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Modul 7 Konsep Dasar Multiple Antena

TT xxxx
Wireless Communication System
Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Faculty of Electrical and Communication
Institut Teknologi Telkom
Bandung 2012
Subject
a. Macam-macam Multiple Antenna (Diversitas dan
MIMO)
b. Model Sistem SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIO
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Text Book
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Multiple Antenna vs Fading
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Rina P. Astuti
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Diversity & MIMO
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Multiple Antenna Technique: Four Basic Model
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
SISO
Radio transmissions traditionally use one antenna at
the transmitter and one antenna at the receiver.
This system is termed Single Input Single Output
(SISO).
Both the transmitter and the receiver
have one RF chain (that's coder and
modulator). SISO is relatively simple
and cheap to implement and it has
been used age long since the birth of
radio technology.
It is used in radio and TV broadcast
and our personal wireless
technologies (e.g. Wi-Fi and
Bluetooth).
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Picture. Single Input Single Output
(SISO)
One antenna at both the transmitter
and the receiver.
Employs no diversity technique.
Both the transmitter and the receiver
have one RF chain (that's coder and
modulator). SISO is relatively simple
and cheap to implement and it has
been used age long since the birth of
radio technology.
It is used in radio and TV broadcast
and our personal wireless
technologies (e.g. Wi-Fi and
Bluetooth).
SIMO
To improve performance, a multiple antenna technique has been developed.
A system which uses a single antenna at the transmitter and multiple
antennas at the receiver is named Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO). The
receiver can either choose the best antenna to receive a stronger signal or
combine signals from all antennas in such a way that maximizes SNR
(Signal to Noise Ratio). The first technique is known as switched diversity or
selection diversity. The latter is known as maximal ratio combining (MRC).
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Picture. Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO), 1x2
One antenna at the transmitter, two antennas the receiver.
Employs a receive diversity technique.
MISO
A system which uses multiple antennas at the transmitter and a
single antenna at the receiver is named Multiple Input Single
Output (MISO). A technique known as Alamouti STC (Space
Time Coding) is employed at the transmitter with two antennas.
STC allows the transmitter to transmit signals (information)
both in time and space, meaning the information is transmitted
by two antennas at two different times consecutively.
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
A system which uses multiple antennas at the transmitter and a
single antenna at the receiver is named Multiple Input Single
Output (MISO). A technique known as Alamouti STC (Space
Time Coding) is employed at the transmitter with two antennas.
STC allows the transmitter to transmit signals (information)
both in time and space, meaning the information is transmitted
by two antennas at two different times consecutively.
Picture. Multiple Input Single Output (MISO), 2x1
Two antennas at the transmitter, one antenna at the receiver.
Employs a transmit diversity technique.
MIMO
To multiply throughput of a radio link, multiple antennas (and multiple
RF chains accordingly) are put at both the transmitter and the receiver.
This system is referred to as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO).
A MIMO system with similar count of antennas at both the transmitter
and the receiver in a point-to-point (PTP) link is able to multiply the
system throughput linearly with every additional antenna. For
example, a 2x2 MIMO will double the throughput.
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
To multiply throughput of a radio link, multiple antennas (and multiple
RF chains accordingly) are put at both the transmitter and the receiver.
This system is referred to as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO).
A MIMO system with similar count of antennas at both the transmitter
and the receiver in a point-to-point (PTP) link is able to multiply the
system throughput linearly with every additional antenna. For
example, a 2x2 MIMO will double the throughput.
Picture. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), 2x2
Two antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver.
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Objective : to support private and public access
high data rate transmission
high mobility
High signal performance
Rina P. Astuti
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Objective : to support private and public access
high data rate transmission
high mobility
High signal performance
Modern Wireless Transceiver
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna

t
b , .... ,
1
b

t
c , .... ,
1
c

t
b ,....,
1
b


t
c ,....,
1
c
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21
Symbols
T
M C

t,1
s , .... ,
1,1
s

t,2
s , .... ,
1,2
s

t,2
r ,....,
1,2
r

t,1
r ,....,
1,1
r
symbols
C

t
c , .... ,
1
c
t
b , .... ,
1
b
Symbols
T
M C

t
b ,....,
1
b


t
c ,....,
1
c

t,1
s ,....,
1,1
s

t,2
s ,....,
1,2
s
symbols
C Rina Pudji Astuti
Innovation of Wireless Systems
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
What is MIMO ?
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Required Knowledge
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
MIMO Operation
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Macam-2 Teknik Space Time
Teknik Space Time
(MIMO)
Memaksimalkan
Diversitas
Memaksimalkan
Laju Data
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Diversitas Laju Data
Space Time
Block Codes
Space Time
Trellis Codes
Layered ST
architecture
Threaded ST
architecture
Other Inner
code
performance-rate complexity tradeoffs
Rina Pudji Astuti
Multiple Antenna Technique
Two popular techniques in MIMO wireless systems:
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Spatial Diversity: Increased SNR
Receive and transmit diversity mitigates
fading and improves link quality
Spatial Multiplexing: Increased rate
Spatial multiplexing yields substantial
increase spectral efficiency
Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Spatial Diversity and Spatial Multiplexing
Spatial Diversity
Signal copies are transferred from multiple antennas or
received at more than one antenna
redundancy is provided by employing an array of
antennas, with a minimum separation of /2 between
neighbouring antennas
Spatial Multiplexing
the system is able to carry more than one data stream
over one frequency, simultaneously
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Spatial Diversity
Signal copies are transferred from multiple antennas or
received at more than one antenna
redundancy is provided by employing an array of
antennas, with a minimum separation of /2 between
neighbouring antennas
Spatial Multiplexing
the system is able to carry more than one data stream
over one frequency, simultaneously
Spatial Multiplexing
Maximize Data Rate (rate oriented)
MIMO dengan Skema Vertical Encoding
MIMO dengan Skema Horizontal Encoding
, ) t
1
S
, ) t
2
S
Temporal Code +
Interleaving +
Symbol Mapper
Demultiplex
T
M : 1
Symbols
T
M C
Symbols
T
M C
T
M
T
M C
symbols
C
bits
q
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, ) t
3
S
, ) t
4
S
, ) t
2
S
Space

4 LAYER
1 LAYER
2 LAYER
3 LAYER

4-D vector symbols duration


( Antenna )
Time
1
2
4
3
MIMO dengan Skema Diagonal Encoding
Spatial Multiplexing
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Rina Pudji Astuti
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4 LAYER
1 LAYER
2 LAYER
3 LAYER

Spatial Multiplexing
MIMO channels can be decomposed into a number of R parallel
independent channels Multiplexing Gain
Principle: Transmit independent data signals from different antennas to
increase the throughput, capacity.
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Source: An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications
www.iet.ntnu.no/projects/beats/Documents/mimo.pdf
Spatial Multiplexing
Spatial multiplexing bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kapasitas dengan
cara mengirimkan beberapa aliran data secara paralel pada waktu yang
bersamaan.
Prinsip kerja dari spatial multiplexing adalah mengirim sinyal dari
dua atau lebih antenna yang berbeda dengan beberapa aliran data dan
aliran data dipisahkan dipenerima dengan proses signal processing,
oleh karena itu peningkatan bit rate berdasarkan konfigurasi antenna
mimo ( 2 untuk antenna mimo 2 by 2 and 4 untuk antena mimo 4 by 4)
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Prinsip kerja dari spatial multiplexing adalah mengirim sinyal dari
dua atau lebih antenna yang berbeda dengan beberapa aliran data dan
aliran data dipisahkan dipenerima dengan proses signal processing,
oleh karena itu peningkatan bit rate berdasarkan konfigurasi antenna
mimo ( 2 untuk antenna mimo 2 by 2 and 4 untuk antena mimo 4 by 4)
Spatial Multiplexing
MIMO Multiplexing
Data is not redundant less diversity but less repetition
Provides multiplexing gain to increase data-rate
Low (no) diversity compared with STC
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Maximize Diversity Transmission Scheme
(performance oriented) in MIMO Wireless Systems
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Rina Pudji Astuti
Spatial Diversity
Improves the signal quality and achieves a higher SNR at the receiver-
side
Principle of diversity relies on the transmission of structured
redundancy
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Improves the signal quality and achieves a higher SNR at the receiver-
side
Principle of diversity relies on the transmission of structured
redundancy
x
i
y
i
Spatial Diversity
Beberapa replika sinyal informasi dikirim dari beberapa antenna
yang berbeda (data informasi yang dikirim yaitu data info asli dan
replika). Tujuan spatial diversity yaitu untuk meningkatkan SNR
dengan cara mengurangi fading dan meningkatkan kualitas link antara
pengirim dengan penerima.
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
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Modul 7 Multiple Antenna
Space Time Block Code (STBC) [Alamouti1998]
At the Receivers, after demodulator :
dual diversity

*
2
C ,
1
C

*
1
C ,
2
C

*
2
C ,
1
C

2
C ,
1
C
~ ~

2
h ,
1
h
~ ~
n c H y + = .

-
=
2 1
y y y
(


=
-
-
1 2
2 1
h h
h h
H
Space Time Coding
virtual MIMO matrix
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Rina P. Astuti
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Space Time Block Code (STBC) [Alamouti1998]
At the Receivers, after demodulator :
dual diversity
T
c c ] [
2 1
= c
(


=
-
-
-
2
1
1 2
2 1
2 1
]
~ ~
[
y
y
h h
h h
c c
, ) , )
(
(

+ + + + + + =
- - - -

'
2
'
1
2 2 1 2
2
2
2
1 2 2 1 1 1
2
2
2
1
n n
n h n h c h h n h n h c h h
|
.
|

'

+ =
2
2
2
1
h h g
Space Time Coding
Space Time Block Code (STBC) [Tarokh1999]
Alamouti Model, 2 Tx antennas and 2 Rx
At the Receivers, after demodulator :
Quadruple diversity

(


+
(


=
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
3
3 4
4 3
2
1
1 2
2 1
2 1
~ ~
y
y
h h
h h
y
y
h h
h h
c c
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Rina P. Astuti
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Space Time Block Code (STBC) [Tarokh1999]
Alamouti Model, 2 Tx antennas and 2 Rx
At the Receivers, after demodulator :
Quadruple diversity
, )

-
- - - -
+ + + + + + + =
1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
n
n h n h n h n h c h h h h
, )

-
- - - -
+ + + + + + + +
2
4 4 3 3 1 2 2 1 2
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
n
n h n h n h n h c h h h h
'
.
~
n g + = c c
|
.
|

'

+ + + =
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
h h h h g
Space Time Trellis Code (STTC) [Tarokh1998]
2 space time code, 4 PSK, 4 state, 2 b/s/Hz
Deretan bit masukan
Derajat memory: dan , dengan , sehingga jumlah state
Pasangan koefisien pengkode:
dimana.
KeluaranSTTC: dengan
Space Time Coding
,
.
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Space Time Trellis Code (STTC) [Tarokh1998]
2 space time code, 4 PSK, 4 state, 2 b/s/Hz
Deretan bit masukan
Derajat memory: dan , dengan , sehingga jumlah state
Pasangan koefisien pengkode:
dimana.
KeluaranSTTC: dengan
, ) , , , ,
1 1 1 1
k k k
d d d = d , ) , , , ,
2 2 2 2
k k k
d d d = d
.
1
v 2
v
2 1
v v v + = 4 2 =
v
, ) , ) , )
1
2 ,
1
1 ,
1
2 , 1
1
1 , 1
1
2 , 0
1
1 , 0
1
1 1
, , , , ,
v v
g g g g g g = g
, ) , ) , )
2
2 ,
2
1 ,
2
2 , 1
2
1 , 1
2
2 , 0
2
1 , 0
2
1 1
, , , , ,
v v
g g g g g g = g
3 , 2 , 1 , 0
,
e
j
l i
g
4 mod ) (
2
1 0
,
= =

=
j
v
i
j
i k
j
l i l
j
d g k s
2 , 1 = l
Rina P. Astuti
Space Time Coding
Aliran bit masukan, d : merupakan
masukan sebuah modulasi M-PSK yang difungsikan sebagai
pemeta simbol(mapper), dimana
Pengkode STTC yang terdiri dari m feedforward shift register akan
memetakan deretan bit masukan menjadi himpunan sinyal M-PSK.
Deretan bit masukan ke k, dimasukkan ke shift register ke k dan
dikalikan dengan sebuah himpunan koefisien pengkode, berupa
himpunan konstelasi M-PSK. Keluaran pengkode pada saat k,
berupa sinyal-sinyal termodulasi membentuk simbol berbasis
ruang-waktu (space time symbol), dapat dinyatakan sebagai
berikut:
, ) , , , ,
1 0 k
d d d d =
, )
T
m
k k k k
d d d , , ,
2 1
= d
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Aliran bit masukan, d : merupakan
masukan sebuah modulasi M-PSK yang difungsikan sebagai
pemeta simbol(mapper), dimana
Pengkode STTC yang terdiri dari m feedforward shift register akan
memetakan deretan bit masukan menjadi himpunan sinyal M-PSK.
Deretan bit masukan ke k, dimasukkan ke shift register ke k dan
dikalikan dengan sebuah himpunan koefisien pengkode, berupa
himpunan konstelasi M-PSK. Keluaran pengkode pada saat k,
berupa sinyal-sinyal termodulasi membentuk simbol berbasis
ruang-waktu (space time symbol), dapat dinyatakan sebagai
berikut:
, )
T
M k
k s k s k s
T
) ( , ), ( ), (
1 1
= s
M d g k s
m
j
v
i
j
i k
j
l i l
j
mod ) (
1 0
,
= =

=
T
M
j
l i
g
,
k
v
k
v
adalah jumlah antena pemancar
adalah elemen himpunan konstelasi M-PSK
adalah derajat memori shift register ke k
Rina P. Astuti