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S SE ER RI IC CU UL LT TU UR RE E I I N ND DU US ST TR RY Y I I N N I I N ND DI I A A


I. INTRODUCTION

Sericulture is a labour-intensive agro-based rural industry and covers cultivation of silkworm food
plants, silkworm rearing, silk reeling, spinning, yarn twisting, dyeing, weaving, printing, finishing
and related processes. t provides employment to approximately to 72.5 lakh persons, most of
them being small and marginal farmers, reelers and weavers. ndia has the distinction of cultivating
all the four commercially known varieties of silk, namely, Mulberry, Tasar, Eri and Muga. Muga is
unique in having a golden sheen and is a prized possession of ndia. About 80% of the silk produced
in the country is of mulberry silk, majority of which is produced in the three southern States of
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu followed by West Bengal and Jammu & Kashmir.
Mulberry sericulture is practised since time immemorial in the North Eastern Region (NER). The
tropical tasar silk is produced largely in the central ndia covering the tribal areas of Jharkhand,
Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, etc.
Oak Tasar is produced in Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Uttarakhand, Jammu & Kashmir, etc.
Ericulture is traditionally practiced in Assam and the adjacent north-eastern states, Bihar, West
Bengal and Orissa; while muga is largely restricted to Assam and other north-eastern states and
recently spread to West Bengal.

II. WORLD RAW SILK PRODUCTION

The total world' raw silk production is about 140051 MT (2010) (Annexure-). China leads with a
total silk production of 115000 MT (82.11%) while ndia stands second with 20410 MT (14.57%) in
the global silk production. ndia is also the largest consumer of silk consuming around 27,000 MT.
The rural employment and poverty alleviation potential and the culture of usage of silk and the
opportunity of value addition are the driving forces behind policy decisions. The gap in the raw silk
requirement is made good by imports from China particularly the bivoltine mulberry silk of
international grades.

Annexure-I: WORLD RAW SILK PRODUCTION

Unit: Raw Silk,Metric Tonnes
MuIberry Raw SiIk TotaI Raw SiIk
Country
2007 2008 2009 2010(P) 2007 2008 2009 2010
China 78000 70980 84000 93000 108420 98620 104000 115000
ndia 16245 15610 16322 16360 18320 18370 19690 20410
Japan 105 95 90 53 105 95 90 53
Brazil 1220 1177 811 770 1220 1177 811 770
Korea
Republic
150 135 135 135 150 135 135 135
Uzbekistan 950 865 750 2448 950 865 750 2448
Thailand 760 1100 665 655 760 1100 665 655
Vietnam 750 680 550 550 750 680 550 550
Others 500 350 304 30 500 350 304 30
TotaI 98680 90992 103627 114001 131175 121392 126995 140051
Note: Figures of ndia is for Financial year April to March.
Source :SC web-site update as on July,2011



Statistics & Forecasting Section, CSB, Bangalore 2
III. AREA UNDER CULTIVATION AND DOMESTIC RAW SILK PRODUCTION

Mulberry sericulture is almost entirely dependent on cultivated plants while vanya sericulture is
largely dependent upon forest trees and block plantation. As forest plantation is usually a mixture
of the silkworm host plants as well as other plants, it is difficult to clearly indicate the extent of food
plants. Considering the vast area of forest plantation, the production of vanya silks largely depends
upon the silkworm seed available. The total raw silk production reported in the country during the
year 2010-11 is 20410 MT. The total area under mulberry is 1,70,314 hectares and the mulberry
silk production 16360 M.T. while the vanya silk production is 4050 MT (19.84%). The Variety-wise
silk production, area under mulberry, employment generation and exports are given in Annexure-.

Annexure-II. Performance of SericuIture During XI PIan:

ParticuIars 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
A. MuIberry PIantation Area (Lath
Hectares) 1.85 1.78 1.84

1.70
B. Production of Raw SiIk (MT)
B1. MuIberry
BV 1175 1250 1200 1400
CB 15070 14360 15122 14960
TotaI for MuIberry (B1) 16,245 15,610 16,322 16,360
B2. Vanya SiIk
i. Tasar 428 603 803 1166
ii. Eri 1,530 2038 2460 2760
iii. Muga 117 119 105 124
TotaI for Vanya (B2) 2,075 2,760 3,368 4,050
TotaI (B1+B2) 18,320 18,370 19,690 20,410
C. EmpIoyment Generation (Iakh persons) 61.20 63.10 68.17 72.5
D. Exports (Crore `) 2,727.87 3,178.19 2,892.44 2,863.76
Source : Production - DOSs of States and Export- DGCS, Kolkata

IV. PRODUCTIVITY OF RAW SILK
Productivity of area covered under silkworm food plants depend on the fertility of the soil, climate,
water, inputs, age of the plant, etc. and the number of crops which vary from 2 to 5 in different
parts of the country. The country's average mulberry productivity derived from the total mulberry
area and cocoon production reported is 96.06 kg per hectare per year as of 2010-11. The
improvement in the productivity is attributable to the use of high yielding mulberry varieties coupled
with improved cultural practices and productive silkworm breeds. The productivity details during X
Plan are presented in Annexure-III.

Annexure-III. Productivity of MuIberry Raw SiIk:

Productivity (kg per
hectare per year)
Year
Area under
MuIberry
(Hectare)
Cocoon
Production
(MT)
Raw SiIk
production
(MT)
Cocoon Raw SiIk
2007-08 184928 132038 16245 713.99 87.84
2008-09 177943 124838 15610 701.56 87.73
2009-10 183773 131661 16322 716.43 88.82
2010-11 170314 130714 16360 767.49 96.06


Statistics & Forecasting Section, CSB, Bangalore 3
V. SILK IMPORTS:

The quantity and value of raw silk imported during X Plan is given in Annexure-V.

Annexure-IV. Import of Raw SiIk:

Year Quantity (in tons) Value (` in Crores)
2007-08 7922 734.44
2008-09 8392 903.06
2009-10 7338 933.70
2010-11 5820 927.59
Source: DGCIS, KoIkata


VI. SUNSET REVIEW OF ANTIDUMPING DUTY ON RAW SILK & SILK FABRICS

n order to curb the continued dumping of raw silk & to protect the domestic silk reeling industry
from the ill effects of dumping, CSB and the Silk Reelers' Associations appealed for a sunset
Review before the Directorate General of Antidumping and Allied Duties (DGAD) for continuation
of the antidumping duty. The DGAD continued the antidumping duty for another five years
indicating a reference price of US$ 37.32/kg on Mulberry raw silk of 2A Grade & below originating
in or exported from China P.R. w.e.f. January 2009 [The Gazette of ndia, Extraordinary, Part ,
Section 1, No. 436, dt. December 11, 2008].

CSB and the domestic power loom silk weavers' associations filed a similar appeal before the
DGAD for continuation of antidumping duty for a period of five years on silk fabrics originating in or
exported from China P.R. with a weight range of 20-100 gm/ meter. The antidumping duty so
imposed will be in force for a period of five (5) years with effect from 5
th
December, 2011[The
Gazette of ndia, Extraordinary, Part , Section 1, No. 253, dt. December 5, 2011].

VII. EXPORTS

ndian Silk goods are exported to small markets of Asia and the traditional markets in USA and
Europe. There has been a slump during X Plan period due to melt down in the global economy
and sharp appreciation of ndian rupee compared to US$ during 2007-08. The exports have
increased in 2008-09 by 16.5% over the previous year (Annexure-).

VIII. EMPLOYMENT GENERATION

The reported employment generation has shown a gradual increase and the provisional estimates
of 2010-11 place it at 72.50 Lakh (Annexure- ).

IX. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

The Central Silk Board has a network of Research and Development nstitutes supported by
Regional Research Stations and Research Extension Centers for development of technologies,
testing, refinement and transfer. The R&D interventions have increased the raw silk productivity
from 86.12 kg/ha in2006-07 to 96.06 kg/ha in 2010-11. Besides increase in the cocoon
productivity, the renditta (Nos. of kg of cocoons required to produce 1 kg silk) has reduced from
8.2 to 7.99.

New MuIberry varieties authorized During XI PIan:
Three mulberry varieties were authorised for commercial use during the plan. They are, Vishala for
use across the country; and Victory-1(V1) & Ananta for use in the South Zone.
Statistics & Forecasting Section, CSB, Bangalore 4

New SiIkworm Hybrids Authorized During XI PIan:
18 new silkworm hybrids have been authorised during the X Plan for use in various agro-climatic
regions of ndia. They include 8 bivoltine, 7 multi x bivoltine and 3 multivoltine hybrids (Annexure-
V).

Annexure- V. SiIkworm Hybrids Authorised during XI PIan:

SI.No BivoItine
Hybrids
SI.
No
MuIti. X BV.
Hybrids
SL.
No
MuIti. X MuIti
Hybrids
1 APS105 x
APS126
9 APDR15 x
APDR115
16 M con1 X M con 4
2 APS45 x APS12 10 APM2 x APDR105 17 Nistari X M con 4
3 CSR46 x CSR47 11 APM3 x APS12 18 PM X C110
4 Dun17 X Dun18 12 Mcon1 x Bcon4
5 GEN3 x GEN2 13 Mcon4 x Bcon4
6 KSO1 x NP4 14 MH1 x CSR2
7 NK2 x NP4 15 PM x CSR2(SL)
8 SLD4 x SLD8

Patents Obtained During XI PIan:
S.No. Innovation Patent HoIder Pat. No.
1. Silkworm egg box CSRT, Berhampore PAT/4.3.19/99062
2. Labex- Silkworm bed disinfectant CSR&T, Berhampore PAT/200199/26.5.07
3. Tasar chawki nylon net structure CTRT, Ranchi PAT/198455/1.11.99
4. Reel permeation chamber Long
skein book making machine
CSTR, Bangalore PAT-197927/31.3.07
5. Nursery guard- a bio-fungicide for
preparation of nursery guard
CSRT, Mysore PAT.4.4.14.1/01015
6. Nutrid- process for preparation of
silkworm feed
CSRT, Mysore
7. Seri-Torch:- to disinfect the rearing
stands, trays and mountages
CSRT, Mysore
8. A process for preparation of bacterial
suspension useful for biological
control of tasar silkworm disease
CTRT, Ranchi PAT-247635/28.4.11
9. Semi synthetic diet- for rearing of
young instar tasar silkworm
CSRT, Mysore PAT-240259/30/4/2010
10. Ankush- for control of silkworm
diseases
CSRT, Mysore
11. Circumpherial Room Heater SSTL, Bangalore PAT-234195/1.2.2011

Products CommerciaIised During XI PIan:
S.
No.
Innovation Date of
Innovation
Institute
hoIding the
IPR
Licensees Date of
Licensing
1 Cocoon
Harvester
18/4/2007 CSRT,
Mysore
Janani Associates,
Coimbatore

Pure Chemicals Laboratories
Pvt Ltd, Bangalore

Saha Resham Enterprise,
Berhampore

2 Morizyme-B 4/5/2007 CSRT,
Berhampore
M/s Rainbow Agro-Vet
Technologies,Cuddapah,AP
04/02/2010

Statistics & Forecasting Section, CSB, Bangalore 5
3 Plastic Rotary
Mountages
18/4/2007 CSRT,
Mysore
Prince Multiplast Pvt Ltd,
Mumbai

5 Vijetha
Supplement
CSRT,
Mysore
M/s Rainbow Agro-Vet
Technologies,Cuddapah,AP
04/10/2010
6 Amruth-An eco-
friendly
formulation for
control of
silkworm
grasserie &
Flacherie
CSRT,
Mysore
M/s Rainbow Agro-Vet
Technologies,Cuddapah,AP
06/10/2010
7 High Pressure
Sericulture
Sprayer
CSRT,
Mysore
M/s Nandi Agro Vet,
Bangalore
29/06/2011
M/s Rainbow Agro-Vet
Technologies,Cuddapah,AP
22/07/2011 8 Navinya - A
plant based
formulation for
control of
Mulberry Root
Rot.
CSRT,
Mysore
M/s Nandi Agro
Vet,Bangalore
22/07/2011
9 Flat Silk CSRT,
Mysore
M/s Healthline Private
Limited, Bangalore
31/03/2008
10 Hand Operated
Silkworm
Separator
CSRT,
Mysore
M/s Janani Associates,
Coimbatore,TN
07/09/2009
11 Tasar cocoon
sorting
machine
2007-08 CSTR,
Bangalore

12 Motorised cum
pedal operated
spinning
machine
2007-08 CSTR,
Bangalore

13 Two in One
reeling cum
twisting
machine for
tasar and muga
cocoons
2007-08 CSTR,
Bangalore
14 Low cost solar
operated
spinning
machine

2009-10 CSTR,
Bangalore
M/s. Das and Kumars
No. D 63/10, Mahmoorganj
VARANAS 221 010

GajaIakshmi Engg Works
No.556, 3
rd
Main road, 2
nd

Stage, Peenya ndustrial
Estate, BangaIore- 560058.

Sri Lakshmi Enterprises
No.120, Kempegouda Nagar
Vishwaneedam Post
Magadi Main Road
BANGALORE - 91

Pranag Engg. Works
No.556, 3
rd
Main road
2
nd
Stage, Peenya ndusrrial
Estate, BANGALORE 560
058.

M/s. Om Shakthi Industries
ndustrial Estate
13
th
Cross, Srigandha Nagar
Kareemsab Layout
Hegganahalli
BANGALORE - 560091.
MobiIe - 9845137305


Statistics & Forecasting Section, CSB, Bangalore 6

15 Parallel beat up
mechanism for
handlooms (pit
and frame
looms)

2007-08 CSTR,
Bangalore

16 Parallel beat up
mechanism for
handlooms (pit
and frame
looms)

2007-08 CSTR,
Bangalore
M/s Venkateshwara
Engineering Works, No.28,
Aziz Sait ndustrial Town,
Nayandahalli, Mysore Road,
BANGALORE.

M/s. Prabhu Engineering
Works
No.425, 11
th
Cross, 4
th

Phase,
Peenya ndustrial Area,
BangaIore.

M/s. Saravana Wood
Works & TextiIe Spares,
No.74, Cubbonpet Main
Road,
BangaIore - 560 001.

M/s Sai HandIooms
Industries
26-4-1365, Near Easwar
Temple, Melapuram
HINDUPUR - 515 201
Andhra Pradesh.

17 Eight end
improvised
cottage basin
machine for
mulberry
cocoons
CSTR,
Bangalore
M/s Jamuna SiIk Industries
No. 37, Railway Station Main
Road, Ramanagara - 571511

18 Pneumatic
lifting
mechanism for
handlooms *

CSTR,
Bangalore
M/s Sai HandIooms
Industries
26-4-1365, Near Easwar
Temple, Melapuram
HINDUPUR - 515 201
Andhra Pradesh.

M/s Aruna Industries
26-4-3333, Near Easwar
Temple
Melapuram
HINDUPUR - 515 201
Andhra Pradesh

M/s. DeIton Pneumatic
No. 15, Grounf Floor,
Errabalu Chetty Street
Near High Court,
Parrys, CHENNA - 600001


Statistics & Forecasting Section, CSB, Bangalore 7

19 Motorised lifting
mechanism for
handlooms *

CSTR,
Bangalore
M/s Sai HandIooms
Industries
26-4-1365, Near Easwar
Temple, Melapuram
HINDUPUR - 515 201
Andhra Pradesh.

M/s Aruna Industries
26-4-3333, Near Easwar
Temple
Melapuram
HINDUPUR - 515 201
Andhra Pradesh






(Data Source: Central Silk Board , Updated on 08-02-2012)