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- Dec 31, 1999, the U.S. gave up its possession of the Panama Canal
- The Panama Canal lost its importance in US after the invention of oil tankers etc. but it used to be one of the
most significant achievements in America
- The Spanish-American War made the Canal seem essential
- Phillippe Bunau-Varilla and Nelson Cromwell wanted to create the Republic of Panama. After the successful
break away from Colombia, Cromwell signed a treaty with the U.S. in the name of Panamarian people which
granted 5 miles from each bank of the canal where American law, police and court ruled
- Roosevelt was the first president to go overseas to Panama, the greatest accomplishment of his presidency
- West Indians were the unseen heroes of the canal construction
- By 1890, the U.S. had the most productive economy in the world, but lacked diplomatic or military power
o The small military was becuz the U.S. saw no threat from its weak and friendly neighbor countries
- William Seward, the secretary of state under Lincoln and John, sought to acquire more land; Alaska and
Midway Islands
- America resisted expansion b/c
o Imperialism seemed unsuited for the republican principles
o Uninterested about acquiring ppl of different cultures
 new generation sought to uplift backward societies
- After European expansion, Americans feared that they would be shut out in the global competition for resources
- American economy by 1890s were growing dependent on global market, and social Darwinism caused ppl to
engage more closely in international competition
- Alfred Thayer Mahan argued that world power depended on the control of world’s sea-lanes
o America began to replace old wooden ships with new vessels powered by coal or oil
o America became more assertive in world power by declaring more wars and with the involvement in the
overthrow of Hawaii’s monarchy
- In 1893, with the help from the Americans, a group of sugar and pineapple businessmen overthrew the queen of
Hawaii, Queen Lydia Kamakaeha Liliuokalani, and imprisoned her. Hawaii eventually became the 50th state in
- Hawaii was likely to be annexed anyways b/c of its fine harbors and position
- Although Harrison supported the annexation of Hawaii after the overthrow of Queen Lydia, Cleveland threw
out that idea and instead received Queen Lydia back to Hawaii, which was rejected by the HOR
- Sanford Dole declared himself president of the Republic of Hawaii w/o public voting
o Queen was found guilty of treason and was sentenced to house arrest
- Mckinley called for a joint resolution from the Congress thus annexing Hawaii
- Native Hawaiians were quickly reduced after the arrival of immigrants through disease.
- Sugar growers imported lots of immigrants  most ethnically diverse population
- After Cuba called for independence from Spain, American did not know how to help b/c the Congress didn’t
want to spill American blood unless America was directly threatened, but Roosevelt pushed for war
- McKinley was against war, but eventually public pressure forced McKinley into the war
- William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer published paper which worked up war fever
with the Spanish
- Eventually the U.S. declared war, but only after adopting the Teller Amendment, which stated that the U.S. had
no imperialistic ambitions in Cuba; European powers were take back by this conduct
- After the war, the US made the ppl adopt the Platt Amendment, which gave the US right to militarily intervene
in Cuba to protect the rights of the people
- The Philippines American War was a sequel to the Spanish American War, and a symbol of America to acquire
- The war prompted many to speak out against those who are for expansion, but many saw it as the “white man’s
burden” (to help those uncivilized people)
- After cession of the Philippines to the Americans by the Spanish, Mark Twain called the 20 million dollar
payment as an “entrance fee to the Society of Scepter Thieves”
- General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the Philippines as the first republic in Asia, and hope for American
protectorate. However, McKinley was hesitant about involvement of the Philippines, but he eventually took the
archipelago out of fear for other competitors
- Fighting broke out between the Americans and the Filipinos, the most vicious one being on Samar Island,
where General Jacob W. Smith ordered everyone killed. Thus Smith was court-martialed and admonished later
for violation of discipline
- Aguinaldo was eventually captured, and war was declared over. The war convinced American to not involve in
further oversea expansion
- The Philippines were granted independence in 1946
- Roosevelt announced the Roosevelt Corollary added to the Monroe Doctrine after Germany attempted to set up
a port in Santo Domingo as compensation for unpaid loan
- America intervened in Central American over 20 times in the quarter century after the Corollary, and each
intervention would follow the same pattern of American intervening then being involved with the political
affairs there, then establishing a policing support and a popular election in favor of someone pro American
- Feared that Germany would occupy Haiti and threaten the sea route to Panama Canal, Wilson sent troops down
to Haiti to restore order
- Built roads, schools etc.; helped with the government, censored the media; forced the ppl to adopt a constitution
where American businessmen could own land in Haiti
- Charlemagne Peralte launched guerrilla warfare with the American in protest of American occupation. He was
later killed, followed by many other killings by Americans. America was eventually forced to pull out
- After Roosevelt became president, he established the Good Neighbor Policy, where he removed all marines
from neighboring countries
- Taft and his secretary of state Philander C. Knox had view that the purpose of good diplomacy was to promote
order that would benefit America commercially
o Use private capital overseas to secure position
- Failed to counteract the tides of instability from uprisings
- Wilson encouraged international intervention not only for economic reasons, but also for morals, ideals, and the
spread of democracy
- Collective security through involvement in international organizations
- Pancho Villa threatened to bring the U.S. and Mexico to war with each other, but this crisis was eventually
resolved through diplomatic agreements between Wilson and the Mexican president, Carranza
o Villa raided cities, and caused major damages. So Wilson ordered a punitive raid in Mexico to capture
- One of the few times America intervened directly with Mexican affairs