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Lightning Activity

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Activity
Worldwide about 2000 thunderstorms at any time Worldwide about 2000 thunderstorms at any time Estimation: 100 lightning strokes every second Estimation: 100 lightning strokes every second Strong local differences in lightning activities Strong local differences in lightning activities But for each region constant average lightning activity But for each region constant average lightning activity Lightning maps can be produced Lightning maps can be produced

Keraunic level TD = number of thunderstorm days per year Keraunic level TD = number of thunderstorm days per year
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Activity
Keraunic levels worldwide Keraunic levels worldwide

Middle Europe: TD = 10 ... 25 Middle Europe: TD = 10 ... 25 in equator regions: TD = 100 ... 180 in equator regions: T = 100 ... 180
D
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Activity
Keraunic levels worldwide Keraunic levels worldwide

Middle Europe: TD = 10 ... 25 Middle Europe: TD = 10 ... 25 in equator regions: TD = 100 ... 180 in equator regions: T = 100 ... 180
D
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

TD = 20 ... 80 TD = 80 ... 180


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High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

Lightning Activity
Keraunic level Germany Keraunic level Germany
Mean values

Lightning ground flash density Ng = number of lightning ground flashes per km2 and year
1.25 Empirical relation: Ng = 0.04 Td
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

Ng in (km2a)-1
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High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

Lightning Activity

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Activity
Lightning ground flash detection and tracking systems Lightning ground flash detection and tracking systems

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Activity
Thunderstorms in Germany 29.6.2005, recorded by BLIDS Thunderstorms in Germany 29.6.2005, recorded by BLIDS

http://www.blids.de
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Activity

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Activity

http://www.aldis.at/

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Activity
http://www.meteorage.fr/meteorage.fr/index.php

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Formation of Thunderstorms
Pre-conditions: strong upwinds and high humidity Thermal thunderstorm Thermal thunderstorm Ground temperatures > 30 C; warm air is raising up, cold air comes down in turn and flows back sideways Front thunderstorm Front thunderstorm Mass of cold air slides under humid and warm mass of air

Warm and humid air raises up Warm and humid air raises up condensation of contained humidity: condensation of contained humidity: clouds of thunderstorms contain rain, snow and ice crystals clouds of thunderstorms contain rain, snow and ice crystals

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Formation of Thunderstorms

Tropopause

ice crystals

snow

propagation

rain

prevailing wind direction wind direction on ground

rain

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Formation of Thunderstorms

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Formation of Thunderstorms

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Formation of Thunderstorms

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Formation of Thunderstorms

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Formation of Thunderstorms
Generation mechanism of electricity not yet fully understood; contribution of scattering of water droplets fragmentation of ice crystals freezing of polarized water droplets
ice crystals

snow

propagation

Typical charge distribution: positive charge on top negative charge at the bottom small positive area at the bottom Thunderstorm cloud = dipole charged Thunderstorm cloud = dipole charged to 25 As (in average) to 25 As (in average)

rain

prevailing wind direction

rain

wind direction on ground

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Formation of Thunderstorms

Lebenszyklus thunderstorm cloud: initial phase, development phase, mature phase, decay phase Life cycle of a einer Gewitterwolke: Startphase, Entwicklungsphase, Reifestadium, Abbauphase

maximum internal activity maximum internal activity maximum external activity maximum external activity Average life time: ca. 1 h
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Discharge
Center of negative charges

Development of a stepped leader Development of a stepped leader When the breakdown electric field strength at the clouds edge has been reached: Streamer discharge starting in the cloud Propogation of a first leader 10 m to 200 m long Charge tube: several 10 m Charge tube: several 10 m Plasma core: ca. 2 mm Plasma core: ca. 2 mm

Influenced positive charges


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Discharge
Center of negative charges

Development of a stepped leader Development of a stepped leader

After a time interval of 10 s to 100 s (during this time additional charge flows within and from the cloud): Formation of a new leader

Influenced positive charges


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Discharge
Center of negative charges

Development of a stepped leader Development of a stepped leader etc. etc. propagation of the stepped leader
Stepped leader with plasma core and charge tube

v 300 km/s (1/1000 c0) Direction of individual leaders not uniform; depends on field distribution and ionization conditions. Approximation to ground up to several 10 meters Increase of ground electric field strength!

Influenced positive charges


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Discharge
Center of negative charges

Development of a stepped leader Development of a stepped leader Connecting leader (developing from streamers) propagates towards the stepped leader After unification: Return stroke Return stroke
Connecting leader

Stepped leader with plasma core and charge tube

Influenced positive charges


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

propagates upwards light flash rolling thunder v 30 000 km/s (1/10 c0) up to 200 kA time duration only few 10 s
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High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

Lightning Discharge

Plasma core of stepped leader

Return stroke empties the charge tube


Charge tube of stepped leader

Current flow of return Current flow of return stroke caused by stroke caused by discharge of the discharge of the charge tube, not of charge tube, not of the cloud! the cloud!

Return stroke

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Discharge
Further discharge of the cloud by subsequent strokes (multiple strokes) in time intervals of 10 ms to 100 ms, utilizing the pre-ionized discharge channel Single (not stepped) leaders (dart leaders) at v 3000 km/s (1/100 c0) higher front steepness lower amplitude up to 54 follow strokes reported --> flashing of a lightning flash often: dc component (in ca. 50% of all cases)
scale of dc component

11 current impulses of 7 kA up to 63 kA peak value

dc component

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Discharge

Multiple strokes of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash discharge channels separated by wind branches of first stroke directed downwards indicate cloud-toearth flash subsequent strokes do not have branches dart leaders time interval between first and second stroke so long that the flash finds a new point of strike veil of last stroke indicates a dc component
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Types of Lightning Flashes


no subsequent strokes, highest reported current peak values and charges cloud-to-cloud flash

> 90% > 90%

downward flash

Seldom!

negative cloud-to-ground from exposed points such as aerials, tv towers

positive cloud-to-ground

upward flash

negative ground-to-cloud
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

positive ground-to-cloud High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11 - 27 -

Lightning Activity

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters Lightning currents are imposed currents! Lightning currents are imposed currents!
Surge impedance of discharge channels: 900 (@ 50 kA) 2000 (@ 10 kA) Surge impedance overhead line: 300 Grounding surge impedance: < 10 up to several 10

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters


Four important lightning current parameters: Four important lightning current parameters: peak value peak value maximum steepness Smax (also: di/dtmax)) maximum steepness Smax (also: di/dtmax charge idt (current-time integral) charge idt (current-time integral)
2 i-squared-time integral ii2dt i-squared-time integral dt (action integral) (action integral)

Impulse current of a cloud-to-ground stroke

several 100 micro-seconds


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters


Peak value Peak value = 5 kA ... 100 kA (250 kA as an extreme)

Resistive voltage drops at grounding structures Resistive voltage drops at grounding structures overvoltages, flashovers overvoltages, flashovers Amplitude of overvoltages propagating as traveling waves along lines Amplitude of overvoltages propagating as traveling waves along lines ( = Z) ( = Z) Grounding impedance should be < 10 ! Grounding impedance should be < 10 ! Kind of ground Humid soil Humid sand Dry gravel Rocks
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

in m
30 200 1000 3000
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High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

Lightning Current Parameters


Peak value Peak value = 5 kA ... 100 kA (250 kA as an extreme) = 5 kA ... 100 kA (250 kA as an extreme) 50%-value 30 kA 50%-value 30 kA

Relative occurrence

Lightning current peak value

Hufigkeit der ng current peak values erste negative Teilblitze; 2: negative subsequent strokes; 3: positive strokes) Relative occurrence of lightniBlitzstromscheitelwerte (1:(1: 1st negative stroke; 2: negative Folgeblitze; 3: positive Blitze)
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters


Maximum steepness Smax (also: di/dtmax)) Maximum steepness Smax (also: di/dtmax Electromagnetically induced voltages in conductor loops Electromagnetically induced voltages in conductor loops Most relevant for electromagnetic Most relevant for electromagnetic interference of lines, electronic circuits etc. interference of lines, electronic circuits etc.

Smax

Building

Lightning conductor

Voltages induced to conductor loops in a building protected by a Franklin rod 1: intrinsic current loop of the lightning conductor with possible flashover distance s1 2: In Schleifen induzierte Spannungen innerhalb eines durch einen Blitzableiter geschtzten Gebudes loop formed by lightning conductor and power installation with possible flashover distance s2 1: Eigenschleife des Blitzableiters mit mglicher berschlagstrecke s1 3: 2: Schleife aus Blitzableiter und Installationsleitung mit mglicher berschlagstrecke s2 completely isolated loop (e.g. of power supply system) with possible flashover distance s3 3: Vom Blitzableiter isolierte Installationsschleife mit mglicher berschlagstrecke s3
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters


Maximum steepness Smax (also: di/dtmax)) Maximum steepness Smax (also: di/dtmax Smax = 1 kA/s ... 100 kA/s Smax = 1 kA/s ... 100 kA/s 50%-value 20 kA/s 50%-value 20 kA/s

Relative occurrence

Maximum steepness di/dt

Hufigkeit der maximalenmaximum steepness (both polarities) Relative occurrence of Stromsteilheiten (beide Polaritten)
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters


Charge idt (current-time-integral) Charge idt (current-time-integral) Energy dissipation in foot point of the arc (due to u const.) Energy dissipation in foot point of the arc (due to u const.) melting effects at melting effects at point of strike point of strike points of flashovers points of flashovers Energy absorption capability of distribution surge arresters Energy absorption capability of distribution surge arresters and line arresters and line arresters

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters


Charge idt (current-time-integral) Charge idt (current-time-integral) idt = 1 As ... 100 As (350 As as an extreme idt = 1 As ... 100 As (350 As as an extreme 50%-value 10 As 50%-value 10 As

Relative occurrence

Charge

Hufigkeit der Ladungen (1: alle Blitze aus 119 Messungen; 2: negative Blitze; 3: flashes; Blitze; Relative occurrence of charges (1: all flashes out of 119 measurements; 2: negative positive 4: erste negative Teilblitze; 5: Stokomponenten der ersten negativen Teilblitze) 3: positive flashes; 4: 1st negative strokes
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters


2 i-squared-time integral ii2dt i-squared-time integral dt

("action integral") electro thermal electro dynamic

2 Thermal heating of conductors R ii2dt Thermal heating of conductors R dt

effects

Mechanical impulse Fdt Mechanical impulse Fdt

Mechanical impulse

Heating

Lightning conductor

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters


2 i-squared-time integral ii2dt i-squared-time integral dt 2dt ii2dt= 1033A22s... 1077A22s = 10 A s ... 10 A s 50%-value 21044A22s 50%-value 210 A s

Relative occurrence

i-squared-time integral

Hufigkeit der Stromquadrat-Zeitintegrale flashes out of 206 measurements; 2: negative2: negative Relative occurrence of i-squared-time integrals (1: all (1: alle Blitze aus 206 Messungen; flashes; 3: positive flashes Teilblitze; 3: positive Teilblitze)
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Current Parameters


Basic difference of negative / /positive lightning discharges with regard to Basic difference of negative positive lightning discharges with regard to course in time course in time occurrence of subsequent strokes occurrence of subsequent strokes peak value peak value
Time

2nd stroke 3rd stroke Current 1st stroke

Current

Time Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Providing pre-defined points of strike Providing pre-defined points of strike Shield wire for overhead lines Shield wire for overhead lines Lightning rods, meshes, wires, ropes for buildings Lightning rods, meshes, wires, ropes for buildings

Surge Surge arresters arresters

external protection only external protection only

Concept of lightning Concept of lightning protection zones (LPZ) protection zones (LPZ)
Lightning current arresters Lightning current arresters
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

IEC 61024-1
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High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

Countermeasures against lightning flash


LPZ 0A: Direct lightning strikes and high electromagnetic fields LPZ 0B: No direct lightning strikes, but high electromagnetic fields LPZ 0C: Threat by contact or step voltages for living beings (3 m height / 3 m depth around the building) LPZ 1: Protected electrical system, weakened electromagnetic fields (typically 30 dB) LPZ 2: Centrally protected terminal equipment, considerably weakened electromagnetic fields LPZ 3: Protected area within a terminal equipment. Protected by this concept, electronic equipment can also work at direct or close lightning strikes without interference.
HAK = Main connection box B = B arrester (lightning current arrester) C = C arrester (surge arrester, high energy) D = D arrester (surge arrester, low energy) Recommendation: for more info see http://www.dehn.de/www_DE/frameset_E.html
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Theory of protection zone by the electro-geometrical model Theory of protection zone by the electro-geometrical model Hypothesis: Once the head of the stepped leader has approached any object on ground by Once the head of the stepped leader has approached any object on ground by a certain distance (the final breakdown distance), the connecting leader will a certain distance (the final breakdown distance), the connecting leader will bridge this distance along the shortest possible path. bridge this distance along the shortest possible path. Following dependence of the final breakdown distance hB from the peak value of the first stroke
hB = 2 + 30 (1 e
6.8

(former CIGR SC 33)

hB in m; in kA

The higher the peak value of the first stroke, the higher is hB.

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Discharge
Center of negative charges

Development of stepped leader Development of stepped leader The more charge is contained in the charge tube, the higher is the ground field strength.
Stepped leader with plasma core and charge tube

The higher the ground field strength, the higher is the distance which can be bridged by a breakdown. The more charge is contained in the charge tube, the higher is the current peak value of the first stroke.

increase of ground field strength!

Influenced positive charges


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

The higher the lightning The higher the lightning current peak value, the higher current peak value, the higher the final breakdown distance! the final breakdown distance!
High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11 - 43 -

Countermeasures against lightning flash


Protected space of a lightning rod Protected space of a lightning rod

Lightning rod

Protected space

Protected space of a lightning rod of height h < hB


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Protected space of a lightning rod Protected space of a lightning rod Protected space cannot Protected space cannot become larger than become larger than that of a lightning rod of that of a lightning rod of height h = hB! ! height h = h
B

Protected space

Protected space of a lightning rod of height h > hB


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Protected space of a shield wire Protected space of a shield wire

Protected space

Protected space of a shield wire of elevation h < hB


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Protected space of a shield wire Protected space of a shield wire

Protected space

Protected space of a shield wire of elevation h > hB


Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Protected space of a shield wire Protected space of a shield wire

hB

h = hB
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Protected space of a shield wire Protected space of a shield wire

hB

h > hB
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Protected space of a shield wire Protected space of a shield wire

hB

h = hB
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Protected space of a shield wire Protected space of a shield wire Optimum for h = hB Optimum for h = hB

hB

h < hB
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Rolling sphere method Rolling sphere method All hashed areas (i.e. all those which can be Alle schraffierten Flchen must durch touched by the sphere) mssenbe protected by Fangeinrichtungen geschtzt werden. lightning rods/meshes/wires

Application of rolling sphere method for developing Blitzschutzplanung von Gebuden Anwendung der Blitzkugel-Methode bei der a lightning protection concept for buildings
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Rolling sphere method Rolling sphere method
Protection Sphere radius class (m)

Shielding angle

Mesh width

Efficiency E

Height of lightning rod above ground Radius of lightning sphere Shielding angle

Protected space

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash


Rolling sphere method Rolling sphere method Rolling sphere

Application of the rolling sphere method: as long as the sphere only touches the lightning rods but not the building, the degree of protection is sufficient

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Countermeasures against lightning flash

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Application of the rolling sphere method Application of the rolling sphere method

hB i = ilimit Line conductors protected! Line conductors protected!

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Application of the rolling sphere method Application of the rolling sphere method

hB i > ilimit Line conductors protected! Line conductors protected!

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Application of the rolling sphere method Application of the rolling sphere method

hB

i < ilimit Line conductors not protected! Line conductors not protected!

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Application of the rolling sphere method Application of the rolling sphere method

Higher elevation of shield wire

hB

i < ilimit Line conductors not protected! Line conductors not protected!

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Application of the rolling sphere method Application of the rolling sphere method

Double shield wire

hB

i < ilimit Line conductors protected! Line conductors protected!

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Max. current peak value of a direct lightning stroke to an overhead line conductor Max. current peak value of a direct lightning stroke to an overhead line conductor (One of several possible approaches)
Note: Cigr recommends a slightly differing method see lecture "Insulation Coordination"; there further information is given on lightning protection of overhead lines. hB

hB is the maximum final breakdown hB is the maximum final breakdown distance for a direct stroke to the distance for a direct stroke to the line conductor. line conductor. Thus the current peak value which Thus the current peak value which belongs to hB is the maximum belongs to hB is the maximum possible current amplitude of a possible current amplitude of a direct stroke to the line conductor. direct stroke to the line conductor.

S
"shielding angle"

a = location of all points of equidistances to the line conductor of concern and to ground

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Relative occurrence of direct lightning strokes to overhead lines Relative occurrence of direct lightning strokes to overhead lines Multiplication of width of attraction with length of overhead line: total area of attraction of the line Multiplication of total area of attraction with ground flash density Ng: Relative occurence of direct strokes for current of amplitude i1 Same procedure for other amplitudes: Relative occurrence of direct strokes to the line in general Width of attraction for line conductor
bE,1 bL,1

1 ilimit
hB,E,1

2 3
hB,L,1

i1

Width of attraction for shield wire

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Relative occurrence of direct lightning strokes to overhead lines Relative occurrence of direct lightning strokes to overhead lines
Even terrain
N= 30 to 60 strokes/100 kma Line strokes/system: 1.6 to 3.2/100 kma Flashovers/system: 0.8 to 1.6/100 kma

Hilly terrain
N= 35 to 70 strokes/100 kma Line strokes/system: 3.0 to 6.0/100 kma Flashovers/system: 1.7 to 3.4/100 kma

N= 26 to 52 strokes/100 kma Line strokes/system: 0.7 to 1.4/100 kma Flashovers/system: 0.4 to 0.8/100 kma N= 20 to 40 strokes/100 kma Line strokes/system: 0.2 to 0.4/100 kma Flashovers/system: 0.2 to 0.4/100 kma

N= 30 to 60 strokes/100 kma Line strokes/system: 1.4 to 2.8/100 kma Flashovers/system: 1.0 to 2.0/100 kma

N= 22 to 44 strokes/100 kma Line strokes/system: 0.35 to 0.7/100 kma Flashovers/system: 0.35 to 0.7/100 kma

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Relative occurrence of direct lightning strokes to overhead lines Relative occurrence of direct lightning strokes to overhead lines
Good!
Bad! ("shielding failure")

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Back flashover Back flashover iB = 2iE + iM
Shield wire

uM = iMRM RM ... Tower surge impedance RM ... Tower surge impedance

Line conductor

uinsul. = uM - uL At unfavorable phase relation: uinsul. = uM + |uL| If uinsul. > ud, LI

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

High Voltage Technology / Chapter 11

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Back flashover Back flashover Countermeasure: RM < 10 Countermeasure: RM < 10 Else: line arresters Else: line arresters
Shield wire gapless

Line conductor

gapped

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Line Arresters Line Arresters

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Lightning Protection of Overhead Lines


Back flashover Back flashover

Distribution of lightning current fractions among neighboring towers after a einem Einschlag in after a mid Stromaufteilung auf benachbarte Masten nach einem Masteinschlag bzw.stroke to a tower and das Erdseil span stroke to the shield wire respectively (identical tower surge in Spannfeldmitte; gleiche Maststoerdungswiderstnde angenommen impedances assumed)

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

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