INB 4 5 OUTB CL = 1000PF

INB 4 5 OUTB CL = 1000PF

3 IR4426

VS = 15V

3 IR4427 4.7UF 0.1UF

INA 2 7 OUTA CL = 1000PF

INB 4 5 OUTB CL = 1000PF

3 IR4428

Figure 5. Switching Time Test Circuits www.irf.com 9

IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

Caseoutline

8 Lead PDIP

01-3003 01

Tape & Reel

10

www.irf.com

IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

Case Outline - 8 Lead SOIC

(MS-012AA) 01-0021 09

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11

IR4426/IR4427/IR4428(S) & (PbF)


ADVANCE INFORMATION

LEADFREE PART MARKING INFORMATION


Part number

IRxxxxxx YWW? ?XXXX


Lot Code (Prod mode - 4 digit SPN code) IR logo

Date code

Pin 1 Identifier ? P MARKING CODE Lead Free Released Non-Lead Free Released

Assembly site code Per SCOP 200-002

ORDER INFORMATION
Basic Part (Non-Lead Free) 8-Lead PDIP IR4426 order 8-Lead SOIC IR4426S order 8-Lead PDIP IR4427 order 8-Lead SOIC IR4427S order 8-Lead PDIP IR4428 order 8-Lead SOIC IR4428S order Leadfree Part 8-Lead PDIP IR4426 8-Lead SOIC IR4426S 8-Lead PDIP IR4427 8-Lead SOIC IR4427S 8-Lead PDIP IR4428 8-Lead SOIC IR4428S

IR4426 IR4426S IR4427 IR4427S IR4428 IR4428S

order order order order order order

IR4426PbF IR4426SPbF IR4427PbF IR4427SPbF IR4428PbF IR4428SPbF

IR WORLD HEADQUARTERS: 233 Kansas St., El Segundo, California 90245 Tel: (310) 252-7105 This product has been qualified per industrial level Data and specifications subject to change without notice. 4/13/2004

12

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MUR405, MUR410, MUR415, MUR420, MUR440, MUR460


MUR420 and MUR460 are Preferred Devices

SWITCHMODE Power Rectifiers


This series is designed for use in switching power supplies, inverters and as free wheeling diodes, these stateoftheart devices have the following features:
Features http://onsemi.com

Ultrafast 25 ns, 50 ns and 75 ns Recovery Times 175C Operating Junction Temperature Low Forward Voltage Low Leakage Current High Temperature Glass Passivated Junction Reverse Voltage to 600 V Shipped in plastic bags, 5,000 per bag Available in Tape and Reel, 1500 per reel, by adding a RL suffix to the part number These devices are manufactured with a PbFree external lead finish only*

ULTRAFAST RECTIFIERS 4.0 AMPERES 50600 VOLTS

Mechanical Characteristics

Case: Epoxy, Molded Weight: 1.1 gram (approximately) Finish: All External Surfaces Corrosion Resistant and
Terminal Leads are Readily Solderable Lead and Mounting Surface Temperature for Soldering Purposes: 220C Max. for 10 Seconds, 1/16 from case Polarity: Cathode indicated by Polarity Band

AXIAL LEAD CASE 267 STYLE 1

MARKING DIAGRAM
MUR 4xx

MUR4xx = Device Code xx = 05, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60

ORDERING INFORMATION
See detailed ordering and shipping information in the package dimensions section on page 2 of this data sheet.

Preferred devices are recommended choices for future use and best overall value.

*For additional information on our PbFree strategy and soldering details, please download the ON Semiconductor Soldering and Mounting Techniques Reference Manual, SOLDERRM/D.

Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2004

December, 2004 Rev. 9

Publication Order Number: MUR420/D

MUR405, MUR410, MUR415, MUR420, MUR440, MUR460


MAXIMUM RATINGS
MUR Rating Peak Repetitive Reverse Voltage Working Peak Reverse Voltage DC Blocking Voltage Average Rectified Forward Current (Square Wave) (Mounting Method #3 Per Note 2) Nonrepetitive Peak Surge Current (Surge applied at rated load conditions, half wave, single phase, 60 Hz) Operating Junction Temperature & Storage Temperature Symbol VRRM VRWM VR IF(AV) IFSM TJ, Tstg 405 50 410 100 415 150 420 200 440 400 460 600 Unit V

4.0 @ TA = 80C 125 *65 to +175

4.0 @ TA = 40C 110

A A C

Maximum ratings are those values beyond which device damage can occur. Maximum ratings applied to the device are individual stress limit values (not normal operating conditions) and are not valid simultaneously. If these limits are exceeded, device functional operation is not implied, damage may occur and reliability may be affected.

THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
MUR Rating Maximum Thermal Resistance, JunctiontoAmbient Symbol RqJA 405 410 415 420 440 460 Unit C/W

See Note 2

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
MUR Rating Maximum Instantaneous Forward Voltage (Note 1) (iF = 3.0 A, TJ = 150C) (iF = 3.0 A, TJ = 25C) (iF = 4.0 A, TJ = 25C) Maximum Instantaneous Reverse Current (Note 1) (Rated dc Voltage, TJ = 150C) (Rated dc Voltage, TJ = 25C) Maximum Reverse Recovery Time (IF = 1.0 Amp, di/dt = 50 Amp/ms) (IF = 0.5 Amp, iR = 1.0 Amp, IREC = 0.25 Amp) Maximum Forward Recovery Time (IF = 1.0 A, di/dt = 100 A/ms, Recovery to 1.0 V) 1. Pulse Test: Pulse Width = 300 ms, Duty Cycle v 2.0%. Symbol vF 0.71 0.88 0.89 iR 150 5 trr 35 25 tfr 25 75 50 50 ns 250 10 ns 1.05 1.25 1.28 mA 405 410 415 420 440 460 Unit V

ORDERING INFORMATION
Device MUR405 MUR405RL MUR410 MUR410RL MUR415 MUR415RL MUR420 MUR420RL MUR440 MUR440RL MUR460 MUR460RL Package AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD AXIAL LEAD Shipping 5000 Units / Bag 1500 / Tape & Reel 5000 Units / Bag 1500 / Tape & Reel 5000 Units / Bag 1500 / Tape & Reel 5000 Units / Bag 1500 / Tape & Reel 5000 Units / Bag 1500 / Tape & Reel 5000 Units / Bag 1500 / Tape & Reel

For information on tape and reel specifications, including part orientation and tape sizes, please refer to our Tape and Reel Packaging Specifications Brochure, BRD8011/D.

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2

MUR405, MUR410, MUR415, MUR420, MUR440, MUR460


MUR405, MUR410, MUR415, MUR420
100 IR, REVERSE CURRENT (m A) 70 50 30 20 i F , INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (AMPS) 80 40 20 8.0 4.0 2.0 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.008 0.004 0.002 0 5.0 3.0 2.0 TJ = 175C 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.2 25C 100C 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

TJ = 175C

100C

25C

10 7.0

160

180 200

VR, REVERSE VOLTAGE (V)

Figure 2. Typical Reverse Current

IF(AV), AVERAGE FORWARD CURRENT (A)

8 7 DC 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 TA, AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (C) SQUAREWAVE Rated VR RqJA = 28C/W

0.1 0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

vF, INSTANTANEOUS VOLTAGE (V)

Figure 1. Typical Forward Voltage

Figure 3. Current Derating (Mounting Method #3 Per Note 2)

PF(AV) , AVERAGE POWER DISSIPATION (WATTS)

10 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 dc SQUAREWAVE (Capacitive IPK =20 IAV Load) 10 5.0 C, CAPACITANCE (pF)

200

TJ = 25C 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 VR, REVERSE VOLTAGE (V)

IF(AV), AVERAGE FORWARD CURRENT (A)

Figure 4. Power Dissipation

Figure 5. Typical Capacitance

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3

MUR405, MUR410, MUR415, MUR420, MUR440, MUR460


MUR440, MUR460
20 IR, REVERSE CURRENT (m A) 400 200 80 40 20 8.0 4.0 2.0 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.008 0.004

TJ = 175C

10 7.0 5.0 3.0 TJ = 175C 2.0 25C 100C 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.2

100C

25C

i F , INSTANTANEOUS FORWARD CURRENT (AMPS)

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

VR, REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS)

Figure 7. Typical Reverse Current

IF(AV), AVERAGE FORWARD CURRENT (A)

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 TA, AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (C) SQUAREWAVE DC Rated VR RqJA = 28C/W

0.1 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3

vF, INSTANTANEOUS VOLTAGE (VOLTS)

Figure 6. Typical Forward Voltage

Figure 8. Current Derating (Mounting Method #3 Per Note 2)

PF(AV) , AVERAGE POWER DISSIPATION (WATTS)

14 12 10 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 (Capacitive IPK =20 IAV Load) 10

SQUAREWAVE C, CAPACITANCE (pF) 5.0 dc

40 30 TJ = 25C 20

10 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10

4.0 0 10 20 30 40 VR, REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS) 50

IF(AV), AVERAGE FORWARD CURRENT (A)

Figure 9. Power Dissipation

Figure 10. Typical Capacitance

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4

MUR405, MUR410, MUR415, MUR420, MUR440, MUR460


NOTE 2 AMBIENT MOUNTING DATA

Data shown for thermal resistance junctiontoambient (RqJA) for the mountings shown is to be used as typical guideline values for preliminary engineering or in case the tie point temperature cannot be measured.
TYPICAL VALUES FOR RqJA IN STILL AIR Mounting Method 1 2 RqJA 3 Lead Length, L (IN) 1/8 1/4 1/2 3/4 50 51 53 55 58 59 61 63 28 Units C/W C/W C/W

MOUNTING METHOD 1 P.C. Board Where Available Copper Surface area is small.


MOUNTING METHOD 2 Vector PushIn Terminals T28
L L

MOUNTING METHOD 3 P.C. Board with 11/2 x 11/2 Copper Surface

L = 1/2

Board Ground Plane

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5

MUR405, MUR410, MUR415, MUR420, MUR440, MUR460


PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
AXIAL LEAD CASE 26705 ISSUE G

K D
1

A
2

NOTES: 1. DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI Y14.5M, 1982. 2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH. 3. 26704 OBSOLETE, NEW STANDARD 26705. INCHES MIN MAX 0.287 0.374 0.189 0.209 0.047 0.051 1.000 MILLIMETERS MIN MAX 7.30 9.50 4.80 5.30 1.20 1.30 25.40

DIM A B D K

STYLE 1: PIN 1. CATHODE (POLARITY BAND) 2. ANODE

SWITCHMODE is a trademark of Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC.


ON Semiconductor and are registered trademarks of Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC (SCILLC). SCILLC reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein. SCILLC makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does SCILLC assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit, and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation special, consequential or incidental damages. Typical parameters which may be provided in SCILLC data sheets and/or specifications can and do vary in different applications and actual performance may vary over time. All operating parameters, including Typicals must be validated for each customer application by customers technical experts. SCILLC does not convey any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others. SCILLC products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in systems intended for surgical implant into the body, or other applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the SCILLC product could create a situation where personal injury or death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use SCILLC products for any such unintended or unauthorized application, Buyer shall indemnify and hold SCILLC and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless against all claims, costs, damages, and expenses, and reasonable attorney fees arising out of, directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or unauthorized use, even if such claim alleges that SCILLC was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part. SCILLC is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. This literature is subject to all applicable copyright laws and is not for resale in any manner.

PUBLICATION ORDERING INFORMATION


LITERATURE FULFILLMENT: Literature Distribution Center for ON Semiconductor P.O. Box 61312, Phoenix, Arizona 850821312 USA Phone: 4808297710 or 8003443860 Toll Free USA/Canada Fax: 4808297709 or 8003443867 Toll Free USA/Canada Email: orderlit@onsemi.com N. American Technical Support: 8002829855 Toll Free USA/Canada Japan: ON Semiconductor, Japan Customer Focus Center 291 Kamimeguro, Meguroku, Tokyo, Japan 1530051 Phone: 81357733850 ON Semiconductor Website: http://onsemi.com Order Literature: http://www.onsemi.com/litorder For additional information, please contact your local Sales Representative.

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MUR420/D

SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

D Complete Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) D D D


Power-Control Circuitry Uncommitted Outputs for Single-Ended or Push-Pull Applications Low Standby Current . . . 8 mA Typ Interchangeable With Industry Standard SG2524 and SG3524

SG2524 . . . D OR N PACKAGE SG3524 . . . D, N, OR NS PACKAGE (TOP VIEW)

description/ordering information

The SG2524 and SG3524 incorporate all the 9 8 functions required in the construction of a regulating power supply, inverter, or switching regulator on a single chip. They also can be used as the control element for high-power-output applications. The SG2524 and SG3524 were designed for switching regulators of either polarity, transformer-coupled dc-to-dc converters, transformerless voltage doublers, and polarity-converter applications employing fixed-frequency, pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques. The complementary output allows either single-ended or push-pull application. Each device includes an on-chip regulator, error amplifier, programmable oscillator, pulse-steering flip-flop, two uncommitted pass transistors, a high-gain comparator, and current-limiting and shutdown circuitry. ORDERING INFORMATION
TA INPUT REGULATION MAX (mV) PACKAGE PDIP (N) 0C to 70C 30 SOIC (D) SOP (NS) PDIP (N) 25C to 85C 20 SOIC (D) Tube of 25 Tube of 40 Reel of 2500 Reel of 2000 Tube of 25 Tube of 40 Reel of 2500 ORDERABLE PART NUMBER SG3524N SG3524D SG3524DR SG3524NSR SG2524N SG2524D SG2524DR SG2524 SG3524 SG3524 SG2524N TOP-SIDE MARKING SG3524N

IN IN+ OSC OUT CURR LIM+ CURR LIM RT CT GND

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

16 15 14 13 12 11 10

REF OUT VCC EMIT 2 COL 2 COL 1 EMIT 1 SHUTDOWN COMP

Package drawings, standard packing quantities, thermal data, symboliztion, and PCB design guidelines are available at www.ti.com/sc/package.

Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.

PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date. Products conform to specifications per the terms of Texas Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters.

Copyright 2003, Texas Instruments Incorporated

POST OFFICE BOX 655303

DALLAS, TEXAS 75265

SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

functional block diagram


VCC 15 Reference Regulator Vref Vref 12 11 13 14 3 Vref COL 1 EMIT 1 COL 2 EMIT 2 OSC OUT 16 REF OUT

Vref RT 6 Oscillator Vref IN IN+ COMP CURR LIM+ CURR LIM 2 9 4 5 10 1 k 10 k GND 8 Vref + 1

CT 7

Comparator Error Amplifier

SHUTDOWN

NOTE A: Resistor values shown are nominal.

absolute maximum ratings over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
Supply voltage, VCC (see Notes 1 and 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 V Collector output current, ICC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 mA Reference output current, IO(ref) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 mA Current through CT terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 mA Operating virtual junction temperature, TJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150C Package thermal impedance, JA (see Notes 3 and 4): D package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73C/W N package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67C/W NS package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64C/W Lead temperature 1,6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 10 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260C Storage temperature range, Tstg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65C to 150C
Stresses beyond those listed under absolute maximum ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under recommended operating conditions is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. NOTES: 1. All voltage values are with respect to network ground terminal. 2. The reference regulator may be bypassed for operation from a fixed 5-V supply by connecting the VCC and reference output (REF OUT) pin both to the supply voltage. In this configuration, the maximum supply voltage is 6 V. 3. Maximum power dissipation is a function of TJ(max), JA, and TA. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any allowable ambient temperature is PD = (TJ(max) TA)/JA. Operation at the absolute maximum TJ of 150C can impact reliability. 4. The package thermal impedance is calculated in accordance with JESD 51-7.

+
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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

recommended operating conditions


MIN VCC Supply voltage Reference output current Current through CT terminal RT CT TA Timing resistor Timing capacitor SG2524 Operating free-air temperature free air SG3524 8 0 0.03 1.8 0.001 25 0 MAX 40 50 2 100 0.1 85 70 UNIT V mA mA k F C

electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature range, VCC = 20 V, f = 20 kHz (unless otherwise noted)
reference section
PARAMETER Output voltage Input regulation Ripple rejection Output regulation Output voltage change with temperature Short-circuit output current VCC = 8 V to 40 V f = 120 Hz IO = 0 mA to 20 mA TA = MIN to MAX TEST CONDITIONS SG2524 MIN TYP 4.8 5 10 66 20 0.3% 50 1% MAX 5.2 20 SG3524 MIN TYP 4.6 5 10 66 20 0.3% 50 1% mA MAX 5.4 30 UNIT V mV dB mV

Vref = 0 100 100 For conditions shown as MIN or MAX, use the appropriate value specified under recommended operating conditions. All typical values, except for temperature coefficients, are at TA = 25C Standard deviation is a measure of the statistical distribution about the mean, as derived from the formula:
N

(x n * X) 2 s +
n+1

N*1

oscillator section
PARAMETER fosc Oscillator frequency Standard deviation of frequency fosc Frequency change with voltage Frequency change with temperature Output amplitude at OSC OUT TEST CONDITIONS CT = 0.001 F, RT = 2 k All values of voltage, temperature, resistance, and capacitance constant VCC = 8 V to 40 V, TA = MIN to MAX TA = 25C CT = 0.01 F, TA = 25C 3.5 MIN TYP 450 5% 1% 2% V s MAX UNIT kHz

tw Output pulse duration (width) at OSC OUT TA = 25C 0.5 For conditions shown as MIN or MAX, use the appropriate value specified under recommended operating conditions. All typical values, except for temperature coefficients, are at TA = 25C Standard deviation is a measure of the statistical distribution about the mean, as derived from the formula:
N

(x n * X) 2 s +
n+1

N*1

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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

error amplifier section


PARAMETER VIO IIB Input offset voltage Input bias current Open-loop voltage amplification VICR CMMR B1 Common-mode input voltage range Common-mode rejection ratio Unity-gain bandwidth Output swing TA = 25C TEST CONDITIONS VIC = 2.5 V VIC = 2.5 V 72 1.8 to 3.4 70 3 SG2524 MIN TYP 0.5 2 80 MAX 5 10 60 1.8 to 3.4 70 3 3.8 SG3524 MIN TYP 2 2 80 MAX 10 10 UNIT mV A dB V dB MHz V

TA = 25C 0.5 3.8 0.5 For conditions shown as MIN or MAX, use the appropriate value specified under recommended operating conditions. All typical values, except for temperature coefficients, are at TA = 25C

output section
PARAMETER V(BR)CE Vsat VO tr tf Collector-emitter breakdown voltage Collector off-state current Collector-emitter saturation voltage Emitter output voltage Turn-off voltage rise time VCE = 40 V IC = 50 mA VC = 20 V, RC = 2 k IE = 250 A 17 TEST CONDITIONS MIN 40 0.01 1 18 0.2 50 2 TYP MAX UNIT V A V V s s

Turn-on voltage fall time RC = 2 k 0.1 For conditions shown as MIN or MAX, use the appropriate value specified under recommended operating conditions. All typical values, except for temperature coefficients, are at TA = 25C.

comparator section
PARAMETER Maximum duty cycle, each output Zero duty cycle VIT Input Inp t threshold voltage at COMP oltage Maximum duty cycle TEST CONDITIONS MIN 45% 1 3.5 V A TYP MAX UNIT

IIB Input bias current 1 For conditions shown as MIN or MAX, use the appropriate value specified under recommended operating conditions. All typical values, except for temperature coefficients, are at TA = 25C.

current limiting section


PARAMETER VI V(SENSE) Input voltage range (either input) Sense voltage at TA = 25C Temperature coefficient of sense voltage V(IN ) V(IN ) 50 mV V(COMP) = 2 V mV, (IN+) (IN) TEST CONDITIONS MIN 1 to1 175 200 0.2 225 TYP MAX UNIT V mV mV/C

All typical values, except for temperature coefficients, are at TA = 25C.

total device
PARAMETER Ist Standby current TEST CONDITIONS VCC = 40 V, IN, CURR LIM+, CT, GND, COMP, EMIT 1, EMIT 2 grounded, IN+ at 2 V, All other inputs and outputs open MIN TYP 8 MAX 10 UNIT mA

All typical values, except for temperature coefficients, are at TA = 25C.

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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

PARAMETER MEASUREMENT INFORMATION


VREF VCC = 8 V to 40 V 15 VCC SG2524 or SG3524 10 2 10 k 1 9 1 k 4 5 2 k CT 7 6 RT CT RT GND 8 SHUTDOWN IN+ IN COMP CURR LIM+ CURR LIM COL 2 COL 1 EMIT 2 EMIT 1 13 12 14 11 Outputs OSC OUT REF OUT 3 16 (Open) VREF 0.1 F 2 k 1W 2 k 1W

2 k

10 k

2 k

Figure 1. General Test Circuit

VCC Circuit Under Test 2 k Output Output 10% TEST CIRCUIT 10% 0 V tf tr VCC 90% 90%

VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS

Figure 2. Switching Times

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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
OPEN-LOOP VOLTAGE AMPLIFICATION OF ERROR AMPLIFIER vs FREQUENCY
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 100 RL is resistance from COMP to ground 1k 10 k 100 k 1M 10 M 100 1 2 4 7 10 20 40 70 100 RT Timing Resistance k RL = 1M VCC = 20 V TA = 25C f osc Oscillator Frequency Hz 400 k 100 k 40 k CT = 0 CT = 0.001 F CT = 0.003 F CT = 0.01 F

Open-Loop Voltage Amplification of Error Amplifier dB

OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs TIMING RESISTANCE

Output Dead Time s


RL = 1 M RL = 300 k RL = 100 k RL = 30 k Frequency Hz

10 k 4k CT = 0.03 F CT = 0.1 F VCC = 20 V TA = 25C

1k 400

Figure 3
OUTPUT DEAD TIME vs TIMING CAPACITANCE
10

Figure 4

0.4

0.1 0.001

0.01 0.004 0.04 CT Timing Capacitance F

0.1

Figure 5

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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
The SG2524 is a fixed-frequency pulse-width-modulation (PWM) voltage-regulator control circuit. The regulator operates at a fixed frequency that is programmed by one timing resistor, RT, and one timing capacitor, CT. RT establishes a constant charging current for CT. This results in a linear voltage ramp at CT, which is fed to the comparator, providing linear control of the output pulse duration (width) by the error amplifier. The SG2524 contains an onboard 5-V regulator that serves as a reference, as well as supplying the SG2524 internal regulator control circuitry. The internal reference voltage is divided externally by a resistor ladder network to provide a reference within the common-mode range of the error amplifier as shown in Figure 6, or an external reference can be used. The output is sensed by a second resistor divider network and the error signal is amplified. This voltage is then compared to the linear voltage ramp at CT. The resulting modulated pulse out of the high-gain comparator then is steered to the appropriate output pass transistor (Q1 or Q2) by the pulse-steering flip-flop, which is synchronously toggled by the oscillator output. The oscillator output pulse also serves as a blanking pulse to ensure both outputs are never on simultaneously during the transition times. The duration of the blanking pulse is controlled by the value of CT. The outputs may be applied in a push-pull configuration in which their frequency is one-half that of the base oscillator, or paralleled for single-ended applications in which the frequency is equal to that of the oscillator. The output of the error amplifier shares a common input to the comparator with the current-limiting and shut-down circuitry and can be overridden by signals from either of these inputs. This common point is pinned out externally via the COMP pin, which can be employed to either control the gain of the error amplifier or to compensate it. In addition, the COMP pin can be used to provide additional control to the regulator.

APPLICATION INFORMATION oscillator


The oscillator controls the frequency of the SG2524 and is programmed by RT and CT as shown in Figure 4. f [ 1.30 R C T T

where: RT is in k CT is in F f is in kHz Practical values of CT fall between 0.001 F and 0.1 F. Practical values of RT fall between 1.8 k and 100 k. This results in a frequency range typically from 130 Hz to 722 kHz.

blanking
The output pulse of the oscillator is used as a blanking pulse at the output. This pulse duration is controlled by the value of CT as shown in Figure 5. If small values of CT are required, the oscillator output pulse duration can be maintained by applying a shunt capacitance from OSC OUT to ground.

synchronous operation
When an external clock is desired, a clock pulse of approximately 3 V can be applied directly to the oscillator output terminal. The impedance to ground at this point is approximately 2 k. In this configuration, RTCT must be selected for a clock period slightly greater than that of the external clock.

Throughout these discussions, references to the SG2524 apply also to the SG3524.

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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

APPLICATION INFORMATION synchronous operation (continued)


If two or more SG2524 regulators are operated synchronously, all oscillator output terminals must be tied together. The oscillator programmed for the minimum clock period is the master from which all the other SG2524s operate. In this application, the CTRT values of the slaved regulators must be set for a period approximately 10% longer than that of the master regulator. In addition, CT (master) = 2 CT (slave) to ensure that the master output pulse, which occurs first, has a longer pulse duration and, subsequently, resets the slave regulators.

voltage reference
The 5-V internal reference can be employed by use of an external resistor divider network to establish a reference common-mode voltage range (1.8 V to 3.4 V) within the error amplifiers (see Figure 6), or an external reference can be applied directly to the error amplifier. For operation from a fixed 5-V supply, the internal reference can be bypassed by applying the input voltage to both the VCC and VREF terminals. In this configuration, however, the input voltage is limited to a maximum of 6 V.
REF OUT 5 k 2.5 V R2 + 5 k R1 5 k R2 To Negative Output Voltage V + 2.5 V R1 ) R2 R1 V + 2.5 V 1 * R2 R1 To Positive Output Voltage 5 k R1 2.5 V + REF OUT

Figure 6. Error-Amplifier Bias Circuits

error amplifier
The error amplifier is a differential-input transconductance amplifier. The output is available for dc gain control or ac phase compensation. The compensation node (COMP) is a high-impedance node (RL = 5 M). The gain of the amplifier is AV = (0.002 1)RL and easily can be reduced from a nominal 10,000 by an external shunt resistance from COMP to ground. Refer to Figure 3 for data.

compensation
COMP, as previously discussed, is made available for compensation. Since most output filters introduce one or more additional poles at frequencies below 200 Hz, which is the pole of the uncompensated amplifier, introduction of a zero to cancel one of the output filter poles is desirable. This can be accomplished best with a series RC circuit from COMP to ground in the range of 50 k and 0.001 F. Other frequencies can be canceled by use of the formula f 1/RC.

Throughout these discussions, references to the SG2524 apply also to the SG3524.

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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

APPLICATION INFORMATION shutdown circuitry


COMP also can be employed to introduce external control of the SG2524. Any circuit that can sink 200 A can pull the compensation terminal to ground and, thus, disable the SG2524. In addition to constant-current limiting, CURR LIM+ and CURR LIM also can be used in transformer-coupled circuits to sense primary current and shorten an output pulse should transformer saturation occur. CURR LIM also can be grounded to convert CURR LIM+ into an additional shutdown terminal.

current limiting
A current-limiting sense amplifier is provided in the SG2524. The current-limiting sense amplifier exhibits a threshold of 200 mV 25 mV and must be applied in the ground line since the voltage range of the inputs is limited to 1 V to 1 V. Caution should be taken to ensure the 1-V limit is not exceeded by either input, otherwise, damage to the device may result. Foldback current limiting can be provided with the network shown in Figure 7. The current-limit schematic is shown in Figure 8.
11 14 R1

EMIT 1 EMIT 2 SG2524

VO I O(max) + + 1 Rs 200 mV ) R2 O R1 ) R2 V

R2 CURR LIM CURR LIM+ 5 4

I Rs

OS

200 mV Rs

Figure 7. Foldback Current Limiting for Shorted Output Conditions

COMP

CT

Comparator Error Amplifier Constant-Current Source

CURR LIM

CURR LIM+

Figure 8. Current-Limit Schematic


Throughout these discussions, references to the SG2524 apply also to the SG3524.

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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

APPLICATION INFORMATION output circuitry


The SG2524 contains two identical npn transistors, the collectors and emitters of which are uncommitted. Each transistor has antisaturation circuitry that limits the current through that transistor to a maximum of 100 mA for fast response.

general
There are a wide variety of output configurations possible when considering the application of the SG2524 as a voltage-regulator control circuit. They can be segregated into three basic categories:

D Capacitor-diode-coupled voltage multipliers D Inductor-capacitor-implemented single-ended circuits D Transformer-coupled circuits


Examples of these categories are shown in Figures 9, 10, and 11, respectively. Detailed diagrams of specific applications are shown in Figures 1215.
D1 VI VO VI > VO

D1

VI

VO VI < VO

D1 VO VI | +VI | > | VO |

Figure 9. Capacitor-Diode-Coupled Voltage-Multiplier Output Stages

Throughout these discussions, references to the SG2524 apply also to the SG3524.

10

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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

APPLICATION INFORMATION

VI

VO VI > VO

VI

VO VI < VO

VO VI | +VI | < | VO |

Figure 10. Single-Ended Inductor Circuit

VI VO VO

Throughout these discussions, references to the SG2524 apply also to the SG3524.

Push-Pull Flyback

VI

Figure 11. Transformer-Coupled Outputs

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11

SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

APPLICATION INFORMATION
VCC = 15 V

15 k 5 k 0.1 F 5 k 5 k 1 2 16 2 k 6 IN IN+ REF OUT RT

15 VCC SG2524 EMIT 1 COL 1 1N916 11 12 20 F + 1N916 5 V 20 mA

COL 2 13 EMIT 2 14 CURR LIM+ . CURR LIM COMP GND 8 4 5

0.01 F

7 C T 10 SHUTDOWN 3 OSC OUT

1N916 9 +

50 F

Figure 12. Capacitor-Diode Output Circuit

VCC = 5 V 1N916 15 V + 100 F 25 k 5 k 1 5 k 5 k 2 k IN 15 VCC SG2524 EMIT 1 COL 1 COL 2 EMIT 2 11 12 13 14 1 M 300 200 20T 0.1 F 50T 50 F 50 F 50T 1N916 TIP29A + 20 mA + 15 V

2 IN+ 16

REF OUT

6 R T

0.02 F

4 7 C T CURR LIM+ 10 5 SHUTDOWN CURR LIM 3 9 OSC OUT COMP GND 8

1N916

2N2222 510

620

0.001 F 4.7 F + 1

Input Return

Figure 13. Flyback Converter Circuit

Throughout these discussions, references to the SG2524 apply also to the SG3524.

12

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SG2524, SG3524 REGULATING PULSE WIDTH MODULATORS


SLVS077D APRIL 1977 REVISED FEBRUARY 2003

APPLICATION INFORMATION
VCC = 28 V TIP115

0.9 mH

5 k 5 k 5 k 0.1 F 3 k 5 k 1 2 16 6 7 0.02 F 10 IN IN+

15 11 EMIT 1 SG2524 12 COL 1 COL 2 EMIT 2 CURR LIM+ 13 14 4 3 k 1N3880 VCC

5V 1A

500 F

REF OUT RT CT

5 SHUT CURR LIM DOWN 3 9 OSC OUT COMP GND 8

0.001 F 50 k 0.1 Input Return

Figure 14. Single-Ended LC Circuit

VCC = 28 V 1 k 1W 11 1 k 1W

5 k 5 k 5 k 0.1 F 5 k 1 IN

15 VCC

TIP31A

TIR101A 1 mH + + 5V 5A

2 IN+ 16 6

EMIT 1 SG2524 12 COL 1 COL 2 EMIT 2 CURR LIM+ 13 100 14 4

100

20T 20T

5T 5T

1500 F

REF OUT RT

2 k

7 C T 0.01 F

TIP31A

10 SHUT 5 CURR LIM DOWN 9 3 COMP OSC OUT GND 8

0.001 F 20 k

0.1 + 100 F

Figure 15. Push-Pull Transformer-Coupled Circuit


Throughout these discussions, references to the SG2524 apply also to the SG3524.

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13

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