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Applications for Solar Thermal Systems

Werner Weiss
AEE - Institute for Sustainable Technologies A-8200 Gleisdorf, Feldgasse 2 AUSTRIA

A sustainable energy future

Source: NASA / NOAA

A sustainable energy future

Gravity driven systems

fsol = 70 90% 700 1000 kWh/kWth

Gravity driven systems

Gravity driven system - Albania

Gravity driven systems

CHINA

Gravity driven systems

Three different types of evacuated tube collectors: all-glass U-tube heat-pipe

Thermosyphon Systems for Hot Water Preparation

storage tank

absorber

THERMOSYPHON SYSTEMS

Non pressurized storage tanks

Pumped Hot Water Systems


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10

11 6

3 4

Pumped Hot Water Systems


Small-scale Systems for Hot Water Preparation fsol = 50 70% 500 650 kWh/kWth

Solar Combi Systems for SFH


fsol = 20 50% 450 550 kWh/kWth

Solar Combi Systems for SFH

Multi-Family Houses

Large-scale Solar Heating Systems

System with short-term storage Mllheim, D

System with medium-term storage Gneis-Moos, A

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System with medium-term storage Gneis-Moos, A

System with medium-term storage Gneis-Moos, A


or kt lle co ea ar
energy storage
T3

warm water cold water


T2

warm water cold water

warm water cold water

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PV Pumped System: Hotel Villa Paraiso Nicaragua

Pumped Systems for Hotels Los Altos

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Pumped System: Hotels Teodolinda

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Large-scale Plants in Europe


No of plants 14 Closed (12) 12 OTH (14) ES (13) 10 AT (14) CH (7) GR (14) 8 DE (18) NL (8) 6 DK (10) SE (22)

1979

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Source: Jan-Olof Dalenbck, 2008

Local District Heating Hamburg, Germany

Source: ITW, University Stuttgart

2007

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Local District Heating with Seasonal Storage


f or kt le ol K
Hydraulische Weiche oder Pufferspeicher
Wrmebergabestation Wrmebergabestation

d el

ld fe or kt lle Ko

Heizzentrale

Heizkessel

TW ZK Kaltwasser

Kaltwasser

Wrmebergabestation mit direkter Heizungsanbindung und Trinkwasserbereitung im Durchfluprinzip

Wrmeverteilnetz Solarnetz Wrmebergabestation mit


indirekter Heizungseinbindung und Trinkwasserbereitung mit Speicherladesystem

LangzeitWrmespeicher

Source: ITW, University Stuttgart

Solar Assisted - Biomass District Heating, Austria

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District Heating 3MWth, AEVG, Graz, Austria

Source: S.O.L.I.D.

District Heating 1 MWth, Graz

Source: S.O.L.I.D.

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Solar District Heating


Solar yields: 400 460 kWh/m.a

Marstal, Denmark 12.8 MWth (18.365m2)

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Solar Heat for Cooking

India

Source: Gadhia Solar Energy Systems , www.gadhiasolar.net

Space Heating of Factory Buildings

Source: Solution

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Air Collector Systems for Dying


Main Applications Coffee Drying Tea Drying Maize Drying Tobacco Drying

Temperature range for the processes: 30 - 80 C Heat carrier: air

Recommended Collector Types: glazed or unglazed air collector Solar Wall

Air based Drying System

Coffee drying, Coopeldos, Costa Rica Installed capacity: 595 kWth (850 m Air collector)

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Open Process - Water


Main Applications cleaning of: bottles textile cars Temperature range for the processes: 40 - 90 C Heat carrier: water

Recommended Collector Types:


flat-plate collector

Built Examples

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Container Washing
Installed Capacity: 357 kWth (510 m) 40 Washing Process CONTANK, Barcelona

Closed Systems
Main Applications

Textile Industry Tanneries Dairy Breweries

Temperature range for the processes : 60 - 110 C Heat carrier: Water / Steam

Recommended Collector Types : FK, CPC, VR

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Textile Industry Hangzhou China 13000 (9 MWth)

Seawater Desalination Gran Canaria, Spain

Membrane Distillation
70 kW th anti-reflective double glazed flat plate collector Annual useful solar heat: 89 MWh/a Annual specific useful solar heat: 1271 kWh/kW*a Solar fraction: 100%

Fraunhofer ISE, Germany

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Built Examples
El NASR Pharmaceutical Chemicals, Egypt Installed Capacity: 1,33 MWth (1900 m Parabolic Trough Collectors) Steam: 1,3 t/hr / 170 C, 7,5 bar

Source: FICHTNER SOLAR GmbH

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Thermally Driven Systems : Basic Process

chilled water Thermal driven cooling process conditioned air

heat

Source : Fraunhofer ISE, Solarnext

Thermally Driven Systems : Basic Process

Source : Fraunhofer ISE, Solarnext

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Closed cycle systems Medium : chilled water


~18C

Driving temperature > 60C

Chilled ceiling Supply air system Fresh air


15 - 18C (< 12C)

Chiller
(thermally driven)

Fan coil

6 - 9C

Chilled water temperature

Conditioned area
Source : Fraunhofer ISE

Open cycle system Medium : air conditioning


Driving temperature > 50C

Return air

Supply air

Desiccant Evaporative Cooling (DEC)

Conditioned area
Source : Fraunhofer ISE

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Solar Cooling System for the German BMVBW

Solar Collectors for Cooling

Source: Jan Albers, IMBE, TU Berlin

Large-scale Solar Cooling in Greece

Source: IEA SHC Task 33

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