You are on page 1of 2

Benjamin Tudor CHE 132: General Chemistry II Final Exam Review Chapter 12: Colligative Properties Colligative Properties:

: Properties that depend only on the number of solute particles in solution (concentration) and not on the nature of the solute particles o Vapor Pressure Lowering PA= PA-PA PA= PA(1-XB) Raoults Law: PA=PAXA o Law defines ideal solution behavior A= solvent (only aspect of equation with vapor pressure) B= solute, which is only used in calculation of XB o Boiling-Point Depression Tb=KbmB mb=mols solute/kg solvent o Freezing Point Depression Tf=KfmB o Osmotic Pressure: Pressure differential developed across a semipermeable membrane due to a concentration difference across the membrane Semipermeable membrane: Pore size allows passage of solvent molecules but not solute molecules V=nRT V= volume solution in Liters R= 0.0821 L*atm/mol*K T= Absolute temperature (Kelvin) =iMRT i=mols of particles in solution/mols solute dissolved o Applies to electrolyte solutions such as NaCl Chapter 13: Chemical Kinetics Chemical Kinetics: Study of rates and mechanisms of reactions Reaction rate: change in quantity over change in time Differential Rate Law o Relates rate to concentration of reactants R=k [A]x[B]y X and y are orders with respect to reactants R is in mols/L*s (seconds) Integrated Rate Laws: o Zero Order: [A]=[A]0-kt o First Order: ln[A]=[A]0-kt o Second Order: 1/[A]=1/[A]0-kt o Half-Life: The amount of time required for the concentration of a reactant to fall to of its original value T1/2=0.692/k

Temperature Dependant Rate Laws o K=A*e^(-Ea/RT) A= frequency factor using the same units as k Ea=Activation energy lnk2-lnk1=(-Ea/R)(1/t2-1/t1) Kinetic Behavior on the Molecular Level o Collision Theory of Rates: In order to react, two molecules must collide with each other This collision causes bonds to break and new/different ones to form o K=z*p*f Z=Frequency of molecular collisions (per second) P= Steric factor: fraction of collisions which are properly oriented F= Fraction of collisions with required minimum energy to cause the reaction F=e^(-Ea/RT) A=z*p Transition State Theory o Transition State: a critical configuration of reactants at which a small distortion of bonds will lead to product formation Bonds are stretched preparatory to breaking and the reactants are aligned appropriately for formation of the new bonds Transition state occurs at energy maximum during the reaction