Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4


Call for Data and Expertise

The Lactoperoxidase System of Raw Milk Preservation

The Lactoperoxidase System of Raw Milk Preservation is currently the only approved method of raw milk preservation, apart from refrigeration, in Codex. It was adopted by Codex Alimentarius as a guideline in 1991 (CAC GL 13/91) following an evaluation by JECFA1. The Lactoperoxidase System (LP-system) operates by the reactivation of the enzyme lactoperoxidase, which is naturally present in raw milk, by the addition of thiocyanate and a source of peroxide. This results in a blocking of bacterial metabolism thereby preventing the multiplication of bacteria present in the milk. The effect can therefore be described as bacteriostatic but the effect has a limited duration which is determined by temperature. The system is promoted by FAO as an effective means of extending the shelf life of raw milk in developing countries where technical, economical and/or practical reasons do not allow the use of cooling facilities for maintaining the quality of raw milk. Use of the LP-system in areas which currently lack an adequate infrastructure for collection of liquid milk, would ensure the production of milk as a safe and wholesome food, which otherwise would be virtually impossible.2 The LP-system has been evaluated by JECFA, who concluded that when used according to the draft3 guidelines, the LP-system does not present a toxicological hazard4. The bacteriostatic effect of the system means that it neither improves nor disguises poor quality milk. Since 1997, FAO has noted a number of requests for clarification from its Member Countries regarding the limitation on the use of milk treated by the LP-system, or its derived dairy products, intended for international trade. Countries are concerned and confused that although the LP-system is recognised as safe for use in raw milk for human consumption, it is not approved for use in milk or milk products intended for the international market. This confusion is based on a footnote in the first edition of the FAO/WHO Food Standards Series, Vol. 12, on Milk and Milk products. The issue of using LP-system treated milk in international trade has been raised in various Codex committee meetings including those on Food Hygiene and Milk and Milk Products by both Member Countries and the Global Lactoperoxidase Programme Secretariat based at the FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy. Most recently the issue was brought to the attention of the 27th Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in July 2004 as a concern from the 36th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) regarding the Draft Code of Practice for Milk and Milk Products in which the LPsystem was listed as a biostatic. The Commission agreed to add the following text to the end of
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Guidelines for the preservation of raw milk by use of the lactoperoxidase system (CAC/GL 13-1991) ( 3 Subsequently adopted as the current guidelines, footnote 2. 4 Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants (Thirty-fifth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 789, 1990, and corrigenda. [1989, TRS 789JECFA 35] (
2 1

footnote 9 of Appendix II of the draft Code: The use of the lactoperoxidase system for milk and milk products in international trade will be re-examined by the Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) after completion of an expert review by FAO and WHO of available data and considering the FAO Lactoperoxidase Expert Group report on the benefits and potential risks of LP-system. CCFH will then review the issue in 2006. In order to respond to Member Country concerns and to provide scientific advice to the next session of the CCFH in 2006, FAO and WHO are planning to hold a Technical Meeting on the benefits and any possible risks associated with the LP-system for raw milk preservation and any milk products derived from the system. The Technical Meeting will be held in Rome in late 2005. The objective of the Technical Meeting will be to determine the benefits (economic and nutritional) and the level of health risks, if any, posed by the application of the LP-system and advise on the safety of LP-system treated milk and derived milk products.

Request for Data

FAO/WHO requests governments, interested organizations, milk producer groups / organisations / institutions, milk collecting individuals or groups, processors, academia, and individuals to submit any available data relevant to the specific areas indicated above. This data may be either published or unpublished. Reference should be made to related published studies, where applicable. The receipt of such information is important in ensuring the provision of appropriate science-based expert advice on the use of the LP-system for raw milk preservation (and products derived from such preserved milk) at the international level. Please submit any relevant information (electronic and/or hard copies) in any official United Nations language (English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese or Russian), and with the title and short summary in English, by 31 August 2005 to the address given at the end. Information Required The available peer reviewed literature regarding the benefits (economic and nutritional) and possible health risks associated with the use of the LP-system for the preservation of raw milk (and any derived milk products) from multiple species (bovine, buffalo, ovine, caprine and camelids) is limited. Additional information is therefore needed from all geographic regions to determine the extent to which the LP-system is used, its benefits and any associated health and/or economic risks or technological constraints. Although health concerns do not currently appear to be an issue associated with the use of the LPsystem, this has been determined largely by a review of information published prior to 1989 undertaken by the Global Lactoperoxidase Programme. It is, therefore, critical to review any more recent information relevant to either positive or negative health effects that may be linked to the use of the LP-system in raw milk and milk products of multiple species. The key data requirements are as follows: 1. Microbiological data. The LP-system is known to have an overall bacteriostatic effect (predominantly inhibitory) and a bactericidal effect against some gram negative bacteria i.e., Pseudomonas and E. coli. Data is therefore sought on the effects and performance of the LP-system on: the microbial load of milk of various species; milk of differing microbial quality and under different conditions such as ambient temperatures.

2. Economic value and trade data. The use of the LP-system may have economic and trade impacts and implications and data is requested regarding: estimations or evidence of increased volumes of milk collected and processed and/or reduced losses and wastage due to the use of the LP-system; estimations or evidence of how the LP-system has stimulated milk production and contributed to increased value along the dairy value chain (milk producers groups/ organisations/ institutions, milk collector and processors are likely sources of this information); and estimations or evidence of any potential trade losses due to the existing restriction on international trade of LP-system treated milk or milk products.

3. Human health and nutrition data. Milk is an important component of the daily diet in many developing countries and it is essential that it remains a healthy and nutritious product. Recent information is requested on: post 1989 toxicological data on the LP-system and/or its constituent components, as for example it has been recognized that the thiocyanate ion can interfere with iodine uptake; availability of safer milk {lower microbial load} and increased access to nutritious milk or milk products related to the use of the LP-system; and recorded human health risks (acute or chronic) associated with either the short or long-term exposure to LP-system treated milk or its derived milk products (such as reduced iodine metabolism) either in general or to the more vulnerable sectors of society e.g. children, HIVAIDS affected households etc.

4. Data on processing / technological issues. Various technologies, products and processes are involved in the use of the LP-system, and data is required on: the current availability and use of technologies and processes for preserving raw milk with the LP-system; any effect of the LP-system on the further processing of raw milk and its relationship with the recognised time-temperature limitations on the activity of the system; the benefits, or otherwise, of the LP-system as compared to other methods of milk preservation; and whether or not the LP-system has resulted in either an increase or decrease of other non approved methods of milk preservation such as addition of hydrogen peroxide, neutralisers etc.

5. Any other relevant information. IMPORTANT: When providing data, please provide detailed information regarding the source, sampling techniques, methodology and quality control procedures (for laboratory analysis) used plus any relevant organizational and institutional context to the data. Confidentiality and unpublished data. FAO and WHO recognise that some information and relevant data which are required may be unpublished and/or of a confidential nature. With regard to unpublished information, this remains the property of the owner of the original material and can be used for subsequent publication. Unpublished confidential studies that are submitted will be safeguarded, in so far as it is possible without compromising the work of FAO and WHO. Specific issues relating to confidentiality should be discussed directly between the information owners and FAO/WHO. For these and other issues please contact FAO at the contact provided below.

Request for Experts

To meet the objectives of the Technical Meeting FAO/WHO are also seeking suitably qualified experts in the following areas: public health, milk chemistry and hygiene, food safety economics, toxicology, microbiology, application of the LP-system (particularly in countries in Africa, Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean and the Near East) and the dairy industry. Full curriculum vitae (including list of publications) of potential and interested experts should to be sent by the 31 August to the address given below.

Contact Details
All correspondence and emails should be addressed to: Ms Irene Hoffmann Chief, Animal Production Service Animal Production and Health Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome, Italy Telephone: + 39 06 5705 2796 Facsimile: + 39 06 5705 5749 Email: The subject of any emails should be Re: Call for LP-system data and experts. ________________________________