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>C<MG@NO*O<MO

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-0

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-1

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-2

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-3

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YilZ_ [\j kiX[`k`fe\cc\e R\ikjpjk\dj `e lej\i\d Flcklibi\`j( [X]{i
m\iXeknfikc`Z_ dXZ_\e( [X~ H\ejZ_\e d`k C`c]\ m\ijZ_`\[\ejk\i H`ké
k\cm\ive[\ik\=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ql\ii\`Z_\ejlZ_\e*
E\kqk d{jj\e n`i lej efZ_ \`e^\_\e[\i d`k ]fc^\e[\i AiX^\ Y\]Xjj\e6
R`i[ [\i kiX[`k`fe\cc\ Ffe]c`bk qn`jZ_\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k le[ M\c`^`fe
n`\ Y`j_\i n\`k\i_`e ql \`e\i KfcXi`j`\ile^ ]{_i\e6 Xl] [\i \`e\e
N\`k\ H\ejZ_\e d`k kiX[`k`fe\cc\i k\Z_efcf^`jZ_\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kjXl]é
]Xjjle^( Xl] [\i Xe[\i\e jfcZ_\( [`\ mfe \`e\i `iiXk`feXc\e BcvlY`^b\`k
le[ mfe XY\i^cvlY`jZ_\e Qfijk\ccle^\e ^\giv^k j`e[; J[\i cXjj\e j`Z_
[`\ kiX[`k`fe\cc\e Ffe]c`bk\ qn`jZ_\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k le[ M\c`^`fe jf
n\`k i\[lq`\i\e( [X~ j`Z_ [`\j\ Y\`[\e =\i\`Z_\ d\ejZ_c`Z_\e Nki\Y\ej
.0

le[ =\d{_\ej n\Z_j\cj\`k`^ [liZ_[i`e^\e le[ \`eXe[\i Y\i\`Z_\ie
bzee\e; DZ_ _Xck\ c\kqk\i\j [liZ_Xlj ]{i dz^c`Z_( le[ `Z_ _XY\ mfi^\é
jZ_cX^\e( [X~ n`i [Xj d`k C`c]\ mfe R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e kle( [`\ Xe
Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e fi`\ek`\ik j`e[ $OXik( -53.%* Dd
mfic`\^\e[\e FXg`k\c n\i[\ `Z_ \`e`^\j {Y\i [Xj R\j\e [\i m\ive[\ié
k\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ XljjX^\e( [\e F\ieglebk [\i eXklin`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc`Z_\e H\k_f[`b [`jblk`\i\e( ]\ie\i q\`^\e( [X~ j`Z_ `d Ki`eq`g
Xe m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e
\ekn`Zb\ce c`\~\( le[ [XeXZ_ n\i[\ `Z_ \izik\ie( fY le[ n`\ [`\
`e [`\j\d =lZ_ [Xi^\jk\cck\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e jfcZ_\ <ik\e
mfe R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ) f[\i qld`e[\jk [\i\e <e]ve^\ ) [Xijk\cc\e
bzeek\e*
R`i nfcc\e _`\i ]\jk_Xck\e( [X~ `d =i\eeglebk lej\i\i Pek\ijlZ_leé
^\e qnXi [`\ m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ le[ [`\ d`k `_e\e qlé
jXdd\e_ve^\e[\e @ic\Ye`jj\ le[ @i]X_ile^\e jk\_\e( [X~ a\[fZ_
m`\c\
[`\j\i
Q\ive[\ik\e)=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\)@ic\Ye`jj\
e`Z_k
qnXe^jcvl]`^ jg`i`kl\cc\i IXkli j\`e d{jj\e le[ [X~ jg`i`kl\cc\ @ic\Yé
e`jj\ `_i\ij\`kj e`Z_k eli `d UljXdd\e_Xe^ d`k [\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e Qfibfdd\e* ?X XY\i kifkq[\d jf m`\c\ lej\é
i\i i\c`^`zj\e @ic\Ye`jj\ `d UljXdd\e_Xe^ d`k m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\e Qfibfdd\e f[\i [fZ_ qld`e[\jk [liZ_ j`\
\idz^c`Z_k n\i[\e( `jk \j [liZ_Xlj Xe^\d\jj\e( [X~ n`i [`\ m\ive[\ié
k\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ `e [\e =i\eeglebk lej\i\i @izik\ile^\e
jk\cc\e( n\ee n`i [`\ Bile[cX^\e ]{i [`\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ @i]Xjjle^
mfejg`i`kl\cc\e@ic\Ye`jj\ejZ_X]]\enfcc\e*

=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\
?`\ =\^i`]]\ Ñ=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[É le[ Ñm\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[É n\i[\e _\lkqlkX^\ `e lej\i\d FlckliY\i\`Z_ `dd\i _vl]`é
^\i m\in\e[\k* ?`\ Xcc^\d\`e\ Qfijk\ccle^ mfe [\d( nXj _`ek\i [`\j\e
=\^i`]]\e jk\_k( `jk [`\ <e\ib\eele^ [\i @o`jk\eq \`e\j =\nl~kj\`ej)
hcabO\Ra% [*_* \`e\i Y\jk`ddk\e Nkilbkli( \`e\j Ji^Xe`jXk`fejjk`cj(
[\i j`Z_ Xl] [\e ^\jXdk\e ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e Alebk`fejY\i\`Z_ [\j
H\ejZ_\e ql \`e\d ^Xeq Y\jk`ddk\e U\`kglebk Y\q`\_k* C`\i Y\jk\_k
\`e\ ^\n`jj\ <eXcf^`\ ql [\i Qfijk\ccle^ mfd uY\i^Xe^ Xlj \`e\d
^\f^iXg_`jZ_)g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e NkXXk `e \`e\e Xe[\i\e $\knX mfe I\n
.1

E\ij\p eXZ_ FXc`]fie`\e%( nf XY\i [`\ B\jXdkfi^Xe`jXk`fe Xcj jfcZ_\
`e n\j\ekc`Z_\e Klebk\e ^Xeq lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_ `jk* @j ^`Yk m\ijZ_`\é
[\eXik`^\ B\j\kq\( [`\ [Xj Q\i_Xck\e [\i H\ejZ_\e i\^\ce jfcc\e( \j
^`Yk lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\ G\Y\ejjk`c\ ljn* R\ee [Xj \ic\Yk\ Ñ@dg]`eé
[\e \`e\j =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j j`Z_ iX[`bXc mfe [\d \`e\j Xe[\i\e
lek\ijZ_\`[\k( [Xee bXee dXe mfe \`e\d Ñm\ive[\ik\eÉ =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[jgi\Z_\e*
R\ee e\l ^\nfee\e\ =\^i`]]\ `e [\e Xcc^\d\`e\e NgiXZ_^\YiXlZ_
_`e{Y\in\Z_j\ce( q\`^\e j`\ le^c{Zbc`Z_\in\`j\ _vl]`^ [`\ O\e[\eq(
jf Xcc^\d\`e le[ jf legivq`j\ m\in\e[\k ql n\i[\e( [X~ j`\ m`\c mfe
`_i\d [\jbi`gk`m\e R\ik \`eY{~\e* Nf Y\elkq\e Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ m`\c\
H\ejZ_\e a\kqk [\e =\^i`]] =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( ld [Xd`k \`e]XZ_
Xljql[i{Zb\e( nfi{Y\i j`\ j`Z_ ql \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e U\`kglebk
B\[Xeb\e dXZ_\e( le[ [\e =\^i`]] m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[(
ld [Xd`k Xljql[i{Zb\e( [X~ [Xj( nfi{Y\i j`\ j`Z_ ^\iX[\ `e [`\j\d
Y\jk`ddk\e <l^\eYc`Zb B\[Xeb\e dXZ_\e( j`Z_ mfe [\d lek\ijZ_\`é
[\k( nXj j`\ \`e`^\ <l^\eYc`Zb\ ]i{_\i Y\jZ_v]k`^k _Xk* Rfcck\ `Z_ [`\
Y\`[\e =\^i`]]\ Xl] [`\j\ R\`j\ Y\elkq\e( jf d{~k\ `Z_ jX^\e( [X~
`Z_ d`Z_ `e [`\j\d <l^\eYc`Zb( [X `Z_ [Xj HXeljbi`gk e`\[\ijZ_i\`Y\(
jfqljX^\e `e \`e\d Ñ={Z_\ijZ_iXeb)=\nl~kj\`eä Y\]`e[\( n\`c `Z_ ^\é
iX[\ Xl] \`e\e ={Z_\ijZ_iXeb jZ_Xl\( le[ n\ee `Z_ `d evZ_jk\e
<l^\eYc`Zb d\`e\e =c`Zb Xl] d\`e\ P_i i`Z_k\( Y\]`e[\ `Z_ d`Z_ `e
\`e\d ÑP_i)=\nl~kj\`eä( le[ n\ee `Z_ [Xee n\`k\i d\`e\e =c`Zb
qld A\ejk\i _`ejZ_n\`]\e cXjj\( `e \`e\d ãA\ejk\i)=\nl~kj\`eä* DZ_
n`cc [X_\i [`\ mfe d`i ^\nv_ck\ O\id`efcf^`\ efZ_ n\`k\i jg\q`]`q`\é
i\e( le[ qnXi `e led`kk\cYXi\d UljXdd\e_Xe^ d`k d\`e\i \`^\e\e
O_\fi`\ mfe [\i IXkli [\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ $OXik( -53,7 -53/Y7
-530X l* -531%7 [`\j\ O\id`efcf^`\ n`cc `Z_ [Xee `d n\`k\i\e Q\icXl]
[\i [i\` mfe d`i m\i]X~k\e FXg`k\c XlZ_ bfej\hl\ek m\in\e[\e*
@`e RWaY`SbS` 6SecobaSW\ahcabO\R$ `jk Xcj \`e\ jg\q`]`jZ_\ Alebk`fejé
jkilbkli ql [\]`e`\i\e( [`\ `e @`eq\c_\`k\e \`e\ M\`_\ mfe <YnXe[é
cle^\e qlcv~k( [\eefZ_ XY\i [`\ Xcc\j {Y\i^i\`]\e[\ Nkilbkli Yc\`Yk*
Nf \ib\ee\e n`i Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e\ Q`\cqX_c mfe JYa\bk\e Xcj <lkfé
dfY`c\(fYjZ_fe[`\j\j`Z_eXZ_Biz~\(Afid(AXiY\le[Xe[\i\e
& <ed* [* uY\ij\kq\ij6 ?X `d ]fc^\e[\e XljjZ_c`\~c`Z_ mfe [`jbi\k\e( ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
f[\i [`jbi\k\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e [`\ M\[\ `jk( m\iq`Z_k\e n`i `d
Pek\ijZ_`\[ qli \e^c`jZ_\e <lj^XY\ [XiXl]( [`\j\ Uljkve[\ a\n\`cj Xcj [`jbi\k $[* _*
lek\ijZ_\`[YXi(jg\q`]`jZ_%qlY\q\`Z_e\e*
.2

Q\i^c\`Z_jglebk\e [liZ_Xlj mfe\`eXe[\i lek\ijZ_\`[\e* @`e RWaY`Sz
bS` dS`k\RS`bS` 6SecobaSW\ahcabO\R Y\[\lk\k ) `d Pek\ijZ_`\[ qld
[`jbi\k\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( [\i lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e RXZ_qlé
jkXe[ \ekjgi`Z_k ) \`e\ iX[`bXc\ Q\ive[\ile^ [\j {Y\i^i\`]\e[\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j( jf [X~ a\dXe[( [\i @i]X_ile^\e d`k [\d [`jbi\é
k\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ _Xk $f[\i `_e Y\fYXZ_k\k% jX^\e
bXee( [X~ a\kqk Xe[\i\ B\j\kq\ ^\ck\e le[ [X~ a\kqk \`e\ e\l\ {Y\ié
^i\`]\e[\ Nkilbkli j\`e\ @i]X_ile^ {Y\icX^\ik* ?Xj Y\[\lk\k6 Dd MX_é
d\e \`e\j =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j bzee\e jg\q`\cc\ =\jkXe[k\`c\ [`\j\j
Hf[\ccj ) mfi Xcc\d gjpZ_`jZ_\ Alebk`fe\e ) jZ_e\cc\i f[\i cXe^jXé
d\i XYcXl]\e( `e ^\i`e^\i\d f[\i jkvib\i\d HX~\ n`ibjXd n\i[\e(
f[\i XY\i \j bXee j`Z_ \`e\ Q\ive[\ile^ `d UljXdd\e_Xe^ d`k [\e
`e_Xckc`Z_\e <jg\bk\e \i^\Y\e( XY\i [Xj {Y\i^i\`]\e[\ B\jXdkdf[\cc
Yc\`Yk [fZ_ `d @e[\]]\bk [Xj ^c\`Z_\* Pd efZ_ \`edXc Xl] [Xj fY\e
Xe^\]{_ik\ =\`jg`\c qli{Zbqlbfdd\e6 <cj `Z_ `e d\`e\d U`dd\i
ld_\iYc`Zbk\( m\ive[\ik\ j`Z_ qnXi [\i a\n\`c`^\ De_Xck [\j mfe d`i
RX_i^\efdd\e\e ) ={Z_\ijZ_iXeb( P_i( A\ejk\i XY\i `Z_ Y\]Xe[
d`Z_ [`\ ^Xeq\ U\`k {Y\i `e d\`e\d ^Xeq ^\nz_ec`Z_\e( Xcckv^c`Z_\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[* DZ_ _Xkk\( nv_i\e[ `Z_ Xl] [`\ [i\` fY\e^\eXeeé
k\e B\^\ejkve[\ jZ_Xlk\( jk\kj `d Ki`eq`g [Xj ^c\`Z_\ B\]{_c( le[
d\`e ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\i =\i\`Z_ ]lebk`fe`\ik\ XlZ_ n\`k\i_`e eXZ_
\`e\d ^Xeq Y\jk`ddk\e M\^\cjpjk\d ]{i [`\ =\n\`j]{_ile^( ]{i [`\
Q\iXiY\`kle^mfeDe]fidXk`fe\eljn*
?X^\^\e c`\~\ j`Z_ \`e m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ d`k \`e\i
<ik OiXldqljkXe[ m\i^c\`Z_\e f[\i d`k [\d [liZ_ \`e\ ?if^\ m\ié
lijXZ_k\e MXljZ_qljkXe[( f[\i XY\i Xcj dz^c`Z_\ Afc^\\ijZ_\`ele^
d\[`kXk`m\i H\k_f[\e* DZ_ bzeek\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e\e OiXld ^\_XYk
_XY\e( `e [\d `Z_ Xl] [\e ={Z_\ijZ_iXeb( [Xee Xl] [`\ P_i le[
jZ_c`\~c`Z_ Xl] [Xj A\ejk\i jZ_Xlk\* ?\i jg\q`]`jZ_\ De_Xck le[ [`\
<Y]fc^\ bzeek\e [liZ_Xlj [`\ ^c\`Z_\e ^\n\j\e j\`e n`\ Y\` d\`e\d
^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( XY\i Y\`d <l]nXZ_\e n{i[\ `Z_
`e \`e\d jfcZ_\e AXcc\ [\lkc`Z_ \ib\ee\e( [X~ d\`e\ {Y\i^i\`]\e[\
^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\ B\jXdk]lebk`fe j`Z_ jkXib mfe [\i ^\nz_ec`Z_)Xcc)
kv^c`Z_\e lek\ijZ_`\[\e _Xkk\* @j _Xe[\ck j`Z_ Xcjf Y\` [\e m\ive[\ié
k\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e ld =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\( [`\ [\d( [\i
[Xj \ic\Yk( \`e mfe j\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e( `d RXZ_qljkXe[ n`ibjXd\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ bcXi lek\ijZ_\`[YXi\j B\]{_c m\id`kk\ce6 \j
_Xe[\ck j`Z_ _`\i Xcjf ld `ORWYOZS Q\ive[\ile^\e( e`Z_k eli ld ^\é
i`e^]{^`^\ De_Xckjm\ijZ_`\Yle^\e f[\i ld ^\i`e^]{^`^\ hlXek`kXk`m\
.3

Alebk`fejve[\ile^\e* @i`ee\ie n`i lej [XiXe( [X~ \`e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ \`e {Y\i^i\`]\e[\j Alebk`fejdf[\cc `jk6 ql [\e ÑiX[`bXé
c\eÉ Q\ive[\ile^\e `e [\e \`eq\ce\e =\jkXe[k\`c\e( Xlj [\e\e [`\j\j
Hf[\cc Y\jk\_k( bzee\e ^iz~\i\ hlXek`kXk`m\ Q\ive[\ile^\e `d
=\i\`Z_ [\i gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_)g_pj`fcf^`jZ_\e Alebk`fe\e ^\_zi\e( n`\
Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ B\[vZ_ke`j( <i^ld\ekXk`fejm\idz^\e( D[\ek`kvkj^\é
]{_c le[ Hfkfi`b jfn`\ [Xj q\`kn\`c`^\ <ljj\kq\e \`e`^\i Alebk`fe\e
le[ [Xj R`ibjXdn\i[\e e\l\i Alebk`fe\e( [`\ `d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[e`Z_km\i]{^YXi^\n\j\enXi\e*
IX_\ql Xcc\ efidXc\e H\ejZ_\e \ic\Y\e Xl~\i `_i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
RXZ_qljkXe[ efZ_ qn\` m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\6 [\e
OiXldqljkXe[ le[ [`\ uY\i^Xe^jg_Xj\e qn`jZ_\e RXZ_qljkXe[ le[
NZ_cX] $[\e Ñ_pgeX^f^`jZ_\eÉ le[ [\e Ñ_pgefgfdg`jZ_\eÉ Ulé
jkXe[%* Q`\c\ H\ejZ_\e \ic\Y\e efZ_ \`e\e n\`k\i\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( [\e <cbf_fciXljZ_( jfn`\ [`\ e\l\jk\e @ié
ile^\ejZ_X]k\e lej\i\i Flckli ) m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\(
[`\ [liZ_ HXi`_lXeX f[\i [liZ_ efZ_ jkvib\i\ gjpZ_\[\c`jZ_\ ?if^\e
_\iY\`^\]{_ik n\i[\e* R`\[\i Xe[\i\ H\ejZ_\e \ic\Y\e XlZ_ d`k
C`c]\ d\[`kXk`m\i H\k_f[\e Xlj^\czjk\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkve[\( jf^\eXeek\ Uljkve[\ [\j =\j\jj\ej\`ej jfn`\ [\i Cpgefj\
Yqn*[\iN\cYjk_pgefj\*
<e_Xe[ \`e\i \`e]XZ_\e <eXcf^`\ qli Alebk`fe mfe >fdglk\ie cv~k
j`Z_ [Xj R\j\e mfe =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e le[ m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\e ^lk m\i[\lkc`Z_\e* Nk\cc\e n`i lej \`e\e \`e]XZ_\e
>fdglk\i mfi( [\i [XiXl] gif^iXdd`\ik n\i[\e bXee( d`k [\e `_d
\`e^\jg\`Z_\ik\e UX_c\e \`e\ Alebk`fe ql \i]{cc\e* @`e Kif^iXdd
bzeek\ \knX [Xi`e Y\jk\_\e( [\i M\`_\ eXZ_ Xcc\ `e `_e \`e^\jg\`Z_\ié
k\e UX_c\e ql X[[`\i\e* De [`\j\d AXcc n{i[\ \j j`Z_ ld \`e\ <ik
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ _Xe[\ce* ?\i >fdglk\i bzeek\ XY\i XlZ_ jf
X[aljk`\ik n\i[\e( [X~ \i [`\j\ <[[`k`fe `e iXjZ_\i\d f[\i cXe^é
jXd\i\d O\dgf mfie`ddk( f[\i jf( [X~ \i [`\ <[[`k`fe d`k lek\ié
jZ_`\[c`Z_\e BiX[\e [\i Kivq`j`fe mfie`ddk* ?Xj n{i[\ [Xee a\e\e
hlXek`kXk`m\e QXi`Xek\e \ekjgi\Z_\e( n`\ n`i j`\ Y\` a\[\d =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ Xeki\]]\e( Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\( [X~ n`i lej `e lej\i\d ^\é
nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ]iz_c`Z_\i Yqn* kiXli`^\i f[\i XY\i
jZ_cv]i`^\i Yqn* nXZ_\i ]{_c\e* Dd Ki`eq`g Y\jk\_k [Xj >fdglk\ié
gif^iXdd a\[fZ_ Xlj \`e\i Ycf~\e <[[`k`fe( [* _*( kifkq [\i `e `_d
mfibfdd\e[\e hlXek`kXk`m\e QXi`Xek\e Y\_vck \j `d Ki`eq`g [fZ_ \`e
{Y\i^i\`]\e[\jB\jXdkdf[\ccY\`*
.4

I\_d\e n`i ele Xe( n`i gif^iXdd`\i\e [\e >fdglk\i jf ld( [X~
\i a\[\ `_d e\l \`e^\jg\`Z_\ik\ UX_c d`k [\d @i^\Ye`j [\i Hlck`gc`é
bXk`fe\e Xcc\i Y`j_\i \`e^\jg\`Z_\ik\e UX_c\e dlck`gc`q`\ik* R`i _XY\e
\j _`\i d`k \`e\d e\l\e Bile[df[\cc ql kle( d`k \`e\d e\l\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( [* _* `e Y\ql^ Xl] [Xj mfi_\i^\_\e[\ Kif^iXdd
jf^Xi d`k \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[* <lZ_ `e [`\j\d
AXcc bzee\e n`i [\e >fdglk\i jf X[aljk`\i\e( [X~ \i [`\j\e Qfi^Xe^
iXjZ_\i f[\i cXe^jXd\i Yqn* d\_i f[\i d`e[\i \oXbk mfccq`\_k( XY\i
[`\ <ik mfe Jg\iXk`fe\e( [`\ \i a\kqk Xl] \`e^\jg\`Z_\ik\ Nk`dlc` _`e
[liZ_]{_ik( jfn`\ [`\ <ik( n`\ \i De]fidXk`fe\e m\iXiY\`k\k ) [Xj
Xcc\j `jk a\kqk ^Xeq Xe[\ij* ?Xj `jk [Xj R\j\e [\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\6
j`\ j`e[ n`\ m\ijZ_`\[\e\ Kif^iXdd\ `e \`e\d >fdglk\i* IXk{ic`Z_
j`e[ B\`jk le[ B\_`ie [\j H\ejZ_\e j\_i m`\c bfdgc\o\i Xcj [`\j\j
_`\i q`k`\ik\ \`e]XZ_\ =\`jg`\c* Un\` f[\i XlZ_ d\_i\i\ mfe `_e\e bzeé
e\e [liZ_Xlj \`e`^\ ^\d\`ejXd\ U{^\ kiX^\e6 jf bzeek\ dXe Y\`é
jg`\cjn\`j\ `e [\i GX^\ j\`e( \`e\ UX_c\ei\`_\ ql X[[`\i\e( nv_i\e[
dXe kivldk( XY\i dXe bzeek\ [Xj XlZ_ `d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e RXZ_qlé
jkXe[ [\j =\nl~kj\`ej f[\i `d HXi`_lXeX)MXljZ_* ?fZ_ [`\ {Y\ié
^i\`]\e[\e B\jXdkdf[\cc\ [\i ^\`jk`^\e Alebk`fe\e [`\j\i =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\j`e[`d\`eq\ce\ei\Z_klek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_*
R\ee n`i [`\ H\k_f[\e [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Xlj [`\j\i K\ié
jg\bk`m\ Y\kiXZ_k\e( \ib\ee\e n`i( [X~ mfe [\e m`\c\e ?`e^\e( [`\
j`\ Y\n`ib\e( qn\` `d Qfi[\i^ile[ jk\_\e6 X% j`\ m\ive[\ie Y\é
jk`ddk\ <jg\bk\ le[ De_Xck\ lej\i\i ^\`jk`^\e le[ bzig\ic`Z_\e
Alebk`fe\e `d MX_d\e lej\i\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\e( `d RXZ_qljkXe[
n`ibjXd\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\( le[ j`\ m\ive[\ie Y% XlZ_ mfi{Y\ié
^\_\e[ lej\i\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( jf [X~ n`i \`e\e
f[\i d\_i\i\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ \ic\Y\e bzee\e*
?\i \ijk\ Kifq\~ Y\jk\_k `e \`e\i ÑM\`e`^le^É lej\i\j ^\nf_ek\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j7 [Xj ^\jZ_`\_k Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [liZ_ [`\ @c`d`e`\é
ile^ ^\n`jj\i e\lifk`jZ_\i Nkilbkli\e f[\i XY\i [liZ_ [`\ Ñ=\é
]i\`le^É mfe ]XcjZ_\e Qfijk\ccle^\e* ?\i c\kqk^\eXeek\ Kifq\~
n{i[\ [Xql ]{_i\e( [X~ n`i Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e d\[`é
kXk`m\e UljkXe[ \ii\`Z_\e( `e [\d n`i [Xee @ic\Ye`jj\ ^Xeq Xe[\i\i
<ik_XY\ebzeek\e*
R`Z_k`^ `jk [`\ @ib\eeke`j( [X~ \j j`Z_ Y\`d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ld
\`e\ Xbk`m\ <lj\`eXe[\ij\kqle^ d`k [\i R`ibc`Z_b\`k _Xe[\ck( nfY\`
De]fidXk`fe\e jfnf_c {Y\i [`\ <l~\en\ck \`e^\_fck n\i[\e bzee\e
Xcj XlZ_ {Y\i [\e \`^\e\e Fzig\i le[ [`\ \`^\e\e @i]X_ile^\e* Pe)
.5

j\i\ [\d ^\jle[\e H\ejZ_\em\ijkXe[ \ekjgi\Z_\e[\ Qfijk\ccle^
mfd =\nl~kj\`e Y\jk\_k [Xi`e( [X~ n`i `i^\e[n`\ [`\ ?`e^\ jf nX_ié
e\_d\e( n`\ j`\ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ j`e[( le[ [X~ n`i d`k `_e\e `e lej\i\e
NZ_cl~]fc^\ile^\e( @dg]`e[le^\e( @`ejZ_vkqle^\e( CXe[cle^\e
ljn* f]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_ ^Xeq m\ie{e]k`^ ld^\_\e* ?`\ df[\ie\ gjpZ_fé
cf^`jZ_\ AfijZ_le^ _Xk Xl] ^\q\`^k( [X~ [`\j\ Qfijk\ccle^ mzcc`^
]XcjZ_ `jk* =\` a\[\d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \`e\ ^Xeq
eWZZYn`ZWQVS <ik [\i Q\iXiY\`kle^ mfe De]fidXk`fe\e-( [\i j\c\bk`m\e
=\[\lkle^jqld\jjle^ `d MX_d\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\i R\ikjpjk\d\ le[
[\i j`Z_ [XiXlj qnXe^jcvl]`^ \i^\Y\e[\e @ic\Ye`jj\ le[ OXk\e* @j
^`Yk Xcjf b\`e\e ÑefidXc\eÉ( Y`fcf^`jZ_ mfi^\^\Y\e\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[( [\e dXe jfqljX^\e Xcj [\e eXk{ic`Z_\e( fgk`dXc\e B\`jk\jé
qljkXe[ Y\q\`Z_e\e bzeek\( fYnf_c \j m\idlkc`Z_ \`e\ ^\n`jj\( Y`fé
cf^`jZ_ Y\[`e^k\ @`ejZ_iveble^ [\i Hz^c`Z_b\`k\e ^`Yk* =\` lej\i\d
^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ m`\cd\_i ld \`e\
`d @`ebcXe^ d`k Y`fcf^`jZ_\e le[ blckli\cc\e B\^\Y\e_\`k\e Xl]é
^\YXlk\ Ffejkilbk`fe ql [\d Un\Zb( j`Z_ d`k lej\i\i g_pj`jZ_\e(
`ekiXg\ijfeXc\e le[ `ek\ig\ijfeXc\e Pdn\ck Xlj\`eXe[\iqlj\kq\e*
=\` \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ n\i[\e eXk{ic`Z_ [`\
De]fidXk`fe\e Xlj [\i g_pj`jZ_\e( `ekiXg\ijfeXc\e le[ `ek\ig\ijfé
eXc\e Pdn\ck Xl] iX[`bXc lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\ R\`j\ m\iXiY\`k\k( XY\i
XlZ_ [\i jg\q`]`jZ_\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ bXee \Y\ejf
n`ccb{ic`Z_ mfi^\_\e n`\ lej\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[*
H\`e\i H\`ele^ eXZ_ n`i[ [liZ_ [`\j\ k\`cn\`j\ R`ccb{ic`Z_b\`k eli
efZ_ [Xj Xcc^\d\`e\ $jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[\% KfjklcXk Y\kfek( [X~ lej\i
^\nz_ec`Z_\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( [\i jf^\eXeek\ efidXc\ =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[( [fZ_ [\i fgk`dXc\ UljkXe[ `jk le[ [X~ \j j`Z_ Y\`
Xcc\e jg\q`]`jZ_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e eli ld ^\é
i`e^\i n\ik`^\ Q\ij`fe\e _Xe[\ck* @`e`^\ mfe `_e\e j`e[ Y\` [\i
<lj\`eXe[\ij\kqle^ d`k Y\jk`ddk\e N`klXk`fe\e e`Z_k jf ]c\o`Y\c
le[ e{kqc`Z_ n`\ lej\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( XY\i
\`e`^\ Xe[\i\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ bzee\e j`Z_ kifkqé
[\d `e m`\c\i C`ej`Z_k Xcj e{kqc`Z_ \in\`j\e* HXe bzeek\ `e [\i
OXk jX^\e( \`e\i [\i CXlgkXejgi{Z_\( [`\ mfe [\e jg`i`kl\cc\e Kjpé
Z_fcf^`\e m\iki\k\e n\i[\e( Y\jk\_k [Xi`e( [X~ `_i\i <ej`Z_k eXZ_
Y\jk`ddk\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ j`Z_ Xcj n\`k e{kqc`Z_\i
le[ Ñqlm\icvjj`^\iÉ ]{i [Xj Q\ijkve[e`j ^\n`jj\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\i Kifé
Yc\d\ \in\`j\e ) n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [Xj Q\i_vcke`j [\j H\ejZ_\e
ql [\e {Yi`^\e G\Y\ejY\i\`Z_\e Xcj [Xj Y\` lej\i\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
/,

=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e [\i AXcc `jk* H`k [`\j\i AiX^\ [\i =\n\ikle^
mfe Y\jk`ddk\e @`^\ejZ_X]k\e [\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ n\i[\e
n`ilejql\`e\djgvk\i\eU\`kglebkY\]Xjj\e*

=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\le[KXiX[`^d\e
O_fdXj Fl_e( \`e M\givj\ekXek [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kj^\jZ_`Z_k\( _Xk
$-52.% [`\ D[\\ m\iki\k\e( [Xj Alebk`fe`\i\e [\i IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k
n\i[\ [liZ_ KXiX[`^d\e ^\jk\l\ik* ?X [`\j\ Ffeq\gk`fe mfe [\e
KXiX[`^d\e `e m`\c\i C`ej`Z_k d\`e\i Ffeq\gk`fe mfe [\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\e v_ec`Z_ `jk( le[ [X jfqljX^\e a\[\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fé
cf^`\ \`e KXiX[`^dX ]{i [`\ <lj\`eXe[\ij\kqle^ d`k [\i R`ibc`Z_b\`k
`jk( jZ_\`ek \j d`i e{kqc`Z_( j`Z_ ev_\i d`k [`\j\i D[\\ ql Y\]Xjj\e*
=\` \`e\d KXiX[`^dX _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \`e\ Y\[\lk\e[\ ^\`jk`^\ G\`é
jkle^( [`\ a\[\i efidXc\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k ql^ile[\ c`\^k le[ [`\ [\i
<iY\`k \`e\i M\`_\ mfe Xlj[Xl\ie[\e <e_ve^\ie Xcj <eq`\_le^jglebk
le[ G\`kdfk`m `_i\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e Ovk`^b\`k [`\ek* @j _Xe[\ck
j`Z_ `d Bile[\ ld \`e\ <ik ÑNlg\i)O_\fi`\É( [*_* ld \`e\ O_\fé
i`\ f[\i ?\]`e`k`fe [\j =\^i`]]j ÑR`ibc`Z_b\`kÉ( [`\ jf ld]Xjj\e[
`jk( [X~ j`\ [`\ d\`jk\e ) n\ee e`Z_k ^Xi Xcc\ ) Y\bXeek\e n`Z_k`^\e
K_vefd\e\ `e \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e AXZ_Y\i\`Z_ XY[\Zbk* @`e =\`jg`\c
]{i \`e jfcZ_\j KXiX[`^dX( [Xj XlZ_ _\lk\ efZ_ [Xj G\`kdfk`m ]{i [\e
^\jXdk\e AXZ_Y\i\`Z_ <jkifefd`\ `jk( `jk [`\ bfg\ie`bXe`jZ_\ Yqn*
_\c`fq\eki`jZ_\ <jkifefd`\( [* _* [`\ D[\\( [X~ [`\ KcXe\k\e [`\ Nfee\
ldbi\`j\e* <cj [`\j\ D[\\ [XdXcj \`e^\]{_ik nli[\( jZ_`\e j`\ Xcc\
AXbk\e Xlj [\d =\i\`Z_ [\i <jkifefd`\ `e n\`k qn`e^\e[\i\i Afid
`e \`e Y\jk`ddk\j Npjk\d ql Yi`e^\e( Xcj [Xj Y\` [\i mfiXl]^\^Xe^\e\e
O_\fi`\ [\i AXcc ^\n\j\e nXi( eXZ_ [\i [`\ KcXe\k\e j`Z_ ld [`\ @i[\
[i\_k\e $gkfc\dv`jZ_\ Yqn* ^\fq\eki`jZ_\ <jkifefd`\%* Rv_i\e[ a\é
[fZ_ \`e [\iXik`^\j KXiX[`^dX [`\ d\`jk\e f[\i ^Xi Xcc\ n`Z_k`^\e
K_vefd\e\ `e j\`e\d =\i\`Z_ `e \`e\d {Y\i^i\`]\e[\e N`ee\ ql \ié
bcvi\e jZ_\`ek( cv~k \j [fZ_ efZ_ m\ijZ_`\[\e\ @`eq\c]iX^\e f]]\e6 @j
^`Yk n`Z_k`^\ ?\kX`cgifYc\d\ `ee\i_XcY [`\j\j =\ql^jjpjk\dj le[
m\ijZ_`\[\e\ G{Zb\e `d B\jXdkY`c[( [`\ efZ_ ^\bcvik Yqn* Xlj^\]{cck
n\i[\e d{jj\e7 ]{i [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i Yc\`Yk Xcjf efZ_ m`\c Fc\`eXié
Y\`kqlkle*
Dd Ki`eq`g `jk \`e\ ^\nz_ec`Z_\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ O_\fi`\ jk\kj n\`k\é
/-

i\e uY\igi{]le^\e lek\infi]\e* @`e KXiX[`^dX [X^\^\e `jk eXZ_ j\`é
e\i @kXYc`\ile^ jf \i]fc^i\`Z_( [X~ \j \`e\e ^agQV]Z]UWaQVS\ RXe[\c
[liZ_j\kqk( [\e n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ O_\fi`\e XejZ_\`e\e[ e`Z_k Xljqlé
czj\e m\idz^\e* @`e KXiX[`^dX n`i[ ql \`e\d jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[ Xbq\gé
k`\ik\e =\ql^jjpjk\d( Xe [Xj j`Z_ [`\ d\`jk\e [Xd`k Y\]X~k\e R`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc\i _Xck\e7 \j n`i[ [`\ Bile[cX^\ ]{i [`\ ÑeXk{ic`Z_\
=\kiXZ_kle^jn\`j\ Xcc\i ?`e^\É le[ [\i [Xd`k qljXdd\e_ve^\e[\e
<bk`fe\e7 \j _Xe[\ck j`Z_ _`\i ld [`\ f]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_ ^Xeq Ñm\ie{e]é
k`^\É <ik( [`\ KifYc\d\ `e [`\j\d =\i\`Z_ Xeql^\_\e* Djk [Xj KXiXé
[`^dX \ijk \`edXc qli Ñf]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_ m\ie{e]k`^\eÉ ?\eble^jXik \ié
bcvik nfi[\e( m\ijZ_n\e[\e j\`e\ <e_ve^\i b\`e\ n\`k\i\ U\`k [Xd`k(
\j n\`k\i\e uY\igi{]le^\e Xljqlj\kq\e7 le[ n\ee \j Xcj Ñjk`ccé
jZ_n\`^\e[ Xe\ibXeekÉ ^`ck( {Yk \j \`e\ eXZ_[i{Zbc`Z_\ Nk\l\ile^jé
biX]k Xl] j\`e\ <e_ve^\i Xlj* HXe [\ebk e`Z_k `d OiXld\ [XiXe( ^\é
^\e \knXj ql i\Y\cc`\i\e( [Xj j`Z_ n`\ [`\ ^Xeq eXk{ic`Z_\ Ji[ele^
[\j Pe`m\ijldj Xlje`ddk7 dXe e`ddk e`Z_k \`edXc nX_i( [X~ dXe
j`Z_mfej\`e\e\`^\e\eFfeq\gk`fe\ejk\l\iecv~k*
I\_d\e n`i \`e =\`jg`\c6 <cj N`\ Xl] [\d BpdeXj`ld K_pj`b c\iek\e(
_Xk D_e\e [X `i^\e[ a\dXe[ [`\ HVS]`WS [\j NZ_n\ibiX]k^\j\kq\j \ié
bcvik; IXk{ic`Z_ e`Z_k HXe _Xk N`\ \`e]XZ_ [Xj BiXm`kXk`fej^\j\kq ^\é
c\_ik De R`ibc`Z_b\`k _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ _`\i a\[fZ_ ld [`\ HVS]`WS [\j
NZ_n\ibiX]k^\j\kq\j( XY\i \j _Xk j`Z_ j\`k cXe^\d jf ^cveq\e[ Y\nv_ik(
[X~ \j Xcj mfcc^{ck`^ Xbq\gk`\ik n`i[ le[ [X~ dXe \j e`Z_k Xcj [`\ O_\fé
i`\( jfe[\ie Xcj [Xj B\j\kq mfe [\i NZ_n\ibiX]k Y\q\`Z_e\k* RXj ^\é
jZ_`\_k ele( n\ee gczkqc`Z_ a\dXe[ Y\_Xlgk\k( \i _XY\ \`e\ <ek`)
NZ_n\ibiX]k)HXjZ_`e\ \i]le[\e; HXe Y\kiXZ_k\k `_e XlkfdXk`jZ_ Xcj
\`e\e ãNg`ee\iä( [\ee a\[\i H\ejZ_ n\`~ [fZ_ ^\eXl( [X~ eXZ_ [\d
BiXm`kXk`fej^\j\kq \`e\ jfcZ_\ @i]`e[le^ {Y\i_Xlgk e`Z_k dz^c`Z_ `jk*
@j bzeek\ j`Z_ Xcj qn\Zbdv~`^ \in\`j\e( @i]`e[\i mfe <ek`)NZ_n\i)
biX]k)HXjZ_`e\e Xcj ÑNg`ee\iÉ XYqlkle* H`k N`Z_\i_\`k dl~ [`\ D[\\(
[\d BiXm`kXk`fej^\j\kq ql kifkq\e( H\ejZ_\e lej`ee`^ \ijZ_\`e\e(
[`\ `d MX_d\e [\j Xcc^\d\`e Xbq\gk`\ik\e KXiX[`^dXj XiY\`k\e( le[
[`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i bzee\e jf \`e\ H\e^\ U\`k jgXi\e( [`\ j`\ jfejk
]{i ]\_c^\jZ_cX^\e\ Q\ijlZ_\ m\in\e[\e n{i[\e* ?`\ KXiX[`^d\e
[`\e\e ele \`edXc [Xql( [`\ <l]d\ibjXdb\`k Xl] =\i\`Z_\ ql bfeé
q\eki`\i\e( Y\` [\i\e @i]fijZ_le^ dXe gfj`k`m\ M\jlckXk\ \inXik\e
bXee* Oifkq[\d dl~ dXe ]\jkjk\cc\e( [X~ XlZ_ \`e KXiX[`^dX \`e\
<ik NXZb^Xjj\ [Xijk\cck* ?X dXe Xl]^ile[ j\`e\i ?\]`e`k`fe ^\n`jj\
KifYc\d\ le[ =\jki\Yle^\e Xcj ledz^c`Z_ f[\i j`eecfj Xej`\_k( leé
/.

k\ijlZ_k dXe j`\ e`\ ^\eXl\i( le[ dXe jkz~k [X_\i XlZ_ e`\dXcj Xl]
De]fidXk`fe\e( [`\ j`Z_ d`k [\d Y\ki\]]\e[\e KXiX[`^dX e`Z_k m\i\`eé
YXi\e cXjj\e* ?`\ M\mfclk`fe\e [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k( [`\ Fl_e `e jf Y\é
nle[\iejn\ik\i R\`j\ \izik\ik( [`\ ^if~\e ?liZ_Yi{Z_\ ql ^Xeq
e\l\e <l]]Xjjle^\e mfd Pe`m\ijld( \i]fc^\e ^\iX[\ [Xee( n\ee
dXe j`Z_ bfek`el`\ic`Z_ Xl] [`\ jZ_\`eYXi j`eecfj\e AXbk\e Yqn* Deé
]fidXk`fe\e bfeq\eki`\ik le[ n\ee dXe eXZ_n\`jk( [X~ \j `e [\i OXk
^\n`jj\ ?`jbi\gXeq\e `ee\i_XcY [\j KXiX[`^dXj ^`Yk( jfYXc[ dXe \j
{Y\i ^\n`jj\ Bi\eqivld\ _`eXlj Xlj[\_ek( le[ [X~ \j [liZ_Xlj XlZ_
\`e\ Xck\ieXk`m\ =\kiXZ_kle^jn\`j\ [\j Pe`m\ijldj ^`Yk( [*_*6 \`e
e\l\j KXiX[`^dX* ?`\ ^if~\e @ie\l\i\i `d =\i\`Z_ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k
_Xk dXe `e [\i OXk _vl]`^ \`e\ ^Xeq\ R\`c\ Xcj ÑNg`ee\iÉ Y\q\`Z_e\k(
le[ nv_i\e[ [\ia\e`^\e K\i`f[\e( [`\ mfe Fl_e Xcj ÑKXiX[`^d\e)
Ffe]c`bkÉ Y\q\`Z_e\k n\i[\e( [*_* K\i`f[\e( `e [\e\e \`e e\l\j KXiXé
[`^dX ^\^\e \`e Xck\j Xebvdg]k le[ j`Z_ cXe^jXd [liZ_j\kqk( _\iijZ_k
m`\c <ekX^fe`jdlj le[ eli \`e\ i\Z_k jgvic`Z_\ Ffddle`bXk`fe qn`é
jZ_\e [\e jki\`k\e[\e KXik\`\e* IXZ_ Fl_ej H\`ele^ Y\jk\_k [`\ \`eé
q`^\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k ]{i \`e e\l\j KXiX[`^dX( `d =\i\`Z_ [\i R`jj\eé
jZ_X]k( `e [\i XbX[\d`jZ_\e R\ck Xcc^\d\`e Xbq\gk`\ik ql n\i[\e(
_vl]`^ eli [Xi`e( [X~ [`\ e`Z_k ql \ekdlk`^\e[\e <e_ve^\i [\j Xck\e
KXiX[`^dXj cXe^jXd Xljjk\iY\e le[ e\l\( a{e^\i\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i `e
[\i\eKfj`k`fe\eeXZ_i{Zb\e*
?Xj cv~k eXk{ic`Z_ e`Z_k ^\iX[\ Xl] [`\ Ñb{_c\ le[ jXZ_c`Z_\ MXk`feXé
c`kvkÉ jZ_c`\~\e( d`k [\i [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k [fZ_ \`^\ekc`Z_ XiY\`k\e
jfcck\7 XY\i [Xj klk j`\ \Y\e e`Z_k* MXk`feXc`kvk `jk qnXi `_i Xe^\jki\Yk\j
U`\c( XY\i j`\ n`i[ \Y\e mfe H\ejZ_\e giXbk`q`\ik( le[ [`\ _XY\e
e\Y\e \`e\d ^\i`e^\e HX~ Xe MXk`feXc`kvk XlZ_ efZ_ \`e`^\ ^Xeq
Xe[\i\@`^\ejZ_X]k\e*
@`e KXiX[`^dX le[ \`e [`jbi\k\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ j`e[ \`eXeé
[\i j\_i v_ec`Z_* =\`[\ Y\jk\_\e Xlj \`e\i M\`_\ bfdgc\o\i( n\Z_j\cé
j\`k`^ d`k\`eXe[\i m\iYle[\e\e M\^\ce le[ O_\fi`\e( [`\ \`e\
K\ijfe Y\]v_`^\e( j`Z_ d`k @ic\Ye`jj\e le[ @i]X_ile^\e `ee\i_XcY
\`e\i Y\jk`ddk\e Pdn\ck Xlj\`eXe[\iqlj\kq\e le[ j`\ ql `ek\igi\é
k`\i\e* De Y\`[\e Avcc\e ^\ck\e [`\j\ M\^\ce Xcj jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[\ Kfjkl)
cXk\6 ?\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i [\ebk ^Xi e`Z_k d\_i [XiXe( [X~ j\`e KXiXé
[`^dX eli \`e\ O_\fi`\ le[ [Xd`k [\i Ifkn\e[`^b\`k n\`k\i\i uY\ié
gi{]le^\e lek\infi]\e `jk7 [`\ K\ijfe( [`\ \`e\e [`jbi\k\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ \ic\Yk( [\ebk e`Z_k [XiXe( [X~ \j j`Z_ [XY\` ld \`e\ n`ccé
b{ic`Z_\ <ik le[ R\`j\ [\i =\nl~k_\`kjfi^Xe`jXk`fe _Xe[\ck7 j`\
//

e`ddk Xe( \j _Xe[c\ j`Z_ [XY\` \`e]XZ_ ld [`\ eXk{ic`Z_\ <ik( [`\
?`e^\ nX_iqle\_d\e* ?X[liZ_( [X~ dXe [`\ Qficvl]`^b\`k le[ [`\
R`ccb{ic`Z_b\`k \`e\j KXiX[`^dXj Yqn* \`e\j jg\q`]`jZ_\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[\j e`Z_k \ib\eek( ^\ivk dXe `e [`\ B\]X_i( j`Z_ mfe `_e\e
eX_\qlkfkXcc\`k\eqlcXjj\e*
Fl_ej KXiX[`^dX)=\^i`]] cv~k j`Z_ Xl] n\`k d\_i Xcj eli [`\ Xl] [`\
]fidXc\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kjk_\fi`\e Xen\e[\e( [`\ [\i AfijZ_le^jkvk`^é
b\`k [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i ql^ile[\ c`\^\e* R`i Xcc\ Y\j`kq\e KXiXé
[`^d\e ]{i Yqn* R\ckXejZ_Xlle^\e {Y\i m\ijZ_`\[\e\ R`ibc`Z_b\`kjé
Y\i\`Z_\* R`i Y\j`kq\e g\ijzec`Z_\ n`\ XlZ_ blckli\cc\ KXiX[`^d\e
`e Y\ql^ Xl] [`\ R`ikjZ_X]k( [`\ Kfc`k`b( [`\ M\c`^`fe( [`\ N\olXc`kvk(
[`\ <^^i\jj`fe ljn* =\` ]Xjk Xcc\e mfe `_e\e _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld jk`ccé
jZ_n\`^\e[ `eY\^i`]]\e\ BcXlY\ejjpjk\d\( [*_* M\^\cbf[`q\j ]{i [`\
Dek\igi\kXk`fe mfe ^\n`jj\e ?`e^\e( [Xj ?\eb\e {Y\i ^\n`jj\ ?`e^\
jfn`\ [Xj CXe[\ce Xl]^ile[ ^\n`jj\i ?`e^\( le[ qnXi `e [\i Afid(
[X~ n`i ^Xi e`Z_k d\_i n`jj\e( n\cZ_\ M\^\ce {Y\i_Xlgk lej\i\
M\Xbk`fe\e jk\l\ie* =\` \`e\d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_
ld [`\ B\jXdkjkilbkli lej\i\j ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_j( [`\ v_eé
c`Z_ n`\ \`e KXiX[`^dX ]lebk`fe`\ik( fYnf_c j`\ ^Xeq jg\q`]`jZ_\
NlYgXiX[`^d\e _XY\e bXee( [`\ `_i\ij\`kj ]{i `e_Xckc`Z_ ^Xeq jg\q`é
]`jZ_\ @`eq\cY\i\`Z_\ qljkve[`^ j`e[* R\ee dXe [Xj Kif^iXdd `e
\`e\d >fdglk\i ve[\ik( n\ee dXe j\`e\e \`^\e\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[ mfe \`e\d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ `e \`e\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ ldnXe[\ck le[ n\ee dXe [`\ R\ck Xl]^ile[ qn\`\i
m\ijZ_`\[\e\i KXiX[`^d\e Y\kiXZ_k\k ) [Xee j`e[ [Xj Xcc\j [liZ_Xlj
m\i^c\`Z_YXi\ <bk`fe\e* N`\ m\id`kk\ce lej \`e ^Xeq lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\j
Q\ijkve[e`jmfe[\e?`e^\eldlej*

DO`ORWU[S\&?]\TZWYb heWaQVS\ tab`OWUVbu
tVW^á"OZbS`\ObWd[Wb8`]US\S`TOV`c\U#

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c\R

?\i H\ejZ_ g]c\^k ql ?`e^\e( [`\ `_d Ai\l[\ dXZ_\e( eXZ_ le[ eXZ_
\`e\ B\]{_cjY\q`\_le^ ql \ekn`Zb\ce( le[ XlZ_ \`e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i(
[\i `d MX_d\e \`e\j Y\jk`ddk\e KXiX[`^dXj Y\[\lk\e[\ AfikjZ_i`kk\
\iq`\ck( ]{_ck j`Z_ `_d Xccdv_c`Z_ \dfk`feXc m\iYle[\e* <lZ_ H\eé
jZ_\e( [\i\e G\Y\ejY\[{i]e`jj\ `d MX_d\e \`e\i ^Xeq Y\jk`ddk\e
blckli\cc\e Pdn\ck =\]i`\[`^le^ ]`e[\e $XlZ_ _`\i _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_
/0

X ld \`e\ <ik KXiX[`^dX%( ]{_c\e j`Z_ a\e\i Xccdv_c`Z_ ]\jk m\iYle[\e*
H\ejZ_\e( [`\ d`k \`e\d ^Xeq Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ^lk
mfinvikjbfdd\e( _ve^\e Xe [`\j\d e`Z_k d`e[\i ]\jk* R\ee ele
De]fidXk`fe\e( [`\ `d MX_d\e \`e\j jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[ mfiXlj^\é
j\kqk\e KXiX[`^dXj ) j\` \j Xlj [\d =\i\`Z_ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k(
[\i Flckli f[\i [\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ ) j`eecfj \ijZ_\`e\e
d{jj\e( \`e\d H\ejZ_\e qli F\eeke`j ^\YiXZ_k n\i[\e( [Xee
Y\jk\_k [Xj @i^\Ye`j `e [\i M\^\c \WQVb [Xi`e( [X~ \i j`Z_ Xe
\`e\ uY\igi{]le^ j\`e\j KXiX[`^dXj _\iXenX^k( jfe[\ie [Xi`e(
[X~ \i [`\ Y\ki\]]\e[\ e\l\ De]fidXk`fe \ekn\[\i ^Xeq m\in`i]k
f[\i j`\ [fZ_ qld`e[\jk ]\_c`ek\igi\k`\ik* ?`\j\ <Yc\_ele^ \ijZ_\`ek
[\e qX_ci\`Z_\e <e_ve^\ie [\j ^c\`Z_\e KXiX[`^dXj Xcj [liZ_Xlj
Ñm\ie{e]k`^É( le[ dXe m\i]{^k [X_\i {Y\i \`e\ jkXib\ ^\j\ccjZ_X]kc`Z_\
Pek\ijk{kqle^ ]{i j\`e\ Kfj`k`fe* H\ejZ_\e( [`\ j`Z_ \`e\d Xe[\i\e
KXiX[`^dX m\ig]c`Z_k\k ]{_c\e( dl~ eXk{ic`Z_ \Y\e [`\j\ Kfj`k`fe Xcj
Ñn`[\im\ie{e]k`^É \ijZ_\`e\e* HXe YiXlZ_k aX eli Xe Ai\le[\
ql [\eb\e( [`\ \`e\ Xe[\i\ gfc`k`jZ_\ <ejZ_Xlle^ m\iki\k\e Xcj dXe
j\cYjk6 j`\ \ijZ_\`e\e \`e\d `e m`\c\i C`ej`Z_k Xcj [liZ_Xlj Ñm\ie{e])
k`^É(XY\i^\iX[\`dgfc`k`jZ_\e=\i\`Z__vckdXej`\]{imzcc`^lem\ié
e{e]k`^7 [fZ_ dXe \ib\eek [Xee XlZ_( [X~ j`\ `_i\ij\`kj ^\eXljf {Y\i
\`e\ej\cYjk[\eb\e*
N\` [\d Ffe]c`bk( [\i _\lk\ qn`jZ_\e [\ea\e`^\e Y\jk\_k( [`\ ^\n`jj\
m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ \ic\Yk _XY\e $ql `_e\e bzee\e
ale^\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i \Y\ejf ^\_zi\e n`\ ale^\ H\ejZ_\e ^Xeq
Xcc^\d\`e%( le[ [\ea\e`^\e( [`\ [Xj e`Z_k _XY\e( _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_
Xcjf mfin`\^\e[ ld \`e\ <ik KXiX[`^d\e)Ffe]c`bk* @`e =\`jg`\c6
@`e H\ejZ_ _Xk `e \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[
\`e dpjk`jZ_\j @ic\Ye`j( le[ \i \iqv_ck [Xee jgvk\i Xe[\i\e H\eé
jZ_\e( [Xj Bile[gi`eq`g [\j Pe`m\ijldj j\` [`\ G`\Y\( le[ n`i Xcc\
nvi\e jf k`\] mfe `_d [liZ_[ile^\e( Xcj j\`\e n`i RXjj\ikifg]\e `e
\`e\d Jq\Xe* @`e fik_f[fo\i KjpZ_`Xk\i( [\i j`Z_ \`e\d ^Xeq Xe[\i\e
KXiX[`^dX m\ig]c`Z_k\k ]{_ck( [Xj Xe j\`e\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e( `d RXZ_é
qljkXe[ _\iijZ_\e[\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ^\Yle[\e `jk( _zik [`\j\
<ljjX^\( le[ \i jk\cck Xcj Ñ^Xeq f]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_É ]\jk( [X~ [`\ Y\ki\])
]\e[\ K\ijfe \`e\e mfi{Y\i^\_\e[\e <e]Xcc mfe Ñ`e]Xek`c\i M\^i\jé
j`feÉ \ic\Yk _XY\( jf [X~ j`\ e`Z_k d\_i qn`jZ_\e Ñn`ibc`Z_É le[
Ñe`Z_k n`ibc`Z_É ql lek\ijZ_\`[\e m\idfZ_k\* @`e n\`k\i\j =\`jg`\c6
De \`e\d @og\i`d\ek e`ddk \`e\ Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe GN? le[ Y\i`Z_k\k
[Xee [\d @og\i`d\ekXkfi6 ÑN`\ le[ `Z_( n`i j`e[ \`e \`e_\`kc`Z_\j
/1

BXeq\j7 \j ^`Yk ^Xi b\`e\ ^\ki\eek\e De[`m`[l\eÉ ?\i @og\i`d\ekXé
kfi jk\cck [Xee ]\jk( j\`e\ Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe _XY\ \`e\ D[\ek`kvkj[`]]lj`fe
le[ m\iq\iik\ ?\ebgifq\jj\ \ib\ee\e cXjj\e* ?\ia\e`^\( [\i [Xj
dpjk`jZ_\ @ic\Ye`j _Xkk\( le[ [`\ Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe Y\i`Z_k\e ^\eXl
[Xj( nXj `_e\e Xcj nX_i \ijZ_\`ek7 [\i Q\ijlZ_jc\`k\i jk\cck \Y\e]Xccj
[Xj ]\jk( nXj j\`e\i <ej`Z_k eXZ_ ÑOXkjXZ_\É `jk* ?Xj KXiX[`^dX [\j
KjpZ_`Xk\ij Yqn* [\j @og\i`d\ekXkfij( [Xj Xl] `_i\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`é
Z_\e <ljY`c[le^ \Y\ejf YXj`\ik n`\ Xl] `_i\i Flckliql^\_zi`^b\`k
le[ Xl] `_i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ [\lk\k [XiXl]
_`e( [X~ \`e\ nfiknzikc`Z_\ Dek\igi\kXk`fe [\i <ljjX^\e [\j
Hpjk`b\ij Yqn* [\i Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe b\`e\e N`ee \i^`Yk( [*_*( [X~
j`\ d`k [\i R`ibc`Z_b\`k e`Z_k {Y\i\`ejk`dd\e bzee\e7 j`\ d{jj\e
[X_\i Xcj <lj[ilZb \`e\i ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e <Yefid`kvk Xl] j\`k\e [\i
Y\ki\]]\e[\e Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe ^\n\ik\k n\i[\e* ?\i Hpjk`b\i Yqn*
[`\ Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe( [\i\e KXiX[`^d\e `e \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e <l^\eé
Yc`Zb [X[liZ_ iX[`bXc m\ive[\ik nXi\e( [X~ j`\ j`Z_ `e \`e\d m\ié
ve[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\]Xe[\e( Y\i`Z_k\e( nXj `_e\e
j\cYjk Xcj nX_i le[ i\Xc \ijZ_\`e\e dl~( le[ j`\ _XY\e mfe [\d
@og\i`d\ekXkfi qnXe^jcvl]`^ [\e @`e[ilZb( \i j\` ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_
e`Z_k ^Xeq efidXc( [\ee \i jZ_`\e aX le]v_`^( [Xj ql Y\^i\`]\e( nXj
j`\j\cYjk^Xeq[\lkc`Z_Xcji\Xc\dg]le[\e_Xkk\e*
Fl_e _Xk ^\q\`^k( [X~ KXiX[`^d\e)Ffe]c`bk\ Z_XiXbk\i`jk`jZ_\in\`j\
mfe \iY`kk\ik\e( \dfk`feXc Y\^i{e[\k\e A\`e[j\c`^b\`k\e le[ mfe
\`e\i kfkXc\e <Yc\_ele^ [\j a\n\`c`^\e Jggfe\ek\e Y\^c\`k\k
nXi\e* Dd <ejZ_cl~ Xe \`e\ b{_c\( n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ ]le[`\ik\ ?\YXkk\
{Y\i [`\ ÑAXbk\eÉ \ekn`Zb\ck j`Z_ \`e Y\kivZ_kc`Z_\i \dfk`feXc Y\é
^i{e[\k\i<ekX^fe`jdlj*
B\^\envik`^ \ic\Y\e n`i [\e ^c\`Z_\e Kifq\~ `e [\i <lj\`eXe[\ij\ké
qle^ [\i fik_f[fo\e Nfq`Xc) le[ H\[`q`en`jj\ejZ_X]k\e d`k [\eé
a\e`^\e( [`\ eXZ_ jg`i`kl\cc\e @ic\Ye`jj\e jlZ_\e le[ j`\ XlZ_ _XY\e6
?\i fik_f[fo\ KjpZ_fcf^\ f[\i KjpZ_`Xk\i( [\i j\cY\i b\`e\ ÑgjpZ_f)
kfd`d\k`jZ_\eÉ $Y\nl~kj\`ej\in\`k\ie[\e% ?if^\e e`ddk le[
j`Z_ XlZ_ e`Z_k Ñi\^i\jj`m\eÉ H\[`kXk`fejgifq\jj\e lek\iq`\_\e
n{i[\( ]{_ik j\`e\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e AfijZ_le^\e [liZ_( ld ql Y\é
n\`j\e( [X~ [`\a\e`^\e H\ejZ_\e( [`\ Y\jk`ddk\ ?if^\e \`ee\_d\e
f[\i [`\ Ñdpjk`jZ_\ @ic\Ye`jj\É _XY\e( `d Bile[\ eli @jbXg`jk\e
j`e[* ?`\j\ H\ejZ_\e `_i\ij\`kj Y\kiXZ_k\e [\e n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ fi`é
\ek`\ik\e AfijZ_\i n`\[\ild Xcj \e^jk`ie`^( i\gi\jj`m le[ `e Qfilié
k\`c\e Y\]Xe^\e* R\ee \j j`Z_ ld \`e\e Nkl[\ek\e _Xe[\ck( bXee \i
/2

`e \`e\d jfcZ_\e AXcc \`^\ekc`Z_ eli j\`e Nkl[`ld XYYi\Z_\e f[\i Xl]
[`\ =\k\`c`^le^ Xe `i^\e[\`e\d ?`Xcf^ m\iq`Z_k\e* =\` [\i Ffddle`)
bXk`fe qn`jZ_\e [`\j\e Y\`[\e KXik\`\e _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ n\e`^\i ld
\`e\e e{kqc`Z_\e B\[Xeb\eXljkXljZ_ Xcj ld d\_i f[\i d`e[\i
f]]\e\^\^\ej\`k`^\=\jZ_`dg]le^\e*
H{jj\e H\ejZ_\e( [`\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ \ic\Y\e(
n`ibc`Z_ XlZ_ n\`k\i_`e [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i Xcj G\lk\ Y\é
kiXZ_k\e( [`\ j`Z_ Xl] len`Z_k`^\ I\Y\ejvZ_c`Z_b\`k\e bfeq\eki`\i\e(
le[ d{jj\e [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i H\ejZ_\e( [`\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~k)
j\`ejqljkve[\ \ic\Y\e( [`\j\ XlZ_ n\`k\i_`e Xcj m\in`iik f[\i ^\`jk\jé
biXeb Y\q\`Z_e\e;. J[\i bzeek\ j`Z_ [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k `e Xe^\d\jé
j\e\i\i Afid d`k [\d Y\]Xjj\e( nXj ^\n`jj\ H\ejZ_\e `e jg\q`]`é
jZ_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e \ic\Y\e; R`i nfcc\e lej
ele d`k [\i IXkli [\j R`jj\ej le[ d`k [\d R\j\ejb\ie [\i n`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc`Z_\e H\k_f[`b Y\jZ_v]k`^\e( ld ql q\`^\e( [X~ [Xj n`ibc`Z_
dz^c`Z_`jk*

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?`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k $\e^c* GQWS\QS eXZ_ [\d GXk\`e`jZ_\e aQW`S 9 n`jj\e%
Y\]X~k j`Z_ d`k [\d R`jj\e Yqn* d`k Y\jk`ddk\e F\eeke`jj\e* ?Xié
{Y\i( nXj ãR`jj\eä \`^\ekc`Z_ Y\[\lk\k( _XY\e j`Z_ [`\ K_`cfjfg_\e
jZ_fe j\`k le[\ebc`Z_\e U\`k\e ^\jki`kk\e( XY\i ]{i [`\ _`\i ]fc^\e[\
<lj\`eXe[\ij\kqle^ [\]`e`\i\ `Z_ ãR`jj\eä Xcj \`e led`kk\cYXi ^\^\Y\é
e\j* \dg`i`jZ_\j @dg]`e[\e \`e\i Ffe^il\eq qn`jZ_\e qn\` m\i)
jZ_`\[\e\e @ic\Ye`j) Yqn* @i]X_ile^jXik\e( [*_* \`e @dg]`e[\e [\i
uY\i\`ejk`ddle^* ?`\ \`e\ M\`_\ mfe @i]X_ile^\e bXee dXe Xcj
RX_ie\_dle^ Y\kiXZ_k\e( Xcj RX_ie\_dle^ [\i <l~\en\ck( Xe[\é
i\i H\ejZ_\e f[\i [\j \`^\e\e DZ_j* =\` [\i Xe[\i\e @i]X_ile^ji\`_\
bXee \j j`Z_ ld \`e\ O_\fi`\ _Xe[\ce( \`e G\_i^\Yvl[\( \`e Npjk\d
[\j =\^i\`]\ej( \`e\ @i`ee\ile^ f[\i ld \`e\ BcXlY\ejmfijk\ccle^*
?Xj @dg]`e[\e \`e\i Ffe^il\eq `jk \knXj( [Xj j`Z_ `e \`e\d @ic\Ye`j
led`kk\cYXi d`kk\`ck( fYnf_c dXe d\_i\i\ n\`k\i\ i\`e ]fidXc\ Fi`k\é
i`\e ]{i \`e\ uY\i\`ejk`ddle^ mfi^\jZ_cX^\e _Xk*
ld =\`jg`\c6 Rv_i\e[ `Z_ jZ_i\`Y\( e\_d\ `Z_ `e d\`e\d vl~\ijk\e
<l^\en`eb\c \`e\ Y\jk`ddk\ =\n\^le^ nX_i( `Z_ [i\_\ d`Z_ ld le[
/3

jZ_Xl\ _`e( le[ `Z_ j\_\( [X~ \j j`Z_ ld \`e bc\`e\j _XXi`^\j O`\i d`k
m`\i =\`e\e( \`e\d NZ_nXeq le[ _fZ_^\jk\cck\e J_i\e _Xe[\ck* De
\`e\d O\`c d\`e\j ^\`jk`^\e =\i\`Z_j jk\cck j`Z_ [\i =\^i`]] ÑFXkq\É
\`e( le[ `Z_ _XY\ [Xj B\]{_c( [X~ `Z_ ^\eXl n\`~( nXj `Z_ nX_i^\é
efdd\e _XY\* HXe _Xk [Xj B\]{_c( [X~ [`\ led`kk\cYXi\ j\ejfi`jZ_\
RX_ie\_dle^ d`k [\e `ee\ic`Z_ mfi_Xe[\e\e Fi`k\i`\e {Y\i\`eé
jk`ddk7[X_\iÑn\`~É`Z_\knXj*
5ZZSa KWaaS\ Wab 9`TOV`c\UaeWaaS\ R`i e\`^\e ql [\i <eeX_d\( [Xj(
nXj `Z_ {Y\i [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ R\ck n\`~( j\` \`e R`jj\e mfe `i^\e[é
n`\ Xe[\i\i <ik7 [Xj `jk a\[fZ_ e`Z_k [\i AXcc* RXj `Z_ {Y\i [Xj BiXm`é
kXk`fej^\j\kq n\`~( `jk \knXj( [Xj `Z_ j\cYjk nX_ie\_d\( le[ `Z_ _XY\
b\`e\ B\n`~_\`k [Xi{Y\i( fY \j leXY_ve^`^ mfe d`i Y\jk\_k( fYjZ_fe
`Z_ [Xql e\`^\( [`\j\ <eeX_d\ mfiXljqlj\kq\e* H\`e ^Xeq\j R`jj\e
{Y\i [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ R\ck cv~k j`Z_ Xl] ]fc^\e[\ UljXdd\e]Xjjle^
i\[lq`\i\e6 N\kqk dXe ^\n`jj\ @i]X_ile^j]fc^\e mfiXlj( [`\ `Z_ $Xl]é
^ile[ d\`e\i <eeX_d\% \`e\i <l~\en\ck qljZ_i\`Y\( [`\ d\`e j\ejfé
i`jZ_\j Npjk\d Xbk`m`\i\e( [Xee bXee \j ]{i d`Z_ dz^c`Z_ j\`e( [`\j
d`k i\`e `ee\ic`Z_ ^\dXZ_k\e @i]X_ile^\e $@i`ee\ile^\e( QfiXljé
n`jj\e% ql m\i^c\`Z_\e le[ d`k \`e\d _f_\e RX_ijZ_\`ec`Z_b\`kj^iX[
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ile^jXik\e Y\]X~k _Xk( [`\ n`i [\i g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e R`ibc`Z_b\`k qlé
jZ_i\`Y\e( le[ dXe _Xk j`\( _`jkfi`jZ_ ^\j\_\e( d`k [\i K_`cfjfg_`\
[\j HXk\i`Xc`jdlj `e Q\iY`e[le^ ^\YiXZ_k( [*_* d`k [\d BcXlY\e(
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/4

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=\`jg`\c6 R\ee `Z_ \knX jX^\e bXee6 ÑD_i Ufie `e \`e\i Y\jk`ddk\e
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[Xee ^`ck [Xj eXZ_ [\e =\^i`]]\e [\j HXk\i`Xc`jdlj Xcj ^lk\ @ibcvile^(
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Xlj ) f[\i XY\i( n\ee dXe [Xj BXeq\ Xlj \`e\i ld]Xjj\e[\i\e K\ié
jg\bk`m\ Y\kiXZ_k\k( Xcj \`e\ i\`e ql]vcc`^\ uY\i\`ejk`ddle^* R`i _Xé
Y\e qli F\eeke`j ^\efdd\e( [X~ lej\i\ =\n\`j]{_ile^ _vl]`^
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/5

=i`ccXeq( [Xee j`e[ [Xj b\`e\ j`Z_\i\e Fi`k\i`\e [X]{i( [X~ dXe kXké
jvZ_c`Z_ ql \`e\d nX_i\e R`jj\e ^\cXe^k( ql \`e\d R`jj\e( [Xj jk\kj
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d\e* ?`\ @ekn`Zbcle^ [\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e H\k_f[`b bXee dXe
Xcj [`\ \ekjZ_cfjj\e\ <ejki\e^le^ n\ik\e( [\e Kifq\~ [\i <e\`^ele^
le[ [\i Q\i]\`e\ile^ mfe R`jj\e jf ql jpjk\dXk`j`\i\e( [X~ dXe [`\
m\ijZ_`\[\e\e AXccjki`Zb\( [`\ lej Y\` [\i =\n\`j]{_ile^ le[ Y\` [\i
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0,

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0-

jZ_n`e[\e gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\ K_vefd\e\( n\ee dXe e`Z_k `e [\i i`Z_k`é
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0.

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^\e A\jkjk\ccle^\e bfdd\e( [\ee N`\ _XY\e Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ len`ccé
b{ic`Z_ eli Y\jk`ddk\ <jg\bk\ Y\fYXZ_k\k( Xe[\i\ [X^\^\e Xl~\i XZ_k
^\cXjj\e( le[ N`\ _XY\e [XY\` D_i\ g\ijzec`Z_\e @`^\ek{dc`Z_b\`k\e
d`k [\e\e [\i Y\fYXZ_k\k\e K_vefd\e\ m\id\e^k( le[ `Z_ _XY\ [Xj
^c\`Z_\ ^\kXe* R\ee n`i Y\`[\ _XikevZb`^ Xe lej\i\d ÑHpk_fjÉ mfe
[\i JYa\bk`m`kvk ]\jk_Xck\e f[\i n\ee `Z_ ) \Y\ejf n`\ N`\ ) ]\jk [XiXe
^cXlY\( [X~ `Z_ fYa\bk`m Y`e( [Xee \i^\Y\e j`Z_ ^\n`jj\ KifYc\d\*
R\ee N`\ d`i e`Z_k qljk`dd\e( ]{i N`\ j\cYjk XY\i $n`\ {Yi`^\ej ]{i
[`\ d\`jk\e mfe lej% [Xj B\]{_c( fYa\bk`m ql j\`e( j\_i n`Z_k`^ `jk(
[Xee dl~ `Z_ Xee\_d\e( N`\ Y\]`e[\e j`Z_ `d Diikld( le[ N`\ d{jj\e
[Xj ^c\`Z_\ mfe d`i ^cXlY\e* R`i d{jj\e Xe\ib\ee\e( [X~ [`\ a\n\`c`é
^\e g\ijzec`Z_\e @`^\ek{dc`Z_b\`k\e [\j =\fYXZ_k\ij e`Z_k eli [Xj
K_vefd\e j\cYjk `e ^\n`jj\d N`ee\ m\ive[\ie bzee\e( jfe[\ie [X~
j`\ d`k N`Z_\i_\`k XlZ_ [`\ <ik le[ R\`j\ m\ive[\ie( `e [\i [\i =\fYé
XZ_k\i [`\j\j K_vefd\e nX_ie`ddk* R`i bzee\e ele m\ijlZ_\e(
Q\ijkve[e`j ]{i [`\ @`^\ek{dc`Z_b\`k\e [\j a\n\`c`^\e =\fYXZ_k\ij
Xl]qlYi`e^\e( j`\ qld Y\jj\i\e Q\ijkve[e`j [\i \`^\e\e =\fYXZ_kleé
^\e ql Y\i{Zbj`Z_k`^\e le[ Xl] [`\j\ R\`j\ \`e ld]Xjj\e[\i\j le[
\oXbk\i\j=`c[mfe[\eY\fYXZ_k\k\eK_vefd\e\eql\i_Xck\e*
RXj [`\ lej _\lk\ m\i]{^YXi\e De]fidXk`fe\e {Y\i jg`i`kl\cc\ K_vefé
d\e\ le[ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ Y\ki`]]k( jf d{jj\e n`i c\`[\i
]\jkjk\cc\e( [X~ dXe Y`j_\i giXbk`jZ_ b\`e\i \`eq`^\e [\i fY\e
\i_fY\e\e Afi[\ile^\e ^\i\Z_k ^\nfi[\e `jk* De [\i M\^\c bfdd\e
[`\ =\i`Z_k\ mfe G\lk\e( [`\ ]{i [`\j\ <ik mfe =\fYXZ_kle^\e e`Z_k
\`edXc _`ecve^c`Z_ Xlj^\Y`c[\k nli[\e le[ j`Z_ _vl]`^ XlZ_ e`Z_k [\i
Q\ig]c`Z_kle^ ql \`e\i dz^c`Z_jk \oXbk\e =\fYXZ_kle^ Y\nl~k j`e[(
jfe[\ie [`\ j`Z_ eli Xe \`e\ Y\jk`ddk\ O_\fi`\ Yqn* Xe \`e Y\jk`ddé
k\j BcXlY\ejjpjk\d ^\Yle[\e ]{_c\e( [\jj\e B{ck`^b\`k j`\ leY\[`e^k
Y\n\`j\e nfcc\e* R`i n`jj\e `e [\i M\^\c e`Z_kj {Y\i [`\ g\ijzec`Z_\e
@`^\ek{dc`Z_b\`k\e [\i a\n\`c`^\e =\fYXZ_k\i* Dd Ki`eq`g Y`c[\e ^lk\
=\fYXZ_kle^\e [`\ Bile[cX^\ ]{i a\[\j n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ Q\ijkve[e`j
jg`i`kl\cc\i K_vefd\e\ le[ jg\q`]`jZ_\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)K_v)
efd\e\7 `e R`ibc`Z_b\`k `jk Xcc\i[`e^j lej\i\ _\lk`^\ De]fidXk`fej)
YXj`j i\Z_k [{i]k`^ ) dXe bzeek\ jX^\e( \`e\ H`jZ_le^ mfe n\e`^\e
n`ibc`Z_ ^lk\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e le[ j\_i m`\c\e q`\dc`Z_ b{dd\ic`é
Z_\e?Xk\e*
0/

Ai\`\Ffddle`bXk`fe6
[`\t]]\ekc`Z_b\`k[\i=\fYXZ_kle^
=\` a\[\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e Ovk`^b\`k d{jj\e [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e `e
[\d N`ee z]]\ekc`Z_ j\`e( [X~ j`\ mfe \`e\d \ekjgi\Z_\e[ ^\jZ_lck\e
=\fYXZ_k\i n`\[\i_fck n\i[\e bzee\e* ?Xj Y\[\lk\k( [X~ [\i
lijgi{e^c`Z_\ =\fYXZ_k\i j\`e\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e Xlj]{_ic`Z_ le[
mfccjkve[`^ Xe[\i\e H\ejZ_\e( [`\ Xe [`\j\e K_vefd\e\e `ek\ié
\jj`\ik j`e[( d`kk\`ck( [Xd`k j`\ [\e Q\ijlZ_ lek\ie\_d\e bzee\e( j`\
ql n`\[\i_fc\e* ?\i lijgi{e^c`Z_\ =\fYXZ_k\i dl~ m\ijlZ_\e( [`\
]{i j\`e\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e dX~^\Yc`Z_\e QfiXljj\kqle^\e d`k Xljé
i\`Z_\e[\i ?\lkc`Z_b\`k le[ `d ?\kX`c ql jZ_`c[\ie( [Xd`k \`e Xe[\i\i
=\fYXZ_k\i j`Z_ Xl] [`\ NlZ_\ eXZ_ v_ec`Z_\e QfiXljj\kqle^\e ql Y\é
^\Y\e f[\i [`\j\ j\cYjk ql jZ_X]]\e m\idX^ ) le[ [Xd`k \i `e [\i GX^\
`jk( \`e\ =\fYXZ_kle^ ql dXZ_\e( [`\ d`k [\i lijgi{e^c`Z_ ^\jZ_`c[\ié
k\e `d Ki`eq`g `[\ek`jZ_ `jk* R\ee [\i Xe[\i\ =\fYXZ_k\i v_ec`Z_\
QfiXljj\kqle^\e Xeki`]]k f[\i j`Z_ jZ_X]]k( [XY\` XY\i e`Z_k [`\ lié
jgi{e^c`Z_ ^\jZ_`c[\ik\ @i]X_ile^ ) Xcjf [`\ lijgi{e^c`Z_\ =\fYXZ_é
kle^ dXZ_k [Xee Y\[\lk\k [Xj( [X~ [\i lijgi{e^c`Z_\ =\fYXZ_k\i
[`\ QfiXljj\kqle^\e j\`e\i =\fYXZ_kle^\e e`Z_k bfii\bk ^\jZ_`c[\ik
_Xk le[+f[\i [X~ \i j`Z_ Y\jk`ddk\i n\j\ekc`Z_\i <jg\bk\ [`\j\i
QfiXljj\kqle^\e e`Z_k Y\nl~k ^\nfi[\e `jk le[ j`\ `e]fc^\[\jj\e
`ebfii\bkf[\ilemfccjkve[`^^\jZ_`c[\ik_Xk*
Nf bXee Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ a\dXe[ Y\i`Z_k\e( \j ^\Y\ \`e K_vefd\e( [Xj
\i Xcj ÑIfi[c`Z_kÉ Y\q\`Z_e\k( \`e Ng`\c mfe AXiY\e le[ G`Z_k( [Xj
\i Xd C`dd\c Y\fYXZ_k\k _Xk* @i dl~ qljvkqc`Z_ [XiXl] _`en\`j\e(
[X~ \j IXZ_k j\`e dl~( n\ee dXe [`\j\j K_vefd\e Y\fYXZ_k\e n`cc(
[X~ dXe eXZ_ Ifi[\e jZ_Xl\e le[ [X~ dXe j`Z_( ld \j nX_ie\_d\e
ql bzee\e( Xe \`e\d _fZ_ `d Ifi[\e ^\c\^\e\e =i\`k\e^iX[ Xl]_Xcé
k\e dl~* Ile `jk XlZ_ a\[\i Xe[\i\ H\ejZ_ `e [\i GX^\( [`\ QfiXljé
j\kqle^\e ]{i [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^ \`e\j [\iXik`^\e K_vefd\ej ql jZ_X]é
]\e6 \i i`Z_k\k \j jf \`e( [X~ \i j`Z_ Xl] [\i Cz_\ \`e\j ezi[c`Z_
^\c\^\e\e =i\`k\e^iX[\j Y\]`e[\k le[ Xl] [\e ezi[c`Z_\e O\`c [\j
IXZ_k_`dd\cj Yc`Zb\e bXee7 [Xee `jk XlZ_ \i `e [\i GX^\( [Xj jf^\é
eXeek\ Ifi[c`Z_k ql j\_\e* R\ee lej\i qn\`k\i =\fYXZ_k\i \j e`Z_k
nX_ie`ddk( fYnf_c [`\ \ekjgi\Z_\e[\e QfiXljj\kqle^\e [X]{i ^\é
^\Y\e j`e[( [Xee bXee [Xj Y\[\lk\e( [X~ [\i lijgi{e^c`Z_\ =\fYXZ_é
k\i Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ m\i^\jj\e _Xk( _`eqlql]{^\e( [X~ [Xj Ifi[c`Z_k j`Z_
00

ql Y\jk`ddk\e EX_i\jq\`k\e d`k ^iz~\i\i RX_ijZ_\`ec`Z_b\`k Y\fYé
XZ_k\ecv~kXcj`eXe[\i\e*
Pej\i qn\`k\i =\fYXZ_k\i Y\]`e[\k j`Z_ qnXi Xe [\i i`Z_k`^\e =\fYé
XZ_kle^jjk\cc\( XY\i ql \`e\d ]XcjZ_\e U\`kglebk7 [`\ QfiXljj\kqleé
^\e( [`\ ]{i [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^ [\iXik`^\i K_vefd\e\ le\icv~c`Z_ j`e[(
nXi\e`_dXcjfelilemfccjkve[`^^\jZ_`c[\iknfi[\e*
R\ee \`e qn\`k\i =\fYXZ_k\i lek\i [\e ^\eXl \i]{cck\e QfiXljj\ké
qle^\e [`\ ^c\`Z_\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e le[ @i]X_ile^\e dXZ_k n`\ [\i
\ijk\( [Xee jgi\Z_\e n`i mfe \`e\i Xl] uY\i\`ejk`ddle^ Y\il_\e[\e
B{ck`^b\`kj\ibcvile^* <l]^ile[ jfcZ_\i uY\i\`ejk`ddle^\e ^\é
n`ee\e n`i \`e\e n\`k _z_\i\e BiX[ mfe N`Z_\i_\`k( [X~ [`\ d`ké
^\k\`ck\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e \oXbk Y\jZ_i`\Y\e nli[\e le[ [X~ \j j`Z_
Y\` `_e\e dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ e`Z_k eli ld [Xj Kif[lbk \`e\j \knXj
m\iq\iik\e RX_ie\_dle^jm\idz^\ej [\j Y\ki\]]\e[\e =\fYXZ_k\ij
_Xe[\ck*
Uli d\k_f[`jZ_\e M\^\c [\i Xl] {Y\i\`ejk`dd\e[\e @i]X_ile^\e Y\é
il_\e[\e B{ck`^b\`kj\ibcvile^\e ^`Yk \j `e [\i IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k
efZ_ ]fc^\e[\e UljXkq6 ?X \`eq`^ le[ Xcc\`e g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ B\^\Y\e)
_\`k\e c\kqkc`Z_ Ñi\XcÉ j`e[( le[ [X `ee\i\ f[\i g\ijzec`Z_ \ic\Yk\ Qfié
^ve^\ `_i\i IXkli eXZ_ leqlm\icvjj`^ le[ len`ibc`Z_ j`e[( dl~ dXe
j`\ \Y\e Xl] g_pj`fcf^`jZ_\ f[\i Q\i_Xck\ej[Xk\e qli{Zb]{_i\e( ld
`_i\ Ulm\icvjj`^b\`k ql ^\nv_ic\`jk\e* Gv~k j`Z_ [Xj e`Z_k dXZ_\e(
n\i[\e j`\ `d Xcc^\d\`e\e `^efi`\ik* ?Xj _Xk j`Z_ _`jkfi`jZ_ jf \i^\é
Y\e( [\ee \j `jk jk\kj jZ_n`\i`^\i ^\n\j\e( ]{i g\ijzec`Z_\ @i]X_ileé
^\e \`e\ j`\ Y\jkvk`^\e[\ B{ck`^b\`kj\ibcvile^ ql \i_Xck\e6 Nf bXee
`Z_ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ `e \`e Ffeq\ik ^\_\e le[ jX^\e( \`e Y\jk`ddk\j
`e [`\j\d Ffeq\ik Xl] ^\]{_ik\j Hlj`bjk{Zb _XY\ d`i Xl~\ifi[\ekc`Z_
iXk ^\]Xcc\e7 N`\ XY\i bzeek\e XlZ_ _`e^\^Xe^\e j\`e le[ j`Z_ [Xj
Yc\`Z_\ Nk{Zb Xe^\_zik _XY\e le[ kifkq[\d \ibcvi\e( D_e\e _XY\ \j
e`Z_k`d^\i`e^jk\e^\]Xcc\e*
C`jkfi`jZ_ ^\j\_\e `jk \j `dd\i \`e]XZ_\i ^\n\j\e( d`k i\`e g_pj`bXc`é
jZ_\e B\^\Y\e_\`k\e ql XiY\`k\e* HXe bXee Xcc\ \i]fi[\ic`Z_\e Qfi)
Xljj\kqle^\e ^\eXl\i Y\jZ_i\`Y\e( le[ d`k C`c]\ \`e\j \ekjgi\Z_\e[
^\jZ_lck\e =\fYXZ_k\ij cv~k j`Z_ \`e\ R`\[\i_fcle^ n\`k Y\jj\i Y\é
n\ibjk\cc`^\e* Pd efZ_ \`edXc Xl] [`\ Y\`d <e_zi\e \`e\j Y\jk`ddé
k\e Hlj`bjk{Zbj \dg]le[\e\ Ai\l[\ qli{Zbqlbfdd\e6 \j nXi m`\c)
c\`Z_k ]XcjZ_ mfe d`i( [Xj B\]{_c [\i Ai\l[\ XljjZ_c`\~c`Z_ Xl] [Xj
<e_zi\e [`\j\j Y\jk`ddk\e Hlj`bjk{Zbj qli{Zbql]{_i\e* @j nvi\
Xl~\i[\d \i]fi[\ic`Z_ ^\n\j\e( Xl] [`\ Y\` d`i ^\^\Y\e\e QfiXljj\ké
01

qle^\e \`eql^\_\e( qld =\`jg`\c ql \inv_e\e( `e n\cZ_\i Nk`ddle^
`Z_ d`Z_ ^\iX[\ Y\]Xe[( Xcj `Z_ `e [`\j\j Ffeq\ik ^`e^( jfn`\ \knXj
{Y\i d\`e\ g\ijzec`Z_\ G\Y\ej^\jZ_`Z_k\ ql jX^\e( [`\ `e ^\n`jj\i
R\`j\ \ijk [`\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k [Xql ^\jZ_X]]\e _Xk( [X~ `Z_ @ic\Ye`jj\
[`\j\i <ik {Y\i_Xlgk _XY\e bXee* R\ee `Z_ e`Z_k `e [\i GX^\ Y`e(
[`\j\ QfiXljj\kqle^\e Xcj efkn\e[`^ Xeql\ib\ee\e( f[\i n\ee `Z_
j`\ `e d\`e\d =\i`Z_k e`Z_k \inv_e\( [Xee `jk \j lenX_ijZ_\`ec`Z_(
[X~ \`e Xe[\i\i H\ejZ_ ]v_`^ j\`e n`i[( d\`e\i @i]X_ile^ \`e\ qlé
jk`dd\e[\ B{ck`^b\`kj\ibcvile^ ql ^\Y\e* ?`\ OXkjXZ_\( [X~ g\ijzeé
c`Z_ \ic\Yk\ K_vefd\e\ lek\i bfdgc\o\i\e QfiXljj\kqle^\e `e @ié
jZ_\`ele^ ki\k\e Xcj eXklin`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\( le[ [X~ j`\ [X_\i jZ_fe
mfe IXkli Xlj jZ_n\i\i `e Xe^\d\jj\e\i Afid ql jZ_`c[\ie j`e[( Y\é
[\lk\k Xcc\i[`e^j e`Z_k( [X~ dXe j`\ ql^lejk\e \`e\i Ffeq\ekiXk`fe
Xl] [`\ c\`Z_k\i [Xiqljk\cc\e[\e eXklin`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e K_vefd\e\
\`e]XZ_`^efi`\i\ejfcck\*
@j ^`Yk ) `e [\i ^\jXdk\e gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e G`k\iXkli m\ijki\lk ) m\ié
jZ_`\[\e\ =\`jg`\c\( [`\ [XiXl] _`e[\lk\e( [X~ \j [liZ_Xlj YiXlZ_YXi\
B{ck`^b\`kj\ibcvile^\e ]{i g\ijzec`Z_ \ic\Yk\ K_vefd\e\ ^\Y\e
bXee( Xcc\i[`e^j j`e[ j`\ Y`j_\i [fZ_ ql m\i\`eq\ck( Xcj [X~ j`\ [`\
jki\e^\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k eXZ__Xck`^ Y\\`e[ilZb\e n{i[\e* @`e =\`jg`\c6
@idX Fm\k\ejbp le[ `Z_ _XY\e -53/ $OXik le[ Fm\k\ejbp( -53.% \`e\
AiX^\Yf^\eXbk`fe Y\` \i]X_i\e\e HXi`_lXeX)MXlZ_\ie [liZ_^\]{_ik(
`e [\i n`i j`\ YXk\e( `d C`eYc`Zb Xl] XZ_k K_vefd\e\( [`\ dXe `d
Xcc^\d\`e\e d`k [\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e Y\`d
HXi`_lXeX)MXljZ_ `e Q\iY`e[le^ Yi`e^k( Xlj `_i\i \`^\e\e @ié
]X_ile^ _\iXlj Xeql^\Y\e( n\cZ_\ H`e[\jk)MXljZ_jkl]\ \i]fi[\ié
c`Z_ j\`( ld [`\ a\n\`c`^\e K_vefd\e\ ql \ic\Y\e* ÑMXljZ_jkl]\É `jk Xcj
\`e i\`e \og\i`d\ek\cc\j HX~ ql m\ijk\_\e le[ _Xk( [Xj dl~ lek\ié
jki`Z_\e n\i[\e( XYjfclk e`Z_kj d`k [\i H\e^\ [\i [Xql Y\ezk`^k\e
?if^\e ql kle* R`i m\i^c`Z_\e [Xee [`\ Xl] [`\j\ R\`j\ \iq`\ck\e @ié
^\Ye`jj\ d`k [\ea\e`^\e Xlj \`e\i ]i{_\i\e Pd]iX^\ Y\` \i]X_i\e\e
?if^\eY\elkq\ie $OXik( -53-Y%( ld ql {Y\igi{]\e( n`\ qlm\icvjj`^
[`\j\ `ee\i\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e nXi\e* ?`\ B\^\e{Y\ijk\ccle^ [\i
@i^\Ye`jj\ nXi vl~\ijk Xl]jZ_cl~i\`Z_ le[ e{kqc`Z_7 \j q\`^k\ j`Z_(
[X~ Y\` qn\` @i]X_ile^jn\ik\e \`e \ijkXlec`Z_ _f_\i BiX[ mfe uY\ié
\`ejk`ddle^ Y\jk\_k* ?`\ B\jXdkbfii\cXk`fe qn`jZ_\e Y\`[\e Y\é
kil^ Ö *51( \`e\ Xl~\i^\nz_ec`Z_ _f_\ Ffii\cXk`fe ]{i [\e =\i\`Z_
[\i gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e AfijZ_le^/* ?`\j\i =\]le[ `jk mfi Xcc\d [\jé
n\^\e jf m\iYc{]]\e[( n\`c n`i _`\i e`Z_k d`k \ekjgi\Z_\e[ Xlj^\Y`cé
02

[\k\e =\fYXZ_k\ie ^\XiY\`k\k _XY\e( jfe[\ie `e [\i H\_iqX_c [\i
Avcc\d`k^\nz_ec`Z_\e>fcc\^\)<Yjfcm\ek\e*
<cj \`e Pek\ie\_d\e( Xe [\d qX_ci\`Z_\ H\ejZ_\e Y\k\`c`^k j`e[(
YXlk [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k `_i\ Bile[cX^\e Xl] {Y\i\`ejk`dd\e[ ]{i ^{cé
k`^ \ibcvik\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e Xlk7 [Xj Y`c[\k [`\ De]fidXk`fej) Yqn*
[`\ ÑAXbk\e)É=Xj`j [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k* NfcXe^\ \j e`Z_k ^\c`e^k( qn`é
jZ_\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\e =\fYXZ_k\ie \`e\e Xlji\`Z_\e[\e uY\i\`ejk`dé
dle^j^iX[ ql \iq`\c\e( `jk \j e`Z_k dz^c`Z_( \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e R`jé
j\ejZ_X]kjqn\`^ Xl]qlYXl\e* IXZ_ [\e =\^i`]]\e n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\i
@ib\eeke`j Y\^`ee\e n`i `d AXcc [\i m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejql)
jkve[\ d`k \`e\i i\Z_k leqlcve^c`Z_\e De]fidXk`fejYXj`j* Ili
j\_i n\e`^\ =\fYXZ_k\i _XY\e [XiXl] ^\XZ_k\k( n\cZ_ cf^`jZ_\i
UljXdd\e_Xe^ j`Z_ qn`jZ_\e [\e =\i`Z_k\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\i `e[`é
m`[l\cc\i =\fYXZ_k\i \i^\Y\e _Xk7 n`i _XY\e [X_\i `e [`\j\d AXcc Xcj
De]fidXk`fejYXj`j Y\jk\e]Xccj \`e\e Xcc^\d\`e\e @`e[ilZb( [X~ Y\é
jk`ddk\ <ik\e mfe K_vefd\e\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\e m\ive[\ik\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e ^\d\`ejXd j`e[* R`i n`jj\e XY\i eX_\ql
e`Z_kj B\eXl\j {Y\i [Xj R\j\e [`\j\i K_vefd\e\ le[ {Y\i [`\ ^Xeq
jg\q`\cc\e \i]X_ile^jdv~`^\e QfiXljj\kqle^\e( [`\ \i]fi[\ic`Z_ j`e[(
ld[`\j\K_vefd\e\_\imfiqlYi`e^\e*
?\i IXZ_[ilZb( d`k [\d dXe [`\ t]]\ekc`Z_b\`k a\[\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`é
Z_\e =\fYXZ_kle^ ]fi[\ie dl~( _Xk Xcc\i[`e^j ql H`~m\ijkve[e`jj\e
^\i{_ik( [`\ [Xj fY\e Xe^\]{_ik\ =\`jg`\c le^c{Zbc`Z_\in\`j\ XlZ_
efZ_ m\ijkvibk6 [X~ evdc`Z_ XSRS` Y\c`\Y`^\ `ek\cc`^\ek\ H\ejZ_ [`\
=\fYXZ_kle^\e \`e\j R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ij eXZ_mfccq`\_\e bXee* ?Xj dX^
`e [\e <e]Xe^jg_Xj\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kjqn\`^\ kXkjvZ_c`Z_
e\i AXcc ^\n\j\e j\`e( jk`ddk XY\i d`k N`Z_\i_\`k jZ_fe j\`k cve^\i\i
U\`k e`Z_k d\_i* @j `jk mzcc`^ Xlj^\jZ_cfjj\e( [X~ `Z_ `e [Xj GXYfi
\`e\j _\lk`^\e K_pj`b\ij f[\i =`fcf^\e ^\_\e le[ [fik [`\ mfe `_d
^\dXZ_k\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e Y\jkvk`^\e bXee6 DZ_ n\`~ aX e`Z_k \`edXc(
nXj m`\c\ [\i mfe `_d Xe^\nXe[k\e =\^i`]]\ {Y\i_Xlgk ]{i \`e\
=\[\lkle^ _XY\e( `Z_ n\`~ e`Z_k( n`\ dXe j\`e\ <ggXiXkli\e Y\elkqk(
le[ `Z_ n{i[\ m\idlkc`Z_ eli Xcc\j kfkXc [liZ_\`eXe[\iYi`e^\e*
<e^\j`Z_kj [\i le^\_\li\e Ffdgc\o`kvk [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e K_vefd\e\
le[ [\i m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ le[ XlZ_ Xe^\j`Z_kj `_i\i
=\[\lkle^ \ijZ_\`ek [`\ =\_\Yle^ [\j HXe^\cj Xe \ekjgi\Z_\e[
Xlj^\Y`c[\k\e =\fYXZ_k\ie( [`\ [liZ_ n`\[\i_fck\ @i]X_ile^\e
\`e\ De]fidXk`fejYXj`j ]{i qlb{e]k`^\ [`\jY\q{^c`Z_\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]kjjgXik\e jZ_X]]\e bzeek\e( Xl~\ifi[\ekc`Z_ [i`e^\e[* ?Xj
03

n`i[ eXk{ic`Z_ e`Z_k c\`Z_k ql \ii\`Z_\e j\`e* HXe YiXlZ_k _\lk\
Y\i\`kj \`e\e U\`kiXld mfe m`\i Y`j q\_e EX_i\e `ek\ej`m\e Nkl[`ldj(
ld \`e\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i `e `i^\e[\`e\d [\i _\ibzddc`Z_\e R`jj\eé
jZ_X]kjqn\`^\ _\iXeqlY`c[\e7 n`i jfcck\e [X_\i e`Z_k {Y\iiXjZ_k j\`e(
n\ee [`\ <ljY`c[le^ \`e\j R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ij `e [\e qlb{e]k`^\e
R`jj\ejZ_X]kjjgXik\e `d =\i\`Z_ [\i m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkve[\ d`e[\jk\ej \Y\ejfcXe^\( n\ee e`Z_k ^Xi efZ_ cve^\i
[Xl\ik* R`i bzee\e _\lk\ e`Z_k \oXbk jX^\e( n\cZ_\j [`\ Xe^\d\jj\e\
<ljY`c[le^ ]{i [`\ mfe d`i mfi^\jZ_cX^\e\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e `jk(
[`\ Xe [\e jg\q`]`jZ_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e fi`\ek`\ik j`e[* @j
n`i[ Ffekifm\ij\e ^\Y\e le[ Q\ijlZ_\ eXZ_ [\d Ki`eq`g mfe Q\ié
jlZ_ le[ Diikld( Y\mfi j`Z_ jZ_c`\~c`Z_ m\ijZ_`\[\e\ <ik\e mfe
qn\Zb[`\ec`Z_\e <iY\`kjdf[\cc\e XYqlq\`Z_e\e Y\^`ee\e le[ Y\mfi
dXe \j d`k C`c]\ \`e`^\i [`\j\i Hf[\cc\ qln\^\ Yi`e^\e bXee( =\fYé
XZ_k\i _\iXeqlY`c[\e( [`\ ^lk UljXdd\eXiY\`k\e le[ e\l\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]kj]fid\e Xl]YXl\e bzee\e( nv_i\e[ Xe[\i\ Hf[\cc\ [Xj e`Z_k
c\`jk\e* IXk{ic`Z_ n`i[ \j XlZ_ m`\c\ H\ejZ_\e ^\Y\e( [`\ \`e\ jfcZ_\
<ljY`c[le^ Xl] j`Z_ e\_d\e( XY\i e`Z_k [`\ Av_`^b\`k Y\j`kq\e( j`\
XlZ_ [liZ_ql_Xck\e6 R`i d{jj\e [X_\i \ib\ee\e( [X~ eli n\e`^\ [`\
\i]fi[\ic`Z_\e LlXc`kvk\e Y\j`kq\e( \`e\ [\iXik`^\ <ljY`c[le^ \i]fc^é
i\`Z_ XYqljZ_c`\~\e* @Y\ejf n`\ \j H\ejZ_\e ^`Yk( [`\ e`Z_k [`\ \i]fié
[\ic`Z_\e @`^\ejZ_X]k\e Y\j`kq\e( ld K_pj`b\i f[\i HXk_\dXk`b\i
n\i[\e ql bzee\e( bXee \j Xe[\i\e qn\`]\ccfj XlZ_ Xe a\e\e Av_`^b\`é
k\e ]\_c\e( [`\ j`\ `e [`\ GX^\ m\ij\kq\e n{i[\e( n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ Afié
jZ_le^\e Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ `d =\i\`Z_ [\i d\[`kXk`m\e Uljkve[\ ql Y\é
ki\`Y\e*
?`\ Afi[\ile^ eXZ_ t]]\ekc`Z_b\`k [\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e =\fYXZ_é
kle^ Y\q`\_k j`Z_ Xcjf jk\kj Xl] \`e\ Y\^i\eqk\( jg\q`\cc [X]{i Xlj^\Y`cé
[\k\ <eqX_c mfe R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ie( [`\ Xl] `_i\d Ng\q`Xc^\Y`\k
XiY\`k\e* Ili [liZ_ \`e\ ^ile[c\^\e[\ uY\i\`ejk`ddle^ [`\j\i
Ng\q`Xc`jk\e _`ej`Z_kc`Z_ [\i mfe `_e\e ^\dXZ_k\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e cv~k
j`Z_ \`e\ De]fidXk`fejYXj`j \ekn`Zb\ce( [`\ [`\ Bile[cX^\ ]{i \`e\
n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ ?`jq`gc`e Y`c[\k* ?X~ GX`\e [`\ mfe [`\j\e R`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc\ie ^\dXZ_k\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e e`Z_k eXZ_mfccq`\_\e bzee\e $\j
j\` [\ee( j`\ lek\in{i]\e j`Z_ [\i jki\e^\e <ljY`c[le^ ]{i [\e Y\ki\]é
]\e[\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kjqn\`^%( `jk ]{i [`\ =\lik\`cle^ [\j B{ck`^b\`kjé
XejgilZ_j [`\j\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k f_e\ =\[\lkle^* @j `jk j\_i n`Z_k`^(
Xl] [`\j\e OXkY\jkXe[ _`eqln\`j\e( [\ee `Z_ _XY\ \ic\Yk( n`\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc\i j`Z_ eXZ_ [\i G\bk{i\ mfe =\jZ_i\`Yle^\e jg`i`kl\cc\i K_vé
04

efd\e\ f[\i m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ \knX q\_e H`elk\e
cXe^ Y\d{_k\e( Xl] \`e\j [`\j\i K_vefd\e\ ql jkf~\e7 n\ee j`\ [XY\`
b\`e\e @i]fc^ _Xkk\e( d\c[\k\e j`\ j`Z_ ^c\`Z_ ql Rfik le[ gifbcXé
d`\ik\e cXlk_Xcj( Xe [\d BXeq\e j\` {Y\i_Xlgk e`Z_kj [iXe* ?`\j\
cX`\e_X]k\ <ej`Z_k {Y\i \`e j\_i bfdgc\o\j AfijZ_le^j^\Y`\k `jk `d
Bile[\ `ii\c\mXek* ?\i KjpZ_fcf^`\ j`e[ `d Xcc^\d\`e\e m`\c\ KifYc\é
d\ [X[liZ_ \ekjkXe[\e( [X~ eX_\ql a\[\i H\ejZ_ mfe [\i jk`ccjZ_n\`é
^\e[\e<eeX_d\Xlj^\_k(\ij\`Xl][`\j\dB\Y`\k\`e@og\ik\*
@`e n\`k\i\j KifYc\d Y\` [\i NlZ_\ eXZ_ Xl] Uljk`ddle^ Y\il_\e[\e
B{ck`^b\`kj\ibcvile^\e( [`\ [`\ De]fidXk`fejYXj`j ]{i [`\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]k mfe [\e jg`i`kl\cc\e le[ [\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejql)
jkXe[j)K_vefd\e\e Y`c[\e jfcc\e( `jk [Xj [\i Ffddle`bXk`fe `e Y\é
jfe[\i\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e* C`\i _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \`e\ [liZ_
d\`e\ O_\fi`\ mfe [\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e mfin\^^\é
efdd\e\ Ffeq\gk`fe $OXik( -531%( [`\ a\[fZ_ efZ_ e`Z_k \dg`i`jZ_
lek\ijlZ_k nfi[\e `jk* N\kqk dXe mfiXlj( [X~ \j j`Z_ Y\` \`e\d m\ié
ve[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ld \`e\ [Xj BXeq\ ld]Xjj\e[\ hlXc`kXé
k`m\ le[ hlXek`kXk`m\ Q\icX^\ile^ `e [\i bfdgc\o\e Alebk`fe le[
Nkilbkli [\j =\nl~kj\`ej _Xe[\ck( jf [X~ \j ql \`e\i e\l\e ãGf^`bä(
ql e\l\e RX_ie\_dle^j]fid\e le[ ql \`e\i KXiX[`^dX)Q\ijZ_`\)
Yle^ bfddk( [Xee `jk \j [liZ_Xlj nX_ijZ_\`ec`Z_( [X~ [`\ Ffddlé
e`bXk`fe qn`jZ_\e qn\` =\fYXZ_k\ie `d ^c\`Z_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ j`Z_ eXZ_ \`e\d Xe[\i\e Hf[\cc mfccq`\_k( Xcj
[Xj efidXc\in\`j\ Y\` [\e Y\`[\e ^c\`Z_\e G\lk\e [\i AXcc ^\n\j\e
nvi\( n\ee j`\ j`Z_ `e `_i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\é
]le[\e _vkk\e* @`e\ [\iXik`^\ Q\icX^\ile^ bXee jfnf_c ql \`e\i Q\ié
Y\jj\ile^ Xcj XlZ_ ql \`e\i Q\ijZ_c\Z_k\ile^ [\i Ffddle`bXk`fe
]{_i\e7 [Xj _ve^k a\n\`cj mfe [\d jg\q`\cc\e O_\dX XY( {Y\i [Xj [`\
Y\`[\e FfekiX_\ek\e `d MX_d\e `_i\j ^\d\`ejXd\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j `e \`e\ Ffddle`bXk`fe \`eki\k\e nfcck\e*
N\cYjk n\ee j`Z_ qn`jZ_\e `_e\e \`e\ i\cXk`m ]c{jj`^\ Ffddle`bXk`fe
`d MX_d\e \`e\j jg\q`\cc\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j
\ekn`Zb\ck _Xk( bzeek\ \j [liZ_Xlj j\`e( [X~ \`e ãXl~\ejk\_\e[\eä
=\fYXZ_k\i( Xcjf \`e =\fYXZ_k\i( [\i j`Z_ `e \`e\d Xe[\i\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\]`e[\k( e`Z_k `e [\i GX^\ `jk( [`\j\ Ffddle`é
bXk`fe qn`jZ_\e [\e Y\`[\e fY\e Xe^\]{_ik\e FfekiX_\ek\e
ql Y\^i\`]\e* @i bzeek\ jf^Xi [Xj B\]{_c _XY\e( `_i\ Ffddle`é
bXk`fe _XY\ j`Z_ Ñm\ijZ_c\Z_k\ikÉ* C`\i Y\jk\_k ) Y\` ]Xjk Xcc\e mfe
lej ) \`e jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[\j KfjklcXk( [Xj Y\jX^k( n\ee `Z_ \knXj( nfié
05

{Y\i j`Z_ Xe[\i\ H\ejZ_\e lek\i_Xck\e( e`Z_k m\ijk\_\e bXee( [Xee
i\[\ej`\_zZ_jknX_ijZ_\`ec`Z_Pej`ee
KiXbk`jZ_ \i^`Yk j`Z_ Y\` Xcc\e Pek\ijlZ_le^\e {Y\i Ffddle`bXk`fé
e\e qn`jZ_\e Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe\e `d MX_d\e mfe m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e \`e\ ÑQ\ijZ_c\Z_k\ile^É( n\ee j`\ mfe
fik_f[fo\e Q\ijlZ_jc\`k\ie Y\n\ik\k nfi[\e j`e[* ?`\j\ Q\ijlZ_jé
c\`k\i _XY\e Y\` `_i\e Pek\ijlZ_le^\e f]]\eYXi m\i^\jj\e( [`\ Hz^é
c`Z_b\`k \`e\i Xl] Y\jfe[\i\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ Xlj^\i`Z_k\k\e
Ffddle`bXk`fe `e =\kiXZ_k ql q`\_\e* R\ee `Z_ qn\` H\ejZ_\e qlé
_zi\( [`\ j`Z_ `e `i^\e[\`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[
lek\i_Xck\e( le[ qnXi `e \e^c`jZ_\i NgiXZ_\( le[ j`\ Y\^`ee\e
[Xee gczkqc`Z_ \`e`^\ ]iXeqzj`jZ_\ Rzik\i `e `_i B\jgivZ_ \`eql]c\Z_é
k\e( [Xee n\i[\ `Z_ Xcj \`e <l~\ejk\_\e[\i $[* _* Xcj \`e\i( [\i e`Z_k
AiXeqzj`jZ_ jgi`Z_k% eX_\ql qnXe^jcvl]`^ ql [\d NZ_cl~ bfdd\e(
[X~ \j _`\i ql \`e\i \i_\Yc`Z_\e ÑQ\ijZ_c\Z_k\ile^É `e [\i ^\^\ej\`k`é
^\e Ffddle`bXk`fe ^\bfdd\e `jk( [* _* Ñql \`e\i `e]Xek`c\e M\^i\jé
j`fe Xl] j`eecfj\ GXlk\É* ?\e Y\`[\e =\fYXZ_k\ie j\cYjk f[\i XY\i
XlZ_ \`e\d Xe[\i\e =\fYXZ_k\i( [\i j\cYjk \Y\e]Xccj AiXeqzj`jZ_
jgi`Z_k( bXee \j XY\i [liZ_Xlj jf Qfibfdd\e( [X~ j`Z_ [`\ Ffddlé
e`bXk`fe eled\_i ]c{jj`^\i ^\jkXck\k( le[ qnXi n\`c d`k C`c]\ [\i
]iXeqzj`jZ_\e NgiXZ_\ ^\n`jj\ Ffeq\gk`fe\e Y\jj\i qld <lj[ilZb
ql Yi`e^\e j`e[( Xcj [Xj `d @e^c`jZ_\e [\i AXcc `jk* ?`\ <e^\é
d\jj\e_\`k \`e\i Ffddle`bXk`fe qn`jZ_\e qn\` H\ejZ_\e `d =\é
i\`Z_ [\j ^c\`Z_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j jfn`\ [`\
@oXbk_\`k [\i Ffddle`bXk`fe `ee\i_XcY mfe qn\` m\ijZ_`\[\e\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e dl~ i\`e \dg`i`jZ_ Y\jk`ddk n\i[\e*
@`e`^\ Fi`k\i`\e [X]{i n\i[\e Xe Xe[\i\i Nk\cc\ \izik\ik( le[ qnXi
`d UljXdd\e_Xe^ \`e\i mfccjkve[`^\e ?Xic\^le^ d\`e\i O_\fi`\
mfdR\j\e[\i=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\$OXik(-531%*
?`\ Xl] Uljk`ddle^ Y\il_\e[\ B{ck`^b\`kj\ibcvile^( [`\ [`\ De]fié
dXk`fejYXj`j ]{i a\[\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k Y`c[\k( j\kqk Xcjf =\fYXZ_k\i
Yqn* R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i mfiXlj( [`\ j`Z_ `e [\e Y\jk`ddk\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ m\ij\kq\e bzee\e le[ [`\ ^\c\iek _XY\e( [Xi`e
mfccd`k\`eXe[\i`eFfddle`bXk`feqlki\k\e*
A{i a\dXe[\e( [\i e`Z_k `djkXe[\ `jk( [\e Y\ki\]]\e[\e jg\q`]`jZ_\e
m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ql \ii\`Z_\e( bXee \j ledz^c`Z_
j\`e( {Y\i_Xlgk a\dXcj [Xj R\j\e [`\j\i K_vefd\e\ ql Y\^i\`]\e0*
?\i B\[Xeb\ [\i `e Y\jfe[\i\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e \`eki\k\e[\e
Ffddle`bXk`fe le[ `_i\ PeY\^i\`]YXib\`k ]{i Xl~\ejk\_\e[\ =\fYé
1,

XZ_k\i cv~k j`Z_ Xd Y\jk\e Xe \`e\i jl]`jk`jZ_\e G\_i^\jZ_`Z_k\ [\é
dfejki`\i\e7 j`\ _Xe[\ck mfe \`e\d Nl]`)Hpjk`b\i le[ [\d HlccX
IXjil[`e( \`e\i K\ijfe( [`\ NZ_lib\( D[`fk le[ R\`j\i ql^c\`Z_ `jk*
=\`[\ j`e[ `e [\i GX^\( `_i\ Alebk`fe `e m\ijZ_`\[\e\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e ql \i]{cc\e( le[ Xcj Afc^\ [Xmfe _XY\e j`\
`_i\e^\nz_ec`Z_\e=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[jkXibm\ive[\ik*
@`e Nl]`)Hpjk`b\i _`\ck IXjil[`e Xl] [\i NkiX~\ Xe* Pd ql {Y\igi{]\e( fY [\i HlccX
\dg]ve^c`Z_ ]{i `ee\i\j R`jj\e j\`( dXZ_k\ \i \`e U\`Z_\e le[ q\`^k\ [XY\` Xl] [\e
C`dd\c*
?\i Nl]` nfcck\ [Xd`k jX^\e6 Ñ@j ^`Yk eli \`e\ \`eq`^\ RX_i_\`k( `e [\i Xcc\ Xe[\i\e
\`e^\jZ_cfjj\ej`e[É
IXjil[`ej =\^c\`k\i( \`e \`e]XZ_\i HXee( [XZ_k\6 Ñ?\i Nl]` `jk nX_ej`ee`^* DZ_ Y`e
^\jgXeek(n\cZ_\Qfij`Z_kjdX~eX_d\eIXjil[`e\i^i\`]\en`i[É
IXjil[`enXik\`e\e=c`Zb`ej\`e\eMlZbjXZble[eX_d[XiXlj\`eXl]^\ifcck\jOXl*
?Xj{Y\i^XY\i[Xeej\`e\d=\^c\`k\i*
Ñ<lj^\q\`Z_e\kÉ( [XZ_k\ [\i =\^c\`k\i( Ñn`i n\i[\e [`\j\e HXee ]\jj\ce( ]Xccj \i ^\é
nXckkvk`^n\i[\ejfcck\*É
?\i Nl]` \ibXeek\ a\[fZ_( [X~ IXjil[`e jX^\e nfcck\6 Ñ?`\ ^\nz_ec`Z_\ H\ejZ__\`k
m\ijlZ_k [`\ RX_i_\`k d`k C`c]\ mfe H\k_f[\e ql ]`e[\e( [`\ [X]{i \Y\ejf le^\é
\`^e\k j`e[ n`\ [\i Q\ijlZ_( [\e C`dd\c d`k C`c]\ \`e\j N\`cj ql \ibc`dd\eÉ $N_X_(
D*(-522%*

?XjO_\fi\k`j`\i\e
R`\ [`\ d\`jk\e H\ejZ_\e( jf ^\Y\e j`Z_ XlZ_ [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i
e`Z_k \`e]XZ_ [Xd`k ql]i`\[\e( Ycf~ ql Y\fYXZ_k\e le[ De]fidXk`fe\e
ql jXdd\ce* N`\ nfcc\e n`jj\e( nXj [`\j\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e PSRScbS\%
Xl] n\cZ_\ =\^i`]]\ [Xj =\fYXZ_k\k\ ^\YiXZ_k n\i[\e bXee( n\cZ_\j
[`\ Pijgi{e^\( U`\ci`Z_kle^\e( H\Z_Xe`jd\e le[ Ffej\hl\eq\e
[\i Y\fYXZ_k\k\e Qfi^ve^\ j`e[* R\ee n`i Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ j\_\e( n`\
qn\` G\lk\ j`Z_ jki\`k\e( ^\Y\e n`i lej j\ck\e [Xd`k ql]i`\[\e( Ycf~
]\jkqljk\cc\e( ROo j`\ j`Z_ jki\`k\e( jfe[\ie n`i nfcc\e leY\[`e^k n`jé
j\e( eO`c[ j`\ j`Z_ jki\`k\e le[ n\cZ_\i N`ee _`ek\i lej\i\i =\fYXZ_é
kle^ jk\Zbk* R`i ]Xe^\e Xcjf Xe ql k_\fi\k`j`\i\e( n`i jlZ_\e eXZ_
Y\jk`ddk\e =\^i`]]\e( [`\ `e lej\i\d B\[vZ_ke`j ^\jg\`Z_\ik j`e[(
le[ n`i dzZ_k\e ^\ie [`\a\e`^\ =\^i`]]j]fc^\ _\iXlj]`e[\e( [`\ lej
\`e\ Ñ@ibcvile^É ]{i [`\ \Y\e ^\dXZ_k\ =\fYXZ_kle^ ^\Y\e bXee
)le[+f[\i n`i df[`]`q`\i\e lej\i\ Y`j_\i`^\e =\^i`]]\ le[ m\ijlé
Z_\e \`e\ e\l\ Ffeq\gk`fe ql \ijk\cc\e( d`k [\i\e C`c]\ j`Z_ [`\ \Y\e
^\dXZ_k\e=\fYXZ_kle^\e\ibcvi\ecXjj\e*
1-

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nfi]\e\e Ffeq\gk`fe\e dl~ jf Y\jZ_X]]\e j\`e( [X~ a\[\i( [\i [`\
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Xbq\gk`\i\e( leY\[`e^k n`jj\e nfcc\e( [X~ [`\ [`\j\i QfiXljjX^\ qlé
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[`\j\ O_\fi`\ [Xee \`e\d Xe[\i\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i d`k^\k\`ck n`i[(
[Xee jfcck\ [`\j\i `e [\i GX^\ j\`e( qlql^\Y\e( [X~ [`\ M\^\ce [\i
_`\i `e AiX^\ bfdd\e[\e Gf^`b Y\` [\i @ekn`Zbcle^ [`\j\i O_\fi`\
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XlZ_ n\ee \i j\cYjk Xlj Xe[\i\e Bi{e[\e [`\j\ O_\fi`\ e`Z_k ^\ie
Xcj ÑnX_iÉ Xbq\gk`\i\e dzZ_k\( jf Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\( n\`c \i g\ijzec`Z_
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Xl]\c\^Xek\i\R\`j\Y\nvck`^k*
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\`ejk`ddle^ d`k [\e Y\fYXZ_k\k\e AXbk\e ql \ii`Z_k\e( `jk a\[fZ_
e`Z_k jf \`e]XZ_ ql \i]{cc\e( n`\ [Xj Xl] [\e \ijk\e =c`Zb jZ_\`ek* @j
`jk \`e `e lej\i\d FlckliY\i\`Z_ n\`km\iYi\`k\k\j le[ jk`ccjZ_n\`é
^\e[ mfiXlj^\j\kqk\j KfjklcXk( [X~ \j eli \`e\ \`eq`^\ ÑnX_i\ Gf^`bÉ
^`Yk le[ [X~ Xcc\ `ek\cc`^\ek\e H\ejZ_\e ^\eXl n`jj\e( nXj [Xd`k
^\d\`ek `jk* E\[\ Gf^`b $le[ \j ^`Yk d\_i Xcj eli \`e\ \`eq`^\% Y\jk\_k
Xlj \`e\d ={e[\c mfe KfjklcXk\e le[ Xlj \`e\d M\^\cbf[\o( d`k [\é
1.

i\e C`c]\ j`Z_ [`\ Xl] [`\j\e KfjklcXk\e YXj`\i\e[\e De]fidXk`fe\e
dXe`glc`\i\e cXjj\e* ?`\ KfjklcXk\ j`e[ ) n\`k^\_\e[jk( n\ee e`Z_k
^Xi mzcc`^ ) n`ccb{ic`Z_ ^\j\kqk* R\Z_j\ck dXe ql Xe[\i\e KfjklcXk\e
le[ Xe[\i\e M\^\ce Y\` [\i <iY\`k d`k [`\j\e KfjklcXk\e {Y\i( [Xee
bfddkdXeql\`e\i^XeqXe[\i\eGf^`b*
@`e =\`jg`\c ]{i [`\ Q\ijZ_`\[\eXik`^b\`k mfe Gf^`b\e( [Xj [\e d\`é
jk\e G\j\ie m\ikiXlk `jk( j`e[ [`\ [i\` lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\e B\fd\ki`\e(
[`\ `e m`\c\e B\fd\ki`\blij\e Xl] [\i JY\ijZ_lc\ ^\c\_ik n\i[\e* ?`\
mfe lej Xd _vl]`^jk\e Y\elkqk\ B\fd\ki`\( [`\ \lbc`[`jZ_\( gfjklé
c`\ik( [X~ KXiXcc\c\e jk\kj [\e ^c\`Z_\e <YjkXe[ mfe\`eXe[\i _Xck\e
f_e\ M{Zbj`Z_k [XiXl]( n`\ n\`k j`\ j`Z_ \ijki\Zb\e ) j\cYjk Y`j `ej
Pe\e[c`Z_\ _`e\`e* Un\` Xe[\i\ B\fd\ki`\e _XY\e [X^\^\e Xe[\i\
KfjklcXk\* @`e\j mfe `_e\e cXlk\k( [X~ KXiXcc\c\e( [`\ j`Z_ Y`j `ej
Pe\e[c`Z_\ \ijki\Zb\e( \`e\ O\e[\eq q\`^\e( ql bfem\i^`\i\e le[
\`eXe[\i jZ_c`\~c`Z_ ql ki\]]\e* @`e\ [i`kk\ B\fd\ki`\ gfjklc`\ik( [X~
KXiXcc\c\e( n\ee j`\ j`Z_ Y`j `ej Pe\e[c`Z_\ _`e\`e \ijki\Zb\e( [`\
O\e[\eq q\`^\e( j`Z_ `dd\i n\`k\i mfe\`eXe[\i ql \ek]\ie\e( le[ [X~
j`\ jZ_c`\~c`Z_ le\e[c`Z_ n\`k mfe\`eXe[\i \ek]\iek j`e[* E\[\j [`\j\i
[i\` KfjklcXk\ Y\j`kqk mfccbfdd\e\ B{ck`^b\`k( [\ee \j _Xe[\ck j`Z_
Y\` `_e\e ld i\`e ^\[Xebc`Z_\ Ffejkilbk`fe\e( le[ \j Y\jk\_k b\`e\
Hz^c`Z_b\`k( ]\jkqljk\cc\e( fY \`e\ mfe `_e\e ^S` aS \`e\e _z_\i\e
B{ck`^b\`kj^iX[ Y\j`kqk Xcj [`\ Xe[\i\e Y\`[\e* A{i lej\i\ `i[`jZ_\e
Q\i_vcke`jj\( `e [\e\e n`i lej d`k i\cXk`m bc\`e\e dXk\i`\cc\e JYa\bé
k\e Y\]Xjj\e( [`\ e`Z_k [`\ ^\i`e^jk\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k _XY\e( j`Z_ Y`j `ej
Pe\e[c`Z_\ Xljql[\_e\e( `jk [`\ \lbc`[`jZ_\ B\fd\ki`\ [`\ ^\\`^e\ké
jk\7 j`\ jk`ddk XlZ_ d`k [\e Xe[\i\e j\ejfi`jZ_\e ?Xk\e {Y\i\`e( [`\
lej {Y\i [`\j\ JYa\bk\ Y\bXeek j`e[ ) n\ee j`\ XlZ_ e`Z_k ^Xeq d`k
[\d( nXj n`i d`k lej\i\e <l^\e j\_\e( `e @`ebcXe^ ql Yi`e^\e j`e[(
[\ee lej jZ_\`e\e Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ @`j\eYX_ejZ_`\e\e( [`\ gXiXcc\c m\ié
cXl]\e( \`eXe[\i d`k qle\_d\e[\i @ek]\iele^ `dd\i ev_\iqli{Zb\e
le[ `e [\i A\ie\ ^Xeq qljXdd\eqlcXl]\e* <Y\i [Xj Y\jX^k eli \knXj
{Y\i [`\ I{kqc`Z_b\`k [\i <en\e[le^ [`\j\j KfjklcXkj Xl] \`e\e ^Xeq
Y\jk`ddk\e AXcc( e`Z_k XY\i {Y\i [`\ B{ck`^b\`k [\j KfjklcXkj Xe j`Z_*
@`e KfjklcXk n`i[ d]`OcaUSaSbhb' HXe bXee j`Z_ [Xi{Y\i lek\i_Xck\e(
fY [`\ Xlj ^\n`jj\e KfjklcXk\e _\imfi^\_\e[\e Afc^\ile^\e j`Z_ `d
C`eYc`Zb Xl] [`\j\e f[\i a\e\e Xe[\i\e NXZ_m\i_Xck Xcj d\_i f[\i
d`e[\i e{kqc`Z_ \in\`j\e( XY\i \j ^`Yk b\`e\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k( \`e KfjklcXk
qlÑY\jkvk`^\eÉf[\i\jqlÑn`[\ic\^\eÉ*
@`e\ O_\fi`\( d`k [\i\e C`c]\ j`Z_ XiY\`k\e cv~k( m\ijkvibk lej\i\
1/

I\`^le^( j`\ jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[ ql Xbq\gk`\i\e7 n\ee [Xj \ijk \`edXc ^\é
jZ_\_\e `jk( [Xee {Yk j`\ \`e\ ^\nXck`^\ jk\l\ie[\ FiX]k Xl] lej Xlj*
DZ_ jk\cc\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ ]\jk( [X~ `Z_ [`\ Y\`[\e Xe[\i\e B\fd\ki`\e
kXkjvZ_c`Z_ ]{i Pej`ee _Xck\7 [\ee a\[\i H\ejZ_ n\`~ [fZ_( [X~ KXiXcé
c\c\e jZ_fe `_i\i ?\]`e`k`fe eXZ_ jk\kj gXiXcc\c ql m\icXl]\e _XY\e
R\ee `Z_ d`i [`\ H{_\ dXZ_\( cf^`jZ_ [Xi{Y\i eXZ_ql[\eb\e( [Xee
cXjj\ `Z_ d`Z_ [liZ_ [`\j\j KfjklcXk e`Z_k Y\`ii\e( XY\i ^\]{_cjdv~`^
^cXlY\ `Z_ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ Xe [`\ \lbc`[`jZ_\ B\fd\ki`\( le[ `Z_ e\`^\ [Xé
_\i XlkfdXk`jZ_ [Xql( [`\ Y\`[\e Xe[\i\e $le[ d\`e\ m`jl\cc\ @i]X_é
ile^ d`k [\e @`j\eYX_ejZ_`\e\e% Xcj e`Z_k \iejk ql e\_d\e XYqlkle*
<lZ_ Y\` \`e\d KXiX[`^dX le[ Y\` \`e\d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ _Xeé
[\ck \j j`Z_ ld Gf^`b\e( ld \`e\ M\`_\ mfe d`k\`eXe[\i m\ibe{g]k\e
KfjklcXk\e le[ M\^\ce qli Q\iXiY\`kle^ mfe De]fidXk`fe\e( [`\ lej
[Xql e\`^\e cXjj\e( j`\ jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[ ql Xbq\gk`\i\e* @j `jk `e [\i
OXk jf6 E\ Y\jj\i \`e KXiX[`^dX Y\` [\i @ibcvile^ ^\n`jj\i ?`e^\
]lebk`fe`\ik f[\i a\ Y\jj\i \`e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ^\\`^e\k `jk( lej
[Xql ql m\i_\c]\e( [X~ n`i lej `e [\i R`ibc`Z_b\`k( d`k [\i n`i \j
_`\i ql kle _XY\e( nf_c ]{_c\e( [\jkf iXjZ_\i n\i[\e j`\ jk`ccjZ_n\`é
^\e[ Xbq\gk`\ik( le[ ld jf d\_i _Xk dXe [Xj B\]{_c( \j _Xe[c\ j`Z_
_`\i ld [`\ RX_i_\`k Yqn* ld [`\ ÑeXk{ic`Z_\É Ji[ele^ [\i ?`e^\*
I\_d\e n`i Xe( N`\ m\i]{^\e `d GXl] [\i U\`k {Y\i \`e\ le^\_\li\
<eqX_c mfe =\fYXZ_kle^\e {Y\i [`\ Kfj`k`fe\e mfe KcXe\k\e le[
Nk\ie\e( le[ N`\ dzZ_k\e ele n`jj\e( n`\ [`\j\ KcXe\k\e le[ Nk\ie\
j`Z_ Y\n\^\e* B\_\e N`\ mfe [\d KXiX[`^dX Xlj( [Xj `e lej\i\d Flcé
klibi\`j {Y\i [`\ cve^jk\ U\`kg\i`f[\ _`e B{ck`^b\`k Y\jX~( evdc`Z_
mfe [\d [\i gkfc\dv`jZ_\e Yqn* ^\fq\eki`jZ_\e <jkifefd`\( [\dé
ql]fc^\ [`\ @i[\ jk`ccjk\_k le[ Xcc\ C`dd\cjbzig\i j`Z_ ld j`\ _\ildé
Y\n\^\e( [Xee bfdd\e N`\ d`k C`c]\ [\i m\i]{^YXi\e De]fidXk`fe\e
ql \`e\d ÑN`eeÉ( `e[\d N`\ j`Z_ jf gcXjk`jZ_ n`\ dz^c`Z_ mfiqlé
jk\cc\e m\ijlZ_\e( [X~ j`Z_ [`\ C`dd\cjbzig\i `e j\_i bfdgc\o\i
Afid i`e^j ld [`\ @i[\ Y\n\^\e6 e`Z_k `e \`e]XZ_\e Fi\`j\e( [\ee
\j ^`Yk ^\n`jj\ ?`jbi\gXeq\e qn`jZ_\e [\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e le[
[\d( nXj dXe( n\ee dXe \`e\ bi\`j]zid`^\ PdcXl]YX_e Xee`ddk(
QfiXljjX^\e d{~k\7 j`\ Y\n\^\e j`Z_ [XeXZ_ m\idlkc`Z_ `e jf^\é
eXeek\e @g`qpbc\e $I\Y\ebi\`j\e%( [*_* `e Fi\`j\e `ee\i_XcY [\i
Fi\`jcXl]YX_e* ?Xj `jk [`\ Ñf]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_ m\ie{e]k`^\É @ibcvile^
[\ij\`e\iq\`km\i]{^YXi\eDe]fidXk`fe\e*
C\lkqlkX^\ n`ibk \`e\ jfcZ_\ Qfijk\ccle^ mfe gcXe\kXi`jZ_\e PdcXl]é
YX_e\e eli efZ_ kzi`Z_k( [\ee n`i Ñn`jj\eÉ( [X~ [`\ Nfee\ j`Z_ `d
10

U\ekild [\j Nfee\ejpjk\dj Y\]`e[\k le[ [X~ [`\ @i[\( qljXdd\e
d`k Xe[\i\e KcXe\k\e `ee\i_XcY [`\j\j Nfee\ejpjk\dj( j`Z_ ld [`\
Nfee\ Y\n\^k* NZ_c`\~c`Z_ _XY\e n`i [Xj `e [\i NZ_lc\ ^\c\iek ?X_\i
jk\cck \`e\ Xe[\i\ Qfijk\ccle^ n`\ [`\ d`k [\e \cc`gk`jZ_\e PdcXl]é
YX_e\e [\i KcXe\k\e ld [`\ Nfee\ [`\ Ñf]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_ m\ie{e]k`^\É
le[ Y\]i`\[`^\e[\ ?\lkle^ [\i lej qli Q\i]{^le^ jk\_\e[\e Deé
]fidXk`fe\e[Xi*
Uli uYle^ j\`e\j B\`jk\j dX^ dXe [`\ R`ccb{ic`Z_b\`k [\j ^\fq\eki`é
jZ_\e le[ [\j _\c`fq\eki`jZ_\e KXiX[`^dXj ]{i [`\ <jkifefd`\ \ib\eé
e\e7 dXe bXee j\_\e( [X~ j`Z_ [`\ m\i]{^YXi\e De]fidXk`fe\e `e Y\`é
[\e Avcc\e m\in\e[\e f[\i m\in\i]\e cXjj\e* Dd Q\icXl] [\i
B\jZ_`Z_k\ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k nli[\ a\[fZ_ jZ_c`\~c`Z_ [Xj ^\fq\eki`é
jZ_\ Xjkifefd`jZ_\ KXiX[`^dX m\infi]\e( n\`c \j le^cXlYc`Z_ d{_jXd
nli[\( =\fYXZ_kle^\e le[ O_\fi`\ `e @`ebcXe^ ql Yi`e^\e6 [`\
<jkifefd\e dl~k\e [`\ @g`qpbc\e d`k `dd\i e\l\e @g`qpbc\e
{Y\icX^\ie* <cj [Xee [Xj _\c`fq\eki`jZ_\ Nfee\ejpjk\d Xcc^\d\`e Xbé
q\gk`\ik nli[\( Yfk \j \`e\ n\j\ekc`Z_ \`e]XZ_\i\ le[ \c\^Xek\i\ Hz^é
c`Z_b\`k( [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e d`k [\e Ffeq\gk`fe\e `e @`ebcXe^ ql
Yi`e^\e* <Y\i [Xj _\c`fq\eki`jZ_\ KXiX[`^dX _Xk j`Z_ efZ_ n\`k k`\]\i
`e lej \`e^\^iXY\e6 R`i _Xck\e lej [Xj ^\fq\eki`jZ_\ R\ckY`c[ mfi
<l^\e le[ n`jj\e jf]fik( [X~ \j ]XcjZ_ `jk ?`\j\ XlkfdXk`jZ_\ @eké
jZ_\`[le^ ]{i [Xj _\c`fq\eki`jZ_\ KXiX[`^dX( [Xj ^i\eqk jZ_fe
\_\i Xe \`e \dfk`feXc\j Xcj Xe \`e `ek\cc\bkl\cc Y\^i{e[\k\j <bq\gé
k`\i\e1*
?\i Pek\ijZ_`\[ qn`jZ_\e [\d ^\fq\eki`jZ_\e le[ [\d _\c`fq\eki`é
jZ_\e KXiX[`^dX Y\jk\_k `e \`e\i Q\icX^\ile^ \`e\j ^Xeq Y\jk`ddk\e
`ek\cc\bkl\cc\e De_Xckj `ee\i_XcY \`e\j \`eq`^\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXeé
[\j ) lej\i\j ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j* B\_\e n`i \`eé
dXc [Xmfe Xlj( [X~ n`i [`\ ^c\`Z_\e K_vefd\e\ mfe qn\` m\ijZ_`\é
[\e\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e Xlj Y\kiXZ_k\e6 R`i bzee\e [XY\` \knXj
s_ec`Z_\j ]\jkjk\cc\e n`\ Y\` [\i =\kiXZ_kle^ mfe De]fidXk`fe\e Xlj
[\i N`Z_k qn\`\i m\ijZ_`\[\e\i KXiX[`^d\e( eli j`e[ \j =\fYXZ_é
kle^\e mfe efZ_ ^iz~\i\i Ffdgc\o`kvk( [\ee XlZ_ [`\ Gf^`b bXee
`e \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ mfe Xe[\i\i <ik j\`e* @j
`jk [Xee jf( Xcj Yc`\Y\e qn\` KXiXcc\c\e `e [\d \`e\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ jk\kj `e ^c\`Z_\d <YjkXe[ ql\`eXe[\i( `e \`e\d Xe[\i\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ jZ_\`e\e j`\ f]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_ ql bfem\i^`\i\e* De
[\d \`e\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ n\i[\e Xl]^ile[ j\`e\i `e_vi\ek\e
=\jZ_X]]\e_\`k XlkfdXk`jZ_ ^\n`jj\ KfjklcXk\ mfiXlj^\j\kqk( nv_é
11

i\e[ `e \`e\d Xe[\i\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ^Xeq Xe[\i\ KfjklcXk\ \ié
_fY\e n\i[\e* ce [\e lej Y\bXeek\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkve[\e ^`Yk \j eXk{ic`Z_ XlZ_ De_Xck\( [`\ j`Z_ d`k [\e\e \`e\j ^\é
nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j [\Zb\e* Nf `jk Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ qn\`
gclj qn\` ^c\`Z_ m`\i( le[ qnXi jfnf_c `e \`e\d _pgefk`jZ_\e Ulé
jkXe[ Xcj XlZ_ `d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e RXZ_qljkXe[ $fYjZ_fe j`Z_ [`\j\j
@i^\Ye`j `d _pgefk`jZ_\e UljkXe[ q`\dc`Z_ c\`Z_k XlZ_ `e \`e Xe[\é
i\j@i^\Ye`jm\inXe[\cecv~k%*
I\_d\e n`i ele \`edXc ]fc^\e[\j Xe6 @`e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i ki`kk `e [\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ . \`e( dXZ_k `e [`\j\d UljkXe[ d\_i\i\
=\fYXZ_kle^\e( le[ \i jk\cck( nv_i\e[ \i j`Z_ efZ_ `e [`\j\d
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ . Y\]`e[\k( k_\fi\k`jZ_\ uY\ic\^le^\e {Y\i
[`\ dz^c`Z_\ =\[\lkle^ [`\j\i =\fYXZ_kle^\e Xe* Pd [`\ Hz^c`Z_é
b\`k mfe Diik{d\ie `e j\`e\e k_\fi\k`jZ_\e uY\ic\^le^\e ql m\ié
d\`[\e( \knX \`e I`Z_kY\]fc^\e [\i [\d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ .
`e_vi\ek\e Gf^`b( dzZ_k\ \i ^\ie( [X~ \`e Xe[\i\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i
j\`e\ <iY\`k {Y\igi{]k* @i jlZ_k j`Z_ Xcjf \`e\e qn\`k\e R`jj\ejZ_X]ké
c\i( [\i `e [`\j\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ . \`eki\k\e( [Xi`e ]c{jj`^ d`k
`_d bfddle`q`\i\e le[ [Xee \`e Pik\`c [Xi{Y\i XY^\Y\e bXee( fY
[\i \ijk\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i [`\ ]{i [\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ . dX~^\Yé
c`Z_\ Gf^`b XlZ_ bfii\bk Xe^\nXe[k _Xk ) [*_*( fY \i jfqljX^\e [`\
Ng`\ci\^\ce ]{i [\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ . kXkjvZ_c`Z_ Y\]fc^k _Xk*
<l] [`\j\ R\`j\ \i_Xck\e n`i \`e\ =\jkvk`^le^ ]{i [`\ Ffii\bk_\`k
[\i k_\fi\k`jZ_\e uY\ic\^le^\e( [`\ kpg`jZ_ j`e[ ]{i [\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[.*
I\_d\e n`i \`edXc Xe( [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i( [\i [`\j\ O_\fi`\ Xl]^\é
jk\cck _Xk( jk\cck a\kqk j\`e\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ jf ld( [X~ \i j`Z_
eled\_i n`\[\i `e j\`e\d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ - Y\]`e[\k $Y\` [\d \j
j`Z_ ld lej\i\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( XY\i XlZ_ ld
`i^\e[\`e\e Xe[\i\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ _Xe[\ce bXee%( le[ \i
m\ijlZ_k ele( j\`e\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e le[ O_\fi`\e \`e\d Xe[\i\e
R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i d`kqlk\`c\e( [\i j`Z_ \Y\e]Xccj `e j\`e\d jg\q`]`é
jZ_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ - Y\]`e[\k* @i bXee [XY\` [`\ @i]X_ile^
dXZ_\e([X~\ie`Z_k`e[\iGX^\`jk(j`Z_^\eXlXej\`e\\`^\e\e=\fYé
XZ_kle^\e le[ O_\fi`\e ql \i`ee\ie( Yqn* [X~ \i j`\ n\[\i ^Xeq ql
Y\^i\`]\e efZ_ a\dXe[ Xe[\i\d d`kqlk\`c\e m\idX^( le[ qnXi [\jé
_XcY e`Z_k( n\`c B\[vZ_ke`j le[ Ffddle`bXk`fe d`k \`e\d Y\jk`ddé
k\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ qljXdd\e_ve^\e[\ K_vefd\e\ j`e[* ?Xé
_\i \e[\e j\`e\ Q\ijlZ_\( j`Z_ d`k [`\j\d Xe[\i\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i ql
12

m\ijkve[`^\e( d`k \`e\d H`~\i]fc^* J[\i e\_d\e n`i Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\
Xe( [\i \ijk\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i Y\]ve[\ j`Z_ efZ_ `e j\`e\d =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ . le[ \i lek\iev_d\ [\e Q\ijlZ_( j\`e\ O_\fi`\ \`e\d
[i`kk\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i [Xiqlc\^\e( [\i j`Z_ `e j\`e\d =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ - Y\]`e[\k* UnXi m\ijk\_k [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i a\kqk( nXj \i
jX^k( XY\i [\i [i`kk\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i `e j\`e\d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ -
bzeek\ dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ `e]fc^\ [\i j`Z_ \i^\Y\e[\e Ffddle`bXé
k`fejgifYc\d\ e`Z_k Y\^i\`]\e( nXj [\i \ijk\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i Xlj]{_ik*
?\i [i`kk\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i `jk [X_\i e`Z_k `e [\i GX^\( \`e\ <ljjX^\
{Y\i [`\ `e_vi\ek\ ;nZbWUYSWb [\i k_\fi\k`jZ_\e <lj]{_ile^\e [\j \ié
jk\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ij ql dXZ_\e* @i bzeek\ \knXj {Y\i [\i\e H`kk\`cé
YXib\`k $Ffddle`bXY`c`kvk% jX^\e( f[\i \i bzeek\ jX^\e( [X~ [`\ <ljé
]{_ile^\e [\j \ijk\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ij {Y\i_Xlgk b\`e\e N`ee \i^vY\e(
f[\i XY\i( [X~ j`\ `d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ - \`e\e ^\n`jj\e
N`ee \i^vY\e( XY\i ld \`e\ <ljjX^\ {Y\i [`\ n\j\ejdv~`^\ B{cé
k`^b\`k [\i mfi^\YiXZ_k\e O_\fi`\ dXZ_\e ql bzee\e( d{~k\ [\i
[i`kk\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i \Y\e]Xccj `e [\i GX^\ j\`e( `e [\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ . \`eqlki\k\e le[ [Xi`e ]c{jj`^ d`k `_d ql bfddle`é
q`\i\e* R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i( [`\ `e [\e ^c\`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[
\`eki\k\e bzee\e le[ [`\ [fik ^\ck\e[\e Ffddle`bXk`feji\^\ce
\ic\ie\e( bzee\e Xcjf \`e Pik\`c {Y\i [`\ `e j`Z_ jk`dd`^\ Ñcf^`jZ_\É
B{ck`^b\`k [\i O_\fi`\e mfe Xe[\i\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ie XY^\Y\e( XY\i
\`e Ñ<l~\ej\`k\iÉ( [*_* \`e H\ejZ_( [\i e`Z_k `djkXe[\ `jk( `e [`\j\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \`eqlki\k\e le[ `e `_d XlZ_ ql XiY\`k\e( bXee
b\`e\ <ljjX^\ {Y\i [`\ `e_vi\ek\ B{ck`^b\`k [\i Y\ki\]]\e[\e O_\fi`\
dXZ_\e*
R`i nfcc\e eled\_i [`\j\ NZ_cl~]fc^\ile^\e XlZ_ Xl] [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e
K_vefd\e\ Xen\e[\e* R\ee `Z_ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ `e \`e\i Yl[[_`jk`é
jZ_\e NZ_i`]k \knXj {Y\i [Xj R\j\e [\j =\nl~kj\`ej c\j\( jf bXee
\j [liZ_Xlj j\`e( [X~ `Z_ [Xj BXeq\ ^Xi e`Z_k Y\^i\`]\* N\kqk dXe a\é
[fZ_ mfiXlj( [X~ [`\j\ <lj]{_ile^\e Xlj \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \ekn`Zb\ck nfi[\e j`e[ $n`\ Bfc\dXe `e FXg`é
k\c 1 Xi^ld\ek`\ik%( [Xee nvi\ \j kzi`Z_k( ql Y\_Xlgk\e( j`\ j\`\e
^S` aS ]XcjZ_* DZ_ bXee jki\e^^\efdd\e eli Y\_Xlgk\e( [X~ `Z_ j\cYjk
[`\j\ <lj]{_ile^\e e`Z_k m\ijk\_\* Ili n\ee \j d`i ^\c`e^k( `e a\e\e
m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \`eqlki\k\e( `e [\d j`Z_ [\i <lkfi
[`\j\i <lj]{_ile^\e Y\]Xe[( bXee `Z_ _f]]\e( `i^\e[\`e\ <ljjX^\
{Y\i `_i\ `e j`Z_ jk`dd`^\( [*_* {Y\i [`\ \`e\e jg\q`\cc\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ mfiXljj\kq\e[\ B{ck`^b\`k ql dXZ_\e* DZ_ dl~
13

_`\i efZ_dXcj Y\kfe\e( [X~ [`\j\ D[\\ \`e\j `ee\i_XcY Y\jk`ddk\i
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ ^{ck`^\e O_\fi\k`j`\i\ej le[ [\i \Y\e]Xccj Y\é
jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e \ekjgi\Z_\e[\e Gf^`b\e `d B\é
^\ejXkq ql lej\i\d jf^\eXeek\e Ñ^\jle[\e H\ejZ_\em\ijkXe[É
jk\_k( [*_*( ^\eXl\i ^\jX^k( qld KfjklcXk lej\i\j ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j( [X~ \j eli \`e\ \`eq`^\ <ik mfe n`ibc`Z_\i
Gf^`b ^`Yk le[ [X~ `Z_ [`\j\ $\Y\ejf n`\ N`\( c`\Y\i G\j\i% d\`jk\ié
_X]k Y\_\iijZ_\* Nfcck\e N`\ j`Z_ {Y\i [`\j\e <YjZ_e`kk Xl]i\^\e( [Xee
nvi\ \j iXkjXd( `_e efZ_ \`edXc [liZ_qlc\j\e le[ [\e Q\ijlZ_ ql
lek\ie\_d\e( ql \ib\ee\e( n\cZ_\ic\` KfjklcXk\ [`\j\i @ii\^le^
ql^ile[\c`\^\e*

?`\uY\igi{]YXib\`k
<e^\j`Z_kj [\i OXkjXZ_\( [X~ [Xj B\]{_c Ñ`Z_ n\`~É f[\i Ñ[Xj `jk f]é
]\ej`Z_kc`Z_ nX_iÉ lek\i Pdjkve[\e eli \`e\ ^\i`e^\ =\q`\_le^ qli
R`ibc`Z_b\`k _Xk( fYjZ_fe \j [`\ K\ijfe( [`\ \j \dg]`e[\k( [liZ_Xlj
Y\]i`\[`^k( Y\[Xi] [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i efZ_ \`e\i m`\ik\e d\k_f[fcfé
^`jZ_\e M\^\c7 j`\ cXlk\k6 @`e\ O_\fi`\ dl~ [`\ Y\fYXZ_k\k\e AXbk\e
e`Z_k eli bfej\hl\ek \`efi[e\e bzee\e le[ mfe cf^`jZ_\i Nkilbkli
j\`e( j`\ dl~ XlZ_ Qfi_\ijX^\e {Y\i n\`k\i\ AXbk\e \icXlY\e( [`\ leé
k\i e\l\e QfiXljj\kqle^\e Y\fYXZ_k\k n\i[\e bzeek\e* ?Xj Y\[\lé
k\k( \`e\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ O_\fi`\ dl~ {Y\igi{]YXi\ Ffej\hl\eq\e
_XY\e( [`\ {Y\i [Xj _`eXlj^\_\e( nXj dXe Y`j_\i ]\jk^\jk\cck _Xk( le[
[`\j\ Ffej\hl\eq\e d{jj\e mfe AXcc ql AXcc {Y\igi{]k n\i[\e* Nk\cé
c\e j`Z_ [`\ mfi_\i^\jX^k\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e e`Z_k \`e( [Xee dl~ [`\
Y\ki\]]\e[\ O_\fi`\ \ekn\[\i m\infi]\e f[\i XY\i qld`e[\jk df[`]`é
q`\ik n\i[\e) f_e\ M{Zbj`Z_k [XiXl]( n`\ ã\c\^Xekä( ãiXk`feXcä le[ qlé
]i`\[\ejk\cc\e[j`\jfejkXlZ_j\`edX^*
@`e\j [\i CXlgkd\ibdXc\ [\j d\ejZ_c`Z_\e B\`jk\j jZ_\`ek [`\
Av_`^b\`k ql j\`e( Xlj M\`q\e( [`\ Xl] [Xj =\nl~kj\`e \`en`ib\e( ^\é
n`jj\ Hf[\cc\ Yqn* Nkilbkli\e ql jZ_X]]\e* ?`\j\ Av_`^b\`k j`Z_\ik
`e m`\c\i C`ej`Z_k [Xj uY\ic\Y\e* H`k C`c]\ Y\jk`ddk\i RX_ie\_é
dle^jgifq\jj\ m\inXe[\ck\e lej\i\ Qfi]X_i\e _`ek\i ={jZ_\e Xl]é
Yc`kq\e[\ A\kq\e mfe NZ_Xkk\e( G`Z_k le[ AXiY\ `e [`\ ÑNkilbkliÉ \`e\j
O`^\ij( le[ j`\ m\i_Xiik\e jf]fik i\^le^jcfj f[\i jZ_c`Z_\e j`Z_ _\`dé
c`Z_ mfe [Xee\e* I`Z_k `dd\i nXi kXkjvZ_c`Z_ \`e O`^\i [X( XY\i \j
14

_vkk\ [liZ_Xlj [\i AXcc j\`e bzee\e( le[ [Xj ?XmfejZ_c\`Z_\e nXi
\`e[`\j\iN`klXk`fe^lkXe^\gX~k\jQ\i_Xck\e*
?Xj KifYc\d Y\jk\_k [Xi`e( [X~ [`\j\i jkilbkliY`c[\e[\ H\Z_Xe`jdlj
jf mfiq{^c`Z_ XiY\`k\k( [X~ \i _vl]`^ `e lej\i\i Qfijk\ccle^ Nkilbkli\e
le[ Hf[\cc\ jZ_X]]k( nf `e [\i <l~\en\ck $Yqn* `e [\i Dee\en\ck%
^Xi b\`e\ \o`jk`\i\e* Nf bXee dXe j`Z_ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e\e Qfi^Xe^
Xlj[\eb\e( [\i `e ql]vcc`^\i M\`_\e]fc^\ Y\c`\Y`^\ UX_c\e( [Xilek\i
[`\ UX_c 4,--53535,3-2441-.-.120510445, _\imfiYi`e^k* @j ^`Yk
\`e\e dXk_\dXk`jZ_\e G\_ijXkq( [\i Y\jX^k( [X~ dXe [XiXlj \`e\ Afié
d\c( \`e\e dXk_\dXk`jZ_\e <YcXl] XYc\`k\e bXee( [\i ^\iX[\ [`\j\
UX_c\e]fc^\ \i^`Yk7 [Xd`k n`i[ `dgc`q`\ik( [X~ [`\j\ UX_c\e {Y\i_Xlgk
e`Z_k ql]vcc`^ qljXdd\e^\jk\cck nli[\e( jfe[\ie \`e\ bfdgc\o\
dXk_\dXk`jZ_\ Nkilbkli [Xijk\cc\e* ?\i CXb\e Xe [`\j\i NXZ_\ `jk Xcé
c\i[`e^j( [X~ dXe d`k C`c]\ [`\j\j dXk_\dXk`jZ_\e <YcXl]j $\j j\`
[\ee [liZ_ Ul]Xcc% e`Z_k QfiXljjX^\e bXee( n\cZ_\ UX_c `e [`\j\i
Afc^\ [`\ evZ_jk\ j\`e n`i[* @Y\ejf jk\_k \j XlZ_ d`k lej\i\d
^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e <ggXiXk6 R`i bzee\e nle[\iYXi\ Nkilbkli\e(
Hf[\cc\( O_\fi`\e le[ Ffeq\gk`fe\e \ij`ee\e( XY\i [Xd`k \i_Xck\e
n`i b\`e\ BXiXek`\ [X]{i( nXj j`Z_ Xcj evZ_jk\j \i\`^e\e n`i[* @`e\
[\i CXlgkjkvib\e [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k Y\jk\_k ^\iX[\ `e `_i\d =\_Xii\e
[XiXl]( [X~ a\[\ O_\fi`\ {Y\igi{]YXi\ Ffej\hl\eq\e _XY\e dl~ le[
[X~ j`\ j`Z_ [Xql m\ig]c`Z_k\k ]{_ck( [`\j\ Ffej\hl\eq\e `dd\i Xl]j
e\l\ql{Y\igi{]\e*
?X~ ÑR`jj\ejZ_X]kÉ ]{i lej d\_i le[ d\_i ÑIXklin`jj\ejZ_X]kÉ Y\é
[\lk\k( _Xk lej Xl] [\e B\[Xeb\e ^\YiXZ_k( [`\ uY\igi{]le^ \`e\i
Y\jk`ddk\e O_\fi`\ Y\jk\_\ [Xi`e( [X~ dXe j`Z_ d`k `_i\e g_pj`bXc`é
jZ_\e Ffej\hl\eq\e Xlj\`eXe[\ij\kqk( [* _* d`k ?`e^\e( [`\ dXe d`k
C`c]\ mfe Dejkild\ek\e d\jj\e bXee* R`i jX^\e Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ Xl]é
^ile[ k_\fi\k`jZ_\i uY\ic\^le^\e mfiXlj( [X~ qn\` >_\d`bXc`\e \`e\
jkXib\ M\Xbk`fe q\`^\e le[ C`kq\ \iq\l^\e n\i[\e( le[ [Xee d`é
jZ_\e n`i [`\j\ Y\`[\e >_\d`bXc`\e d`k\`eXe[\i le[ `ejkXcc`\i\e
\`e O_\idfd\k\i( ld ]\jkqljk\cc\e( fY kXkjvZ_c`Z_ C`kq\ \eké
jk\_k* <Y\i \ekjgi\Z_\e[ lej\i\i jZ_fe [Xi^\c\^k\e k_\fi\k`jZ_\e
Kfj`k`fe( [X~ Xcc\j R`jj\e `d Ki`eq`g eli Xl] \`e\i @i]X_ile^ Y\il_k(
[`\ n`i `e lej\i\d ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_ dXZ_\e( YiXlZ_\e n`i
^Xi e`Z_k [Xj B\]{_c ql _XY\e( [X~ [liZ_ \`e g_pj`bXc`jZ_\j @i^\Ye`j
[`\ B{ck`^b\`k \`e\i O_\fi`\ qlm\icvjj`^\i Y\jkvk`^k n\i[\ Xcj [liZ_
\`e\ i\`e `ee\i\ @i]X_ile^* IXk{ic`Z_ cXjj\e j`Z_ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ ?`e^\
`d Xcc^\d\`e\e c\`Z_k\i m\i`]`q`\i\e( XY\i [Xj ve[\ik e`Z_kj [XiXe( [X~
15

\j ezk`^ `jk( [`\ uY\igi{]YXib\`k lej\i\i O_\fi`\e {Y\i jg`i`kl\cc\
K_vefd\e\ le[ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ j`Z_\iqljk\cc\e*
DZ_ dzZ_k\ Xe \`e\d _pgfk_\k`jZ_\e =\`jg`\c ql q\`^\e m\ijlZ_\e(
n`\ [Xj ^\kXe n\i[\e bXee6 De \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e m\ive[\ik\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\i`Z_k\e qX_ci\`Z_\ =\fYXZ_k\i( j`\ j\`\e `e [\i
GX^\( ^\n`jj\ <ik\e mfe Fi`YY\ce( NZ_n`e^le^\e f[\i Rvid\\dgé
]`e[le^\e nX_iqle\_d\e( [`\ j`Z_ c\`Z_k {Y\iXcc_`e `d Fzig\i ]fiké
g]cXeq\e bzee\e le[ [\e\e j`\ [`\ Xcc^\d\`e Xbq\gk`\ik\ =\q\`Z_é
ele^ ÑgjpZ_`jZ_\ @e\i^`\É ^\Y\e* I\_d\e n`i Xe( j`\ Y\i`Z_k\e
n\`k\i( [X~ j`\( n\ee j`\ `e [`\j\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ biXeb ^\n\j\e j\`\e( le[ qnXi jf( [X~ \`e O\`c [\j Fzié
g\ij mfe [`\j\i FiXeb_\`k jkvib\i Y\kif]]\e nXi Xcj \`e Xe[\i\i( [Xj
B\]{_c _Xkk\e( j`\ \dg]ve[\e `e [\d biXeb\e O\`c \`e\ ^\i`e^\i\ gjpé
Z_`jZ_\ @e\i^`\ Xcj `d {Yi`^\e Fzig\i* Ile bzeek\ \`e =\fYXZ_k\i
Yqn* Q\ijlZ_jc\`k\i [`\ O_\fi`\ Xl]jk\cc\e( [`\j\ _pgfk_\k`jZ_\ gjpé
Z_`jZ_\ @e\i^`\ j\` \`e n`Z_k`^\j @c\d\ek [\i Xcc^\d\`e\e( ^\jle[\e
Alebk`fejn\`j\ [\j Fzig\ij( le[ j`\ j\` \`e\ ^ile[c\^\e[\ QfiXljj\ké
qle^ ]{i g_pj`jZ_\ B\jle[_\`k* C`\i _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \`e\ i\Z_k
\`e]XZ_\ O_\fi`\( [`\ d`k [\e ^\dXZ_k\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e {Y\i\`eé
jk`ddk( [X~ evdc`Z_ \`e <Yj`eb\e [\i gjpZ_`jZ_\e @e\i^`\ d`k g_pj`é
jZ_\e NZ_v[\e qljXdd\e_ve^k le[ [X~ j`Z_ _`\i dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ \`e
[\dBXeq\eql^ile[\c`\^\e[\iH\Z_Xe`jdljXe[\lk\k*
?Xee nvi\ \j XY\i eli efZ_ \`e NZ_i`kk ql ]fc^\e[\i uY\ic\^le^6
R\ee dXe [`\j\ @e\i^`\ `e \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[
Y\nl~k lek\i Ffekifcc\ Yi`e^\e $[*_* j`\ Xl]^ile[ j\`e\i @i]X_é
ile^ n`cc\ekc`Z_ _`e) le[ _\iY\n\^\e% bXee( le[ n\ee dXe
[Xee ^Xeq Y\nl~k `e \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e O\`c [\j Fzig\ij $\`e\ Ng\q`é
]`q`\ile^( [`\ [`\ QfiXljj\kqle^ ]{i \`e\ =\fYXZ_kle^ jZ_X]]k% \`e\e
HXe^\c Xe [`\j\i @e\i^`\ _\iY\`]{_ik\( [Xee d{~k\ \`^\ekc`Z_ [`\j\i
Fzig\ik\`c g_pj`jZ_ \ibiXeb\e* J[\i e\_d\e n`i [\e ld^\b\_ik\e
AXcc6 R\ee \`e Y\jk`ddk\i O\`c [\j Fzig\ij g_pj`jZ_ biXeb `jk le[
dXe Ñev_d\É ele ^Xeq Y\nl~k [`\ gjpZ_`jZ_\ @e\i^`\ Xlj [\d {Yi`é
^\e Fzig\i $[* _* dXe n{~k\ Xlj @i]X_ile^( n`\ dXe [Xj dXZ_k% le[
Y\n\^k\ j`\ `e [\e biXeb\e Fzig\ik\`c _`e\`e( [Xee d{~k\ \`^\ekc`Z_
[`\j\i Fzig\ik\`c ^\_\`ck n\i[\e* De Y\`[\e Avcc\e _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_
[liZ_Xlj ld {Y\igi{]YXi\ QfiXljjX^\e* R\ee dXe [`\ \i]fi[\ic`é
Z_\e QfiXljj\kqle^\e [X]{i jZ_X]]\e n{i[\ le[ [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e
n{i[\e \i^\Y\e( [X~ [`\ mfiXlj^\jX^k\e R`ible^\e kXkjvZ_c`Z_ \`e)
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2,

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<ck\ieXk`mk_\fi`\e ^\Y\e( d`k [\i\e C`c]\ j`Z_ [`\ ^c\`Z_\e K_vefé
d\e\ \ibcvi\e cXjj\e* <Y\i `d Ki`eq`g _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ _`\i ld [Xj(
nXj dXe Xcj n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\j Q\i]X_i\e Y\q\`Z_e\k* ?`\ Afi[\ile^
eXZ_ [\i uY\igi{]YXib\`k `jk XlZ_ [`\ Bile[cX^\ ]{i \`e\ ql ki\]]\e[\
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bXeek\e AXbk\e ^c\`Z_\idX~\e ^lk \ibcvi\e6 R\cZ_\ mfe `_e\e Y\é
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le[[`\j`Z_[XiXlj\i^\Y\e[\eQfiXljjX^\e{Y\igi{]k;
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jZ_X]kc`Z_\e H\k_f[`b qljXdd\e* N\kq\e n`i \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e R`ié
ble^jj\bkfi mfiXlj( [\d lej\i Dek\i\jj\ ^`ck $\j bXee j`Z_ [XY\` ld
=`fcf^`\ f[\i K_pj`b _Xe[\ce( f[\i XlZ_ ld [\e d\[`kXk`m\e UljkXe[
-,( ld Oivld\ ljn*%( [Xee dXZ_\e n`i Xl] [`\j\d A\c[ Y\jk`ddk\
=\fYXZ_kle^\e( le[ n`i ]{_c\e lej m\ig]c`Z_k\k( [`\j\ jkve[`^ ql [`]é
]\i\eq`\i\e le[ ql \in\`k\ie* R`i jk\cc\e XlZ_ k_\fi\k`jZ_\ @inv^leé
^\e [Xi{Y\i Xe( nXj lej\i\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e Y\[\lk\e( nfY\` n`i lej
\Y\e]Xccj m\ig]c`Z_k\k ]{_c\e( cf^`jZ_ mfiql^\_\e le[ lej\i O_\fi\k`é
j`\i\e jkve[`^ ql m\i]\`e\ie* R`i dXZ_\e [Xee n\`k\i\ QfiXljjX^\e(
[`\ Xl] lej\i\e k_\fi\k`jZ_\e uY\ic\^le^\e YXj`\i\e( le[ n`i m\ié
g]c`Z_k\e lej( [XY\` jf \oXbk n`\ dz^c`Z_ mfiql^\_\e7 [Xee n\e[\e
n`i [`\j\ QfiXljjX^\e n`\[\i Xl] [\e lej `ek\i\jj`\i\e[\e R`ibc`Z_é
b\`kjj\bkfiXele[Y\fYXZ_k\e(fYj`\qlki\]]\ef[\ie`Z_k*
?\i Y`j_\i [Xi^\c\^k\ Kifq\~( [\i [liZ_ [`\ K]\`c\ `d vl~\i\e Fi\`j
mfe <YY`c[le^ - n`\[\i^\^\Y\e n`i[( bXee j`Z_ ^Xeq `d ^\`jk`^)j\\c`é
jZ_\e =\i\`Z_ \`e\j \`eq`^\e H\ejZ_\e mfccq`\_\e* ?`\ f]]\e\ le[
ld]Xjj\e[\ Ffddle`bXk`fe d`k Xe[\i\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ie( [`\ [liZ_
[\e d`kkc\i\e Fi\`j `e <YY`c[le^ - [Xi^\jk\cck n`i[( Yi`e^k a\[fZ_ \`e\
FiX]k `ej Ng`\c( d`k [\i\e C`c]\ j`Z_ m`\c\ Diik{d\i m\id\`[\e le[ Xl]
n\`k\ N`Z_k _`e G\`jkle^\e \iYi`e^\e cXjj\e( [`\ n\`k {Y\i [Xj _`eXljé
^\_\e( nfql \`e \`eq\ce\i H\ejZ_ `djkXe[\ `jk* Pej\i\ =\fYXZ_kleé
^\e n\i[\e Xcjf Xe[\i\e d`k^\k\`ck( [`\ j`\ \ekn\[\i Xcj ^{ck`^ Xe\ié
b\ee\e f[\i XlZ_ e`Z_k( [`\ j`\ XlZ_ \in\`k\ie bzee\e le[ [`\ lej
\`e\e qljvkqc`Z_\e <ei\`q qli Q\i]\`e\ile^ [\i mfe lej ^\dXZ_k\e
=\fYXZ_kle^\e ^\Y\e* <lZ_ lej\i\ O_\fi`\e n\i[\e Xe[\i\e d`k^\é
k\`ck( [`\ lej Y\jkvk`^\e f[\i e`Z_k Y\jkvk`^\e( [X~ n`i [`\ Xe^\d\jj\é
e\e cf^`jZ_\e Kifq\jj\ ]\_c\icfj [liZ_^\]{_ik _XY\e( le[ [`\ lej
[Xql Xei\^\e( lej\i\ O_\fi`\e ql [`]]\i\eq`\i\e* R`i k\`c\e jfcZ_\
QfiXljjX^\e n`\[\ild Xe[\i\e d`k( [`\ `_i\ij\`kj ]\jkjk\cc\e( fY n`i
2-

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j`Z_k`^k _XY\e( le[ [`\ lej ql n\`k\i\e QfiXljjX^\e Xei\^\e( m`\cé
c\`Z_k XlZ_ j\cYjk e\l\ dXZ_\e le[ Xl] [`\j\ R\`j\ [\e QfiXljjX)
^le^jgifq\~ n\`k\i [`]]\i\eq`\i\e* ?`\j\j {Y\i^i\`]\e[\ B\jXdkdfé
[\cc [\i UljXdd\eXiY\`k d`k Xe[\i\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ie [\i ^c\`Z_\e
AXZ_i`Z_kle^ Xl] [\d lej `ek\i\jj`\i\e[\e R`ibc`Z_b\`kjj\bkfi `jk [Xj
Hljk\i \`e\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e H\k_f[\* @j _Xe[\ck j`Z_ _`\i e`Z_k
ld \`e \`edXc`^\j Q\i]X_i\e( jfe[\ie ld \`e\j( [Xj j`Z_ `dd\i mfe
e\l\d n`\[\i_fck le[ [Xj ql \`e\d `dd\i jkvib\i\e HX~ mfe uY\ié
\`ejk`ddle^ qn`jZ_\e lej\i\e Ffeq\gk`fe\e le[ lej\i\e =\fYXZ_é
kle^\e $Yqn* @i]X_ile^\e% `d =\i\`Z_ [\i R`ibc`Z_b\`k ]{_ik7 ]i{_\i
_vkk\ dXe [Xj Xcj \`e\e jk\k`^\e le[ bfek`el`\ic`Z_\e <eev_\ile^jé
gifq\~ Xe [`\ RX_i_\`k Y\q\`Z_e\k* ?\i Y\jfe[\i\ =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[( `e [\d j`Z_ [`\j\i ^Xeq\ Kifq\~ mfccq`\_k( `jk [Xj( nXj [Xj
Ng\q`]`bld[`\j\jKifq\jj\jXljdXZ_k*

8WSS[]bW]\OZS5\bSWZ\OV[Sc\RRWSKWaaS\aQVOTb
@`e\ [\i lek\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ie n`\ lek\i GX`\e n\`km\iYi\`k\k\
Fc`jZ_\\mfijk\ccle^ mfd R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i `jk ]fc^\e[\6 ?\i R`jé
j\ejZ_X]kc\i `jk \`e j\_i b{_c\i >_XiXbk\i( \i q\`^k b\`e\ \dfk`feXc\
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[\d( nXj \i klk( e`Z_k Y\k\`c`^k j\`e [{i]\e( `e @`ebcXe^ Yi`e^\e d`k
[\e `ek\ej`m\e \dfk`feXc\e @ic\Ye`jj\e Yqn* @i]X_ile^\e( [`\ `e m\ié
jZ_`\[\e\em\ive[\ik\e=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ejkXkk]`e[\e;
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jZ_X]kc\i( [\i jZ_c`\~c`Z_ XlZ_ \`e H\ejZ_ `jk( lek\ic`\^k Y\` [\d( nXj
\i klk( XlZ_ B\d{kjY\n\^le^\e7 \i ]i\lk j`Z_ le[ `jk ql]i`\[\e( n\ee
[`\ @i^\Ye`jj\ j\`e\ \`^\e\e O_\fi`\e ql Y\jkvk`^\e jZ_\`e\e( le[ \i
`jk m\ivi^\ik f[\i [\gi`d`\ik( n\ee [Xj M\jlckXk ^\^\e j\`e\ G`\Yé
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jkXib\ RlejZ_( j\`e\ O_\fi`\ ql Y\n\`j\e( [\i XlZ_ [`\ <eki`\YjbiX]k
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@`e\ j\_i Y\kivZ_kc`Z_\ B\]{_cjY\k\`c`^le^ bfddk Xcjf jf^Xi Y\` R`jé
j\ejZ_X]kc\ie mfi( [`\ j`Z_ `e \`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[Y\]`e[\e*
2.

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jZ_c`\~k e`Z_k Xlj( [X~ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i qli =\fYXZ_kle^( qli f]]\é
e\e Ffddle`bXk`fe( qli @ijk\ccle^ cf^`jZ_\i O_\fi`\e le[ qli
uY\igi{]le^ [\i Xlj j\`e\i O_\fi`\ ql q`\_\e[\e Ffej\hl\eq\e m\ié
g]c`Z_k\k `jk* R\ee \i mfe j\`e\e Ffcc\^\e Xcj R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i Xe\ié
bXeek n\i[\e n`cc( dl~ \i [`\ @i^\Ye`jj\ j\`e\i AfijZ_le^\e
m\iz]]\ekc`Z_\e le[ j\`e\ @og\i`d\ek\ jf [liZ_]{_i\e( [X~ j`\ [\d
) fY\e \izik\ik\e ) R\j\e [\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e H\k_f[`b \ekjgi\é
Z_\e*
UnXi dX^ \i _fZ_\i]i\lk le[ d`k j\`e\d @i^\Ye`j j\_i ql]i`\[\e ^\é
n\j\e j\`e( XY\i n\ee \i \`e\e n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e =\i`Z_k m\i]X~k(
[Xee cv~k \i j\`e\ B\]{_c\ le\inv_ek le[ k\`ck \`e]XZ_ d`k( Xl] n\cé
Z_\d R\^\ \i ql j\`e\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e bXd( n\cZ_\i <ik j`\ j`e[(
ql n\cZ_\e k_\fi\k`jZ_\e @inv^le^\e j`\ `_e m\iXecX~k\e le[ Xl]
n\cZ_\R\`j\\ij\`e\O_\fi`\{Y\igi{]k_Xk*
2/

?`\j\ <ik mfe Ffddle`bXk`fe `jk [\e d\`jk\e NgXik\e [\i IXklin`jé
j\ejZ_X]k mfccbfdd\e Xe^\d\jj\e6 [\i <ggXiXk( d`k [\d dXe `i^\e[
\knXj =\c`\Y`^\j d`~k( jgi`Z_k e`Z_k Xl] [`\ B\d{kjcX^\ Xe( `e [\i dXe
j`Z_ Y\]`e[\k* R\ee n`i \j a\[fZ_ d`k gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e Kifq\jj\e ql
kle _XY\e( mfi Xcc\d d`k Kifq\jj\e `e m\ive[\ik\d =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[( jfn`\ d`k [\i =\fYXZ_kle^ le[ HXe`glcXk`fe [\j \`^\e\e `eé
e\i\e UljkXe[j( [Xee d{jj\e n`i _vl]`^ ]\jkjk\cc\e( [X~ j`Z_ [Xj e`Z_k
\dfk`fejcfj Y\nvck`^\e cv~k* ?Xj Y\[\lk\k( [X~ \`e\ Y\jk`ddk\ <ik
le[ Dek\ej`kvk mfe @dg]`e[le^\e Xcj @e\i^`\hl\cc\ le[+f[\i Xcj
FXkXcpjXkfi \i]fi[\ic`Z_ `jk( ld \`e Y\jk`ddk\j @ic\Ye`j Yqn* \`e\
Y\jk`ddk\ @i]X_ile^ {Y\i_Xlgk \ijk \ekjk\_\e ql cXjj\e* ?`\ OXbk`b
Y\jk\_k [X_\i _`\i e`Z_k [Xi`e( [X~ dXe jf klk( Xcj j\` \`e\ =\k\`c`^le^
[\j B\]{_cj {Y\i]c{jj`^( jfe[\ie [Xi`e( [\lkc`Z_ le[ bcXi ql jg\q`]`é
q`\i\e( nXild le[ n\cZ_\ <ik B\]{_c\ \i]fi[\ic`Z_ j`e[( [Xd`k dXe
Y\jk`ddk\=\fYXZ_kle^\e{Y\i_Xlgk\ijkdXZ_\ebXee*
HXe bzeek\ eXk{ic`Z_ d`k M\Z_k Xi^ld\ek`\i\e( \j j\` lek\i Pdjkveé
[\e j\_i ^\]v_ic`Z_( [\e H\ejZ_\e ^\]{_cjdv~`^ Xe j\`e\ <iY\`k ql
Y`e[\e( [\ee \j `jk b\`e\jn\^j \`e]XZ_( jfcZ_\ B\]{_c\ eXZ_ =\c`\Y\e
\`e) le[ [Xee n`\[\i XljqljZ_Xck\e* N`\ bzee\e Xl] n\`k\ N`Z_k _`e
ql \`e\d =\jkXe[k\`c [\i \`^\e\e K\ijzec`Z_b\`kjjkilbkli n\i[\e le[
[`\ @i^\Ye`jj\ [\i \`^\e\e <iY\`k \i_\Yc`Z_ m\iq\ii\e* R`\ bzee\e
n`i ele Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e \eké
n`Zb\ce( [`\ [`\ =\k\`c`^le^ [\j B\]{_cj \`ejZ_c`\~\e( n\ee B\]{_c\
lej\i\AfijZ_\ijfjkXib`ii`k`\i\ebzee\e;
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k`feXc`kvk [liZ_Xlj Xe( XY\i `Z_ ^cXlY\( [`\ <eknfik dl~ _`\i cXlk\e6
R`i _XY\e qnXi j\cYjk e`Z_k _`ei\`Z_\e[ uYle^ [Xi`e( [`\ `e lej\i\d
Flcklibi\`j _\iijZ_\e[\e @dfk`fe\e ql Y\^i\`]\e le[ lek\i Ffeé
kifcc\ ql Yi`e^\e( XY\i [Xj Y\[\lk\k b\`e\jn\^j( [X~ n`i jk\kj [`\ NbcXé
m\e lej\i\i B\]{_c\ j\`e d{jj\e* R`i YiXlZ_\e lej e`Z_k [`\ IXklié
n`jj\ejZ_X]k\e qld QfiY`c[ ql e\_d\e( [\e\e ql]fc^\ B\]{_c\ e`Z_k
=\jkXe[k\`c \`e\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kj[`jq`gc`e j\`e bzee\e( le[ n`i
YiXlZ_k\e XlZ_ ^Xi e`Z_k Xcc\ B\]{_c\ mzcc`^ ql lek\i[i{Zb\e( [\ee
[X[liZ_ n{i[\e n`i ^\iX[\ m`\c\ K_vefd\e\ q\ijkzi\e( [`\ n`i
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mfe B\]{_c\e [liZ_Xlj Xe\ib\ee\e le[ ]fik]X_i\e( dXee`^]Xck`^\
gjpZ_fk_\iXg\lk`jZ_\ le[ `e[`m`[l\cc\ @ekn`Zbcle^jk\Z_e`b\e ql
\ekn`Zb\ce( [`\ \`e\d H\ejZ_\e jfnf_c mfcc\e Ul^Xe^ ql j\`e\i
B\]{_cjn\ck m\ijZ_X]]\e Xcj XlZ_ j\`e\i De[`m`[lXc`kvk \`e\ jkXY`c\i\
20

Bile[cX^\ ^\Y\e( Xl] [\i \i j`Z_ d`k j\`e\e @dfk`fe\e Xlj\`eXe[\ié
j\kq\e bXee( f_e\ j`Z_ [XY\` Xccqlj\_i `e j`\ ql m\ijki`Zb\e* DZ_ ^cXlY\
`e [\i OXk Xe Bli[a`\]]j D[\\ $Jljg\ejbp( -505%( [X~ lej\i \dfk`fé
eXc\j Npjk\d \`e\ <ik \`^\e\j B\_`ie [Xijk\cck( [Xj dz^c`Z_\in\`j\
\Y\ejf `ek\cc`^\ek le[ n`Z_k`^ `jk n`\ lej\i [\eb\e[\j B\_`ie( [X~
XY\i [Xj Q\ijX^\e lej\i\i Flckli( [\i \j e`Z_k ^\cle^\e `jk( lej\i\
[i\` ÑB\_`ie\É $Bli[a`\]] Y\kiXZ_k\k XlZ_ [\e Fzig\i Xcj \`e B\_`ie%
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^\]{_ik _Xk( [X~ n`i mfe d`~m\ijkXe[\e\e le[ ^\]{iZ_k\k\e @dfk`fé
e\eY\_\iijZ_kn\i[\e(jkXkk[X~n`ij\cYjkj`\Y\_\iijZ_\e*

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dXZ_\e n`i lej `e [\i M\^\c ]fc^\e[\j =`c[6 @`e`^ `e `_i\d Dek\i\jj\
Xe \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e O_\d\ebi\`j( m\iYi`e^k \`e\ <eqX_c mfe Xlj^\é
nv_ck\e( kXc\ek`\ik\e le[ ^i{e[c`Z_ Xlj^\Y`c[\k\e H\ejZ_\e Y\é
kivZ_kc`Z_\ U\`k [Xd`k( [\kX`cc`\ik\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e le[ Pek\ijlZ_leé
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Xeqljk\cc\e* N`\ bzee\e [XY\` $d{jj\e \j XY\i e`Z_k% Ng\q`XccXYfij(
Ng\q`Xc`ejkild\ek\ f[\i Ng\q`Xcd\k_f[\e m\in\e[\e( [`\ \j `_e\e
\idz^c`Z_\e( `dd\i [`]]\i\eq`\ik\i\ le[ n\`k\i i\`Z_\e[\ =\fYXZ_é
kle^\e ql dXZ_\e* N`\ i\[\e d`k\`eXe[\i `e \`e\d k\Z_e`jZ_\e QfbXé
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C`c]\ [`\j\i AXZ_jgiXZ_\ Y\jkvk`^\e le[ \in\`k\ie j`\ `_i n\Z_j\cj\`k`é
^\j R`jj\e {Y\i [`\ Bile[^\^\Y\e_\`k\e `_i\j AXZ_^\Y`\kj* N`\ jk\cc\e
O_\fi`\e [Xi{Y\i Xl] le[ bfejkil`\i\e k_\fi\k`jZ_\ Npjk\d\ qli
@ibcvile^ [`\j\i B\^\Y\e_\`k\e* ?Xee Y\jkvk`^\e( m\in\i]\e f[\i
m\i]\`e\ie j`\ [`\j\ O_\fi`\e d`k C`c]\ n\`k\i\i =\fYXZ_kle^\e* ?`\j\
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iXld [`\ Q\ig]c`Z_kle^( `_i\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e \Y\ejf n`\ `_i\ O_\fé
i`\e jkve[`^ ql \in\`k\ie le[ ql [`]]\i\eq`\i\e* D_i\ Ovk`^b\`k `jk ]{i
GX`\e f[\i ]{i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i Xlj Xe[\i\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kjqn\`^\e
_vl]`^lem\ijkve[c`Z_*
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21

Z_\idX~\e ]{i \`e\ Q`\cqX_c m\ijZ_`\[\e\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e f[\i ]{i
AfijZ_le^j^\Y`\k\( [`\ j`Z_ ql R`jj\ejZ_X]kjY\i\`Z_\e \ekn`Zb\ce
bzeek\e7 [XY\` bXee \j j`Z_ ld =\i\`Z_\ n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ =`fcf^`\(
K_pj`b( KjpZ_fcf^`\( B\e\k`b( >_\d`\ _Xe[\ce( XY\i XlZ_ ld \og\i`é
d\ek\cc\ Hpjk`b f[\i [liZ_ ?if^\e _\iY\`^\]{_ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkve[\* ?`\ AfijZ_le^jkvk`^b\`k dX^ [XY\` `d \`eq\ce\e mzcc`^ m\ié
jZ_`\[\e Xljj\_\e( XY\i dXe n{i[\ f_e\ n\`k\i\j \ib\ee\e( [X~ [`\
^ile[c\^\e[\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ H\k_f[`b( jf n`\ j`\ ^iXg_`jZ_ `e
<YY`c[le^-[Xi^\jk\cck`jk(]{iXcc\B{ck`^b\`kY\j`kqk*
R`\ `Z_ mfi^\jZ_cX^\e _XY\( Xcj `Z_ qld \ijk\edXc {Y\i [`\j\j
O_\dX jZ_i`\Y $OXik -53.%( jfcck\e n`i [Xd`k Y\^`ee\e( m\ijZ_`\[\e\
Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ql jZ_X]]\e( Xcjf
R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e( [`\ Y\jk`ddk\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e
\ekjgi\Z_\e* Fzeek\ dXe [\iXik`^\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e \eké
n`Zb\ce( [Xee Y\jv~\e n`i Bilgg\e mfe _fZ_Y\^XYk\e( ^lk Xljé
^\Y`c[\k\e le[ \e^X^`\ik\e M\givj\ekXek\e [`\j\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k(
[`\ `e [\i GX^\ nvi\e( Y\jk`ddk\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\
ql \ii\`Z_\e( le[ [`\ j`Z_ XlZ_ [Xi{Y\i m\ijkve[`^\e bzeek\e( [X~
j`\ j`Z_ `d ^c\`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\]`e[\e* De \`e\d Y\é
jfe[\i\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ bzeek\e jfcZ_\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc\i XlZ_ [\e RlejZ_ _XY\e( Xe[\i\ Dek\i\jj\e^\Y`\k\ ql \ié
]fijZ_\e( n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [`\ `e [\e Y\ki\]]\e[\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e \ic\Yk\e `ee\i\e K_vefd\e\( [`\ efZ_ e`Z_k
\i]fijZ_k nfi[\e j`e[( ]\ie\i [`\ R\Z_j\cn`ible^ qn`jZ_\e [\d Y\é
ki\]]\e[\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ le[ [\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e M\Xc`kvk( [`\ Dek\iXbk`fe qn`jZ_\e H\ejZ_\e `e [\d
Y\ki\]]\e[\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ d`k Xe[\i\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\e ljn* HXe _vkk\ j`Z_ [Xj \knX jf mfiqljk\cc\e( [X~ \`e\
Bilgg\ mfe AfijZ_\ie `i^\e[\`e\e R\^ ]ve[\( j`Z_ `e \`e\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ eXd\ej ÑFXc`]fie`\eÉ ql Y\^\Y\e( qli Xccj\`k`^\e
Ul]i`\[\e_\`k ]\jkjk\cck\( [X~ j`\ j`Z_ Xcc\jXdk `e ÑFXc`]fie`\eÉ Y\]veé
[\e( le[ [Xee [Xd`k Y\^vee\e( a\[\i Xl] \`^\e\ AXljk FXc`]fie`\e ql
\i]fijZ_\e jfn`\ \`eXe[\i `_i\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e le[ `_i\ O_\fi`\e
{Y\i [\i\e =\[\lkle^ d`kqlk\`c\e( nfY\` j`\ [`\ Cf]]ele^ _vkk\e(
jZ_c`\~c`Z_\`edXcÑFXc`]fie`\eÉi`Z_k`^Ñ\ibcvi\eÉqlbzee\e*
R\i n`\ qX_ci\`Z_\ H\ejZ_\e [Xj B\]{_c _Xk( [X~ [`\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]k\e [`\j\d ^Xeq jg\q`\cc\e Dek\i\jj\e^\Y`\k ]\`e[c`Z_ ^\^\eé
{Y\ijk\_\e( n{i[\ jX^\e( [X~ [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k e`\dXcj `e [\i GX^\
`jk( [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e K_vefd\e\ ql Y\^i\`]\e f[\i `i^\e[ \knXj ql leé
22

j\i\i F\eeke`j mfe `_e\e Y\`qlkiX^\e( ^\eXljfn\e`^ n`\ \`e jf bfdé
gc\o\j K_vefd\e n`\ FXc`]fie`\e mfd d\ejZ_c`Z_\e B\`jk \i]X~k n\ié
[\e bzeek\* R`Z_k`^ `jk( [X~ n`i [Xj qld`e[\jk m\ijlZ_\e le[ [XY\`
_\iXlj]`e[\e d{jj\e( n`\m`\c @i]fc^ n`i [XY\` _XY\e( le[ [X~ n`i
[\eQ\ijlZ_e`Z_kjZ_femfemfie_\i\`eXl]^\Y\e[{i]\e*
?`\ OXkjXZ_\ a\[fZ_( [X~ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i `e [\i GX^\ j\`e jfcck\(
jXZ_m\ijkve[`^ le[ bfdg\k\ek `e \`e\d Y\jfe[\i\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ ql ]lebk`fe`\i\e( ]{i [\e \i \`e\ Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)
fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k ql \ekn`Zb\ce jlZ_k( Y\[\lk\k e`Z_k( [X~
\i Y\` [\i \og\i`d\ek\cc\e <iY\`k jk\kj eli =\fYXZ_k\i f[\i Q\ié
jlZ_jg\ijfe j\`e d{~k\* R\ee \i [\j z]k\i\e =\fYXZ_k\i( Q\ijlZ_jé
g\ijfe le[ @og\i`d\ekXkfi ql^c\`Z_ j\`e bzeek\( bzeek\ \i Y\`
[\i \og\i`d\ek\cc\e <iY\`k d`k Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe\e( [`\ j`Z_ `e [\d
Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\]`e[\e( De]fidXk`fe\e jXdd\ce(
le[+f[\i \i bzeek\ j`Z_ ql [\d U\`kglebk( ql [\d \i [`\j\ ?Xk\e
jXdd\ck( j\cYjk `e [\d Y\ki\]]\e[\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\]`e[\e(
le[+f[\i \i bzeek\ j`Z_ `e [`\j\d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\]`e[\e( ld
?Xk\e ql XeXcpj`\i\e le[ k_\fi\k`jZ_\ uY\ic\^le^\e {Y\i j`\ Xeqlé
jk\cc\e*
<cj [\i QfijZ_cX^( Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]é
k\e ql jZ_X]]\e( \ijkdXcj mfi^\YiXZ_k nli[\( YXk\e \`e`^\ G\j\i ld
=\`jg`\c\ ]{i jfcZ_\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e* <Y^\j\_\e [Xmfe( [X~
\j [X]{i b\`e\ =\`jg`\c\ ^`Yk( n\`c n`i Y`j_\i efZ_ b\`e\ [\iXik`^\e
R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e \ekn`Zb\ck _XY\e $n`i n\i[\e lej jgvk\i efZ_ d`k [\i
AiX^\Y\]Xjj\e( fY \jj`Z_Y\` [\e`e [`\j\d=lZ_ mfi^\jk\cck\e jg`i`klé
\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ ld jfcZ_\ _Xe[\ck%( m\idzZ_k\
b\`e ]{i [`\ G\j\i [`\j\j FXg`k\cj $[`\ j`Z_ eXZ_ d\`e\i H\`ele^ Xcc\
`e `_i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\]`e[\e% m\ijkve[c`Z_\j
=\`jg`\c [`\ @`eq`^Xik`^b\`k \`e\i Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\e
R`jj\ejZ_X]k [\lkc`Z_ ql dXZ_\e* R\ee \`e jfcZ_\j =\`jg`\c m\ié
jkve[c`Z_ j\`e jfcck\( [Xee d{~k\ \j Xlj \`e\d KifYc\dY\i\`Z_
jkXdd\e( [\d dXe jfnf_c mfe lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ Xcj XlZ_ mfd m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Xlj
Y\`bfdd\e bzeek\7 [XY\` n{i[\ dXe Xccqlc\`Z_k [Xj ^Xeq\ KifYc\d
`d G`Z_k\ [\i mfe lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`e Xbq\gk`\ik\e
n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e Q\i]X_i\e j\_\e le[ [XY\` c\`Z_k [\e jgi`e^\e[\e
Klebk m\i]\_c\e( Xlj [\d j`Z_ [`\ Ifkn\e[`^b\`k \i^`Yk( Y\nl~k)
j\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ql \ekn`Zb\ce2( nfY\`
eXk{ic`Z_ `e ^\n`jj\d N`ee XlZ_ [`\ ^\nz_ec`Z_\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k \`e\
23

Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k `jk( evdc`Z_ jg\q`]`jZ_
]{ilej\i\e^\nz_ec`Z_\e=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[*

6SecobaSW\ahcabO\Ra&]`WS\bWS`bSHSQV\]Z]UWS\
@j `jk n`Z_k`^( [X~ n`i [`\ mfi^\jZ_cX^\e\e Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)
fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e mfe [\d lek\ijZ_\`[\e( nXj dXe Xcj
Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ O\Z_efcf^`\e Y\q\`Z_e\e bzeek\*
=\` \`e\i O\Z_efcf^`\ _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \`e\e Bile[jkfZb mfe
F\eeke`jj\e [Xi{Y\i( n`\ dXe Y\jk`ddk\ ?`e^\ qljkXe[\ Yi`e^k7
[Xql ^\_zik f]k \`e ^\_zi`^\j HX~ Xe I\l\ile^\e( d`k [\i\e C`c]\
dXe \`edXc ^\jk\Zbk\ U`\c\ n`ibjXd\i \ii\`Z_k* @j ^`Yk U\`k\e( `e
[\e\e [`\ \oXbk\ Bi\eqc`e`\ qn`jZ_\e \`e\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k le[ [\i
d`k `_i m\iYle[\e\e O\Z_efcf^`\ lebcXi `jk( mfi Xcc\d [\jn\^\e(
n\`c [\i AfikjZ_i`kk \`e\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k _vl]`^ mfe [\d AfikjZ_i`kk
[\i d`k `_i qljXdd\e_ve^\e[\e O\Z_efcf^`\ XY_ve^k( XY\i `d
Xcc^\d\`e\e bXee dXe [XiXl] m\in\`j\e( [X~ [Xj R`Z_k`^jk\ Xe
\`e\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k [Xj 6SU`SWTS\ `jk le[ [`\ bfek`el`\ic`Z_\ NlZ_\
eXZ_ `dd\i Y\jj\i\d Q\ijk\_\e [\i UljXdd\e_ve^\7 [X^\^\e
Y\jk\_k [\i CXlgkqn\Zb \`e\i O\Z_efcf^`\ [Xi`e( \`edXc ^\jk\Zbk\
U`\c\ XlZ_ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ ql dS`eW`YZWQVS\% nfY\` [Xee e\l\ @ib\eeké
e`jj\ eli mfe j\ble[vi\i =\[\lkle^ j`e[ f[\i {Y\i_Xlgk b\`e\
Mfcc\ jg`\c\e* Nf bzee\e Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ Bilgg\e k\Z_e`jZ_\i
@og\ik\e c\ie\e( Y\ezk`^k\ H\[`bXd\ek\ f[\i Hle`k`fe \]]`q`\ek\i
_\iqljk\cc\e f[\i XY\i d`k C`c]\ gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\i H\k_f[\e [`\
G\j\]v_`^b\`k Y\_`e[\ik\i F`e[\i ql jk\`^\ie f[\i [liZ_ m\ié
Y\jj\ik\ R\iY\d\k_f[\e d\_i le[ d\_i $elkqcfj\% Kif[lbk\ ql
m\ibXl]\e* De Xcc [`\j\e Avcc\e _Xck\e [`\ Hvee\i [\i O\Z_e`b [Xj(
nXj j`\ kle( ]{i ^lk le[ e{kqc`Z_( le[ j`\ j`e[ [Xild Y\d{_k( \j
dz^c`Z_jk ^lk ql kle* N`\ b{dd\ie j`Z_ e`Z_k Y\jfe[\ij ld F\eeke`j
[\i <ljn`ible^\e mfe Fl^\ce f[\i H\[`bXd\ek\e Yqn* mfe m\ié
Y\jj\ik\e R\iY\d\k_f[\e f[\i m\iY\jj\ik\i G\j\]v_`^b\`k Xl] [`\ ^\é
jXdk\ B\j\ccjZ_X]k f[\i ld [`\ Afc^\e `_i\j Olej ]{i [`\ B\jXdkeXkli
[\j H\ejZ_\e( le[ j`\ m\ijlZ_\e XlZ_ e`Z_k ql m\ijk\_\e( nXild
[`\j\?`e^\jf]lebk`fe`\i\e(n`\j`\\jkle*
?`\ Pek\ijZ_\`[le^ qn`jZ_\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k le[ O\Z_efcf^`\ n`i[ `e
lej\i\i B\j\ccjZ_X]k efZ_ [X[liZ_ \ijZ_n\ik( [X~ m`\c\ R`jj\ejZ_X]ké
c\i `d Ki`eq`g \`^\ekc`Z_ O\Z_e`b\i j`e[( [`\ \`e \ic\iek\j CXe[n\ib
24

Xlj{Y\e le[ `e R`ibc`Z_b\`k ^Xi e`Z_k Xe e\l\e @ib\eeke`jj\e `ek\ié
\jj`\ik j`e[( nv_i\e[ eli i\cXk`m n\e`^\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i [`\ R`jj\ejé
Y\^`\i[\ le[ [Xj @e^X^\d\ek Xl]Yi`e^\e( [`\ ]{i [`\ NlZ_\ eXZ_ [\i
RX_i_\`k \i]fi[\ic`Z_ le[ \`e >_XiXbk\i`jk`bld [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k
j`e[*
Qfd NkXe[glebk [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k Xlj ^\j\_\e( ^`Yk \j
Y\` lej Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e $\j j\`
[\ee( \`e`^\ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e c`\~\e j`Z_ Xcj jfcZ_\ m\ié
jk\_\e%7 XY\i \j ^`Yk( [\lkc`Z_ \ib\eeYXi le[ `e [\i R\ck m\ijki\lk(
Xl] Y\jk`ddk\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ Y\qf^\e\ O\Z_efcf^`\e( fYé
jZ_fe lej\i\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ F\eeke`j mfe `_e\e i\Z_k [{i]k`^ `jk*
?Xj _\`~k( \j ^`Yk n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ @ib\eeke`jj\ [Xi{Y\i( n`\ dXe
Y\jk`ddk\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ `e[lq`\ik le[ [Xee [`\
`d MX_d\e [`\j\i jg\q`]`jZ_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\
^\dXZ_k\e @i]X_ile^\e jk\l\ik( ld @i^\Ye`jj\ ql \iq`\c\e( [`\ `d
C`eYc`Zb Xl] Y\jk`ddk\ U`\c\ Xcj e{kqc`Z_ Xe^\j\_\e n\i[\e* <cj
=\`jg`\c [X]{i cv~k j`Z_ `e [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck [`\ Cpgefk_\iXg`\
Xe]{_i\e* @j ^`Yk blejkmfcc\ H\k_f[\e qli <l]czjle^ \`e\j _pgefk`é
jZ_\e UljkXe[j Y\` ]{i biXeb \ibcvik\e H\ejZ_\e( Y\` [\e\e dXe
[Xee [\e jg\q`]`jZ_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ [\i Cpgefj\
dXe`glc`\ik( ld m\ijZ_`\[\e\ <ik\e mfe d\[`q`e`jZ_\e Kifq\jj\e
le[ gjpZ_`Xki`jZ_)k_\iXg\lk`jZ_\e Kifq\jj\e Xl] \`e CzZ_jkdX~
ql jk\`^\ie* ?`\ Cpgefk_\iXg`\ `jk \`e =\`jg`\c ]{i \`e\ d`k \`e\i
R`jj\ejZ_X]k ^\bfgg\ck\ O\Z_efcf^`\( [`\ ]{i Y\jk`ddk\ =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\ \ekn`Zb\ck nli[\( [\ee dXe jk{kqk\ j`Z_ [XY\` qlevZ_jk
m\ie{e]k`^\in\`j\ Xl] \`e\ IfidXc)=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)R`jj\e)
jZ_X]k mfe [\i Cpgefj\( le[ \j j`e[ ld]Xjj\e[\ AfijZ_le^\e Xl]
[`\j\d B\Y`\k `d BXe^\( ld [Xj Y`j_\i`^\ R`jj\e ql \in\`k\ie* @j
^`Yk a\[fZ_ efZ_ b\`e\ ]{i Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]k[\iCpgefj\*
C`\i ele qn\` =\`jg`\c\ mfe Xl] \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[ Xlj^\i`Z_k\k\e O\Z_efcf^`\e( [`\ d`k b\`e\i `i^\e[n`\ ^\Xik\k\e
R`jj\ejZ_X]k ^\bfgg\ck ql j\`e jZ_\`e\e* @`e\i [\iXik`^\e O\Z_efcfé
^`\ Y\^\^e\k dXe q* =* Y\` [\e UljXdd\eb{e]k\e m`\c\i @in\Zble^jé
Y\n\^le^\e* N\kqk dXe Xcj [\i\e uY\iq\l^le^ mfiXlj( `_i U`\c( [`\
=\b\_ile^ mfe H\ejZ_\e qld >_i`jk\ekld( j\` \`e\ ^lk\ NXZ_\( [Xee
m\idX^ \`e ^lk\i @in\Zble^jgi\[`^\i Y\` m`\c\e H\ejZ_\e( [`\ ql
\`e\d jfcZ_\e Oi\]]\e bfdd\e( d`k ^if~\d B\jZ_`Zb \`e Xl]j vl~\ié
jk\ ^\jk\`^\ik\j B\]{_c mfe NZ_lc[ le[ N{_e\ ql \iq\l^\e* ?Xj <ljé
25

czj\e mfe @dfk`fe\e `jk \`e Xlj^\q\`Z_e\k\j H`kk\c qli @ekjkXY`c`j`\é
ile^ [\j ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j7 \i ^\ivk c\`Z_k `ej
RXeb\e( le[ Xe j\`e\ Nk\cc\ ki`kk \`e m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[3* ?`\ =\il]le^ Xl] [`\ Z_i`jkc`Z_\ OiX[`k`fe jfi^k `e Q\ié
Y`e[le^ d`k [\e `e @in\Zble^jgi\[`^k\e mfi^\kiX^\e\e jg\q`]`jZ_\e
Cpgfk_\j\e [Xee [X]{i( [X~ [\i De_Xck a\[\j [XY\` Xlj^\czjk\e
jg\q`]`jZ_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j `e \`e\ jg\q`\cc
Z_i`jkc`Z_\ Afid ^\YiXZ_k n`i[( le[ [Xj BXeq\ ]{_ik ele ql j\_i
\`e[ilZbjmfcc\e \dfk`feXc\e @ic\Ye`jj\e `e [\i \`e\e f[\i Xe[\i\e
<ik mfe jg\q`]`jZ_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e* ?`\j\
\dfk`feXc\e jg\q`]`jZ_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)@ic\Y)
e`jj\ _XY\e _vl]`^ \`e\ jf [liZ_jZ_cX^\e[\ R`ible^( [X~ \j ql \`e\i
Ffem\ij`fe bfddk( [`\ [Xee \`e\ U\`kcXe^( n\ee e`Z_k ^Xi c\Y\ejcXe^
Xe_vck7 ^\d\jj\e Xd NkXe[Xi[ [\j ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[j( dX^ dXeZ_\d \knXj( nXj \i `e \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[\ic\Yk(kXkjvZ_c`Z_n`\\`eRle[\i\ijZ_\`e\e*
DZ_ n`cc d`k [`\j\d =\`jg`\c e`Z_k ^\^\e [`\ >_i`jk\e gfc\d`j`\i\e(
[`\ {Y\iq\l^k j`e[( [X~ [`\ =\b\_ile^ qld >_i`jk\ekld \knXj j\_i
Blk\j `jk7 j`\ bzee\e m`\cc\`Z_k ^Xi e`Z_k \ib\ee\e( nXj Xe [\iXik`^\e
H\k_f[\e kXkjvZ_c`Z_ Ñ]XcjZ_É `jk* DZ_ dzZ_k\ e`Z_k {Y\i M\Z_k f[\i
Pei\Z_k lik\`c\e( jfe[\ie eli [XiXl] _`en\`j\e( Xl] n\cZ_\ R\`j\
dXe j`Z_ `e jfcZ_\e Avcc\e [\i O\Z_e`b [\j <ljczj\ej le[ Nk\l\iej
\`e\j jg\q`]`jZ_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j qli @ii\`Z_le^
\`e\j Y\i\`kj mfe Xcc\e Xbq\gk`\ik\e U`\cj Y\[`\ek6 ?Xj U`\c j\cYjk n`i[
e`Z_k `e AiX^\ ^\jk\cck( le[ XlZ_ [\i jg\q`]`jZ_\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ Yqn* [`\ [Xi`e mfibfdd\e[\e jg`i`kl\cc\e @ic\Ye`jj\
n\i[\e e`Z_k qli @in\`k\ile^ \`e\j Y\i\`kj mfi_Xe[\e\e R`jj\ej Y\é
elkqk( jfe[\ie eli [Xql( [`\ H`kk\c( [`\ qli @ii\`Z_le^ [\j ^\j\kqk\e
U`\cj]{_i\e(Xl]\`eCzZ_jkdX~qljk\`^\ie*
@`e qn\`k\j =\`jg`\c ) Xe^\Yc`Z_ _`jkfi`jZ_( m`\cc\`Z_k a\[fZ_ dpk_fé
cf^`jZ_\i IXkli ) c`\]\ik \`e\ _vl]`^ ql _zi\e[\ @ibcvile^ [\j
Rfik\j ÑXjjXjj`eÉ $]iq* Hzi[\i%( jfcc j`Z_ \ekn\[\i mfe ÑCXjZ_`jZ_É(
[\d Xlj [\i HXi`_lXeX)K]cXeq\ ^\nfee\e\e MXljZ_d`kk\c( XYc\`k\e
cXjj\e( f[\i XY\i mfe ÑCljj\`eÉ( [\d IXd\e \`e\j NZ_\`Z_j Xlj [\d
H`kkc\i\e Jjk\e( mfe [\d Y\i`Z_k\k n`i[( \i _XY\ j`Z_ ]fc^\e[\i O\Z_é
e`b qli C\iY\`]{_ile^ \`e\j Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j Y\é
[`\ek6 De j\`e\i Mfcc\ Xcj i\c`^`zj\i A{_i\i [\j DjcXdj nXiY \i <e_veé
^\i( [`\ \i Xcj H\lZ_\cdzi[\i ^\^\e j\`e\ A\`e[\ \`ej\kq\e nfcck\(
[X[liZ_( [X~ \i `_e\e m\ijgiXZ_( [`\ leY\[`e^k\ GfpXc`kvk n\i[\ `_é
3,

e\e eXZ_ `_i\d Of[\ [\e Ul^Xe^ qld _`ddc`jZ_\e Fze`^i\`Z_ ^Xé
iXek`\i\e* Uld Ñ=\n\`jÉ [`\j\i =\_Xlgkle^ cl[ \i [\e gfk\ek`\cc\e
<e_ve^\i ql \`e\d =Xeb\kk \`e( Y\` [\d [`\j\d d`k MXljZ_d`kk\ce(
Xe^\Yc`Z_ d`k CXjZ_`jZ_( j`Z_\ic`Z_ a\[fZ_ XlZ_ efZ_ d`k \`e`^\e Xeé
[\i\e ?if^\e [liZ_j\kqk\ B\i`Z_k\ j\im`\ik nli[\e( [`\ `_e `e NZ_cX]
j`eb\e c`\~\e* =\` j\`e\d @inXZ_\e ]Xe[ j`Z_ [\i gfk\ek`\cc\ <e_ve^\i
`e \`e\d `d NZ_cf~ [\j NZ_\`Z_j m\iYfi^\e\e nle[\ijZ_ze\e BXik\e
n`\[\i* ?\i BXjk nXi eled\_i jkXib Y\iXljZ_k( le[ [Xj CXjZ_`jZ_
_Xkk\ `_e `e \`e\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ m\ij\kqk* ?X \i
j`Z_( ld^\Y\e mfe jZ_ze\e AiXl\e( `e [\d _\iic`Z_\e BXik\e Y\]Xe[(
Xcc\ j\`e\ RX_ie\_dle^\e {Y\i[`\j efZ_ gjpZ_\[\c`jZ_ \i_z_k nXé
i\e( le[ [X dXe `_d a\kqk jX^k\( \i Y\]`e[\ j`Z_ `d C`dd\c( \ekjkXe[
`e `_d [\i @`e[ilZb( [X~ [Xj kXkjvZ_c`Z_ [\i AXcc nXi* IXZ_ \`e\i ^\é
n`jj\e U\`k nli[\ \i \ie\lk [liZ_ ?if^\e `e NZ_cX] m\ij\kqk( le[ jgvé
k\i YiXZ_k\ dXe `_e [Xee `e j\`e\ ^\nf_ek\ Pd^\Yle^ qli{Zb* =\`d
<l]nXZ_\e \i`ee\ik\ \i j`Z_ [XiXe( [X~ \i `d C`dd\c ^\n\j\e nXi(
^\eXl jf( n`\ `_d [Xj j\`e i\c`^`zj\i A{_i\i m\ijgifZ_\e _Xkk\7 \i
nli[\ ele ql [\jj\e mzcc`^ \i^\Y\e\d <e_ve^\i le[ nXi Y\i\`k(
j\cYjk j\`e G\Y\e ]{i `_e ql i`jb`\i\e( [\ee \i ecobS aX a\kqk( [X~ `_d
[\iC`dd\c^XiXek`\iknXi4*
HX^ [`\j\ B\jZ_`Z_k\ ele _`jkfi`jZ_ j\`e f[\i e`Z_k( j`\ `jk a\[\e]Xccj
\`e vl~\ijk Xl]jZ_cl~i\`Z_\j =\`jg`\c ]{i [`\ <en\e[le^jdz^c`Z_b\`é
k\e \`e\i Xl] Y\jk`ddk\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ Xlj^\i`Z_k\k\e O\Z_efé
cf^`\( le[ j`\ q\`^k( [X~ [`\ Ñf]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_\É RX_i_\`k \`e\j m\ié
ve[\ik\e=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j[liZ_Xljki{^\i`jZ_j\`ebXee*
?`\ HXe`glcXk`fe mfe H\ejZ_\e d`k C`c]\ mfe m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\e ^\c`e^k eli( n\ee [`\ =\ki\]]\e[\e j`Z_ {Y\i `_i\
n`ibc`Z_\ N`klXk`fe `d lebcXi\e j`e[* DZ_ _f]]\ j\_i( [X~ [`\ qle\_é
d\e[\ Q\ikiXlk_\`k d`k m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e le[ [`\
@ekn`Zbcle^ mfe R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ]{i Y\jk`ddk\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\
[Xql ]{_i\e( [X~ [`\ H\ejZ_\e `e Ulble]k ]{i [\iXik`^\ HXe`glcXé
k`fe\en\e`^\iXe]vcc`^j\`en\i[\e*

8WS 6ShWSVc\U heWaQVS\ KWaaS\aQVOTbS\( RWS O[ 6SecobaSW\ahcabO\R
]`WS\bWS`baW\R
DZ_ _XY\ Y\i\`kj \inv_ek( [X~ ) eXZ_ \`e\i vck\i\e O\id`efcf^`\ ) [`\
n`\[\i_fck\ <en\e[le^ [\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e H\k_f[`b lej c\kqké
3-

c`Z_ [\i RX_i_\`k jk\k`^ ev_\i Yi`e^k( XY\i `Z_ Y\elkq\ [`\j\ Afidlc`\é
ile^ eli j\_i le^\ie* UnXi _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ _`\i ld \`e\ [liZ_Xlj
\_i\en\ik\ Qfijk\ccle^( XY\i j`\ Y\jkvibk [`\ H\ejZ_\e eli `e \`e\i
Xcc^\d\`e\e A\_c\`ejZ_vkqle^ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k( le[ [`\j\i A\_c\`eé
jZ_vkqle^ lek\ic`\^\e XlZ_ m`\c\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i j\cYjk* @j `jk [`\ D[\\(
[X~ n`i `e lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ `e [\i GX^\
j`e[( Xcc\ Qfi^ve^\ `d Pe`m\ijld ql Y\^i\`]\e( le[ [X~ [\i
AfikjZ_i`kk [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k( kifkq ^\c\^\ekc`Z_\i Diik{d\i( jf \knXj
[Xijk\cck n`\ \`e\e jk\k`^\e QfidXijZ_( [\jj\e c\kqk\j U`\c `jk( Xcc\j
Xl] \`e]XZ_\( \c\^Xek\( Y\^i\`]YXi\ O_\fi`\e ql i\[lq`\i\e( d`k [\i\e
C`c]\ j`Z_ giXbk`jZ_ Xcc\j \ibcvi\e cv~k* HXe ^i`]] _vl]`^ qli H\kXg_\i(
[\i Ñc\kqk^{ck`^\e dXk_\dXk`jZ_\e Afid\cÉ( Xl] [`\ j`Z_ Xcc\j qli{Zbé
]{_i\e le[ [`\ j`Z_ Xl] Xcc\ K_vefd\e\ Xen\e[\e cv~k* ?\i [\eb\e[\
H\ejZ_ mfe _\lk\ q`\_k [XiXlj ^Xeq j\cYjkm\ijkve[c`Z_ [\e NZ_cl~(
[X~ Xcc\ K_vefd\e\( [`\ j`Z_ d`k [`\j\d nle[\imfcc ^\iX[c`e`^\e
HXijZ_ `e M`Z_kle^ Xl] [`\ RX_i_\`k e`Z_k `e @`ebcXe^ Yi`e^\e cXjj\e(
Xcj len`Z_k`^ XY^\kXe f[\i XY\i Xcj <Y\i^cXlY\ le[ Ifej\ej Y\é
bvdg]k n\i[\e* UnXi `jk \j [liZ_Xlj dz^c`Z_( [X~ \j `i^\e[\`e\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ^`Yk( `e [\d j`Z_ OZZSa Y\fYXZ_k\e le[ XlZ_
Y\^i\`]\e cv~k( XY\i lej\i\ Y`j_\i ^\dXZ_k\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e \icXlY\e
[Xj a\[\e]Xccj e`Z_k* B\n`jj\ K_vefd\e\( mfi Xcc\d [`\ mfe lej Xcj
jg`i`kl\cc Y\q\`Z_e\k\e( jZ_\`e\e ]{i lej\i\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ [liZ_Xlj leY\^i\`]c`Z_( fYjZ_fe j`\ lej `e Y\jk`ddk\e
m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e n\`k Y\^i\`]c`Z_\i Qfibfdd\e*
R\ee \j n`ibc`Z_ `i^\e[\`e\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ^`Yk( `e [\d j`Z_
Xcc\j Y\^i\`]\e cv~k( [Xee _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ m`\cc\`Z_k ld \`e\e c\kqké
dz^c`Z_\e UljkXe[ [\j @ic\lZ_k\kj\`ej( b\`e\jn\^j a\[fZ_ ld lej\é
i\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[* R`i nfcc\e ele [`\ =\q`\_le^
qn`jZ_\e [\e jg\q`]`jZ_\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e( [`\ j`Z_ ]{i lek\ié
jZ_`\[c`Z_\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ \ekn`Zb\ce cXjj\e( evé
_\i Y\kiXZ_k\e le[ j\_\e( nXj n`i [XY\` {Y\i [`\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k\e \ié
]X_i\e(c\kqkc`Z_Xcc\jqlY\^i\`]\e*
E\[\ Xe \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]k Y\jk\_k Xlj qn\` O\`c\e ) Xlj \`e\d Npjk\d mfe =\fYXZ_kle^\e
le[ Xlj \`e\d Npjk\d mfe O_\fi`\e {Y\i [`\ ^\dXZ_k\e =\fYXZ_kleé
^\e* =\fYXZ_kle^\e j`e[ \knXj( nXj i\cXk`m led`kk\cYXi `e @i]X_ile^
^\YiXZ_k n\i[\e bXee( Y\` [\e O_\fi`\e _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld NZ_cl~]fcé
^\ile^\e le[ @ibcvile^\e mfe e`Z_kY\fYXZ_kYXi\e AXbkfi\e( [`\ [`\
QfiXljj\kqle^\e ]{i [`\ ^\dXZ_k\e =\fYXZ_kle^\e j`e[* ?X~ d\`e
3.

<lkf ]v_ik( `jk ]{i d`Z_ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e\ Y\fYXZ_kYXi\ OXkjXZ_\*
?`\ Z_\d`jZ_\ O_\fi`\( [\iql]fc^\ \`e <lkf j`Z_ [liZ_ [`\ Q\iYi\eé
ele^ \`e\j BXj)Gl]k)B\d`jZ_j ]fikY\n\^k( bXee mfe d`i e`Z_k [`i\bk
Y\fYXZ_k\kn\i[\e(\j_Xe[\ckj`Z__`\i\Y\eld\`e\O_\fi`\*
=\nl~kj\`ej)qljkXe[jfi`\ek`\ik-

=\nl~kj\`ej)qljkXe[jfi`\ek`\ik.

=\nl~kj\`ej)qljkXe[jfi`\ek`\ik/

<YY`c[le^.
<YY`c[le^ . Hz^c`Z_\ =\q`\_le^\e qn`jZ_\e [i\` j`Z_ d`k Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\eY\]X~k\eR`jj\ejZ_X]k\e*

=\i{Zbj`Z_k`^k dXe qn\` lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\(
[Xee bXee [liZ_Xlj \knXj( nXj `e [\d \`e\e i\`e\ O_\fi`\ `jk(
`e \`e\d Xe[\i\e \`e\ =\fYXZ_kle^ j\`e( le[ ld^\b\_ik* Nf _Xeé
[\ck \j j`Z_ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ Y\` [\i Npevjk_\j`\ $[*_* [\d N\_\e mfe
c\Y_X]k\e AXiY\e Y\`d Czi\e mfe Oze\e( f_e\ \ekjgi\Z_\e[\ m`jl\cc\
<ei\`q\% `e d\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ld \`e\
i\`e k_\fi\k`jZ_\ Qfijk\ccle^6 DZ_ _XY\ \knXj e`Z_k \ic\Yk( le[
`Z_ bXee eli Xl]^ile[ mfe =\i`Z_k\e Xe[\i\i H\ejZ_\e [Xi{Y\i
jg\blc`\i\e( ld nXj \j j`Z_ [XY\` _Xe[\ck* Nk{e[\ `Z_ Xcc\i[`e^j lek\i
[\d @`e]cl~ \`e\i ?if^\( n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ GN? f[\i HXi`_lXeX
$OXik( -53-%( [Xee bzeek\ `Z_ \`e\ jfcZ_\ Npevjk_\j`\ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ \ié
c\Y\e6 RXj Xcjf `e [\d \`e\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ i\`e\
O_\fi`\ Yc\`Yk( c`\~\ j`Z_ `e \`e\d qn\`k\e led`kk\cYXi Y\fYXZ_k\e 5*
3/

<YY`c[le^ . $m^c* N* 3/% m\iXejZ_Xlc`Z_k \`e`^\ dz^c`Z_\ =\q`\_le^\e
qn`jZ_\e [i\` [\i j`Z_ d`k Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e Y\]Xjé
j\e[\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e7 Y\` qn\`\e mfe `_e\e q\`^k j`Z_( [X~ `_i\ Deé
_Xck\j`Z_n\`k^\_\e[[\Zb\e(nv_i\e[[`\[\i[i`kk\ej`Z_d`k[\eY\`é
[\e Xe[\i\e {Y\i_Xlgk e`Z_k {Y\ijZ_e\`[\e* ?\i d`k =-=. Y\q\`Z_e\k\
=\i\`Z_ cv~k \`e\ [`i\bk\ =\fYXZ_kle^ Yqn* \`e\ led`kk\cYXi\ @i]X_é
ile^ `e qn\` [\i d`k Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e XiY\`k\e[\e
R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ql* ?\i d`k O-O. ^\b\eeq\`Z_e\k\ =\i\`Z_ m\iXeé
jZ_Xlc`Z_k [`\ k_\fi\k`jZ_\e NZ_cl~]fc^\ile^\e Xlj [\d Y\`[\e ^\é
d\`ejXd\e HXk\i`Xc* Dd B\^\ejXkq [Xql j`e[ `e [\d =\i\`Z_ =-O.
k_\fi\k`jZ_\ @inv^le^\e [\j R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ij( [\i [\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ . lek\ijlZ_k( ]{i [\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i( [\i j`Z_ `e [\d =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ - Y\]`e[\k( c\[WbbSZPO`S =\fYXZ_kle^\e( le[ [Xj
^c\`Z_\ ^`ck ld^\b\_ik XlZ_ ]{i [\e d`k O-=. ^\b\eeq\`Z_e\k\e =\é
i\`Z_* De [\i Xl] jg\q`]`jZ_\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ jg\q`Xc`j`\ik\e
R`jj\ejZ_X]k / ^`Yk \j \`e\ M\`_\ mfe =\fYXZ_kle^\e le[ k_\fi\k`é
jZ_\e @inv^le^\e( [`\ XljjZ_c`\~c`Z_ ]{i [`\j\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[ ^\ck\e le[ [`\ j`Z_ d`k [\e Y\`[\e Xe[\i\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e `e
b\`e\iR\`j\{Y\ijZ_e\`[\e*
<lZ_ n\ee [Xj HXk\i`Xc Xlj \`e\d AfijZ_le^jY\i\`Z_ j`Z_ k\`cn\`j\
[\Zbk( bzee\e n`i e`Z_k jX^\e( [X~ [`\ <iY\`k [\i Xe \`e\d Y\jk`ddé
k\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k [`\ <iY\`k \`e\i
qn\`k\e Xe \`e\d Xe[\i\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\eé
jZ_X]k \ekn\[\i Y\jkvk`^k f[\i n`[\ic\^k( fYnf_c lej\i jk`ccjZ_n\`é
^\e[ Xbq\gk`\ik\j KfjklcXk( [X~ Xcc\j d`k [\e =\^i`]]\e lej\i\j ^\é
nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j m\ijkve[c`Z_ ql dXZ_\e j\`e
d{~k\( lej [Xql m\ic\`k\e bzeek\* De [\e IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k\e
nli[\ [\i =\^i`]] [\i ãFfdgc\d\ekXi`kvkä \`e^\]{_ik( Xcj dXe _\iXljé
]Xe[( [X~ [Xj G`Z_k j`Z_ \Y\ejf^lk Xcj R\cc\ n`\ XlZ_ Xcj Ffigljb\c
\ibcvi\e cv~k( [X~ Y\`[\ @ibcvile^\e ^{ck`^\ le[ e{kqc`Z_\ M\jlckXk\
\i^\Y\e le[ [X~ b\`e\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k Y\jk\_k( a\dXcj \`e\ @ekjZ_\`[le^
ql ki\]]\e( n\cZ_\ [`\j\i Y\`[\e @ibcvile^\e i`Z_k`^ `jk le[ n\cZ_\
]XcjZ_* E\[\ mfe `_e\e `jk \`e\ <ik KXiX[`^dX d`k \`^\e\e \`eq`^Xik`^\e
@`^\ejZ_X]k\e* IXZ_ lej\i\i Y`j_\i`^\e F\eeke`j [\i =\jfe[\i_\`k
mfe m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e n\i[\e [`\ ]{i j`\ \ekn`Zb\cé
k\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e \`e\ij\`kj `_i\ =\jfe[\i_\`k\e( Xe[\i\ij\`kj XY\i
XlZ_ Ffdgc\d\ekviZ_XiXbk\i _XY\e( evdc`Z_ [fik( nf AfijZ_le^jé
dXk\i`Xc j`Z_ [\Zbk7 XY\i j`\ n\i[\e j`Z_ m\idlkc`Z_ e`Z_k Xl]\`eXe[\i
qli{Zb]{_i\ecXjj\e*
30

I\_d\e n`i _`\i \`edXc Xcj =\`jg`\c [`\ cXe^Xe_Xck\e[\ Ffekifm\ij\
qn`jZ_\e qn\` @ibcvile^jdz^c`Z_b\`k\e ]{i [Xj _\lk`^\ G\Y\e Xl] [\i
@i[\6 [`\ \`e\ [\lk\k \j Xcj \`e\ Xl] ql]vcc`^\i N\c\bk`fe YXj`\i\e[\
@mfclk`fe( [`\ Xe[\i\ Xcj \`e\e mfe ^zkkc`Z_\e Fiv]k\e ^\jk\l\ik\e
Kifq\~* @j `jk `e m`\c\i C`ej`Z_k ledz^c`Z_( len`[\ic\^c`Z_ ql ÑY\é
n\`j\eÉ( [X~ [`\ \`e\ =\_Xlgkle^ i`Z_k`^ le[ [`\ Xe[\i\ ]XcjZ_ `jk*
@j bzeek\ \_\i jf j\`e( [X~ [`\ Qfijk\ccle^ mfe [\i ^zkkc`Z_\e Nk\l\é
ile^ [\j @mfclk`fejgifq\jj\j j`Z_ Xl] \`e\ <ik =\fYXZ_kle^ f[\i
O_\fi`\ jk{kqk( [`\ `e \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ j`eemfcc \ijZ_\`ek( nv_i\e[ [\i B\[Xeb\ [\i ql]vcc`^\e
<ljnX_c lej `e lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ [liZ_é
Xlj \`eqlc\lZ_k\e m\idX^* R\ee [Xj XY\i jf `jk( n`i[ \j e`\dXcj ql
\`e\i @`e`^le^ [Xi{Y\i bfdd\e( [X~ [`\ \`e\ Qfijk\ccle^ mfccé
bfdd\e Y\jkvk`^k le[ [`\ Xe[\i\ mzcc`^ n`[\ic\^k nfi[\e `jk*
Fl_e j`\_k [`\j\e Qfi^Xe^ ]fc^\e[\idX~\e6 Dd AXcc\ \`e\i Ffcc`é
j`fe qn`jZ_\e qn\` d`k\`eXe[\i bfeblii`\i\e[\e KXiX[`^d\e bfddk
\j e`Z_k jf j\_i [XiXl] Xe( [X~ [Xj [liZ_ \`e e\l\j \ij\kqk\
KXiX[`^dX eled\_i mzcc`^ n`[\ic\^k `jk( jfe[\ie m`\cd\_i [XiXl]( [X~
\j j`Z_ Xcj n\e`^\i e{kqc`Z_ \in`\j\e _Xk Xcj [Xj a\kqk Xe j\`e\ Nk\cc\
ki\k\e[\ KXiX[`^dX7 [XY\` bXee \j [liZ_Xlj [\i AXcc j\`e( [X~ [Xj e\l\
KXiX[`^dX b\`e\jn\^j Xcc\ [liZ_ [Xj Xck\ XY^\[\Zbk\e Qfi^ve^\ ele
XlZ_j\`e\ij\`kjXY[\Zbk*
?`\ @ekn`Zbcle^ mfe Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]é
k\e bzeek\ lej Xcjf bfdgc\d\ekvi\( [*_* j`Z_ n\Z_j\cj\`k`^ \i^veé
q\e[\ <l]]Xjjle^\e {Y\i H\ejZ_ le[ IXkli m\id`kk\ce( [`\ leé
j\i\e Cfi`qfek \i_\Yc`Z_ \in\`k\ie7 [XY\` nvi\e a\[fZ_ Xcc\ Q\ijlé
Z_\( \`e\ [`\j\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e Xl] \`e\ Xe[\i\ qli{Zbql]{_i\e(
i\`e\FiX]km\i^\l[le^*
=\` [\i Ffdgc\d\ekXi`kvk _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \`e\ Ffeq\gk`fe( [`\
dXe e`Z_k O ^`W]`W m\ib{e[`^\e jfcck\7 dXe d{~k\ m`\cd\_i q\`^\e(
[X~ j`\ j`Z_ Xl] n\`k\ N`Z_k i\`e \dg`i`jZ_ Xcj qn\Zb[`\ec`Z_ \in\`jk*
DZ_ m\ijlZ_\ e`Z_k( mfe AfijZ_le^\e {Y\i m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkve[\ mfd NkXe[glebk [\i Xe lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k Xlj $Yqn* mfe AfijZ_le^\e
{Y\i lej\i\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ mfd NkXe[glebk
m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ Xlj% XYqliXk\e* Q`\cc\`Z_k d{jj\e
n`i lej\i\ @inXikle^\e i\[lq`\i\e* Pik\`ck dXe a\[fZ_ eXZ_ [\d ^\é
^\envik`^\e R`jj\ejjkXe[( bzeek\ XlZ_ [`\ Ffdgc\d\ekXi`kvk ]{i
lej\i\ d\ejZ_c`Z_\e <l^\e qld R\j\e [\i ?`e^\ ^\_zi\e* De [\i
31

OXk nvi\ \`e\ ]ilZ_kYXi\ R\Z_j\cn`ible^ ql \inXik\e( n\ee Xe^\é
j`Z_kj m\iYi\`k\k\i K_vefd\e\ \`e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ j\`e\ <l]]Xjé
jle^ mfe [\e `e Xe[\i\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e ^\nfee\e\e @`ej`Z_é
k\e Y\i\`Z_\ie le[ jk`dlc`\i\e c`\~\( \Y\ejf n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ m`\c\
n`Z_k`^\ @ek[\Zble^\e [\i mfe lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ Xlj^\_\e[\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ^\iX[\ [Xee ^\dXZ_k nlié
[\e( n\ee [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i mfi{Y\i^\_\e[ `e \`e\e Xe[\i\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \`ekiXk\e( \knX `e \`e\d OiXld f[\i `e [`\ ) Xcj
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ eli lebcXi ql [\]`e`\i\e[\ jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\ OX^é
kivld\i\`* R`i bfdd\e ele ql [\e Y\jfe[\i\e KifYc\d\e( d`k [\é
e\e dXe j`Z_ Y\` [\i _`\i mfi^\jZ_cX^\e\e @ekn`Zbcle^ mfe Ng\q`Xcé
n`jj\ejZ_X]k\e Xlj\`eXe[\ij\kq\e dl~( n\`c \j KifYc\d\ j`e[( [`\
[`\NlZ_\eXZ_jg`i`kl\cc\eNpjk\d\eXcjn`Z_k`^\ijZ_\`e\ecXjj\e*

=\RWdWRcSZZSI\bS`aQVWSRS
@j ^`Yk \`e n\`km\iYi\`k\k\j( jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[ Xbq\gk`\ik\j KfjklcXk6
?XeXZ_ j`e[ Y\` qn\` ÑefidXc\eÉ H\ejZ_\e $[* _* Y\` jfcZ_\e( [`\
`ee\i_XcY \`e\j Y\jk`ddk\e Flcklibi\`j\j e`Z_k Xcj ã^\`jk`^ leqli\Z_)
ele^j]v_`^ä \ibcvik nfi[\e j`e[% [`\ ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkve[\ `e `_i\i {Y\i^i\`]\e[\e B\jXdk]lebk`fe `d n\j\ekc`Z_\e [`\
^c\`Z_\e( n\ee \j XlZ_ `e Y\jk`ddk\e O\`cY\i\`Z_\e \`e\ ^Xeq\ M\`_\
mfe Pek\ijZ_`\[\e ^\Y\e bXee* ?`\j\j ]iX^n{i[`^\ KfjklcXk _`e[\ik
lej [XiXe( lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ ql m\ijk\_\e( le[
\j jk\_k XlZ_ [\i @ekn`Zbcle^ mfe R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e `d R\^\(
[`\Xd=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[fi`\ek`\ikj`e[*
HXeZ_\ H\ejZ_\e [\eb\e Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ `e =`c[\ie( Xe[\i\ `e Rfié
k\e* HXeZ_\ bzee\e O\`c\ `_i\j Fzig\ij n`ccb{ic`Z_ \dg]`e[le^jcfj
dXZ_\e( [`\ d\`jk\e bzee\e [Xj e`Z_k* HXeZ_\ \i`ee\ie j`Z_ Xe m\ié
^Xe^\e\ @i\`^e`jj\( `e[\d j`\ j`Z_ [`\ Y\ki\]]\e[\ Nq\e\ Y`j `e n`Z_é
k`^\ @`eq\c_\`k\e m`jl\cc `ej B\[vZ_ke`j il]\e( Xe[\i\ [X^\^\e kle
[Xj d`k C`c]\ bfdgc\o\i m\iYXc\i Kifq\jj\( [* _*( j`\ \i`ee\ie j`Z_ Xe
Y\jk`ddk\Rfik]fc^\e(XY\ibXldXe=`c[\i*
?Xj Y\[\lk\k Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\( [X~ < `e j\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \knXj \ic\Y\e bXee( nXj = `e \Y\e [`\j\d
e`Z_k \ic\Y\e bXee( n`\ j\_i \i j`Z_ XlZ_ [Xild Y\d{_\e dX^* ?Xj
bXee [Xql ]{_i\e( [X~ = ^cXlYk( < j\` ^\`jk`^ e`Z_k efidXc( Xccql
g_XekXj`\mfcc f[\i XlZ_ \`e]XZ_ \`e G{^e\i( f[\i [X~ = j`Z_ < lek\ié
32

c\^\e ]{_ck* =\kiXZ_k\k < ld^\b\_ik = Xcj Hljk\i Xe IfidXc`kvk( [Xee
bXee \j [liZ_Xlj gXjj`\i\e( [X~ \i j`Z_ j\cYjk ]{i \`e\e <l~\ej\`k\i
f[\ileefidXc_vck*
HXeZ_dXc dX^ = `e [\i GX^\ j\`e( `e \`e\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ \`eqlki\k\e le[ `e `_d ?`e^\ ql \ic\Y\e( mfe [\e\e < Y\é
i`Z_k\k _Xk( \i _XY\ j`\ `e j\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[
\ic\Yk* De [`\j\d AXcc ^\_zik \`e =\i\`Z_ [\j @ib\ee\ej le[ @ic\Y\ej(
[\i ]{i < [liZ_Xlj Ñ^\nz_ec`Z_É `jk( ]{i = ql \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[* Pd^\b\_ik bzee\e \`e`^\ @ic\Ye`jj\( [`\ = `e \`é
e\d jg\q`]`jZ_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ^\_XYk _Xk( ]{i <
`e j\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ le\ii\`Z_YXi Yc\`Y\e*
<lZ_ _`\i jfcc [`\ Npevjk_\j`\ Xcj =\`jg`\c [`\e\e* @`e`^\ n\e`^\ H\eé
jZ_\e bzee\e j`\ `e `_i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \ic\é
Y\e( [`\ d\`jk\e e`Z_k* <Y\i Y\` d\`e\i Y\i\`kj \inv_ek\e =\]iX^le^
\i]X_i\e\i HXi`_lXeX)MXlZ_\i $OXik( -53- Y% _XY\ `Z_ _\iXlj^\é
]le[\e( [X~ 12 Kifq\ek mfe `_e\e \`e\ jfcZ_\ Npevjk_\j`\ ql \`e\d
[liZ_ HXi`_lXeX Xlj^\czjk\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[
qld`e[\jk ^\c\^\ekc`Z_ \ic\Y\e* s_ec`Z_ bzee\e XlZ_ ^\n`jj\
jg`i`kl\cc\ @i]X_ile^\e ]{i [\e \`e\e `e j\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ m\i]{^YXi j\`e( nv_i\e[ j`\ ]{i \`e\e Xe[\i\e
mzcc`^ le\ii\`Z_YXi Yc\`Y\e( \j j\` [\ee( \i ki\k\ `e \`e\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \`e* ?XiXlj bzee\e j`Z_ \i_\Yc`Z_\ H`~m\ié
jkve[e`jj\ \i^\Y\e( [\ee [`\ \ijk\ K\ijfe bXee Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [\i
qn\`k\e [`\ H\k_f[\e Y\`Yi`e^\e( [`\ Y\` `_i jk\kj jg`i`kl\cc\ @i]X_é
ile^\e Xlj^\czjk _XY\e( le[ bXee [Xee e`Z_k Y\^i\`]\e( nXild [Xj
Y\` [\i qn\`k\e K\ijfe e`Z_k ]lebk`fe`\ik* R`i n{i[\e jX^\e6 ?`\
H\k_f[\ _ve^k mfe \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ XY7 [`\
qn\`k\ K\ijfe n`i[ [X_\i [`\j\j @ic\Ye`j jf cXe^\ e`Z_k _XY\e( Y`j j`\
\ib\eek( [X~ j`\ ql\ijk `_i\e jg\q`]`jZ_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ m\ié
ve[\iedl~*
?`\ ]\_c\e[\ <e\ib\eele^ `e[`m`[l\cc\i Pek\ijZ_`\[\ dXZ_k j`Z_ `e
[\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e G`k\iXkli `e Afid mfe Ffekifm\ij\e [Xi{Y\i
Y\d\ibYXi( fY qli @ibcvile^ m\ijZ_`\[\e\i K_vefd\e\ \`e Y\jk`ddé
k\i ÑUljkXe[É [\j =\nl~kj\`ej Xe^\efdd\e n\i[\e dl~* De qld`eé
[\jk \`e\d AXcc _Xk \`e Q\i]\Z_k\i [\i D[\\( \j j\` {Y\i]c{jj`^( [`\ Cpgé
efj\ Xcj ÑUljkXe[É ql Y\^i\`]\e( j\cYjk m`\c\ [\iXik`^\ K_vefd\e\ `e
j\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \ic\Yk( nv_i\e[ [`\ Qfié
Xljj\kqle^ [X]{i Y\` [\e d\`jk\e H\ejZ_\e \`e m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[`jk$=XiY\i(-53.%*
33

R\`k\i\ n`Z_k`^\ `e[`m`[l\cc\ Pek\ijZ_`\[\( [\e\e dXe _\lkqlkX^\
eli n\e`^ Q\ijkve[e`j \ek^\^\eYi`e^k( \i^\Y\e j`Z_ Xlj [\i lek\ié
jZ_`\[c`Z_\e Av_`^b\`k [\i H\ejZ_\e( \`e\ `e SW\S[ =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[ ^\dXZ_k\ @i]X_ile^+=\fYXZ_kle^ Yqn* \`e\ Ffeq\gk`fe Xl]
\`e\e qn\`k\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ql {Y\ikiX^\e Yqn* [Xj Y\ki\]é
]\e[\ @ic\Ye`j `e `_d ql n`\[\i_fc\e* ?Xj Y\[\lk\k( dXeZ_dXc bXee
\`e\ `e]fidXk`m\ @`eq\c_\`k( [`\ dXe ql =\^`ee [\j G\ie\ej f[\i XlZ_
n`\[\i_fck Y\fYXZ_k\k _Xk( `e \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[
Xl]kXlZ_\e( XY\i Xlj Bi{e[\e( {Y\i [`\ n`i jf ^lk n`\ {Y\i_Xlgk
e`Z_kj n`jj\e( j`Z_ jgvk\i [fZ_ Xcj Xl] m\ijZ_`\[\e\ Xe[\i\ =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\ {Y\ikiX^YXi \in\`jk* Nf bzee\e dXeZ_\ H\ejZ_\e Y\`é
jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e\ jg`i`kl\cc\ @i]X_ile^ qlevZ_jk eli `e \`e\d ^Xeq Y\é
jk`ddk\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ dXZ_\e( XY\i jgvk\i
]\jkjk\cc\e( [X~ [`\j\ @i]X_ile^ ql \`e\d ]\jk\e =\jkXe[k\`c `_i\j ^\é
nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j ^\nfi[\e `jk* R`i Y\j`kq\e eXé
_\ql {Y\i_Xlgk b\`e\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ ]le[`\ik\e F\eeke`jj\ [Xié
{Y\i( Y`j ql n\cZ_\d BiX[ \`e\ [\iXik`^\ uY\ikiX^le^ dz^c`Z_ `jk(
nf[liZ_ j`\ Y\^{ejk`^k f[\i Y\_`e[\ik n`i[( le[ XlZ_ e`Z_k [Xi{Y\i(
fY \`e\ mfccjkve[`^\ uY\ikiX^le^ {Y\i_Xlgk dz^c`Z_ `jk* ?`\ d\`jk\e
[\i Y`j_\i [liZ_^\]{_ik\e Pek\ijlZ_le^\e _XY\e j`Z_ eli [X]{i `eé
k\i\jj`\ik( `en`\n\`k Av_`^b\`k\e [\j ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[j $n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [Xj NZ_i\`Y\e( [Xj Ngi\Z_\e( Xi`k_d\k`jZ_\
F\eeke`jj\% `e [\e =\i\`Z_ [\i m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\
_`e\`ei\`Z_\e* @`e\ ld]Xjj\e[\ F\eeke`j [\i m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\ n`i[ jZ_c`\~c`Z_ [Xql ]{_i\e( [X~ dXe j`\ d`k\`eXe[\i
m\i^c\`Z_\e bXee le[ [X~ dXe [XY\` e`Z_k `dd\i eli mfe lej\i\d
^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Xljql^\_\e _Xk* <lZ_ _`\i n`i[ \j
j`Z_ eXk{ic`Z_ _\iXljjk\`c\e( [X~ [`\ Av_`^b\`k qli uY\ikiX^le^ `e[`é
m`[l\cc j\_i m\ijZ_`\[\e j\`e bXee7 [Xj \ekjgi`Z_k [\e le^\_\li\e
Pek\ijZ_`\[\e( [`\ eli mfe [\i <eeX_d\ m\ijk\cck n\i[\e( lej\i\
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ j\`\e \`eXe[\i `d n\j\ekc`Z_\e Xcc\ j\_i v_eé
c`Z_*

D`]PZS[Sc\R:OZZab`WQYSW[6S`SWQVRS`dS`k\RS`bS\
6SecobaSW\ahcabk\RS
R\ee n`i [`\ _`jkfi`jZ_\e @i]X_ile^\e [\j H\ejZ_\e [\i n\jkc`Z_\e
R\ck ql lej\i\d G\`k]X[\e e\_d\e( [Xee \i^\Y\e j`Z_ NZ_n`\i`^b\`é
34

k\e ]{i [Xj Q\ijkve[e`j mfe m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e le[
]{i [`\ @ekn`Zbcle^ mfe R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e( [`\ Xd =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ fi`\ek`\ik j`e[* @`e`^\ [`\j\i NZ_n`\i`^b\`k\e lek\ijZ_\`[\e
j`Z_ `_i\i <ik eXZ_ bXld mfe [\e\e( [`\ n`i d`k lej\i\d ^\nz_eé
c`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ _XY\e( XY\i j`\ n\i[\e Xl]^ile[ Y\é
jk`ddk\i @`^\ek{dc`Z_b\`k\e [\i m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\
jkXib ^\jk\`^\ik* @j ^`Yk qn\` CXlgkjZ_n`\i`^b\`k\e6 qld \`e\e Xccé
^\d\`e\ d\k_f[fcf^`jZ_\ KifYc\d\( [`\ j`Z_ Xlj [\i =\jZ_X]]\e_\`k
\`e`^\i m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ \i^\Y\e( qld Xe[\i\e [Xj
KifYc\d( n\cZ_\i g\ijzec`Z_\e B\]v_i[le^ [\i Q\ijlZ_jc\`k\i Xlj^\é
j\kqk `jk* DZ_ n\i[\ d`Z_ qlevZ_jk d`k [\e j`Z_ Xlj Y\jk`ddk\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e \i^\Y\e[\e KifYc\d\e Y\]Xjj\e( le[ [Xee `d
]fc^\e[\e<YjZ_e`kk[`\g\ijzec`Z_\eB\]X_i\e\izik\ie*
?Xj \ijk\ n`Z_k`^\ KifYc\d Y\` [\i mfi^\jZ_cX^\e\e @ekn`Zbcle^ qlé
jkXe[jjg\q`]`jZ_\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e `jk [`\ åJ]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_b\`kÜ
[\i \ibXeek\e RX_i_\`k* De m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e
_Xk dXe j\_i _vl]`^ [\e @`e[ilZb( \knXj ^Xeq [\lkc`Z_ le[
led`kk\cYXi Xcj nX_i \ic\Yk ql _XY\e( le[ qnXi d`k \`e\i B\n`~_\`k(
[`\ {Y\i a\[\e Un\`]\c \i_XY\e `jk* HXe g]c\^k [Xee ql jX^\e6 ÑDZ_
n\`~Yqn*b\ee\oÉ
?`\j\j B\]{_c [\i XYjfclk\e B\n`~_\`k `jk _zZ_jk Y\]i`\[`^\e[7 XY\i
\`e\i [\i _`jkfi`jZ_\e Bi{e[\ ]{i [`\ @ekn`Zbcle^ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k
nXi( n`\ Y\i\`kj \inv_ek( [`\ <e\ib\eele^ [\i OXkjXZ_\( [X~ j\cYjk
XYjfclk\ B\n`~_\`k b\`e\ BXiXek`\ [X]{i `jk( [X~ dXe XlZ_ kXkjvZ_c`Z_
i\Z_k _Xk* I\_d\e n`i \`edXc Xe( [`\ Av_`^b\`k( d`k [\i Pe^\n`~_\`k
ql c\Y\e( j\` \`e efkn\e[`^\i NZ_i`kk Xl] [\d R\^ qli RX_i_\`k* ?\i
H\ejZ_( [\i \`e\d jg`i`kl\cc\e K]X[ ]fc^k f[\i [\i m\ijlZ_k( [`\
RX_i_\`k `e \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ql \icXe^\e(
bXee j`Z_ lek\i Pdjkve[\e d`k [\d B\]{_c [\i N`Z_\i_\`k ql]i`\[\eé
^\Y\e le[ Xl] n\`k\i\ Pek\ijlZ_le^\e m\iq`Z_k\e* ?Xj @ic\Ye`j [\i
XYjfclk\e B\n`~_\`k bXee [\e RlejZ_ eXZ_ n\`k\i\e AiX^\jk\ccleé
^\e f[\i @i]X_ile^\e _\dd\e f[\i ^Xeq qld @iczjZ_\e Yi`e^\e*
@j bXee {Y\i[`\j lek\i Pdjkve[\e [\e Q\ijlZ_jc\`k\i qnXi e`Z_k [Xé
mfe XY_Xck\e( j\`e\e @i]X_ile^jY\i\`Z_ ql \in\`k\ie( XY\i j\`e
=\[{i]e`j eXZ_ \`e\i qljk`dd\e[\e B{ck`^b\`kj\ibcvile^ `d F\`d
\ijk`Zb\e6 @i \dg]`e[\k b\`e =\[{i]e`j eXZ_ Q\i`]`q`\ile^ le[
dzZ_k\ [Xj M`j`bf \`e\i AXcj`]`q`\ile^ e`Z_k \`e^\_\e* ?X \`e\ [\i
^iz~k\e Nkvib\e [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k [Xi`e Y\jk\_k( [X~ j`\ leY\[`e^k Xl]
=\jkvk`^le^ `_i\i Bile[\ib\eeke`jj\ le[ [\i Gf^`b `_i\i O_\fi`\e
35

Y\jk\_k( bXee j`Z_ [Xj B\]{_c [\i XYjfclk\e B\n`~_\`k Xcj \`e \iejké
_X]k\i IXZ_k\`c jfnf_c ]{i [`\ @ekn`Zbcle^ [\i \`^\e\e K\ijzec`Z_é
b\`k Xcj XlZ_ ]{i [`\ @ekn`Zbcle^ mfe Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\e)
k`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e \in\`j\e* UnXi bXee Xccql ^if~\j H`~kiXl\e
\Y\ejf ql \`e\d e\lifk`jZ_\e Q\i_Xck\e ]{_i\e n`\ Xccql ^if~\
G\`Z_k^cvlY`^b\`k( XY\i AfijZ_\i( [`\ [\e Q\ijlZ_ lek\ie\_d\e( jfcé
Z_\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ql \ekn`Zb\ce( d{jj\e \`e]XZ_ c\ie\e( [\d Xccql
J]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_\e \`e ^\n`jj\j H`~kiXl\e \ek^\^\eqlYi`e^\e( f[\i
givq`j\i Xlj^\[i{Zbk6 j`\ d{jj\e [Xj B\]{_c [\i B\n`~_\`k Xcj \`e\
n`ibc`Z_\ @i]X_ile^ Xbq\gk`\i\e( [* _* Xcj \`e\ B\^\Y\e_\`k( XY\i j`\
[{i]\e j`Z_ [X[liZ_ e`Z_k m\ic\`k\e cXjj\e( [`\ Ifkn\e[`^b\`k n\`k\i\i
Pek\ijlZ_le^\eql{Y\ij\_\e*
@`e n\`k\i\j n`Z_k`^\j KifYc\d Y\` [\i @ekn`Zbcle^ mfe Y\nl~k)
j\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e Y\jk\_k [Xi`e( [X~ [`\
Av_`^b\`k qli m`jl\cc\e f[\i Y`c[c`Z_\e Qfijk\ccle^ `e \`e`^\e m\ié
ve[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e j`Z_ ^\^\e{Y\i [\i `e \`e\d ^\é
nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ j\_i jkXib \i_z_k7 [X_\i \ijZ_\`ek
\`e\d Xcc\j( nXj dXe j`Z_ Y`c[_X]k mfijk\cck( Xcj jf c\Y\e[`^( [X~ \j
\`e\d e`Z_k n`\ \`e\ Ycf~\ DdX^`eXk`fe mfibfddk( jfe[\ie n`\ \`e\
kXkjvZ_c`Z_\ RX_ie\_dle^* Nf bXee \j gXjj`\i\e( [X~ dXe \knXj(
[Xj dXe j`Z_ `d nzikc`Z_\e N`ee \`eY`c[\k( ]{i \`e\ =\fYXZ_kle^ _vck
le[ Xcj ÑB\^\Y\e_\`kÉ n\ik\k( nv_i\e[ [`\j\ R\ikle^ `e R`ibc`Z_é
b\`kXl]\`e\dDiikldY\il_k*
R\ee dXe `d n\j\ekc`Z_\e Xcc\j( nXj dXe n{ejZ_k( _\iXl]Y\jZ_nzé
i\e bXee( f_e\ [X~ dXe j`Z_ [\i [XY\` d`kn`ib\e[\e R`ccb{i Y\nl~k
n`i[( n`\ bXee dXe [Xee a\dXcj qli RX_i_\`k ^\cXe^\e; RXj bXee
lej [Xmfi Y\nX_i\e( `e [\d BcXlY\e( [`\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k ql \i]fijZ_\e(
\`e]XZ_K_XekXj`\n\ck\eXl]qlYXl\e;
I\_d\e n`i \`edXc Xe( `Z_ ^cXlYk\ Xlj qn`e^\e[\e g\ijzec`Z_\e
Bi{e[\e( [X~ \j j`Z_ Y\` Ofe le[ G`Z_k ld HXe`]\jkXk`fe\e [\i ^c\`é
Z_\e @e\i^`\ _Xe[c\( [X~ n`i a\[fZ_ `e lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ql n\e`^ N\ej`Y`c`kvk Y\jv~\e( ld [Xj ql \ib\eé
e\e* I\_d\e n`i ele n\`k\i Xe( `Z_ kivk\ `e `i^\e[\`e\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \`e( [\i jf Y\jZ_X]]\e `jk( [X~ dXe `e `_d lek\i
Pdjkve[\e [Xj K_vefd\e [\i Npevjk_\j`\ \ic\Y\e bzeek\* J_e\ d`i
Y\nl~k ql j\`e( [X~ `Z_ j\_\( nXj `Z_ [i`e^\e[ ql j\_\e n{ejZ_\(
n{i[\ `Z_ eli Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [liZ_ @`ejZ_Xck\e [\j MX[`fj Oze\ \ié
bc`e^\e cXjj\e le[ ^c\`Z_q\`k`^ m\ijZ_`\[\e\ G`Z_kjkiX_c\e Xlj [\d
GXlkjgi\Z_\i _\iXljbfdd\e j\_\e7 f[\i `Z_ bzeek\ XlZ_ \`e\ \c\bé
4,

ki`jZ_\ GXdg\ \`ejZ_Xck\e le[ `e Q\iY`e[le^ [Xd`k Oze\ nX_ie\_é
d\e* ?X `Z_ a\kqk ^cXlY\( d\`e\ O_\fi`\ j\` [liZ_ [`\ led`kk\cYXi\
=\fYXZ_kle^ Y\jkvk`^k nfi[\e( ]{_c\ `Z_ d`Z_ j\_i ^c{Zbc`Z_( le[ `Z_
bzeek\ [`\j\j @ic\Ye`j ele Xe[\i\e H\ejZ_\e d`kk\`c\e( [`\ v_ec`Z_\
Dek\i\jj\e _XY\e* R\ee j`\ ele `_i\ij\`kj e`Z_k [Xj ^c\`Z_\ \ic\Y\e
n`\ `Z_( bzeek\( `Z_ ql [\d NZ_cl~ bfdd\e( [X~ d`k [`\j\e G\lk\e
`i^\e[ \knXj e`Z_k jk`ddk le[ [X~ j`\ [\j_XcY jZ_c\Z_k\i\ =\fYXZ_k\i
j`e[ Xcj `Z_ j\cYjk* R`\ cv~k j`Z_ \`e\ NlYa\bk`m`kvk [`\j\i <ik m\id\`é
[\e;
HXe bXee [Xj KifYc\d Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ jf Xe^\_\e( [X~ dXe \ib\eek6
[`\ Av_`^b\`k( j`Z_ `i^\e[n\cZ_\ ?`e^\ jf c\Y\e[`^ mfiqljk\cc\e( [X~
dXe j`\ n`ibc`Z_ nX_iqle\_d\e ^cXlYk( jk\cck `e [\i OXk XlZ_ \`e\
B\^\Y\e_\`k [Xi* ?Xj Y\[\lk\k( \j `jk ^lk ql n`jj\e( [X~ `ek\ej`m\
RlejZ_mfijk\ccle^\e [`\ RX_ie\_dle^ `e \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e m\iveé
[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ jf jkXib Y\\`e]cljj\e bzee\e(
le[ \j bXee j`Z_ Xl~\i[\d Xcj e{kqc`Z_ \in\`j\e( _\iXljql]`e[\e( nf
[`\ Bi\eq\e [`\j\i <ik mfe =\\`e]cljjle^ c`\^\e le[ n`\ j`\ j`Z_ `e
[\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e mfe\`eXe[\i
lek\ijZ_\`[\e bzee\e* R`i jfcck\e e`Z_k O ^`W]`W [`\ O_\j\ Xl]jk\cc\e(
[X~ j`Z_ `e a\[\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Xcc\j d`k ^c\`Z_\i
G\`Z_k`^b\`k Y`c[_X]k mfijk\cc\e cv~k7 [liZ_ \`e\ ^\eXl\i\ Pek\ijlé
Z_le^ [`\j\i =\q`\_le^\e bzeek\e n`i \`e`^\j R`Z_k`^\ {Y\i [Xj
R\j\e m\ijZ_`\[\eXik`^\i m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ le[ [\j
^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_j [\j H\ejZ_\e \i]X_i\e* ?\i ÑDiikldÉ Y\é
jk\_k e`Z_k [Xi`e( [X~ dXe G`Z_kj`^eXc\ d`k OfenX_ie\_dle^\e Xjjfé
q``\ik le[ ld^\b\_ik( jfe[\ie [Xi`e( [X~ dXe [`\j ]{i \`e\ mfcc^{ck`^\
=\fYXZ_kle^ _vck7 dXe _Xk evdc`Z_ e`Z_k Y\i{Zbj`Z_k`^k( [X~ [\i
qn`e^\e[\ BcXlY\ Xe \`e K_vefd\e \`e\ efkn\e[`^\ QfiXljj\kqle^
]{i [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^( [* _* \`e =\jkXe[k\`c [`\j\j K_vefd\ej j\cYjk
j\`ebXee*
HXe bXee [Xj KifYc\d [\i NlYa\bk`m`kvk XY\i XlZ_ ^ile[jvkqc`Z_\i
Xe^\_\e7 dXe \ib\eek( [X~ \j [liZ_Xlj Xl] e`Z_k m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\ Y\jZ_ivebk `jk( fYjZ_fe \j K\ijfe\e( [`\ j`Z_ `e \`e\d
jfcZ_\e UljkXe[ Y\]`e[\e( dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ jkvib\i Y\ki`]]k* HXe bXee
j\_i nf_c XlZ_ `e j\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Xl]é
^ile[ `e[`m`[l\cc\i @`^\ejZ_X]k\e [Xj Jg]\i mfe Dcclj`fe\e( A\_c\`eé
jZ_vkqle^\ele[Dii^cXlY\en\i[\e*
Qfi [\d <l]jk`\^ [\i df[\ie\e IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ^XY \j Xcc\
dz^c`Z_\e Qfijk\ccle^\e {Y\i [Xj R\j\e [\i g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e R\ck(
4-

[`\ dXe e`Z_k [`i\bk n`[\ic\^\e bzeek\6 jf j`\_k Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [`\
@i[\ ]{i lej kXkjvZ_c`Z_ ]cXZ_ Xlj* ?`\ ^c\`Z_\e H\k_f[\e( d`k [\i\e
C`c]\ dXe `e [\e IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k\e [\e Dii^cXlY\e Y\j\`k`^k _Xk(
n\i[\e XlZ_ [Xql Y\`kiX^\e( `_e Xlj [\e Xe Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkve[\e fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ql \c`d`e`\i\e( [`\ j`Z_ d`k
=\]le[\e Xlj [\d \ic\Y) le[ \i]X_iYXi\e( Xl~\ig_pj`bXc`jZ_\e
=\i\`Z_ Y\]Xjj\e* <cc\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e d{jj\e [liZ_ Xcc^\d\`e\
Uljk`ddle^ ]{i ^{ck`^ \ibcvik n\i[\e7 [`\ Xlj `_e\e XY^\c\`k\k\e
O_\fi`\e jfcck\e ^i{e[c`Z_ lek\ijlZ_k n\i[\e( le[ dXe n`i[ XlZ_
Xck\ieXk`m\ O_\fi`\e le[ @ibcvile^\e \`e\i ^i{e[c`Z_\e uY\igi{]le^
lek\iq`\_\e d{jj\e( ld ]\jkqljk\cc\e( n\cZ_\ [`\ {Y\iq\l^\e[jk\ `jk*
Dejfn\`k \j j`Z_ Y\` @i]X_ile^\e ld n`ccb{ic`Z_\ K_XekXj`\mfijk\cé
cle^\e _Xe[\ck( `e [\e\e j`Z_ eli [`\ gjpZ_`jZ_\ Q\i]Xjjle^ \`e\j \`eé
q\ce\e De[`m`[lldj n`[\ijg`\^\ck( ]{^\e j`\ j`Z_ e`Z_k `e [`\ ]{i Xcc\
m\ijkve[c`Z_\e Hljk\i( le[ j`\ n\i[\e j`Z_ [X_\i mfe Xe[\i\e =\fYé
XZ_k\ie XlZ_ e`Z_k n`\[\i_fc\e cXjj\e* ?Xj lek\ijZ_\`[\k j`\ mfe Xeé
[\i\e K_vefd\e\e( [`\ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ \`e\ Xcc^\d\`e\ B\j\kqdv~`^b\`k
\ib\ee\e cXjj\e le[ [`\ lej ^Xeq Xcc^\d\`e \knXj jX^\e( nXj Xl] m\ié
ve[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ qlki`]]k* <l~\i[\d6 a\ d\_i N\cYjk\ié
b\eeke`j \`e AfijZ_\i \ekn`Zb\ck( [\jkf \_\i n`i[ \i `e [\i GX^\ j\`e(
Xcc\ g\ijzec`Z_\e AXbkfi\e ql \ib\ee\e( [`\ j\`e\ =\fYXZ_kle^\e Y\é
\`e]cljj\ebzeek\e*
<Y\i \j ^`Yk efZ_ \`e ^Xeq jg\q`\cc\j KifYc\d6 <cj H`k^c`\[ \`e\j
Y\jk`ddk\e Flcklibi\`j\j _Xk dXe ^\c\iek( j\`e\ @i]X_ile^\e le[
@ic\Ye`jj\ [\e _`\i ^{ck`^\e blckli\cc\e Ifid\e ^\dv~ ql ^\jkXck\e*
?Xj bXee [Xql ]{_i\e( [X~ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i \`e\j Y\jk`ddk\e Flcklié
bi\`j\j( [`\ \`e\ qljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k m\iki\k\e( \`e\
@i]X_ile^ ]{i ^{ck`^ \ibcvi\e( [`\ `_i\ij\`kj n`\[\ild \`e =\`jg`\c [Xé
]{i `jk( n`\ @i]X_ile^\e j`Z_ Xe Y\jk`ddk\e Hljk\ie Xlji`Z_k\e bzeé
e\e( nXj n`\[\ild \`e\e e{kqc`Z_\e =\]le[ [Xijk\cck( j`Z_ a\[fZ_
e`Z_k `e Xe^\d\jj\e\i Afid [X[liZ_ \ibcvi\e cv~k( [X~ dXe [`\j\e
[\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Xe j`Z_ qljZ_i\`Yk* @j n`i[ Xcjf
\i]fi[\ic`Z_ j\`e( [X~ dXe jfcZ_\ KifYc\d\ e`Z_k mfe \`e\i N\`k\ Xlj
Xe^\_k( jfe[\ie [X~ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i Xlj m\ijZ_`\[\e\e Flcklibi\`j\e
AfijZ_le^\e mfie\_d\e le[ [`\ @i^\Ye`jj\ d`k\`eXe[\i XljkXl)
jZ_\e* Nf bXee Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e M\givj\ekXek [\j n\jkc`Z_\e Flcé
klibi\`j\j \`e @ic\Ye`j _XY\e( `e [\jj\e Q\icXl] \i \knXj j`\_k( nXj
n`i Xcj \`e\e @e^\c Y\q\`Z_e\e n{i[\e $[`\j\j @ic\Ye`j n{i[\ j`Z_
eXk{ic`Z_ `e \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ mfccq`\_\e%7 XY\i
4.

[`\j\ Q`j`fe ]{_ik e`Z_k efkn\e[`^\in\`j\ ql [\d NZ_cl~( [X~ @e^\c
`e R`ibc`Z_b\`k XlZ_ \o`jk`\i\e le[ [X~ dXe j`\ `e \`e\d ^\n`jé
j\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ j\_\e bXee( f[\i XY\i [X~ \j j`Z_ Y\` [\e
@e^\ce ld \`e\ XiZ_\kpg`jZ_\ NZ_zg]le^ `d ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e
=\i\`Z_ [\j H\ejZ_\e _Xe[\ck( [\ee Xcc\ =\nf_e\i [\i n\jkc`Z_\e
R\ck _XY\e `e `_i\i F`e[_\`k Y\jk`ddk\ BcXlY\ejmfijk\ccle^\e {Y\i
[Xj R\j\e mfe @e^\ce m\id`kk\ck Y\bfdd\e( XlZ_ n\ee j`\ j`\ [Xee
`e`_i\djgvk\i\eG\Y\em\infi]\e_XY\edz^\e*
F\_i\e n`i ele ql [\d =\`jg`\c qli{Zb( `e [\d mfe [\d BcXlY\e
[`\ M\[\ nXi( Y\` G`Z_k le[ Ofe _Xe[c\ \j j`Z_ ld [`\ ^c\`Z_\ @e\i^`\
le[ j`\ kivk\e( n`\ Y\` \ekjgi\Z_\e[\i N\ej`Y`c`kvk nX_iqle\_d\e j\`(
jk\kj ^\d\`ejXd Xl]* ?X~ `Z_ j\cYjk f[\i a\dXe[ Xe[\i\i [`\ @dg]`eé
[le^ _XY\e bzeek\( G`Z_k gif[lq`\i\ Oze\ le[ Oze\ gif[lq`\i\e
G`Z_k( `jk j`Z_\ic`Z_ \`e =\]le[* E\dXe[ bzeek\ ele XY\i mfiq`\_\e(
[`\j\j K_vefd\e [liZ_ \`e\ <ck\ieXk`mk_\fi`\ ql \ibcvi\e7 [XeXZ_
nvi\ [`\ ^\_\^k\ @inXikle^ [`\ PijXZ_\ ]{i [`\j\ =\fYXZ_kle^( e`Z_k
XY\i \`e\ `e_vi\ek\ LlXc`kvk [\i g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e R\ck f[\i ^Xi [\j ^\`é
jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_j [\j H\ejZ_\e* R\cZ_\ mfe [\e Y\`[\e O_\fé
i`\e {Y\iq\l^\e[\i `jk( bzeek\ dXe [liZ_ \`e @og\i`d\ek \ekjZ_\`é
[\e( Y\` [\d dXe [`\ @inXikle^j_Xckle^ [\i Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe ^Xeq
Y\nl~k mXi``\ik* R\ee \j ^\cve^\( H\ejZ_\e ql ]`e[\e( [`\ `e [\e
\i]fi[\ic`Z_\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \`eki\k\e bzeek\e
le[ [`\ mfi_\i b\`e\ `i^\e[n`\ ^\Xik\k\e @inXikle^\e _`ej`Z_kc`Z_
[\i Ffgg\cle^ mfe G`Z_k le[ Ofe _Xkk\e( [Xee bzeek\ dXe j`\ =\fYé
XZ_kle^\e [Xi{Y\i Xejk\cc\e cXjj\e( fY \`e\ [\iXik`^\ =\q`\_le^ qn`é
jZ_\e Y\`[\e Y\jk\_k f[\i e`Z_k* J[\i dXe bzeek\ [Xj @og\i`d\ek
XlZ_ jf [liZ_]{_i\e( [X~ dXe [`\ @inXikle^ \`e`^\i =\n\iY\i jpjk\é
dXk`jZ_ [X_`e c\ebk( [X~ G`Z_k ^c\`Z_ Ofe le[ Ofe ^c\`Z_ G`Z_k `jk(
Xe[\i\ [X^\^\e bzeek\ dXe `e [`\ ^\eXl \ek^\^\e^\j\kqk\ @inXié
kle^j_Xckle^ m\ij\kq\e* IXZ_ ^\eXl\i <eXcpj\ [\j @i^\Ye`jj\j
bzeek\ dXe j`Z_ [Xee ]{i \`e\ [`\j\i Y\`[\e O_\fi`\e \ekjZ_\`[\e*
IXZ_ [\i \ijk\e O_\fi`\ ) [X~ G`Z_k le[ Ofe jk\kj ^\d\`ejXd Xl] ki\é
k\e ) d{~k\ [Xj Pek\ijlZ_le^j\i^\Ye`j cXlk\e( [X~ [`\ mfilik\`cjcfé
j\e =\fYXZ_k\i \Y\ejf n`\ [`\a\e`^\e =\fYXZ_k\i( [`\ kze\e[\j G`Z_k
le[ ]XiY`^\ Oze\ mfe mfie_\i\`e \inXik\k _Xkk\e( [`\j\ O_\fi`\ kXké
jvZ_c`Z_ Y\jkvk`^k ]`e[\e* IXZ_ [\i qn\`k\e O_\fi`\ d{~k\ [Xj Pek\ié
jlZ_le^j\i^\Ye`j ]fc^\e[\idX~\e cXlk\e6 ?`\ mfilik\`cjcfj\e =\fYé
XZ_k\i bfeek\e \`e\ jfcZ_\ Ffgg\cle^ mfe G`Z_k le[ Ofe e`Z_k
i\jkjk\cc\e( le[ [`\ Y\`[\e Xe[\i\e Bilgg\e m\i_`\ck\e j`Z_ \oXbk \eké
4/

jgi\Z_\e[ [\i `_e\e mfi [\d @og\i`d\ek `e[lq`\ik\e @inXikle^\e*
?`\j\j =\`jg`\c q\`^k \`e\ n\`k\i\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k Xlk( n`\ dXe j`Z_ d`k
[\i AiX^\ [\i NlYa\bk`m`kvk Y\]Xjj\e bXee( [`\ j`Z_ Xe^\j`Z_kj [\i
[liZ_ [`\ `e \`e`^\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e ^\jk\`^\ik\
@`eY`c[le^jbiX]k jk\cck( le[ dXe [Xi] Xl]^ile[ mfe Y\c`\Y`^\e( [liZ_
\`e ^\_zi`^\j HX~ Xe NlYa\bk`m`kvk Y\\`ekivZ_k`^k\e =\]le[\e [Xql
{Y\i^\_\e( O_\fi`\e ql \ijk\cc\e( le[ Xl]^ile[ [`\j\i O_\fi`\e j\`e\
NZ_c{jj\ q`\_\e* O_\fi`\e( [`\ n\`k^\_\e[ Xl] jlYa\bk`m\e @dg]`eé
[le^\e YXj`\i\e( d{jj\e qnXe^jcvl]`^ Xl] n\`k\ N`Z_k _`e \`e\ ^\é
i`e^\i\ QfiXljjX^\biX]k Y\j`kq\e Xcj [`\a\e`^\e( [`\ n\e`^\i jlYa\bk`m
j`e[7 =\d{_le^\e ld `dd\i ^iz~\i\ ?`]]\i\eq`\ile^ d`k [\d U`\c
\`e\i jk\k`^\e Q\id`e[\ile^ [\i NlYa\bk`m`kvk bzee\e _`\i \Y\ejf
n`ibjXd n\i[\e( n`\ [Xj Y\` [\i Xe[\i\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k [\i AXcc `jk*
@`e [i`kk\j CXlgkgifYc\d Y\` [\i @ekn`Zbcle^ mfe Y\nl~kj\`ejql)
jkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e bzeek\ [Xi`e Y\jk\_\e( [X~ j`\
e`Z_k ]{i Xcc\ <ik\e m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ \ekn`Zb\ck n\ié
[\e bzee\e* @j dX^ j\`e( [X~ ^\n`jj\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkve[\ j`Z_ Xlj \`e\i ^\el`e\e Pe]v_`^b\`k( ql Y\fYXZ_k\e le[ Xlj
[\d =\fYXZ_k\k\e cf^`jZ_\ NZ_cl~]fc^\ile^\e ql q`\_\e( \i^\Y\e(
Xe[\i\ij\`kj XY\i XlZ_ Xlj \`e\i NZ_nvZ_le^ [\j R`cc\ej mfe jfcZ_\d
<ljdX~( [X~ j`Z_ \`e AfijZ_le^jgif^iXdd bXld d\_i [liZ_]{_é
i\e c`\~\* ?`\a\e`^\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\( ]{i [`\ j`Z_
m\idlkc`Z_ Ng\q`Xcn`jj\ejZ_X]k\e \ekn`Zb\ce cXjj\e( jfcc\e jgvk\i \ié
zik\ik n\i[\e7 XY\i \j j\` Y\i\`kj Xe [`\j\i Nk\cc\ Y\kfek( [X~ kXkjvZ_é
c`Z_ Y\jfe[\i\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e \ekn`Zb\ck n\i[\e d{jj\e( [`\ e`Z_k
Xl] \`e\i ]{i lej\i\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Z_XiXbk\é
i`jk`jZ_\e<i^ld\ekXk`fejn\`j\YXj`\i\e*
@`e m`\ik\j n`Z_k`^\j KifYc\d Y\jk\_k [Xi`e( [X~ m`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\
@ic\Ye`jj\ le[ @i]X_ile^\e `e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e Xcj
ÑleY\jZ_i\`Yc`Z_É ^\jZ_`c[\ik n\i[\e( [* _*( j`\ c`\^\e a\ej\`kj lej\i\i
Av_`^b\`k( j`\ `e =\^i`]]\ ql ]Xjj\e* R`i jfcck\e _`\i efZ_ \`e`^\ n\`k\i\
Pek\ijZ_\`[le^\e ki\]]\e* =\jk`ddk\ @i]X_ile^\e bzee\e `e [\d
N`ee\ leY\jZ_i\`Yc`Z_ j\`e( [X~ \`e H\ejZ_ j`\ qnXi j\cYjk \ic\Y\e(
[XY\` XY\i Xl~\ijkXe[\ j\`e bXee( j`\ j\cY\i ql Y\^i\`]\e* De [`\j\d
AXcc n{i[\ \j j`Z_ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ ld mzcc`^ leY\jZ_i\`YYXi\ @ic\Ye`jj\
_Xe[\ce* @`e\ qn\`k\ Bilgg\ mfe @i]X_ile^\e bXee `e [\d N`ee\
Xcj leY\jZ_i\`Yc`Z_ ^\ck\e( [X~ [\i Y\ki\]]\e[\ H\ejZ_ e`Z_k `e [\i
GX^\ `jk( j`\ Xe[\i\e H\ejZ_\e d`kqlk\`c\e( [X~ \i j\cYjk j`Z_ XY\i
j\_i bcXi {Y\i j`\ `jk* @`e\ [i`kk\ Bilgg\ mfe @i]X_ile^\e n`\[\ild
40

bXee `ejf]\ie leY\jZ_i\`Yc`Z_ j\`e( [X~ j`\ j`Z_ e`Z_k mfe \`e\d
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ `e \`e\e Xe[\i\e {Y\ikiX^\e( j`Z_ XY\i `e \`e\i
`d MX_d\e [`\j\j Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j jkXkk]`e[\e[\e
Ffddle`bXk`fe [liZ_Xlj d`kk\`c\e cXjj\e bXee* K_vefd\e\ [\i
\ijk^\eXeek\e <ik bzee\e lek\i Pdjkve[\e [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k mzcc`^
m\ijZ_cfjj\e j\`e7 K_vefd\e\ [\i qn\`k\e BXkkle^ j`e[ [\i n`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc`Z_\e AfijZ_le^ eli `e [\d Y\^i\eqk\e N`ee\ ql^ve^c`Z_( [X~
\`e \`eq\ce\i `d ^\`jk`^\e <cc\`e^Xe^ [`\ M\^\ce [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k ql
Y\]fc^\e m\ijlZ_k* <Y\i [X \i [Xd`k n\`k^\_\e[ [`\ Qfik\`c\ [\i [liZ_
Xcc^\d\`e\ Uljk`ddle^ \in`\j\e\e B{ck`^b\`k \`eY{~k( n`i[ \i m\ié
dlkc`Z_ e`Z_k `e [\i GX^\ j\`e( \`e\ j\_i {Y\iq\l^\e[\ `e[`m`[l\cc\
R`jj\ejZ_X]k ql \ekn`Zb\ce* K_vefd\e\ [\i [i`kk\e BXkkle^ [X^\^\e
j`e[ ^\eXl mfe a\e\i <ik( [`\ Xd =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ fi`\ek`\ik\e
R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e[i`e^\e[\i]fi[\ic`Z_\ijZ_\`e\ecv~k*
HXeZ_\ K_vefd\e\( [`\ n`i _\lk\ ]{i leY\jZ_i\`YYXi _Xck\e( dz^\e
[Xj lek\i Pdjkve[\e `e R`ibc`Z_b\`k ^Xi e`Z_k \`edXc j\`e7 \j bzeek\
[liZ_Xlj [\i AXcc j\`e( [X~ efZ_ e`Z_k ^\el^ Q\ijlZ_\ lek\iefdd\e
nfi[\e j`e[( j`\ Xe[\i\e d`kqlk\`c\e le[ \`e [\iXik`^\ H`kk\`cle^\e
\idz^c`Z_\e[\j QfbXYlcXi ql \ekn`Zb\ce* Nf `jk Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [`\
\e^c`jZ_\ NgiXZ_\ ]{i [`\ =\_Xe[cle^ [\i g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e M\Xc`kvk _\ié
mfiiX^\e[ ^\\`^e\k( XY\i j`\ `jk bXld `djkXe[\( [`\ jlYk`c\i\e <jg\bk\
mfe K_vefd\e\e [\j ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j Xljql[i{b)
b\e(le[ j`\ Y\j`kqk ]Xjk {Y\i_Xlgk b\`e QfbXYlcXi( d`k [\jj\e C`c]\ dXe
K_vefd\e\ [\j m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j d`kk\`c\e bzeek\*
?X^\^\e jfcc\e j`Z_ NgiXZ_\e n`\ \knX NXejbi`k le[ O`Y\k`jZ_ n\`k Y\j)
j\i [Xql \`^e\e( H`kk\`cle^\e {Y\i g\ijzec`Z_ \ic\Yk\ K_vefd\e\ le[
K_vefd\e\ [\j m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j ql dXZ_\e* R`i
d{jj\e [X_\i NgiXZ_]fid\e \ekn`Zb\ce( d`k [\i\e C`c]\ n`i lej {Y\i
K_vefd\e\ [`\j\i <ik le[ {Y\i jg`i`kl\cc\ K_vefd\e\ m\ijkve[`^\e
bzee\e7 \ijk eXZ_[\d n`i [Xj m\ijlZ_k _XY\e( bzee\e n`i \ekjZ_\`é
[\e( fY Y\jk`ddk\ K_vefd\e\ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ leY\jZ_i\`YYXi j`e[*
NZ_c`\~c`Z_ jfcck\e n`i XlZ_ [`\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k \`eivld\e( [X~ \`e`^\
[\i K_vefd\e\ [\j m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j ]{i lej\i
=\^i\`]\e Xccql bfdgc\o j`e[* @j bXee j\`e( [X~ lej\i\e ^\`jk`^)
j\\c`jZ_\e Fiv]k\e _`\i Bi\eq\e ^\j\kqk j`e[* Oifkq[\d jfcck\e n`i
n\e`^jk\ej Q\ijlZ_\ ` e [`\j\i M`Z_kle^ lek\ie\_d\e7 n`i jfcck\e lej
[X[liZ_ eli m\iXecX~k j\_\e( [`\ _\`dc`Z_\ <iif^Xeq ql bfii`^`\i\e(
d`k [\i n`i mfiXljj\kq\e( [X~ n`i Xcc\j Y\^i\`]\e bzee\e le[ [X~ [Xj(
nXj n`i e`Z_k m\ijk\_\e( [\j Q\ijk\_\ej {Y\i_Xlgk e`Z_k n\ik j\`*
41

DS`am\ZWQVS;STkV`Rc\US\
C`\ilek\i j`e[ [`\a\e`^\e B\]X_i\e ql m\ijk\_\e( [`\ Xlj [\i K\ijfe
\`e\j AfijZ_\ij \inXZ_j\e le[ j`Z_ e`Z_k Xlj [\d R\j\e [\i m\iveé
[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ Xe j`Z_ \i^\Y\e ) fYjZ_fe qn`jZ_\e Y\`)
[\d \`e\ R\Z_j\cn`ible^ Y\jk\_k* R`i nfcc\e [`\ g\ijzec`Z_\e
B\]v_i[le^\e _`\i `e qn\` Xcc^\d\`e\e FXk\^fi`\e XY_Xe[\ce( X% jfcé
Z_\* [`\ j`Z_ Xlj \`e\i e\^Xk`m\e @i]X_ile^ `e \`e\d m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[( \`e\d jf^\eXeek\e ãCfiifiki`gä( \i^\Y\e( le[
Y% jfcZ_\( [`\ Xlj \`e\i ql ^lk\e M\Xbk`fe( [* _* Xlj \`e\d ã^lk\e Oi`gä(
jkXdd\e*
NZ_c\Z_k\ Oi`gj `e \`e\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ le[+f[\i
cXe^Xe_Xck\e[\ e\^Xk`m\ IXZ_n`ible^\e \`e\j jfcZ_\e UljkXe[j c\`é
k\e j`Z_ _vl]`^ Xlj [\i OXkjXZ_\ XY( [X~ dXe `e lej\i\d Flcklibi\`j
e`Z_k [Xql \iqf^\e n`i[( j`Z_ d`k iX[`bXc\e Q\ive[\ile^\e `ee\i_XcY
j\`e\j ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j Xlj\`eXe[\iqlj\kq\e* R`i
j`e[jfXl]\`e\^\n`jj\NkXY`c`kvkXe^\n`\j\e([X~n`imfe`_iXY_ve^`^
n\i[\e7 n`i _XY\e <e^jk mfi [\d PeY\bXeek\e( le[ n`i \ekn`Zb\ce
[XiXl]_`e g\ijzec`Z_\ NkXii_\`k le[ [`\ m\ijZ_`\[\ejk\e ^\j\ccjZ_X]ké
c`Z_\e le[ g\ijzec`Z_\e OXYlj* Dejfn\`k j`Z_ [`\ jkXii\ Nkilbkli lej\é
i\i K\ijzec`Z_b\`k d`k [\e _\iijZ_\e[\e blckli\cc\e Ifid Qfijk\cé
cle^\e [\Zbk( n\i[\e n`i [X]{i XlZ_ Xl] m\ijZ_`\[\e\ R\`j\ mfe
lej\i\e H`kY{i^\ie Y\cf_ek le[ Xcj ÑefidXcÉ Y\q\`Z_e\k* ?X {Y\ié
[`\j `e lej\i\d Flcklibi\`j m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ `d Xccé
^\d\`e\e Xcj \`e\ <ik B\`jk\jbiXeb_\`k Xe^\j\_\e n\i[\e( `jk [Xj blcé
kli\cc\ @iYk\`c( Xl] [\jj\e Bile[cX^\ n`i ) ]{i lej g\ijzec`Z_ f[\i
XY\i Xcj Xd =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i ) [`\
<iY\`k d`k [`\j\e Uljkve[\e `e <e^i`]] e\_d\e bzeek\e( e`Z_k
^\iX[\^{ejk`^*
@j bXee \`e\d H\ejZ_\e e`Z_k eli gXjj`\i\e( [X~ \i n\^\e [\i \ié
nv_ek\e M`^`[`kvk e`Z_k `e [\i GX^\ `jk( d`k ^\n`jj\e @i]X_ile^\e
ldql^\_\e( [`\ dXe `_d m\id`kk\ck7 \`e jZ_c\Z_k\i Oi`gä `e \`e\d
m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ bXee XlZ_ [`\ Afc^\ \`e\j m\ive[\ié
k\e f[\i dXe^\c_X]k\e Alebk`fe`\i\ej [\i gjpZ_`jZ_\e <Yn\_id\é
Z_Xe`jd\e j\`e7 Xl~\i[\d bzee\e m\i[ive^k\ @ic\Ye`j`e_Xck\ Xlj [\i
Q\i^Xe^\e_\`k `ej =\nl~kj\`e [\i Y\ki\]]\e[\e K\ijfe i{Zb\e le[
j`\ `e Y\kivZ_kc`Z_\ `ee\i\ Peil_\ m\ij\kq\e* ?Xj \i_z_k [`\ RX_ié
jZ_\`ec`Z_b\`k( [X~ \`e jfcZ_\i H\ejZ_ e`Z_k n\`~( n`\ \i `e j\`e\d
m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ d`k j\`e\e se^jk\e ]\ik`^ n\i[\e
42

jfcc( le[ [`\j\ [Xee m`\c ^iz~\i\ <ljdX~\ Xee\_d\e( Xcj [Xj [\i AXcc
nvi\( n\ee j`Z_ [Xj ^c\`Z_\ `e j\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[ XYjg`\ck\* R\i ]{i j`Z_ g\ijzec`Z_ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkve[\ \i]fijZ_\e f[\i \`e Xe =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e fi`\ek`\ik\i R`jé
j\ejZ_X]kc\i n\i[\e dzZ_k\( jfcck\ Xcjf i\cXk`m i\`] le[ jkXY`c j\`e -,*
N\cYjk n\ee \`e\ jfcZ_\ =Xj`j mfi_Xe[\e `jk( Y\[Xi] \j m\idlkc`Z_ efZ_
\`e\j Y\kivZ_kc`Z_\e gjpZ_`jZ_\e M\`]\gifq\jj\j( n\ee [Xj M`j`bf
`i^\e[n\cZ_\i eXZ_k\`c`^\i Afc^\\ijZ_\`ele^\e dz^c`Z_jk ^\i`e^ ^\é
_Xck\e le[ [\i qlb{e]k`^\ AfijZ_\i j`Z_ j\`e\i \`^\e\e =\[{i]e`jj\
\Y\ejf Y\nl~k n\i[\e jfcc n`\ j\`e\i Qfilik\`c\( [`\ j\`e\ @i]X_é
ile^\e le[ =\fYXZ_kle^\e `d =\i\`Z_ [\i m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkve[\m\iq\ii\ebzeek\e*
<lZ_ ^lk\ Oi`gj bzee\e \`e\e gfk\ek`\cc\e Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)
fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i ^\]v_i[\e( le[ qnXi `ejf]\ie( Xcj j`\
lek\i Pdjkve[\e ql @i]X_ile^\e ]{_i\e( [`\ jf \bjkXk`jZ_ le[ Y\é
^c{Zb\e[ j`e[( [X~ j`\ n`\[\ild XlZ_ [\e n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e Ddé
glcj [\j AfijZ_\ij cv_d\e bzee\e* R`i _XY\e Y\i\`kj mfe [\i ÑJ]]\eé
j`Z_kc`Z_b\`kÉ mfe RX_i_\`k\e ^\jgifZ_\e le[ \inv_ek( [X~ j`\ [Xj
=\[{i]e`j eXZ_ n\`k\i\e Pek\ijlZ_le^\e f[\i \`e\i [\i\e B{ck`^b\`k
Y\jkvk`^\e[\e Xcc^\d\`e\e Uljk`ddle^ \c`d`e`\i\e bXee* s_ec`Z_\j
bXee gXjj`\i\e( n\ee \`e Y\jk`ddk\j @ic\Ye`j Y\jfe[\ij Y\^c{Zb\e[
`jk6 ?\i AfijZ_\i ^`Yk j`Z_ [Xd`k ql]i`\[\e le[ qz^\ik( j\`e\ Pek\ié
jlZ_le^\e ]fikqlj\kq\e( n\`c j`\ dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ [`\ Ll\cc\ j\`e\i
\bjkXk`jZ_\e Ai\l[\e ^\]v_i[\e bzeek\e* ?Xj _\`~k( dXeZ_\e H\eé
jZ_\e ^\_k \j d\_i [Xild( ã_`^_ä ql j\`e( Xcj ld [\e Q\ijlZ_( [`\
RX_i_\`kql\ek[\Zb\e([`\_`ek\i[`\j\dB\]{_cc`\^\ebzeek\*
?`\ Av_`^b\`k( j`Z_ `e ^\n`jj\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e
Y\jk`ddk\ ?`e^\ le^\_\l\i c\Y\e[`^ mfiqljk\cc\e( kiv^k n\`k\i_`e ql
\Y\e[`\j\i B\]X_i Y\`6 ?`\ cXe^) le[ _\`~\ij\_ek\e R{ejZ_\ \`e\j
H\ejZ_\e \i]{cc\e j`Z_ `e Afid mfe K_XekXj`\e( [`\ \i ]{i R`ibc`Z_é
b\`k _vck* ?\iXik`^\ Q`j`fe\e j`e[ jf \i]i\lc`Z_( [X~ j`Z_ [\i gfk\ek`\cc\
AfijZ_\i [Xee ^Xi e`Z_k d\_i [Xild Y\d{_k( ql {Y\igi{]\e( nXj
[\ee\`^\ekc`Z__`ek\i`_e\ejk\Zbk*
?`\ gjpZ_`jZ_\ Ffdgc\o`kvk \`e\j a\[\e De[`m`[lldj `jk eXk{ic`Z_
efZ_ n\`k jlYk`c\i( Xcj n`i [Xj _`\i `d ?\kX`c \izik\ie bzee\e*
B\iX[\ [`\ g\ijzec`Z_\e B\]v_i[le^\e lek\ijki\`Z_\e Y\jfe[\ij [`\
Ifkn\e[`^b\`k [\i @ekn`Zbcle^ mfe <ljY`c[le^jgif^iXdd\e ]{i
`d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i* UnXi cv~k j`Z_
iXe _\lk`^\e NkXe[ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k Xlj jZ_n\i jX^\e( n`\ \`e
43

[\iXik`^\j <ljY`c[le^jgif^iXdd Y\jZ_X]]\e j\`e d{~k\( XY\i \j
jk\_k [fZ_ ]\jk( [X~ \j j`Z_ `e a\[\d AXcc \i_\Yc`Z_ mfe [\i bfem\eé
k`fe\cc\e n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e NZ_lcle^ lek\ijZ_\`[\e n{i[\* ?`\ n`jé
j\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ <ljY`c[le^( [`\ Nkl[\ek\e _\lk\ Xe [\i Pe`m\ij`kvk mfi
le[ eXZ_ `_i\d @oXd\e \i_Xck\e( \ekn\ik\k `d Bile[\ Xcc\ g\ijzeé
c`Z_\ @i]X_ile^( j`\ \iq`\_k qli NkXii_\`k( e`ddk [\e Hlk ql B\]{_c\e
le[ c\^k eli \`e G`gg\eY\b\eeke`j ql ^\`jk`^\i <l]^\jZ_cfjj\e_\`k
XY( jkXkk [`\j\ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ ql ]zi[\ie* ?`\ G\_i\i `e [\e <ljY`c[le^jé
jkvkk\e _XY\e ]{i [`\ qlb{e]k`^\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i Xcj QfiY`c[ ql ^\cé
k\e( le[ [`\ Nkl[\ek\e n\i[\e [X]{i Y\cf_ek( [X~ j`\ j`\ eXZ_X_d\e*
E\[\ ^iz~\i\ <Yn\`Z_le^ mfe [`\j\e QfiY`c[\ie `e `i^\e[\`e\ Ñleé
bfem\ek`fe\cc\É M`Z_kle^ bXee \`e\e H\ejZ_\e ld [`\ >_XeZ\ Yi`eé
^\e( ?`gcfd\ ql \in\iY\e( [`\ \i [Xee YiXlZ_k( ld `e j\`e\d AXZ_^\é
Y`\k Xcj R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i XiY\`k\e ql bzee\e* @`e Bif~k\`c [\j
<ljY`c[le^jgif^iXddj `d =\i\`Z_ [\i m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkve[\ d{~k\ [XiXl] Xlj^\i`Z_k\k j\`e( [X~ [\i gfk\ek`\cc\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc\i j`Z_ d`k C`c]\ mfe gjpZ_fk_\iXg\lk`jZ_\e le[ gjpZ_fcf^`é
jZ_\eH\k_f[\ej\cYjkdz^c`Z_jkld]Xjj\e[b\ee\ec\iek*
Q`\c\ mfe lej j`e[ H\ejZ_\e ) jfnf_c ^\nz_ec`Z_\e H\ejZ_\e Xcj
XlZ_ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ie ) Y\^\^e\k( [`\ eXZ_ @`eki`kk `e \`e\e m\ive[\ié
k\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \`e\e G\`jkle^ji{Zb^Xe^ ql m\iq\`Z_e\e
_Xkk\e f[\i jZ_n\in`\^\e[\ gjpZ_`jZ_\ Fi`j\e [liZ_c\Yk\e* ?Xd`k
`jk [liZ_Xlj ql i\Z_e\e( n\ee dXe Y\i{Zbj`Z_k`^k( n`\ leqlcve^c`Z_
dXe `e lej\i\d Flcklibi\`j Xl] m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\
mfiY\i\`k\k `jk* @j nvi\ a\[fZ_ mfi\`c`^( nfcck\ dXe [XiXlj [\e NZ_cl~
q`\_\e( jfcZ_\ Qfibfdde`jj\ c`\~\e j`Z_ XlZ_ e`Z_k d`k C`c]\ mfe
Y\jj\i\i <ljnX_c( <ljY`c[le^ le[ ?`jq`gc`e m\id\`[\e* De [\i Ai{_é
^\jZ_`Z_k\ Xcc\i _\lk\ \kXYc`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e nXi\e m`\c\ M\givé
j\ekXek\e `_i\j a\n\`c`^\e AXZ_\j j\_i jlYa\bk`m le[ gXik\`c`Z_ `e `_i\e
Pek\ijlZ_le^\e ) eXZ_ lej\i\e HX~jkvY\e nvi\e j`\ jf^Xi Xcj AXeXé
k`b\i ql Y\q\`Z_e\e* Oifkq[\d _XY\e Y\jk`ddk\ NgXik\e [\i R`jj\eé
jZ_X]k Xcj ^\j\ccjZ_X]kc`Z_\ Dejk`klk`fe eXZ_n\`jYXi\ AfikjZ_i`kk\ \ié
q`\ck* I`Z_k Y\` a\[\i [\i ^\jXdd\ck\e @i]X_ile^\e d`k m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e ki\k\e XejZ_c`\~\e[ gXk_fcf^`jZ_\ U{^\ Xl]6
Q`\c\ e\_d\e \i_\Yc`Z_ Xe g\ijzec`Z_\i M\`]\ ql( mfi Xcc\d [Xee(
n\ee [`\j\ @i]X_ile^\e le[ @ic\Ye`jj\ `e \`e Kif^iXdd qli K\ijzeé
c`Z_b\`kj\ek]Xckle^ `ek\^i`\ik n\i[\e* Ili n\ee n`i kXkjvZ_c`Z_ [\e
Q\ijlZ_ lek\ie\_d\e( Xd =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]k\e ql \ekn`Zb\ce( n\i[\e n`i XlZ_ `e [\i GX^\ j\`e ql Y\é
44

jk`dd\e( n\cZ_\ m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ ]{i \`e\ jfcZ_\
@ekn`Zbcle^ `e AiX^\ bfdd\e le[ n\cZ_\ H\ejZ_\e j`Z_ ]{i \`e\
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j\i <iY\`k `dd\i n`\[\i ql gjpZ_`jZ_\e B\]v_i[le^\e bfdd\e( XY\i
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e`jj\ mfi le[ ]fi[\ik\ [\e G\j\i Xlj[i{Zbc`Z_ Xl]( e`Z_k [XiXe ql
UZOcPS\( [X~ \i [Xd`k ^lk\ @i^\Ye`jj\ \iq`\c\e n{i[\( jfe[\ie [`\j\
H\k_f[\e XljqlgifY`\i\e le[ [`\ @i^\Ye`jj\( [`\ =\]le[\ ]{i j`Z_
j\cYjkXljqln\ik\e*
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j\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ @`ejk\ccle^* =\` ^\eXl\i\i =\kiXZ_kle^ jk\cck dXe a\é
[fZ_ ]\jk( [X~ `e Q`m\bXeXe[Xj @icvlk\ile^ [\i H\k_f[\e m`\c\
Tf^X)D[\\e {Y\i [Xj R\j\e [\j ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_j \`e^`e^\e(
\`e =\`jg`\c [X]{i( [X~ dXe( n`\ n`i a\kqk [Xeb [\i gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e
AfijZ_le^ n`jj\e( e`Z_k [liZ_ \`e\e Ycf~\e R`cc\ejXbk Xcc\ j\`e\
@inXikle^\e le[ mfi^\]X~k\e H\`ele^\e \`e]XZ_ Xl~\i FiX]k j\kq\e
bXee* @j `jk j\_i jZ_n\i( _\iXljql]`e[\e( n\cZ_\ mfi^\]X~k\e H\`é
5/

ele^\e dXe _Xk( le[ j`Z_ [Xee XlZ_ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ mfe `_e\e ql Y\]i\`\e*
?`\ mfe Q`m\bXeXe[X mfi^\kiX^\e\e G\_i\e bzeek\e `ejf]\ie jl^^\é
jk`m ^\n`ibk _XY\e( Xcj j`\ [Xj @ic\Ye`j [\j m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[j jf jkilbkli`\ik\e( [X~ j`Z_ \`e\ <ik b{ejkc`Z_\i Q\i`]`q`\ile^
\i^XY* Q`\cc\`Z_k nXi Tf^X [XdXcj efZ_ \`e\ le[`]]\i\eq`\ik\( ale^\
R`jj\ejZ_X]k( [`\ efZ_ e`Z_k d`k [\i Hz^c`Z_b\`k [\iXik`^\i Qfilik\`c\
i\Z_e\k\;Q`\cc\`Z_kXlZ_e`Z_k
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givj\ek`\ik\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e kXkjvZ_c`Z_ Xcj Y\nl~kj\`ej)
qljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e Xeqlj\_\e j`e[* DZ_ n\`~ [Xj
e`Z_k( n\`c `Z_ j`\ Xcj <l~\ejk\_\e[\i Y\kiXZ_k\ le[ e`Z_k Xcj a\é
dXe[( [\i j`Z_ `ek\ej`m d`k [\i <ljY`c[le^( [\e Pek\ii`Z_kjd\k_fé
[\e le[ [\e @i]X_ile^\e Y\]X~k _Xk( [`\ Y\` [\e [XiXe Y\k\`c`^k\e
m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e le[ jg`i`kl\cc\e @ic\Ye`jj\e \`e\
Mfcc\ jg`\c\e* Qfe [\i RXik\ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Xlj ^\é
j\_\e( d{jj\e n`i Xcj <e^\_zi`^\ [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck lej giXbk`jZ_
Xcc\ Xcj GX`\e Y\kiXZ_k\e* Pe[ n`\ `Z_ Xcj GX`\ e`Z_k [Xj GXYfi \`e\j
K_pj`b\ij f[\i \`e\j =`fcf^\e Y\j`Z_k`^\e le[ [Xee [Xi{Y\i Y\]`eé
[\e bXee( fY `Z_ \j _`\i d`k giXbk`q`\ik\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k ql kle _Xkk\
f[\i eli d`k O\Z_efcf^`\ f[\i fY d`Z_ ^Xi eli \`e g_XekXjk`jZ_\i
<ggXiXk qli @iq\l^le^ mfe <Y\i^cXlY\e Y\\`e[ilZbk _Xk( jf bXee
`Z_ Xcj GX`\ e`Z_k \ekjZ_\`[\e( fY \j j`Z_ Y\` [\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fé
cf^`\e ld Ng\q`Xcn`jj\ejZ_X]k\e _Xe[\ck f[\i e`Z_k* H`k N`Z_\i_\`k
j`e[ j`\ Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ O\Z_efcf^`\e( le[ `Z_ m\ié
dlk\ jf^Xi( [X~ m`\c\( n\ee e`Z_k ^Xi [`\ d\`jk\e mfe `_e\e kXkjvZ_é
c`Z_ qld`e[\jk k\`cn\`j\ [\e >_XiXbk\i mfe qljkXe[j)jg\q`]`jZ_\e
R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e _XY\e7 [Xj `jk XlZ_ [\i Bile[ [X]{i( nXild j`\ `e
[`\j\d=lZ_Y\_Xe[\ckn\i[\e*
@ekkvljZ_k \j N`\( [X~ N`\ Xl] [`\ AiX^\( fY [`\j\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fé
cf^`\e Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e j`e[( b\`e\
[\]`e`k`m\ <eknfik \i_Xck\e _XY\e; ?Xj nvi\ ^lk ?\ee `Z_ _f]]\(
[`\j\ @ekkvljZ_le^ n`i[ m`\c\ G\j\i [Xql m\iXecXjj\e( j`Z_ d\_i
F\eeke`jj\ {Y\i [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Xeql\`^e\e( [`\ m\ié
ve[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ ^i{e[c`Z_ ql \i]fijZ_\e le[ [X[liZ_
qli @ekn`Zbcle^ mfe Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\eé
jZ_X]kj]fid\eY\`qlkiX^\e([`\n`ijf[i`e^\e[YiXlZ_\e*

50

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qljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ql \ekn`Zb\ce( qnXi i\Z_k `ek\ié
\jjXek j\`( [X~ XY\i Xlj m\ijZ_`\[\e\e Bi{e[\e [X]{i n\[\i \`e =\é
[{i]e`j efZ_ [`\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k Y\jk\_k* CXlgkXi^ld\ek\ [X]{i( [`\
j`Z_ Xl] [`\ `e lej\i\d FlckliY\i\`Z_ mfi_\iijZ_\e[\e <ejZ_Xlleé
^\e jk{kq\e( j`e[ ]fc^\e[\6 -* Xcc\j R`jj\ejn\ik\ `jk [liZ_ [`\j\ f[\i
a\e\ jg`i`kl\cc\ M`Z_kle^ Y\i\`kj \ek[\Zbk f[\i f]]\eYXik nfi[\e( le[
n\ee dXe \knXj n`jj\e n`cc( dl~ dXe j`Z_ Xe [`\ Y\ki\]]\e[\ jg`i`é
kl\cc\ ?`jq`gc`e _Xck\e7 f[\i .* n`i j`e[ \ekn\[\i \`e\j jfcZ_\e R`jé
j\ej le]v_`^( f[\i \j `jk lej m\iYfk\e( jfcZ_\ ?`e^\ ql n`jj\e( nXj
Y\[\lk\k( [X~ n`i ^Xi b\`e\e <ecX~ _XY\e( [\iXik`^\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kjé
]fid\eql\ekn`Zb\ce*
<l] jfcZ_\ @`enve[\ `jk mfi Xcc\d ql Xeknfik\e( [X~ b\`e H\ejZ_
\`e\ Dej\c ]{i j`Z_ Y`c[\k( jfe[\ie [X~ a\[\i O\`c \`e\i ^Xeq Y\jk`ddk\e
Flckli `jk( n`\ j\_i \i XlZ_ `dd\i ^\n`jj\ <jg\bk\ [`\j\i Flckli XYé
c\_e\e dX^* <cj ={i^\i [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck j`e[ n`i O\`c \`e\i Flcé
kli( `e [\i [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k \`e\e n`ible^jdvZ_k`^\e AXbkfi [Xijk\cck(
[\i j`Z_ e`Z_k `^efi`\i\e cv~k* Flckli\e Y\jk\_\e Xlj m`\c\e \`eq\ce\e
O\`c\e( le[ [`\j\ O\`c\ n`ib\e `e j\_i jlYk`c\i le[ bfdgc\o\i Afid
`e\`eXe[\i* <lZ_ n\ee n`i eli \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e =\jkXe[k\`c lej\i\i
Flckli f]]\e XYc\_e\e( d{jj\e n`i ^\iX[\ n\^\e [\i jlYk`c\e le[
bfdgc\o\e R\Z_j\cY\q`\_le^\e Xcc\i =\jkXe[k\`c\ ]{i [`\j\ <Yc\_é
ele^\`e\e^\n`jj\eKi\`jY\qX_c\e*
?`\ <Yc\_ele^ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k `jk _\lkqlkX^\ ) mfi Xcc\d lek\i [\e
ale^\e H\ejZ_\e ) `e lej\i\i Flckli j\_i jkXib Xlj^\giv^k* Pe[ m`\c\
Xe[\i\( [`\ [Xj B\]{_c _XY\e( [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k j\` ql `e_ldXe ^\nfié
[\e( jlZ_\e CXck `e kiX[`k`fe\cc\i Ng`i`klXc`kvk f[\i M\c`^`fj`kvk( le[
j`\ m\ijlZ_\e( `_i ^\jXdk\j G\Y\e mfe [X_\i ql Y\jk`dd\e* Nf ^`Yk
\j Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [\e @`enXe[( [X~ [`\ NZ_i`]k\e \`e\i Y\jk`ddk\e
M\c`^`fe Y\i\`kj Xcc\ RX_i_\`k\e \ek_`\ck\e f[\i [X~ [`\ ^if~\e G\_i\i
Yqn* [Xj KiXbk`q`\i\e [\i Y\ki\]]\e[\e M\c`^`fe \`e\d H\ejZ_\e Y\é
i\`kj Xcc\j Y`\k\e( nXj \i YiXlZ_k* HXe bXee [Xee m\ijlZ_\e( [`\ mfe
[\e IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ^\giv^k\ Flckli mfccjkve[`^ XYqlc\_e\e
f[\i XY\i( nXj _vl]`^\i mfibfddk( eli [`\a\e`^\e `_i\i =\jkXe[k\`c\
ql `ek\^i`\i\e( [`\ e`Z_k `d R`[\ijgilZ_ ql [\e \`^\e\e i\c`^`zj\e
BcXlY\ejmfijk\ccle^\e jk\_\e* ?Xj Y\[\lk\k Xcc\i[`e^j( [X~ dXe j`Z_
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51

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dXe Y\jk`ddk\ O\`c\ [\j d\ejZ_c`Z_\e R`jj\ej XYc\_ek f[\i Xljé
bcXdd\ik(cv~km`\cqln{ejZ_\e{Yi`^*
?`\j\ j\c\bk`m\ <Yc\_ele^ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\i @ib\eeke`jj\ bXee dXe
Xcj <Yn\_idXezm\i le[ [Xd`k Xcj \`e `d Bile[\ e\lifk`jZ_\j Q\ié
_Xck\e n\ik\e* Qfi Xcc\d [`\a\e`^\e Afc^\ile^\e n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\i
@ib\eeke`jj\( [`\ i\c`^`zj\ @i]X_ile^\e le[ @ic\Ye`jj\ [`jbi\[`k`\i\e
bzeek\e $j`\ n\i[\e `e FXg`k\c / \izik\ik( le[ qnXi Xl]^ile[ gXiXefié
dXc\i jg`i`kl\cc\i OiX[`k`fe\e%( n\i[\e Xcj =\[if_le^ Xe^\j\_\e
le[ [X_\i qnXe^jcvl]`^ qld O\`c ]\_c`ek\igi\k`\ik f[\i XY^\c\_ek*
<Y\i n`i c\Y\e ele \`edXc `e [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck( le[ [`\ R`jj\eé
jZ_X]k `jk O\`c jfnf_c lej\i\j g\ijzec`Z_\e Xcj XlZ_ lej\i\j blckli\cé
c\e @iY^lkj* @j `jk [liZ_Xlj nX_ijZ_\`ec`Z_( [X~ \`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc\
OiX[`k`fe\e ) mfi Xcc\d [`\a\e`^\e( [`\ e`Z_k lej\i\d Flcklibi\`j
\ekjkXdd\e ) Y\` lej Rliq\c ]Xjj\e le[ ^\[\`_\e bzee\e( n\ee \j
ql \`e\i GfjjX^le^ mfd R\ckY`c[ [\i IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k\e bfddk(
XY\i [X]{i n`i[ dXe \`e\e ^\n`jj\e Ki\`j qX_c\e d{jj\e* DZ_ _XY\
b\`e\e Un\`]\c [XiXe( [X~ \j m`\c\ i\c`^`zj\ NZ_i`]k\e ^`Yk( [`\ n\iké
mfcc\ De]fidXk`fe\e le[ R\`j_\`k\e \ek_Xck\e( le[ `Z_ Y`e XlZ_ j`é
Z_\i( [X~ m`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ G\_i\i lej ?`e^\ ql jX^\e _XY\e( [`\ ]{i
lej mfe _zZ_jk\d R\ik j`e[( XY\i j\cYjk [`\ Y\[\lk\e[jk\e jg`i`kl\cé
c\e G\_i\e d{jj\e [\d R\ckY`c[ [\ia\e`^\e H\ejZ_\e Xe^\gX~k n\ié
[\e( [\e\e dXe j`\ XeY`\k\k( n\ee [`\j\ j`\ n`ibc`Z_ d`k ^Xeq\i N\\c\
Xl]e\_d\e jfcc\e-.* ?\i QfijZ_cX^( Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\e)
k`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e ql \ekn`Zb\ce( jk\cck \`e\e Q\ijlZ_ [Xi( [Xé
d`k Xeql]Xe^\e( [Xj =\jk\ lej\i\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e OiX[`k`fe `e
[Xj le^\_\li\ $`e j\`e\i O`\]\ mfe [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k Y`j_\i e`Z_k Xljé
^\cfk\k\% Kfk\ek`Xc ql `ek\^i`\i\e( [Xj n`i Xcj [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e Hz^c`Z_é
b\`k\e [\j H\ejZ_\e Y\q\`Z_e\e bzee\e* ?Xj mfic`\^\e[\ =lZ_
dzZ_k\ [Xd`k Y\^`ee\e( [`\ Fcl]k qn`jZ_\e [\d jg`i`kl\cc\e =\i\`Z_
le[[\d=\i\`Z_[\iR`jj\ejZ_X]k\eql{Y\iYi{Zb\e*
?\i jg`i`kl\cc\ =\i\`Z_ ) le[ [Xj ^c\`Z_\ ^`ck XlZ_ ]{i [\e [Xd`k leé
d`kk\cYXi qljXdd\e_ve^\e[\e =\i\`Z_ [\i m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\ ) `jk \`e\i [\i n`ible^jdvZ_k`^jk\e AXbkfi\e( [`\ [Xj
G\Y\e le[ [Xj B\jZ_`Zb [\j H\ejZ_\e Y\jk`dd\e* DZ_ _Xck\ \j ]{i
^\]v_ic`Z_( [`\j\e =\i\`Z_ le[ [\e =\i\`Z_ [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k\e jZ_Xi]
mfe\`eXe[\i ql ki\ee\e( le[ `Z_ _f]]\( \j n`i[ lej `e [\i Ulble]k ^\é
c`e^\e( Y\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j)fi`\ek`\ik\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e ql \eké
n`Zb\ce( [`\ [Xql Y\`kiX^\e( [`\ NZ_iXeb\e qn`jZ_\e [`\j\e =\i\`Z_\e
52

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`Z_ eli \in`[\ie( [X~ n`i [Xj d`k C`c]\ [\j Ki`eq`gj mfe Q\ijlZ_
le[ Diikld _\iXlj]`e[\e d{jj\e( jkXkk lej\i\e Hz^c`Z_b\`k\e `d
mfiXlj[liZ_mfi^\]X~k\H\`ele^\eBi\eq\eqlj\kq\e*

- <l] n\`k\ N`Z_k _`e bXee \`e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\` [\i Q\iXiY\`kle^ mfe De]fié

dXk`fe\e eXk{ic`Z_ e`Z_k dmZZWU n`ccb{ic`Z_ mfi^\_\e( [\ee n`i _XY\e \j d`k \`e\i
Pdn\ckqlkle(`e[\ileXe^\gX~k\<bk`fe\ekz[c`Z_j\`ebzee\e*
. IXk{ic`Z_ jk\cck j`Z_ `e \`e`^\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e \`e ^\n`jj\i
M{Zb^Xe^ gjpZ_`jZ_\i Alebk`fe\e Y\` [\e\e \`e( [`\ jfcZ_\ Uljkve[\ \ic\Y\e7 XY\i
[`\ A\jkjk\ccle^ jfcZ_\i jg\q`]`jZ_\e M\Xbk`fejd`e[\ile^\e `jk jZ_Xi] ql lek\ijZ_\`é
[\e mfe [\i mzcc`^\e <Yc\_ele^ [\i @ic\Ye`jj\ `e m\ive[\ik\d =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[
Xl]^ile[[\i[liZ_\`eKXiX[`^dXY\[`e^k\eQfilik\`c\*
/ Pek\i ÑFfii\cXk`feÉ m\ijk\_k dXe [\e BiX[ [\i uY\i\`ejk`ddle^ qn`jZ_\e qn\`
?`e^\e* @`e\ Ffii\cXk`fe mfe ,*,, n{i[\ [XeXZ_ Y\[\lk\e6 b\`e\ \ib\eeYXi\ uY\ié
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n\ee dXe [\e R\ik [\i \`e\e QXi`XYc\e b\eek( [Xee b\eek dXe XlZ_ [\e \oXbk\e
R\ik[\iO\RS`S\'
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Gv^\`jk(`e\`e\e^XeqY\jk`ddk\em\ive[\ik\e=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\`eqlki\k\ele[
[Xi`e n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ ql XiY\`k\e ) bXee lek\i Pdjkve[\e j\`e\ \`^\e\ <iY\`k leé
Y\^i\`]c`Z_ ]`e[\e( n\ee \i j`Z_ n`\[\i `e j\`e\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[ f[\i `e \`e\d Xe[\i\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\]`e[\k( le[ qnXi
[\j_XcY( n\`c j\`e B\[vZ_ke`j mfe j\`e\d XSeSWZWUS\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ XY_ve^k(
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_\`~k( [`\ <iY\`k a\e\j R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ij cv~k j`Z_ eli `e jf leqli\`Z_\e[\d HX~\
Xl] j\`e\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ {Y\ikiX^\e( [X~ j`\ `_d `e [`\j\d
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bfdd\e( jfYXc[ \i j`Z_ n`\[\i `e [\d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\]ve[\(
`e[\d\i[`\j\n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\<iY\`k[liZ_^\]{_ik_Xkk\*Pd\j_ldfimfccXljqlé
[i{Zb\e6 R\ee [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i XY\e[j mfe j\`e\d <iY\`kjgcXkq _\`dbfddkle[
j\`e\ AiXl `_e ]iX^k6 ÑRXj _Xjk [l [\ee _\lk\ `e [\`e\d GXYfi ^\dXZ_k;É( [Xee
d{~k\\inX_i_\`kj^\dv~ql^\Y\e(\in`jj\^Xie`Z_kd\_i^\eXl(nXj\i^\kXe_Xk(
XY\iXcj\i[fik^\n\j\ej\`(_XY\\i^Xeq^\eXl^\nl~k([X~\i^lkmfiXe^\bfdd\e
j\`
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j\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ e`Z_k Y\n`\j\e n\i[\e bXee( [X~ [`\ @i[\ j`Z_ ld [`\ Nfee\ Y\n\^k7
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2@j`jk[liZ_Xljdz^c`Z_([X~G\j\i([`\j\cYjkY`j_\ielijfcZ_\m\ive[\ik\e=\nl~ké
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j`\ \knX `e [\i CldXe`jk`jZ_\e le[ [\i OiXejg\ijfeXc\e KjpZ_fé
cf^`\ Xe =\[\lkle^ qle\_d\e ) mfe [\i H\_i_\`k [\i _\lk`^\e Kjpé
Z_fcf^\e [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck n\i[\e [`\ d\`jk\e [\i _`\i \izik\ik\e
KfjklcXk\[fZ_jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[Xbq\gk`\ik*
DZ_ _XY\ [`\j\ KfjklcXk\ `e [`\ ^c\`Z_\e FXk\^fi`\e \`e^\k\`ck( [`\ XlZ_
[\e Q\i]Xjj\ie [\i `d DD* O\`c [`\j\j =lZ_\j mfi^\c\^k\e <l]jvkq\ {Y\i
[`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Xcj G\`k]X[\e ^\[`\ek _XY\e* ?`\ ]fcé
^\e[\ G`jk\ mfe n\`km\iYi\`k\k\e KfjklcXk\e \i_\Yk b\`e\jn\^j [\e
<ejgilZ_Xl]Qfccjkve[`^b\`k*
-,2

?`\IXkli[\jPe`m\ijldj
D]abcZOb2 ?Xj Pe`m\ijld `jk \`e Kif[lbk [\j Ul]Xccj( f[\i \j
_Xk j`Z_ j\cYjk ^\jZ_X]]\e( f[\i \j `jk jZ_fe `dd\i [X ^\n\j\e(
le[ j\`e\ @o`jk\eq _Xk n\[\i PijXZ_\ efZ_ U`\c*
?`\ ={i^\i [\j n\jkc`Z_\e Flcklibi\`j\j `d Xcc^\d\`e\e le[ [`\ Kjpé
Z_fcf^\e `d Y\jfe[\i\e j\kq\e c\kqkc`Z_ mfiXlj( [X~ [Xj Pe`m\ijld(
`e [\d j`\ c\Y\e( \`^\ekc`Z_ b\`e\e Bile[ ]{i j\`e\ @o`jk\eq Y\j`kqk*
?X [`\j \`e\ \knXj [\gi`d`\i\e[\ Qfijk\ccle^ `jk( [\eb\e n`i eli j\cé
k\e [Xi{Y\i eXZ_* ?`\j\j KfjklcXk le[ Xe[\i\ KfjklcXk\ {Y\i [`\ IXkli
[\j Pe`m\ijldj \ijZ_\`e\e q`\dc`Z_ b{_e( n\ee dXe j`Z_ [`\ OXkjXé
Z_\ mfi <l^\e _vck( [X~ j`\ mfe \`e\d R\j\e Xl] ^\jk\cck n\i[\e( [Xj
Xl] \`e\d n`eq`^\e KcXe\k\e `e \`e\i q`\dc`Z_ \ek]\iek\e @Zb\ \`e\i
\`eq`^\e BXcXo`j nf_ek le[ \ijk j\`k \`e`^\e EX_i_le[\ik\e il[`d\eé
kvi\n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\Bile[b\eeke`jj\Y\j`kqk*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^\e ^\_\e `d Xcc^\d\`e\e [Xmfe Xlj( [X~
[`\ @o`jk\eq [\j Pe`m\ijldj \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e N`ee _Xk ) j\` \j( [X~
[`\ R\ck mfe `i^\e[\`e\d Bfkk \ijZ_X]]\e nli[\( [X~ j`\ \`e\ <ik c\é
Y\e[`^\i R\j\e_\`k `jk( [`\ j`Z_ j\cYjk qld <lj[ilZb Yi`e^k( f[\i [X~
[Xj Pe`m\ijld `e j\`e\i B\jXdk_\`k \`e Y\jk`ddk\j U`\c _Xk le[ [X~
\j j`Z_ `e M`Z_kle^ Xl] \`e\ _z_\i\ =\nl~kj\`ej) le[ <bk`fej\Y\e\
_`e \ekn`Zb\ck* ?`\j\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k\e jZ_c`\~\e j`Z_ b\`e\jn\^j ^\^\eé
j\`k`^Xlj*
D]abcZOb2 ?Xj Pe`m\ijld `jk kfk7 [Xj G\Y\e `jk eli \`e `e]`e`k\j`é
dXc\i(leY\[\lk\e[\i=\jkXe[k\`c[\jPe`m\ijldj*
M\`e hlXek`kXk`m ^\j\_\e( e`ddk [Xj G\Y\e( jfm`\c n`i n`jj\e( kXké
jvZ_c`Z_ eli \`e\e ^\i`e^\e MXld `e lej\i\i R\ck \`e( le[ dXe gfjklé
c`\ik( [X~ [`\j ]{i [Xj ^\jXdk\ Pe`m\ijld ^`ck* <l~\i[\d j\kqk dXe
mfiXlj( [X~ [Xj G\Y\e j`Z_ Xlj c\Ycfj\e g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e Fiv]k\e i\`e
ql]vcc`^ \ekn`Zb\ck _Xk le[ [X~ `_d `d Pe`m\ijld b\`e\ n`ibc`Z_\
Alebk`fe qlbfddk* R\ee dXe [Xmfe Xlj^\_k( [X~ [Xj Pe`m\ijld
j\cYjk q`\c) le[ j`eecfj `jk( n\cZ_\ Alebk`fe bzeek\ [Xee [Xj G\Y\e
XlZ_ _XY\e; ?`\j\j KfjklcXk gX~k j\_i ^lk ql [\i `e lej\i\d n\jkc`é
Z_\e Flcklibi\`j n\`km\iYi\`k\k\e <l]]Xjjle^( [\i H\ejZ_ jk\_\ `d
Pe`m\ijld ^Xeq Xcc\`e le[ j\` mfe le^\_\li\e( ^eX[\e) le[ j\\c\ecfé
j\eFiv]k\eld^\Y\e*
-,3

Q`\c\ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e j\kq\e [X^\^\e mfiXlj( [X~ [Xj
Pe`m\ijld ^iz~k\ek\`cj f[\i jf^Xi `e j\`e\i B\jXdk_\`k mfcc\i G\Y\e
`jk* Nf gfjklc`\ik Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ Bli[a`\]]j Npjk\d( [X~ [`\ KcXe\k\e
c\Y\e[`^ j`e[ le[ j`Z_ n\`k\i\ekn`Zb\ce( `_i G\Y\e j`Z_ XY\i( m\i^c`é
Z_\e d`k [\d lej\i\e( `e jf i`\j`^\e U\`kivld\e XYjg`\ck( [X~ n`i
\j Xl] efidXc\ R\`j\ {Y\i_Xlgk e`Z_k nX_ie\_d\e bzee\e* ?`\ d\`é
jk\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e gfjklc`\i\e ]{i [Xj Pe`m\ijld e`Z_k
eli N`ee le[+f[\i U`\c( jfe[\ie j`\ d\jj\e `_d( [X j`\ \j Xcj c\Y\e[`^
le[ `e [\i @ekn`Zbcle^ Y\^i`]]\e Xej\_\e( XlZ_ [`\ ^c\`Z_\e @`^\eé
jZ_X]k\e ql n`\ [\d G\Y\e `d Xcc^\d\`e\e* ?`\ Afc^\ `jk( [X~ [\i
H\ejZ_ ql \`e\d c\Y\e[`^\e( j`Z_ jkve[`^ n\`k\i\ekn`Zb\ce[\e Pe`é
m\ijld( `e [\d Xcc\j d`k\`eXe[\i `e Q\iY`e[le^ jk\_k( \`e\ ^Xeq Xeé
[\i\ =\q`\_le^ _Xk Xcj ql \`e\d R\ckXcc( [Xj kfk( j`ee) le[ q`\ccfj
j\`ejfcc*
D]abcZOb2 ?`\ K_pj`b `jk [`\ c\kqk^{ck`^\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k( [\ee j`\
n`[d\kj`Z_[\dNkl[`ld[\ii\Xc\eR\ck*
?`\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ n`i[ lek\i [`\j\d B\j`Z_kjglebk [Xee eXk{ic`Z_
ql \`e\i i\`e XYc\`k\e[\e R`jj\ejZ_X]k( Y\` [\i dXe eli K_vefd\e\
qn\`k\i( [i`kk\i( m`\ik\i( n\ee e`Z_k ^Xi efZ_ n\`k\i _\i^\_fck\i Ji[é
ele^ jkl[`\ik* ?X [Xj Pe`m\ijld eli Xlj `e MXld le[ U\`k n`ib\e[\i
g_pj`jZ_\i HXk\i`\ le[ @e\i^`\ Y\jk\_k( _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ Y\` [\i
d\ejZ_c`Z_\e @i]X_ile^ ld \`e\ `e \`e\d ^\n`jj\e N`ee\ \g_\d\i\
@ijZ_\`ele^(e`Z_kXY\ild\`e\R`ibc`Z_b\`k*
?\i H\ejZ_( [\i Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ {Y\i j\`e\ @i]X_ile^\e `e [\i G`\Y\
jgi`Z_k( Y\]X~k j`Z_ [XeXZ_ eli d`k Oivld\e f[\i len`Z_k`^\e( XY^\é
c\`k\k\e K_vefd\e\e( nv_i\e[ j`Z_ [\i H\ejZ_( [\i <kfdYfdY\e
YXlk( d`k [\d XY^`Yk( nXj dXe Xcj [`\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k Y\q\`Z_e\k* ?`\
d\ejZ_c`Z_\ @i]X_ile^ n`i[ jf Xcj ãjlYa\bk`mä XY^\jk\dg\ck( [*_* d`k
\`e\d `e [\e <l^\e [\i KjpZ_fcf^\e g\afiXk`m\e =\^i`]] Y\q\`Z_e\k(
[\i jfm`\c n`\ len`ibc`Z_ le[ len`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ Y\[\lk\k* ÑBlk\É
@ibcvile^\e Yqn* O_\fi`\e j`e[ [`\a\e`^\e( [`\ j`Z_ Xl] <ljjX^\e
{Y\i [`\ HXk\i`\( {Y\i @e\i^`\( {Y\i MXld le[ U\`k i\[lq`\i\e cXjé
j\e* Pd Xcj n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ ?`jq`gc`e ql ^\ck\e( d{~k\ [XeXZ_ [`\
KjpZ_fcf^`\ Xcc\ `_i\ gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e le[ m\i_Xck\ejk_\fi\k`jZ_\e
Qfijk\ccle^\e qlevZ_jk Xl] g_pj`fcf^`jZ_\ NXZ_m\i_Xck\ i\[lq`\i\e(
le[ [XeXZ_ Xl] [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e B\^\Y\e_\`k\e( [`\ [`\j\i K_pj`fé
cf^`\ql^ile[\c`\^\e*
-,4

?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e dz^\e [`\ ÑR`ibc`Z_b\`kÉ [\i g_pé
j`bXc`jZ_\e R\ck Xbq\gk`\i\e f[\i XlZ_ e`Z_k( j`\ gfjklc`\i\e Xl] a\[\e
AXcc \`e\ gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\ Yqn* gjpZ_`jZ_\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k( [`\ \Y\ejf
i\Xc( n\ee e`Z_k ^Xi efZ_ i\Xc\i `jk Xcj [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k*
HXe Y\kiXZ_k\k [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k \_\i Xcj \`e\ jg\q`\cc\
HXe`]\jkXk`fe [\i gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e R`ibc`Z_b\`k( [\i\e R`ibc`Z_é
b\`kj^\_Xck dXe m`\c _z_\i \`ejZ_vkqk* @j Y\jk\_k [X_\i XlZ_ b\`e
=\[{i]e`j eXZ_ \`e\i g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e M\Z_k]\ik`^le^ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e
R`ibc`Z_b\`k\e6 HXe bXee [Xj jf^Xi Xcj \`e\ =`e[le^ Xe [`\ N`ee\
Y\kiXZ_k\e( [`\ [\e jg`i`kl\cc\e AfikjZ_i`kk m\i_`e[\ik* RXj R`ibc`Z_é
b\`k `jk( cv~k j`Z_ e`Z_k Xe [\i Av_`^b\`k d\jj\e( \`e\ RX]]\ ql YXl\e(
d`k [\i dXe j\`e\e B\^e\ie Xl]j CXlgk jZ_cX^\e bXee* DZ_ nv_c\
^Xeq Y\nl~k [`\j\j bil[\ =\`jg`\c( n\`c \j `e [\i R\ck( `e [\i n`i
c\Y\e( \`e\ jf ^if~\ Mfcc\ jg`\ck ) kifkq Xcc\i M\[\e {Y\i RX_i_\`k
le[R\ik\og\i`d\ek\cc\eAfijZ_\ej*
A{i [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Xcjf j`e[ [Xj =\nl~kj\`e( [`\ g\ié
jzec`Z_\ @i]X_ile^ le[ [Xj G\Y\e j\cYjk Bile[]Xbkfi\e ]{i [Xj
=\^i\`]\e[\jPe`m\ijldj)le[e`Z_ki\cXk`mlen`Z_k`^\?\i`mXk\*
D]abcZOb2 R`ibc`Z_ `jk( nXj j`Z_ d`k C`c]\ [\i N`ee\ f[\i d`k
C`c]\ \`e\j g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e Dejkild\ekj nX_ie\_d\e cv~k( le[
nXj j`Z_ d`k C`c]\ [\i N`ee\ nX_ie\_d\e cv~k( bXee mfe \`e\d
g_pj`bXc`jZ_\eDejkild\ek]\jk^\jk\cckn\i[\e*
C`\i _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \`e\ <ck\ieXk`m\ ql [\e Y`j_\i Xe^\]{_ik\e
KfjklcXk\e( Xcc\i[`e^j ld \`e\ <ck\ieXk`m\( [`\ eX_\ql leXY_ve^`^ mfe
[\e Xe[\i\e <l]]Xjjle^\e n`ibjXd n\i[\e bXee( le[ [`\ \j [X_\i
m\i[`\ek( \`^\ej Xe^\]{_ik ql n\i[\e* N`\ bfddk `e ]fc^\e[\i <ljjX^\
qld <lj[ilZb6 R\ee [l \`e\ Y\jk`ddk\ =\_Xlgkle^ Xl]jk\ccjk( Y\é
n\`j\ j`\ d`i d`k C`c]\ d\`e\i g_pj`jZ_\e N`ee\ f[\i d\`e\i g_pj`bXé
c`jZ_\e Dejkild\ek\* R\ee Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ a\dXe[ Y\_Xlgk\k( \i j\_\
G`Z_kjkiX_c\e mfe [\i B\jkXck \`e\j C\`c`^\e Xlj^\_\e( [Xee jX^\e
n`i( cX~ d`Z_ [Xj d`k d\`e\e \`^\e\e <l^\e j\_\e( le[ n\ee `Z_
\j d`k d\`e\e <l^\e e`Z_k nX_ie\_d\e bXee( jk\cc\ [fik \`e g_pj`bXé
c`jZ_\j Dejkild\ek Xl]( le[ n\ee XlZ_ [Xj e`Z_kj \ek[\Zbk( [Xee `jk
[Xj(nXj[lj`\_jk(e`Z_kÑR`ibc`Z_b\`kÉ*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e gfjklc`\i\e [`\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k mfe ?`eé
^\e( [`\ `d i\`e g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e N`ee\ e`Z_k n`ibc`Z_ j`e[* R\ee dXe
-,5

Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ G`Z_kjkiX_c\e mfe \`e\d C\`c`^\e Xlj^\_\e j`\_k ) \`e
K_vefd\e( [Xj dXe _vl]`^ Xcj ã<liXä Y\q\`Z_e\k [Xee bzeek\e [`\
jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e [XiXl] \knX Xeknfik\e( \j j\` [liZ_Xlj
dz^c`Z_( [X~ [\i =\kiXZ_k\i _`\i \`e\i Dcclj`fe \ic\^\e `jk( XY\i \j j\`
\Y\ejf [\ebYXi( [X~ \i d`kk\cj Av_`^b\`k\e( [`\ j`Z_ mfe [\e\e lej\i\i
^\nz_ec`Z_\e N`ee\ lek\ijZ_\`[\e( le[ [`\ e`Z_k Xl] [`\ @e\i^`\e [\j
g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e Pe`m\ijldj( jf n`\ n`i \j b\ee\e( Xe^\n`\j\e j`e[(
\`e\ ^Xeq i\Xc\ RX_ie\_dle^ ^\dXZ_k _Xk* B\n`jj\ e`Z_kg_pj`bXc`é
jZ_\ K_vefd\e\ bzee\e Xcjf \Y\ejf n`ibc`Z_ j\`e n`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\*
?\iXik`^\ e`Z_kg_pj`bXc`jZ_\ ãM\Xc`kvk\eä dz^\e ele `e =\q`\_le^ qli
g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e R\ck jk\_\e f[\i XlZ_ e`Z_k ) Xl] a\[\e AXcc cXjj\e j`\
j`Z_ e`Z_k [XeXZ_ Y\lik\`c\e( fY j`\ j`Z_ XlZ_ `e [\i g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e
R`ibc`Z_b\`kdXe`]\jk`\i\ef[\ie`Z_k*
?Xj \inv_ek\ fik_f[fo\ KfjklcXk `jk i\Z_k [\gi`d`\i\e[( n\ee dXe
Y\[\ebk( n\cZ_\ Afc^\e j`Z_ [XiXlj ]{i m`\c\ ?`e^\ \i^\Y\e( [`\ \`e\
CXlgkifcc\ `e lej\i\d G\Y\e jg`\c\e( n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ G`\Y\( B{k\(
Dek\cc`^\eq le[ Ai\l[\7 Y\` [`\j\e K_vefd\e\e _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ \Y\e
e`Z_k ld ?`e^\( [`\ n`i led`kk\cYXi d`k C`c]\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\i Dejkilé
d\ek\ ]\jkjk\cc\e bzee\e( jfe[\ie ld ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\ Qfi^ve^\( Xl]
[`\ n`i Xlj [\d d\ejZ_c`Z_\e Q\i_Xck\e jZ_c`\~\e f[\i [`\ n`i led`ké
k\cYXi\ic\Y\ebzee\e*
D]abcZOb2Ili[\i^\^\envik`^\<l^\eYc`Zb`jk\o`jk\ek*
?`\j\ c`e\Xi\ <l]]Xjjle^ mfe [\i U\`k Y\_\iijZ_k [Xj ^\jXdk\ ?\eé
b\e lej\i\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck* ?`\ Q\i^Xe^\e_\`k `jk mfi{Y\i le[ [Xé
d`k kfk( [`\ Ulble]k \o`jk`\ik efZ_ e`Z_k( le[ Xcc\j( nXj n`i _XY\e(
`jk [\i n`eq`^\ <ljjZ_e`kk [\j q\`kc`Z_\e Ffek`elldj( [\e n`i Xcj
[`\ B\^\enXik Y\q\`Z_e\e( [`\ bfek`el`\ic`Z_ [X_`ejZ_n`e[\k( ld
Q\i^Xe^\e_\`kYqn*Ulble]kqln\i[\e*
?`\j `jk \`e KfjklcXk( Xe [Xj `Z_ i{Zb_Xckcfj ^cXlY\( fYjZ_fe `Z_ \j
eXk{ic`Z_ Y\nl~k `e AiX^\ jk\cc\e bXee* DZ_ _XY\ b\`e\ i\Xc\ Xe[\i\
Ffeq\gk`fe mfe U\`k( XY\i m`\c\ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e j\_\e
Q\i^Xe^\e_\`k le[ Ulble]k Xcj \Y\ejf i\Xc le[ \Y\ejf \o`jk\ek Xe
n`\ [`\ B\^\enXik* ?Xj Y\\`e[ilZb\e[\ =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc ]{i [`\ Kivé
bf^e`k`fe $[Xj QfiXljj\_\e%( [Xj n`i `d =\i\`Z_ [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R`jé
j\ejZ_X]k ^\jXdd\ck _XY\e $m^c* FXg`k\c /%( [\lk\k [XiXl] _`e( [X~ [`\
Ulble]k [`\ B\^\enXik Y\\`e]cljj\e bXee le[+f[\i [X~ lej\i\ <l]é
k\`cle^ [\i U\`k `e Q\i^Xe^\e_\`k( B\^\enXik le[ Ulble]k eli \`e\
--,

n`ccb{ic`Z_\ Ffejkilbk`fe lej\i\j Dek\cc\bkj `jk ) le[ \`e\ m`\c Yi\`é
k\i\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k eli qld O\`c \i]X~k* ?X~ j`Z_ d`k lej\i\i ^ve^`^\e
U\`kmfijk\ccle^ jg\bkXblcvi\ @i^\Ye`jj\ `e [\e IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k\e
\iq`\c\e cXjj\e( _Xk lej eli efZ_ `e lej\i\i <ej`Z_k Y\jkvibk( [X~ [`\
U\`k n`ibc`Z_ jf Y\jZ_X]]\e `jk( n`\ n`i \j Xee\_d\e( \j j`Z_ Xcjf _`\i
e`Z_k eli ld \`e\ ]{i lej\i\e Flcklibi\`j kpg`jZ_\ Ffejkilbk`fe
_Xe[\ck7 XY\i lej\i ^if~\i @i]fc^ bzeek\ XlZ_ Xl] [`\ OXkjXZ_\ qlé
i{Zbql]{_i\e j\`e( [X~ n`i [`\ <en\e[le^ [`\j\i Ffeq\gk`fe Xl]
[\e =\i\`Z_ [\i IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k\e Y\jZ_iveb\e( jkXkk j`\ Xl] le`é
m\ijXc\B{ck`^b\`k_`eqlgi{]\e*
D]abcZOb2R`ibzee\e[Xjg_pj`bXc`jZ_\Pe`m\ijldm\ijk\_\e(
f_e\lejj\cYjkqlm\ijk\_\e*
Qfe [\e K_pj`b\ie m\icXe^k dXe e`Z_k( [X~ j`\ `d MX_d\e `_i\i <ljé
Y`c[le^ ql K_pj`b\ie XlZ_ Flij\ `e KjpZ_fcf^`\ f[\i `e N\cYjk\ié
]X_ile^ Y\c\^\e.* N`\ jkl[`\i\e [`\ vl~\i\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ R\ck( j`\ Y\é
elkq\e [Xql `_i\e Dek\cc\bk le[ `_i\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e Dejkild\ek\(
XY\i `_i\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`k le[ [\i\e jg`i`kl\cc\ IXkli n\i[\e {Y\ié
_Xlgk e`Z_k Y\i{Zbj`Z_k`^k* Pd \`e \oki\d\j =\`jg`\c Xeql]{_i\e6 @j
bXee Qfibfdd\e( [X~ \`e \ijkbcXjj`^\i K_pj`b\i( [\i `d =\i\`Z_ [\i
IXklin`jj\ejZ_X]k\e R\j\ekc`Z_\j c\`jk\k( Q\i^e{^\e [XiXe ]`e[\k(
F`e[\i ql hlvc\e* @j `jk lenX_ijZ_\`ec`Z_( [X~ [`\j\ I\`^le^ j\`e\
@i]fc^\ Xcj K_pj`b\i `i^\e[n`\ Y\\`ekivZ_k`^k( \j j\` [\ee( j\`e\ @dfé
k`fe\e n`ib\e j`Z_ jkzi\e[ Xl] j\`e\ <iY\`k Xlj* NfcXe^\ [`\ `ek\cc\bé
kl\cc\e Av_`^b\`k\e \`e\j AfijZ_\ij [liZ_ j\`e\ I\lifj\ b\`e\ @`eé
Yl~\ \ic\`[\e( Y\kiXZ_k\k dXe \`e\ jfcZ_\ Q\iXecX^le^ Xcj e`Z_k Y\é
jfe[\iji\c\mXek]{ij\`e\n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\<iY\`k*
Dd B\^\ejXkq [Xql gfjklc`\i\e m`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e( [X~ [`\
Q\iXecX^le^( [`\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`k le[ [Xj jg`i`kl\cc\ I`m\Xl \`e\j
H\ejZ_\e [\jj\e R\ckm\ijkve[e`j k`\]^i\`]\e[ Y\\`e]cljj\e bzee\e*
Q`\c\ n\`j\e [XiXl] _`e( [X~ \`e e`\[i`^\j N\`eje`m\Xl e`Z_k eli [`\
bf^e`k`m\e Kifq\jj\ Y\\`ekivZ_k`^\e le[ Xl] [`\j\ R\`j\ jpjk\dXk`jZ_
j\`e\ N`Z_k [\j Pe`m\ijldj m\iq\ii\e le[ j\`e\ Av_`^b\`k( \j `ek\cc\bé
kl\cc ql \i]Xjj\e( \`e\e^\e bXee7 j\`e Nfj\`e n`ibk m`\cd\_i XlZ_ Xl]
[Xj Pe`m\ijld( [Xj \i Y\fYXZ_k\k( \`e( le[ Xl] [`\j\ R\`j\ j`\_k \i
[Xee ]vcjZ_c`Z_\in\`j\ [`\ B{ck`^b\`k j\`e\i <l]]Xjjle^ Y\jkvk`^k* ?Xj
cv~k j`Z_ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ c\`Z_k `d =\i\`Z_ [\i Nfq`Xcn`jj\ejZ_X]k\e \ié
b\ee\e* R\ee dXe ^cXlYk( [`\ H\ejZ_\e j\`\e mfe IXkli Xlj j\cYjké
---

^\n`jj\ Q\iXeknfikle^ kiv^k* H`k [\i qle\_d\e[\e =\[\lkle^ [\i
tbfcf^`\)=\n\^le^ n\i[\e n`i lej j\cYjk Xccdv_c`Z_ d\_i le[ d\_i
Xcj O\`c \`e\j ^iz~\i\e BXeq\e Y\kiXZ_k\e( [fZ_ [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e
KjpZ_fcf^`\e [\eb\e _`\i n\`k {Y\i [`\ i\`e g_pj`jZ_\ <Y_ve^`^b\`k
mfe lej\i\i Pdn\ck _`eXlj* N`\ Y\kiXZ_k\e [\e H\ejZ_\e Xcj bfjé
d`jZ_\ Fi\Xkli( [`\ [\d Pe`m\ijld `e \`e\d m`\c ld]Xjj\e[\i\e
Xl~\ibzig\ic`Z_\e N`ee\ m\iYle[\e `jk( Xcj j`Z_ [Xj j\cYjk lej\i\ \eé
^X^`\ik\jk\etbfcf^\emfijk\cc\ebzee\e*
D]abcZOb2 E\[\i H\ejZ_ Y\^`eek [Xj G\Y\e Ñe\lÉ( [* _* Xcj leY\é
jZ_i`\Y\e\j =cXkk( j`\_k dXe mfe \`e`^\e @`ejZ_iveble^\e XY(
[`\ `_d [liZ_ j\`e ^\e\k`jZ_\j @iY^lk( [liZ_ [`\ Flckliql^\_zé
i`^b\`k le[ [liZ_ i\`e ql]vcc`^\ B\jZ_\_e`jj\ Xl]\ic\^k le[
[liZ_j\`e\M\Xbk`fe\edf[`]`q`\ikn\i[\e*
?Xj Y\[\lk\k( [X~ [Xj G\Y\e \`e\j H\ejZ_\e `d Ki`eq`g d`k j\`e\i
B\Ylik Y\^`eek( [X~ \j ]Xjk XljjZ_c`\~c`Z_ mfe i\`e g_pj`jZ_\e AXbkfé
i\e $Xcj jfcZ_\ ^\ck\e XlZ_ [\i @`e]cl~ \`e\i Flckli le[ [\i H`ké
d\ejZ_\e% Y\jk`ddk n`i[ le[ d`k [\d Of[ \e[\k* ?Xj `jk \`e\ j\_i
bcXi ldi`jj\e\ G\Y\ejjgXee\( `ee\i_XcY [\i\e dXe Xcc\ AXbkfi\e Y\é
^i\`]\eqlbzee\e_f]]k([`\`_i\eQ\icXl]Y\\`e]cljj\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e m\iki\k\e _vl]`^ [`\ <l]]Xjjle^( [X~ [\i
H\ejZ_ j\`e G\Y\e e`Z_k jfqljX^\e Xcj leY\jZ_i`\Y\e\j =cXkk Ñe\lÉ
Y\^`eek6 N`\ ^cXlY\e \knX( [X~ \i jZ_fe ]i{_\i\ G\Y\e ^\_XYk _Xk le[
[X~ \i Y\` G\Y\ejY\^`ee \`e ) k\`cj ^{ejk`^\j( k\`cj le^{ejk`^\j ) @iY\
Xlj [`\j\e ]i{_\i\e G\Y\e d`kYi`e^k* @j ^`Yk XlZ_ [`\ <ej`Z_k( [Xj
d\ejZ_c`Z_\ G\Y\e ^\_\ eXZ_ [\d Of[ `e [\i \`e\e f[\i Xe[\i\e
Afid n\`k\i* @j bXee [\deXZ_ Xcjf j\`e( [X~ \`e H\ejZ_ Y\i\`kj d`k
\`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e U`\c f[\i \`e\i Y\jk`ddk\e H`jj`fe `ej G\Y\e ki`kk*
?Xj G\Y\e \`e\j H\ejZ_\e Xcj i\`e g_pj`jZ_\ G\Y\ejjgXee\ ql Y\é
kiXZ_k\e _vck dXe ]{i leqlcve^c`Z_( n\ee e`Z_k ]{i ^veqc`Z_ len`Z_é
k`^*
D]abcZOb2 ?\i H\ejZ_ n`i[ [liZ_ j\`e ^\e\k`jZ_\j @iY^lk le[
j\`e\Pdn\ckmfccjkve[`^[\k\id`e`\ik*
=\` [\i @izik\ile^ [\j mfiXlj^\^Xe^\e\e KfjklcXkj _XY\ `Z_ [`\
M\Xbk`fe\e [\j H\ejZ_\e Xl] [`\a\e`^\e AXbkfi\e( [`\ Xl] `_e \`en`i)
b\e le[ [\e Q\icXl] j\`e\j G\Y\ej Y\jk`dd\e( eli Xe^\[\lk\k* ?`\
--0

fik_f[fo\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck gfjklc`\ik( [X~ [Xj
d\ejZ_c`Z_\ G\Y\e c\kqkc`Z_ mfccjkve[`^ mfe [\e i\`e g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e
Kifq\jj\e Y\jk`ddk n`i[( [`\ jfnf_c j\`e \`^\e\j R\j\e Xcj XlZ_ [Xj
[\i `_e ld^\Y\e[\e Pdn\ck XljdXZ_\e* ?XY\` ^\_k dXe jf n\`k(
ql Y\_Xlgk\e( n\ee dXe [Xj ^\jXdk\ ^\e\k`jZ_\ Kfk\ek`Xc( d`k [\d
\`e H\ejZ_ ^\Yfi\e n`i[( le[ Xcc\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_)gjpZ_`jZ_\e Kifq\jj\
b\ee\e n{i[\( [`\ Xl] j\`e G\Y\e \`en`ib\e( [Xee nvi\ a\[\j \`eq\ce\
@i\`^e`j `e j\`e\d G\Y\e m\ijk\_YXi le[ mfiXljjX^YXi* De R`ibc`Z_é
b\`k _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ _`\i a\[fZ_ ld \`e e`\ \ii\`Z_YXi\j U`\c( [\ee Xcc\`e
[`\ <eqX_c [\i Xl] [\e H\ejZ_\e \`en`ib\e[\e AXbkfi\e `jk jf i`\é
j\e^if~( [X~ j`\ e`Z_k \`edXc mfe \`e\i <ik ÑNlg\i)>fdglk\iÉ m\iXié
Y\`k\kn\i[\ebzeek\e*
Oifkq[\d _Xk dXe [Xj B\]{_c( [X~ \`e `e[`m`[l\cc\j H\ejZ_\ec\Y\e
`e j\`e\e Pdi`jj\e d`k \`e\d j\_i _f_\e RX_ijZ_\`ec`Z_b\`kj^iX[
mfiXljjX^YXi nvi\* ?\i H\ejZ_ `jk e`Z_k ]i\`* ?\i ]i\`\ R`cc\ `jk eli
\`e\ Dcclj`fe( [\i n`i \ic`\^\e* De R`ibc`Z_b\`k n`i[ Xcc\j [liZ_ [Xj
UljXdd\ejg`\c mfe HXk\i`\ le[ @e\i^`\ `e MXld le[ U\`k Y\jk`ddk*
?\d\ekjgi\Z_\e[ nvi\ \j XlZ_ j`eecfj( mfe Q\iXeknfikc`Z_b\`k ql
jgi\Z_\e( [\ee Xcc\j `jk aX mfi_\iY\jk`ddk le[ ^\jZ_`\_k Xl] [`\ \`eq`^
dz^c`Z_\<ikle[R\`j\*
Q`\c\ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e \ib\ee\e [`\j\ [\k\id`e`jk`jZ_\
<l]]Xjjle^ Xcj k\`cn\`j\ i`Z_k`^ Xe( _Xck\e j`\ XY\i ]{i lemfccjkve[`^*
N`\ cXjj\e [\i Q\iXeknfikc`Z_b\`k [\j H\ejZ_\e le[ j\`e\d ]i\`\e
R`cc\e \`e\e ^\n`jj\e Ng`\ciXld le[ Xi^ld\ek`\i\e( [X~ [`\j\i
[liZ_ @ekn`Zbcle^ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e Fiv]k\ dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ efZ_ \ié
n\`k\ik n\i[\e bzeek\* <lZ_ n\ee \`e H\ejZ_ ^cXlYk( ]Xjk Xcc\j `e
j\`e\d G\Y\e j\` mfi_\iY\jk`ddk( Yc\`Yk `_d `e \knX [fZ_ [`\ RX_c
qn`jZ_\e d\_i\i\e Hz^c`Z_b\`k\e( XlZ_ n\ee j`\ j`Z_ Xcj i\Z_k
jZ_n`\i`^\in\`j\edX^*
D]abcZOb2N\cYjkn\een`i^cXlY\e([XjG\Y\e[\jH\ejZ_\ej\`
mzcc`^[\k\id`e`\ik(d{jj\en`i[fZ_jf_Xe[\ce(XcjY\jv~\[\i
H\ejZ_\`e\e]i\`\eR`cc\e*
R\ee a\dXe[ \knXj klk( [Xj d`i e`Z_k ^\]vcck( [Xee n\ik\ `Z_ [Xj jfé
]fik Xcj aSW\S\ A\_c\i( le[ Xcc\ XYjkiXbk\e O_\fi`\e [Xi{Y\i( [X~ [\i
H\ejZ_ `d Bile[\ b\`e\ RX_c _Xk le[ [X~ \i jZ_c`\~c`Z_ [fZ_ eli
[Xj klk( nXj \i kle dl~( ^\iXk\e [XY\` mzcc`^ `e Q\i^\jj\e_\`k* ?`\j\i
\^f`jk`jZ_\( i{Zbj`Z_kjcfj\ F\ic dl~ eXk{ic`Z_ Y\jkiX]k n\i[\e ?`\
--1

O_\fi`\ mfd kfkXc\e ?\k\id`e`jdlj jZ_\`ek `e R`ibc`Z_b\`k eli ]{i
bliq\ <l^\eYc`Zb\ `e gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e GXYfiXkfi`\e Xl]qljZ_\`e\e(
[\ee giXbk`jZ_ ^\_k [`\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [Xmfe Xlj( [X~ [`\ H\ejZ_\e
{Y\i \`e\e ^if~\e R`cc\ejjg`\ciXld m\i]{^\e* DZ_ _XY\ `e [\i OXk [\e
Q\i[XZ_k( [X~ [`\ d\`jk\e KjpZ_fcf^\e [`\ D[\\ [\j ?\k\id`e`jdlj
e`\dXcj Xl] j`Z_ j\cY\i Xen\e[\e( \j j\` [\ee( j`\ nfcck\e `i^\e[\`e\
Q\iXeknfikle^ mfe j`Z_ jZ_`\Y\e7 j`\ j\kq\e m`\cd\_i mfiXlj( [X~ j`\
j\cYjk `e [\i H\_iqX_c `_i\i CXe[cle^\e {Y\i \`e\e ]i\`\e R`cc\e m\ié
]{^\e* <ee\_d\e ql d{jj\e( n`i _vkk\e b\`e\e ]i\`\e R`cc\e( nvi\
`e [\i OXk i\Z_k [\gi`d`\i\e[7 [X_\i i\[\e n`i lej \`e( [X~ n`i Xe
[`\ R`cc\ej]i\`_\`k ^cXlY\e le[ jf _Xe[\ce d{jj\e( Xcj fY n`i j`\ kXké
jvZ_c`Z_ Y\jv~\e ) ld lej {Y\i_Xlgk gfj`k`m qld G\Y\e \`ejk\cc\e
qlbzee\e*
?`\ a^W`WbcSZZS\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e k\`c\e [`\j\ <l]]Xjjle^ e`Z_k( j`\ Y\kfé
e\e a\[fZ_( [X~ n`i `e [\i OXk [liZ_ PeY\jfee\e_\`k le[ [liZ_
lej\i\ qX_ci\`Z_\e g_pj`jZ_\e le[ \dfk`feXc\e <Y_ve^`^b\`k\e `e
lej\i\i CXe[cle^jn\`j\ f]k eX_\ql mzcc`^ [\k\id`e`\ik j`e[* R\ee
n`i e`Z_k Xl] `i^\e[\`e\ R\`j\ gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_ le[ jg`i`kl\cc nXZ_
n\i[\e ) nfY\` n`i lej qlevZ_jk \`edXc {Y\i lej\i\ \`^\e\e Bi\eq\e
bcXin\i[\e d{jj\e )( Yc\`Y\e n`i lej\i ^Xeq\j G\Y\e cXe^ le[ m`\cé
c\`Z_k efZ_ {Y\i [\e Of[ _`eXlj `e jgvk\i\e DebXieXk`fe\e `e j`Z_
jkve[`^n`\[\i_fc\e[\egjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\eHljk\ie^\]Xe^\e*
D]abcZOb2R`ib\ee\e[`\B\jZ_`Z_k\[\jH\ejZ_\ei\cXk`m^lk*
Pej\i\ =`Yc`fk_\b\e j`e[ Xe^\]{cck d`k _`jkfi`jZ_\i G`k\iXkli( le[ [Xj
XiZ_vfcf^`jZ_\ =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc ]{cck [`\ G{Zb\e `d =`c[ a\e\i K\i`f[\e
[\i H\ejZ__\`k( {Y\i [`\ lej e`Z_kj jZ_i`]kc`Z_ {Y\ic`\]\ik `jk* R\ee
dXe j`Z_ Xcjf \`e\e Xcc^\d\`e\e uY\iYc`Zb {Y\i [`\ B\jZ_`Z_k\ [\i
H\ejZ__\`k m\ijZ_X]]\e n`cc( YiXlZ_k dXe eli `e \`e\ =`Yc`fk_\b ql
^\_\e* Q`\c\ O_\fi`\e {Y\i [`\ KjpZ_\ [\j H\ejZ_\e ) Y\`jg`\cjé
n\`j\ {Y\i [`\ AiX^\( `en`\n\`k <^^i\jj`m`kvk Xe^\Yfi\e `jk ) YXj`\i\e
Xl][`\j\iXcc^\d\`eXbq\gk`\ik\eB\jZ_`Z_k\[\iH\ejZ__\`k*
Q`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e m\iki\k\e XlZ_ _`\i \`e\ ^Xeq Xe[\i\
<l]]Xjjle^( le[ j`\ Y\il]\e j`Z_ [XY\` dXeZ_dXc Xl] Flckli\e( {Y\i
[`\ b\`e\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e =\i`Z_k\ mfic`\^\e* Cvl]`^ jk{kq\e j`\
j`Z_ d\_i Xl] d{e[c`Z_\ uY\ic`\]\ile^\e Xcj Xl] jZ_i`]kc`Z_\ <l]é
q\`Z_ele^\e* @j nvi\ `ek\i\jjXek( \`edXc lej\i\i Qfic`\Y\ ]{i ^\é
jZ_i`\Y\e\ B\jZ_`Z_k\ Xl] [\e Bile[ ql ^\_\e* R\ee \`e \`eq`^\j
--2

HXeljbi`gk jX^k( < j\` nX_i( XY\i qX_ci\`Z_\ d{e[c`Z_\ uY\ic`\]\é
ile^\e Y\_Xlgk\e( = j\` nX_i( [Xee Xbq\gk`\i\e n`i `d Xcc^\d\`é
e\e <* @j `jk ^Xeq Xd{jXek( j`Z_ mfiqljk\cc\e( [X~ dz^c`Z_\in\`j\
\`e`^\ iX]]`e`\ik\ G{^e\i Xlj ]i{_\i\e U\`k\e( [`\ ^lk jZ_i\`Y\e bfeeé
k\e( Xl] lej \`e\e n\`k ^iz~\i\e @`e]cl~ Xlj{Y\e Xcj H\ejZ_\e( [`\
j`Z_ \oXbk Xe \knXj \i`ee\ik\e le[ [Xj nX_i_\`kj^\dv~ Xe `_i\ IXZ_é
bfdd\en\`k\i^\^\Y\e_XY\e*
<l] lej\i\ <l]]Xjjle^ mfe [\i B\jZ_`Z_k\ [\i H\ejZ__\`k jk{kqk j`Z_
lej\i AfikjZ_i`kkj^cXlY\7 [X^\^\e m\ikiXk\e \`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fé
cf^`\e [`\ <ej`Z_k( n`i _vkk\e lej( m\i^c`Z_\e d`k ]i{_\i\e( `e gjpZ_`é
jZ_\i le[ jg`i`kl\cc\i C`ej`Z_k n\`k ]fik^\jZ_i`kk\e\i\e Flckli\e(
\_\i qli{Zb\ekn`Zb\ck( n\ee j`\ XlZ_ e`Z_k ^\iX[\ qX_ci\`Z_\ k\Z_e`é
jZ_\ @iile^\ejZ_X]k\e _\imfi^\YiXZ_k _XY\e* ?X~ n`i AfikjZ_i`kk\
dXZ_\e( `jk ]{i lej \`e\ j\_i n`Z_k`^\ QfiXljj\kqle^( le[ [X_\i Y\é
q\`Z_e\e n`i H\ejZ_\e( [`\ [`\ <l]]Xjjle^ m\iki\k\e( ]i{_\i\ Flcklé
i\ej\`\e[\ilej\i\e{Y\ic\^\e^\n\j\e(\`e]XZ_XcjÑNg`ee\iÉ*
D]abcZOb2R`in`jj\e{Y\i[\ePijgile^le[[`\@mfclk`fe[\j*
H\ejZ_\e=\jZ_\`[*
?Xj fik_f[fo\ KfjklcXk cXlk\k ]fc^\e[\idX~\e6 ?\i H\ejZ_ _Xk j`Z_
Xl]^ile[ \`e\i M\`_\ mfe g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e Ul]vcc\e \ekn`Zb\ck( [`\ j`Z_
`_i\ij\`kj Xlj \`e\i M\`_\ jfcZ_\i Ul]vcc\ f[\i Xlj qnXe^jcvl]`^\e
M\Xbk`fe\e Xl] [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ Pdn\ck \i^\Y\e _XY\e* Dd Bile[\
Y\[\lk\k [Xj( [X~ n`i Xl] [`\j\ R\`j\ \ekjkXe[\e j`e[( n\`c n`i lek\i
[\e _\iijZ_\e[\e =\[`e^le^\e \Y\e Xl] [`\j\ R\`j\ \ekjk\_\e dl~é
k\e* Pej\i\ @ekn`Zbcle^ mfd <]]\e qld H\ejZ_\e _Xk j`Z_ eXZ_ [`\é
j\dBile[dljk\imfccqf^\e*
@`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e m\iki\k\e [`\ O_\fi`\( [X~ \j j`Z_ Y\`
[\i @ekjk\_le^ [\j H\ejZ_\e e`Z_k ld \`e\ <ik Yc`e[\i @mfclk`fe
_Xe[\ck( jfe[\ie [X~ [`\j\ @mfclk`fe mfe Xl~\ig_pj`bXc`jZ_\e Fiv]é
k\e f[\i mfe \`e\d Yqn* d\_i\i\e ^zkkc`Z_\e NZ_zg]\ie ) f[\i XlZ_
mfe [\i `e_vi\ek\e G\Y\e[`^b\`k le[ U`\cjki\Y`^b\`k [\j Pe`m\ijldj
j\cYjk ) `e BXe^ ^\j\kqk nfi[\e `jk* IXZ_ Xe[\i\e KfjklcXk\e `jk [\i
H\ejZ_ [Xj @i^\Ye`j \`e\j Y\jfe[\i\e NZ_zg]le^jXbkj( f[\i XY\i \i
`jk \`e U\l^\ [X]{i( [X~ _z_\i\ N\`ej\Y\e\e Xl] [`\j\i @i[\ Xd R\ib\
j`e[7 Xcj jfcZ_\i `jk \i [X_\i b\`e\jn\^j \`e Kif[lbk [\i @i[\ j\cYjk(
fYjZ_fe \i [liZ_ j\`e\ G\`Yc`Z_b\`k qn\`]\ccfj XlZ_ \`e Nk{Zb @i[\
`jk*
--3

D]abcZOb2 R`i bzee\e mfe \`e\d B\jZ_zg] n`\ [\d H\ejZ_\e
e`Z_k Xccqlm`\c \inXik\e( f[\i XY\i6 ?\e F\eeke`jj\e le[ A\ié
k`^b\`k\e[\jH\ejZ_\ej`e[b\`e\Bi\eq\e^\j\kqk*
=\`[\ KfjklcXk\ n\i[\e ) dXeZ_dXc jf^Xi `e iXjZ_\d R\Z_j\c ) mfe
KjpZ_fcf^\e m\iki\k\e* ?`\ g\jj`d`jk`jZ_\ <l]]Xjjle^ ) eXZ_ [\i [\i
H\ejZ_ eli \`e Xe`dXc`jZ_\j R\j\e `jk( [Xj Xlj \`e\d j`ee) le[ q`\cé
cfj\e Pe`m\ijld _\imfi^\^Xe^\e le[( n`\ [`\ B\jZ_`Z_k\ Y\n`\j\e
_Xk( mfcc\i NZ_nvZ_\e `jk ) n`i[ m\idlkc`Z_ d\`jk [Xee m\iki\k\e(
n\ee [`\ ?`e^\ jZ_c\Z_k jk\_\e* R\ee n`i [X^\^\e @i]fc^ _XY\e( e\`é
^\e n`i [Xql( [\e H\ejZ_\e ]{i ^\iX[\ql ^zkkc`Z_ ql _Xck\e le[ `_d
[`\ Av_`^b\`k qlqlkiXl\e( [Xj ^\jXdk\ Pe`m\ijld ql \ifY\ie le[ Xcé
c\j ]\ik`^qlYi`e^\e( nXj \i n`cc* Dee\i_XcY [\i Xd\i`bXe`jZ_\e Flckli
e\`^k dXe Xcc^\d\`e ql [`\j\i fgk`d`jk`jZ_\e <l]]Xjjle^( [\iql]fc^\
\`eleY\^i\eqk\ik\Z_e`jZ_\iAfikjZ_i`kkdz^c`Z_`jk*
Q`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\kfe\e( n`\ Yc`e[ lej [`\j\ Y\`[\e
<eeX_d\e ]{i [Xj dXZ_\e bzee\e( nXj n`i `e R`ibc`Z_b\`k j`e[*
Q`\c\ mfe `_e\e j`e[ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [Xmfe {Y\iq\l^k( [X~ [\i H\ejZ_
j`Z_ ) n\ee XlZ_ e`Z_k `d Pd^Xe^ d`k [\i O\Z_e`b ) `e \`e\d leé
^cXlYc`Z_\e <ljdX~ _z_\i \ekn`Zb\ce bzeek\( n\ee \i j`Z_ eli
[\i H{_\ \`e\i jfcZ_\e Afik\ekn`Zbcle^ lek\iqz^\* <Y\i [`\j\ @mfé
clk`fed{~k\d`k[\i@ib\eeke`j[\jj\eY\^`ee\e(nXj\`eH\ejZ_
) \`ejZ_c`\~c`Z_ j\`e\j jg`i`kl\cc\e Kfk\ek`Xcj ) n`ibc`Z_ `jk* ?`\ jg`i`é
kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e j`e[ e`Z_k [\i g\jj`d`jk`jZ_\e <l]]Xjjle^( dXe
bzee\ mfe \`e\d B\jZ_zg] n`\ [\d H\ejZ_\e e`Z_k Xccqlm`\c \inXié
k\e7 j`\ Y\kfe\e m`\cd\_i [`\ =\[\lkle^ \Z_k\i ?\dlk7 [`\j\ q\`^k
j`Z_ e`Z_k [Xi`e( [X~ n`i lej Xe [`\ =iljk jZ_cX^\e le[ lej\i NZ_`Zbé
jXc Y\bcX^\e( jfe[\ie [Xi`e( [X~ n`i lej lej\i\i Bi\eq\e le[ lej\é
i\i =\[\lkle^jcfj`^b\`k Xe^\j`Z_kj [\j Ffjdfj `e j\`e\i B\jXdk_\`k
n`ibc`Z_ Y\nl~k n\i[\e* Q`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\kfe\e
eXZ_[i{Zbc`Z_( [X~ n`ibc`Z_\ ?\dlk \`e\ leXY[`e^YXi\ QfiXljj\ké
qle^ [X]{i `jk( [X~ [\i H\ejZ_ `d Alebk`fejgifq\~ [\j ^\jXdk\e
Ffjdfj\`e\n\j\ekc`Z_\Mfcc\jg`\c\ebXee*
D]abcZOb2 E\[\i H\ejZ_ `jk mfe a\[\d Xe[\i\e `jfc`\ik( `e j\`e
I\im\ejpjk\d\`e^\jZ_cfjj\e*
N\kqk dXe mfiXlj( [X~ [Xj =\nl~kj\`e [Xj @i^\Ye`j g_pj`bXc`jZ_\i
Alebk`fe\e [\j I\im\ejpjk\dj `jk le[ [X~ [Xj K_pj`bXc`jZ_\ [Xj \`eé
--4

q`^ R`ibc`Z_\ `jk( [Xee cv~k j`Z_ XeXkfd`jZ_ Y\n\`j\e( [X~ b\`e I\ié
m\ejpjk\d d`k \`e\d Xe[\i\e I\im\ejpjk\d `e led`kk\cYXi\e Ffeé
kXbk ki\k\e bXee( jfe[\ie kXkjvZ_c`Z_ mzcc`^ `jfc`\ik `jk* Ili Xl]
Pdn\^\e bXee dXe d`k \`e\d Xe[\i\e H\ejZ_\e FfekXbk Xl]e\_é
d\e6 HXe czjk Q\ive[\ile^\e `e j\`e\d Fzig\i Xlj( [`\ Xe[\i\ g_pé
j`jZ_\ @e\i^`\e `e BXe^ j\kq\e( [`\ `_i\ij\`kj n`\[\ild M\q\gkfi\e
`d Xe[\i\e H\ejZ_\e Y\\`e]cljj\e le[ `e I\im\e`dglcj\ ld^\nXeé
[\ck n\i[\e( n\cZ_\ Xl] [Xj =\nl~kj\`e [\j KXike\ij Yqn* [\i KXike\é
i`e n`ib\e ) \`e cXe^\i le[ `e[`i\bk\i Q\iY`e[le^jn\^ mfcc\i dz^é
c`Z_\i Diik{d\i* E\[\i H\ejZ_ `jk Xcjf \`e\ Dej\c( le[ qnXi \`e\ mzcc`^
`jfc`\ik\ Dej\c* ?Xj =\jk\( nXj n`i kle bzee\e( ld Bc{Zb le[ N`ee
`e lej\i\d G\Y\e ql ]`e[\e( `jk( [X~ n`i [`\ Alebk`fejn\`j\e lej\i\j
I\im\ejpjk\dj df[`]`q`\i\e $lej\i ?\eb\e( lej\i\ @dg]`e[le^\e(
lej\i\ Qfijk\ccle^jbiX]k% f[\i [X~ n`i [X]{i jfi^\e( [X~ lej eli \ié
n{ejZ_k\ j\ejfi`jZ_\ M\`q\ mfe j\`k\e [\i R\ck le[ Xe[\i\i H\eé
jZ_\e\ii\`Z_\e(le[e`Z_k[`\le\in{ejZ_k\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e( [`\ mfe [\i <eeX_d\ Xlj^\_\e( [X~
[\i H\ejZ_ e`Z_k eli \`e g_pj`jZ_\j R\j\e `jk( \iz]]e\e lej XlZ_
[`\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k \`e\j RW`SYbS\ FfekXbk\j qn`jZ_\e qn\` d\ejZ_c`é
Z_\e R\j\e( \`e\j FfekXbk\j qn`jZ_\e `_i\i Y\`[\i jg`i`kl\cc\i
@jj\eq( [`\ j`Z_ e`Z_k Xl] [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e @`^\ejZ_X]k\e [\j I\ié
m\ejpjk\dj Y\jZ_ivebk* G`\Y\jY\q`\_le^\e Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ dz^\e `e
m`\c\e Avcc\e <lj[ilZb \`e\i Z_\d`jZ_)e\lkiXc\e <eq`\_le^ qn`é
jZ_\e qn\` H\ejZ_\e j\`e( XY\i dXeZ_dXc j`e[ j`\ qn\`]\ccfj d\_i
Xcj [Xj* G`\Y\ bXee \`e\ @e\i^`\ f[\i \`e\ M\Xc`kvk j\`e( [`\ kXkjvZ_c`Z_
[`\ Fcl]k qn`jZ_\e qn\` H\ejZ_\e {Y\iYi{Zbk ) le[ e`Z_k eli \`e\
n`ccb{ic`Z_\I\lgif^iXdd`\ile^[\jd\ejZ_c`Z_\eã=`fZfdglk\ijä*
D]abcZOb2 ?`\ gjpZ_`jZ_\ @e\i^`\ c\`k\k j`Z_ mfccjkve[`^ mfe [\i
g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e @e\i^`\ XY( n`\ j`\ `e [\e g_pj`fcf^`jZ_\e Kifé
q\jj\e[\jFzig\ij`e@ijZ_\`ele^ki`kk*
Pej\i\ ^\jXdk\ @e\i^`\( Xcc lej\i\ B\]{_c\ [\j G\Y\e[`^j\`ej f[\i
[\j Ofkj\`ej( [\i H{[`^b\`k f[\i [\i OXkbiX]k \ekjkXdd\e [\d Nkf]]é
n\Z_j\c [\i `e lej\i\e Fzig\i ^\jg\`Z_\ik\e IX_ile^* R`i dz^\e
m\ijlZ_\e( [`\j\e @e\i^`\)Nkf]]n\Z_j\c [liZ_ ?if^\e le[ v_ec`Z_\
KivgXiXk\ ql Y\\`e]cljj\e( XY\i c\kqkc`Z_ j`e[ n`i( nXj lej\i\ @e\i^`\
Y\ki`]]k( [fZ_ mfccjkve[`^ Xl] IX_ile^jXl]eX_d\ Xe^\n`\j\e* ?Xj
Y\[\lk\k( [X~ \j \`e\ bcXi\ fY\i\ Bi\eq\ [X]{i ^`Yk( nXj \`e d\ejZ_c`é
--5

Z_\j R\j\e c\`jk\e bXee( le[ [`\j\ fY\i\ Bi\eq\ c`\^k e`Z_k j\_i n\`k
{Y\i[\i^\nz_ec`Z_\e*
Dd B\^\ejXkq [Xql gfjklc`\i\e m`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e( [X~ [`\
IX_ile^jXl]eX_d\ eli SW\S @e\i^`\hl\cc\ ]{i [\e H\ejZ_\e `jk( le[
[X~ \j [Xe\Y\e efZ_ n`Z_k`^\ Xl~\ig_pj`jZ_\ @e\i^`\hl\cc\e ^`Yk( [`\
dXe XeqXg]\e bXee* Q`\c\ mfe `_e\e gfjklc`\i\e jf^Xi( [X~ n`i jk\ié
Y\e n{i[\e( n\ee n`i mfe [`\j\e Xl~\ig_pj`jZ_\e @e\i^`\hl\cc\e
XY^\jZ_e`kk\e n{i[\e6 ^\iX[\ j`\ \i_Xck\e lej c\Y\e[`^ le[ d\ejZ_é
c`Z_( [\ee n`i j`e[ b\`e\jn\^j eli HXjZ_`e\e qli PdnXe[cle^ mfe
IX_ile^ `e Hljb\ckvk`^b\`k le[ K_XekXj`\* De [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck
^`Yk \j a\kqk {Y\iq\l^\e[\j n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\j =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc ]{i [`\
@o`jk\eq mfe Xl~\ig_pj`jZ_\e @e\i^`\hl\cc\e ]{i [\e H\ejZ_\e
$j`\_\ FXg`k\c /%( XY\i [`\j\j =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc `jk efZ_ n\e`^ Y\bXeek
le[ _Xk [X_\i Xl] [Xj ?\eb\e [\i d\`jk\e KjpZ_fcf^\e efZ_ bXld
@`e]cl~^\_XYk*

KfjklcXk\{Y\i[`\Alebk`fe[\jH\ejZ_\e
`dPe`m\ijld
D]abcZOb2 ?\i H\ejZ_ _Xk `e \`e\d j`ee) le[ q`\ccfj\e Pe`m\ié
jldb\`e\Alebk`fe*
?X \j j`Z_ Y\` [\i M\Xc`kvk XljjZ_c`\~c`Z_ ld `e MXld le[ U\`k n`ié
b\e[\ HXk\i`\ le[ @e\i^`\ _Xe[\ck( \o`jk`\i\e N`ee le[ U`\c [\j Pe`é
m\ijldj eli Xcj D[\\ `d d\ejZ_c`Z_\e B\_`ie( le[ j\cYjk [`\j\ D[\\
`jk eli [Xj @i^\Ye`j m\ijZ_`\[\e\i g_pj`bXc`jZ_\i Kifq\jj\* ?`\ `d
Pe`m\ijld _\iijZ_\e[\e =\[`e^le^\e j\kq\e [\d H\ejZ_\e b\`e\ié
c\` U`\c* @i bXee j`Z_ j\cYjk U`\c\ \i]`e[\e( n`\ `e \`e`^\e [\i ]fc^\e[\e
KfjklcXk\ efZ_ ql \izik\ie j\`e n`i[( XY\i lek\i [\e i\Xc\e =\[`e^leé
^\e[\jPe`m\ijldj^`Yk\j]{i`_en\[\iN`eeefZ_Un\Zb*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e d\jj\e [\d H\ejZ_\e `d Pe`m\ijld
\`e\ Y\jk`ddk\ Alebk`fe ql7 j`\ bXee j\_i lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\i IXkli
j\`e le[ \knX `e [\i <l]^XY\ Y\jk\_\e( qld Ml_d\ Bfkk\j @iczjle^
ql \icXe^\e7 j`\ bXee XlZ_ [Xi`e Y\jk\_\e( j`Z_ j\`e\j @`eY\qf^\ej\`ej
`e [Xj ?ive^\e [\j Pe`m\ijldj qli @mfclk`fe jkvib\i Y\nl~k ql n\ié
[\e7 j`\ bXee jZ_c`\~c`Z_ [Xi`e Y\jk\_\e( [X~ dXe Xcj Q\_`b\c ]{i _zé
_\i\ \mfclk`fevi\ Fiv]k\ [`\ek( [`\ lej\i\ @Y\e\ \ii\`Z_\e nfcc\e
ljn*
-.,

D]abcZOb2 ?\i \`eq`^\ n`ibc`Z_\ N`ee [\j G\Y\ej Y\jk\_k [Xi`e(
[X~ dXe \`e CzZ_jkdX~ Xe Ai\l[\ ^\n`eek le[ \`e H`e[\jkdX~
XeNZ_d\iq\e\ic\`[\k*
?X [\d KfjklcXk [\i fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j R\jk\ej ql]fc^\
[`\ `d Pe`m\ijld _\iijZ_\e[\e i\Xc\e =\[`e^le^\e [\d H\ejZ_\e
b\`e\ `i^\e[n`\ ^\Xik\k\ Alebk`fe qln\`j\e( \i]`e[\k \i j`\ j`Z_ j\cYjk*
?\ee \i _Xk \`e =\[{i]e`j [XeXZ_( Xe \`e\e N`ee ql ^cXlY\e* ?X n`i
lej ^\ie ]i\l\e le[ j\_i le^\ie c\`[\e( bXee dXe Xcc\ G\Y\ejq`\c\
le[ )qn\Zb\ Xcj Q\ijlZ_\ Y\kiXZ_k\e( Ai\l[\ ql ]`e[\e le[ NZ_d\ié
q\e ql m\id\`[\e* R\`c n`i bfdgc\o\ Ji^Xe`jd\e j`e[( bzee\e [`\j\
Q\ijlZ_\ `e j\_i m\ijZ_`\[\e\ M`Z_kle^\e ^\_\e( [\ee nXj ]{i [\e
\`e\e \`e\ Ai\l[\ `jk( bXee ]{i \`e\e Xe[\i\e H\ejZ_\e Xlj Bi{e[\e(
[`\ `e j\`e\i KjpZ_\ c`\^\e( \knXj NZ_d\iqmfcc\j j\`e* N\cYjk [Xj
=\d{_\e( `d G\Y\e \`e\e ÑN`eeÉ ql ]`e[\e f[\i [Xj Pe`m\ijld n`jé
j\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ ql \i]fijZ_\e( bXee dXe Xcj Nki\Y\e eXZ_ Ai\l[\ [\lk\e*
R\ee [`\j\j G\Y\e _`\i Xcc\j `jk( nXj n`i _XY\e( nXild jfcck\ dXe
[Xee e`Z_k m\ijlZ_\e( dz^c`Z_jk m`\c Ai\l[\ Xlj `_d ã_\iXljqljZ_cX)
^\eä;
@`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e( n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [`\ Tf^X)G\_i\(
j\_\e ^\iX[\ `e [`\j\d Q\ijlZ_( Ai\l[\ ql \ii`e^\e le[ NZ_d\iq\e
ql m\id\`[\e( [`\ \`^\ekc`Z_\ PijXZ_\ ]{i [`\ d`~c`Z_\ GX^\( `e [\i
j`Z_ [\i H\ejZ_ Y\]`e[\k* ?Xj G\Y\e Yi`e^k qnXe^jcvl]`^ ]{i a\[\e
`lZ_ [Xj \`e\ f[\i Xe[\i\ H`~^\jZ_`Zb d`k j`Z_7 n\ee dXe Xl] j\`e
Q\i^e{^\e Xlj `jk le[ a\[\i <ik mfe NZ_d\iq le[ PeY\_X^\e Xljqlé
n\`Z_\e jlZ_k( [Xee Y\bfdd\e jfnf_c [`\ Ai\l[\ Xcj XlZ_ [\i
NZ_d\iq \`e jkvib\i\j B\n`Z_k* ?X \`e ^\n`jj\j HX~ Xe NZ_d\iq\e
]{i lej lem\id\`[c`Z_ `jk( cv~k lej [Xj =\[{i]e`j( `_e\e Xljqln\`Z_\e(
b\`e\ Ml_\7 \j qn`e^k lej [Xql( lej jkve[`^ `i^\e[n\cZ_\e Dcclj`fe\e
_`eql^\Y\e* ?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\kfe\e( [X~ n`i c\ie\e
d{jj\e( lej\i\ @`ejk\ccle^ ^\^\e{Y\i [\d NZ_d\iq le[ [\i Ai\l[\
ql ve[\ie( le[+f[\i [X~ n`i [\e NZ_d\iq ^Xeq Y\nl~k \ic\Y\e d{jé
j\e( [\ee \i `jk [\i F\`d lej\i\i @i]X_ile^\e( lej\i\i g\ijzec`Z_\e
M\`]le^*
D]abcZOb2?XjPe`m\ijld`jkiXl_(^c\`Z_^{ck`^le[k\`ceX_djcfj*
C`\i bzeek\ \j j`Z_ qld`e[\jk k\`cn\`j\ ld \`e\ df[\ie\ Q\ij`fe
[\j n\`km\iYi\`k\k\e Z_i`jkc`Z_\e BcXlY\ej _Xe[\ce( [X~ Xcc\ HXk\i`\
-.-

`d Ki`eq`g \knXj =zj\j le[ \`e\ Q\ijlZ_le^ `jk( [`\ lej mfe Bfkk
]\ie_vck* R\ee [Xj Pe`m\ijld n`ibc`Z_ j`ee) le[ q`\ccfj `jk( n`\ bzeé
e\e n`i [Xee `i^\e[n\cZ_\ Q\iY`e[le^ d`k `_d _XY\e ) Xlj^\efdé
d\e [`\ \`e\( [X~ n`i m\ijlZ_\e( [\e FXkXjkifg_\e Xljqln\`Z_\e(
[`\ lej mfe [fik_\i [if_\e; Pe[ d`k N`Z_\i_\`k bzee\e n`i e`Z_k
\inXik\e( [X~ [Xj Pe`m\ijld lej ^\^\e{Y\i j`Z_ Xe[\ij m\i_vck Xcj
^c\`Z_^{ck`^ le[ k\`ceX_djcfj6 ?\e H\ejZ_\e Yc\`Yk e`Z_kj Xe[\i\j
{Yi`^( Xcj jfnf_c ]{i `_i\e Pek\i_Xck Xcj XlZ_ ]{i `_i\ Ai\l[\ le[
`_iQ\i^e{^\e)\`eq\cele[`eBilgg\e)j\cYjkqljfi^\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e dz^\e qnXi [`\ <l]]Xjjle^ k\`c\e( [X~
\j `d Pe`m\ijld iXl_ ql^\_k( XY\i \j `jk eXZ_ `_i\i <ej`Z_k e`Z_k
mzcc`^ ^c\`Z_^{ck`^ le[ k\`ceX_djcfj* Cvik\ le[ MXl_\`k bXee dXe
XlZ_ Xcj M\Z_k le[ B\i\Z_k`^b\`k j\_\e* Dejf]\ie n`i n`Z_k`^\
=\jkXe[k\`c\ \`e\j j`Z_ \ekn`Zb\ce[\e( Xlj R\Z_j\cY\q`\_le^\e Y\é
jk\_\e[\e Pe`m\ijldj j`e[( bzee\e n`i Xlj `_d G\_i\e \dg]Xe^\e(
n\ee n`i eli [XiXl] XZ_k\e* ?Xj Pe`m\ijld bXee `e [\i OXk [liZ_Xlj
i\Xbk`fejY\i\`k j\`e( nfY\` lej\i\ jg`i`kl\cc\ N\`ej\Y\e\ m\ijZ_`\[\e\
`_i \ekjgi\Z_\e[\ Qfi^ve^\ Xl] j`Z_ q`\_k* ?Xj bfddk mfi Xcc\d `e
Bli[a`\]]j KjpZ_fcf^`\ qld <lj[ilZb( le[ qnXi Xl] \`e\ <ik le[
R\`j\( [`\ dXe \ekn\[\i Xcj nle[\imfcc f[\i Xcj \ijZ_i\Zb\e[ Y\é
q\`Z_e\e bXee* ?`\ Qfijk\ccle^ `jk [`\( [X~ [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\ N\`ej\Y\e\
\`e\j H\ejZ_\e `e j\`e G\Y\e _`e\`en`ibk( [X~ [Xj Pe`m\ijld Xl]
ãB\Y\k\ä i\X^`\ik( le[ qnXi `e [\d N`ee\( [X~ [Xj( nXj dXe _\iY\`é
n{ejZ_k( Xl~\ig_pj`bXc`jZ_\ Fiv]k\ ]i\`j\kqk( [`\ [`\ O\e[\eq q\`^\e(
[`\ ^\n{ejZ_k\ @i]{ccle^ XlZ_ g_pj`bXc`jZ_ _\iY\`ql]{_i\e* IXZ_
Bli[a`\]]j <l]]Xjjle^ Y\jk\_k [Xj CXlgkgifYc\d [Xi`e( [X~ n`i gjpé
Z_`jZ_ jf ^\jkzik j`e[ le[ jf m`\c\ `e j`Z_ n`[\ijgi{Z_c`Z_\ le[ q\ié
jkzi\i`jZ_\ R{ejZ_\ _XY\e( [X~ [\i\e @i]{ccle^ j`Z_ j\_i leXe^\é
e\_dXljn`ib\ebzeek\*
D]abcZOb2@j`jklej\i\<l]^XY\([XjPe`m\ijldql\ifY\ie*
?`\j\j KfjklcXk jZ_\`ek j`Z_ Xlj [\e \Y\e [Xi^\jk\cck\e <ejZ_Xlle^\e
{Y\i [`\ IXkli [\j Pe`m\ijldj le[ {Y\i [\e KcXkq le[ [`\ Alebk`fe
[\j H\ejZ_\e `e [`\j\d Pe`m\ijld ql \i^\Y\e* R\ee n`i lej\i
uY\ic\Y\e j`Z_\ijk\cc\e jfn`\ \`e CzZ_jkdX~ Xe Ai\l[\ le[ \`e H`eé
[\jkdX~ Xe NZ_d\iq \ic\Y\e nfcc\e( d{jj\e n`i [Xj Pe`m\ijld Xcj
\`e iXl_\j le[ k\`ceX_djcfj\j B\Y`c[\ Xej\_\e( [Xj n`i eXZ_ lej\i\e
=\[{i]e`jj\e ) f[\i nXj n`i [X]{i _Xck\e ) ^\jkXck\e d{jj\e* ?`\j\j
-..

KfjklcXk `jk jf n\`k m\iYi\`k\k( [X~ \j d\`e\i H\`ele^ eXZ_ jZ_n\i]Xcé
c\e n`i[( \`eqlj\_\e( n`\ e\^Xk`m \j lej\i Q\i_Xck\e Y\jk`ddk* Djk
lej\i GXe[ V[`\ PN<W e`Z_k ^\iX[\ [X[liZ_ ^if~ ^\nfi[\e( [X~
\j [`\ iXl_\ R`c[e`j \Y\ejf Y\qnle^\e _Xk n`\ [`\ `e `_i c\Y\e[\e
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[\jH\ejZ_\e;
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\i]{cc\e7 \j `jk a\[fZ_ e`Z_k lej\i\ <l]^XY\( [\e Q\ijlZ_ ql lek\ie\_é
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nXj n`i ) `e lej\i\i Y\^i\eqk\e N`Z_k ) Xcj ]{i lej ^lk le[ qlkiv^c`Z_
\iXZ_k\e*
D]abcZOb2 R`i jk\cc\e [`\ Y\` n\`k\d _zZ_jk\ Afid mfe G\Y\e
Xl] @i[\e [Xi( le[ n`i j`e[ m\idlkc`Z_ [Xj \`eq`^\ `ek\cc`^\ek\
G\Y\n\j\e`d^\jXdk\ePe`m\ijld*
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jkve[`^ `d Hle[\* HXe bXee nf_c jX^\e( [X~ \j ]{i lej\i\e KcXe\k\e
qlki`]]k( [\ee n`i Y\j`kq\e [`\ HXZ_k( a\[\j Xe[\i\ G\Y\e ql m\ie`Z_é
k\e* DZ_ \i`ee\i\ d`Z_ efZ_( n`\ jkXib `Z_ mfe Ef_e G`cpj =lZ_ sHVS
AW\R ]T bVS 8]Z^VW\r $-523% Y\\`e[ilZbk nXi( `e [\d \i jZ_i\`Yk( [`\
?\cg_`e\ j\`\e dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ efZ_ `ek\cc`^\ek\i Xcj n`i H\ejZ_\e(
[X `_i B\_`ie \`e\ i`\j`^\ H\e^\ mfe De]fidXk`fe\e jg\`Z_\ie le[
m\iXiY\`k\e bXee7 `_i\ Dek\cc`^\eq _XY\ a\[fZ_ \`e\ lej ]i\d[\ Afid(
[X j`\ [\d G\Y\e `d H\\i\ Xe^\gX~k j\`* DZ_ _XY\ d`k m`\c\e Ffcc\^\e
{Y\i [`\j\e B\[Xeb\e ^\jgifZ_\e le[ ]\jk^\jk\cck( [X~ giXbk`jZ_ e`\é
dXe[ `_e \iejk e\_d\e nfcck\* NZ_c`\~c`Z_ _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ Y\` [\e ?\c)
g_`e\e aX ld O`\i\( j`\ Y\j`kq\e b\`e\ R\ibq\l^\( le[ n\ee j`\ n`ibé
c`Z_ jf bcl^ j`e[( nXild m\ijlZ_\e j`\ [Xee e`Z_k( d`k c\a FfekXbk
Xl]qle\_d\e;
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$\j _Xe[\ck j`Z_ `e [\i M\^\c ld e`Z_kbzig\ic`Z_\ R\j\e( XY\i XlZ_
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^\ek\i le[ `e m`\c]XZ_\i C`ej`Z_k XlZ_ _z_\i \ekn`Zb\ck j`e[ Xcj n`i7
j`\ j`e[ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ nX_i_X]k mfe G`\Y\ le[ H`k^\]{_c \i]{cck f[\i
j\_i dvZ_k`^* R`i bzee\e `e dXeZ_\e Avcc\e [liZ_ [\e gjpZ_`jZ_\e
FfekXbk ql [\iXik`^\e R\j\e j`Z_\i \knXj c\ie\e* Qfi Xcc\d n\`j\e
-./

[`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e eXZ_[i{Zbc`Z_ [XiXl] _`e( n`\ j\_i n`i
[Xql e\`^\e( lej Dcclj`fe\e _`eql^\Y\e( jkXkk mfe [\i Dek\cc`^\eq( [`\
n`iY\j`kq\e(n`ibc`Z_B\YiXlZ_qldXZ_\e*
=\d\ib\ejn\ik `jk XlZ_( [X~ Xlj [\d KfjklcXk( n`i j\cYjk j\`\e [`\
bc{^jk\e R\j\e( [`\ \j {Y\i_Xlgk ^`Yk( eXk{ic`Z_ ]fc^k( [X~ lej e`\é
dXe[ _\c]\e bXee6 R`i j`e[ mzcc`^ Xl] lej j\cYjk ^\jk\cck* ?X^\^\e
Y\kfe\e [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e( [X~ n`i qnXi le^\_\li\
<ejki\e^le^\e lek\ie\_d\e d{jj\e( [X~ n`i XY\i XlZ_ C`c]\ ql \ié
nXik\e_XY\e*
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H\ejZ_\e*
?X n`i [`\ bc{^jk\e R\j\e `d j`ee) le[ q`\ccfj\e Pe`m\ijld j`e[(
n\i[\e \^f`jk`jZ_\i <ljY\lkle^ Xe[\i\i Ji^Xe`jd\e XljjZ_c`\~c`Z_
Xlj n`ikjZ_X]kc`Z_\e le[ zbfcf^`jZ_\e Bi{e[\e Bi\eq\e ^\j\kqk( [Xj
_\`~k( n`i {Y\i]fi[\ie le[ q\ijkzi\e [Xj zbfcf^`jZ_\ Npjk\d eli [\jé
_XcY e`Z_k( [Xd`k n`i `e [\i Afc^\ e`Z_k [Xilek\i c\`[\e d{jj\e* @j
^`Yk XY\i b\`e\e `ee\i\e Bile[ [X]{i( [`\ Xe[\i\e Fi\Xkli\e e`Z_k
XljqlY\lk\e7 giXbk`jZ_ `jk \j jf( [X~ `e lej\i\i Flckli m`\c\ [Xmfi
qli{ZbjZ_i\Zb\e( ^S`am\ZWQV \`e O`\i ql kzk\e f[\i `_d Y\nl~k
NZ_d\iq qlql]{^\e( XY\i \j ^`Yk `e lej j\cYjk b\`e\e qn`e^\e[\e
Bile[ [X]{i( Xcc\ Xe[\i\e G\Y\n\j\e e`Z_k Xl] \`e\ dz^c`Z_jk n`ié
ble^jmfcc\R\`j\XljqlY\lk\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e j\kq\e mfiXlj( [X~ [\i H\ejZ_ ^\^\eé
{Y\i [\e e`\[\i\e G\Y\ej]fid\e [`\ ^c\`Z_\e Q\ig]c`Z_kle^\e Y\j`kqk
n`\ ^\^\e{Y\i [\e _z_\i\e* ?\i H\ejZ_ dl~ j\`e\ Alebk`fe `e
\`e\d Xccld]Xjj\e[\e( j`Z_ jkve[`^ n\`k\i\ekn`Zb\ce[\e( \`e I\kq
mfe =\q`\_le^\e Y`c[\e[\e Pe`m\ijld \ib\ee\e le[ \i]{cc\e( le[
\i [Xi] j\`e\ Mfcc\ e`Z_k n`ccb{ic`Z_ eXZ_ j\`e\e R{ejZ_\e [\]`e`\i\e(
Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ jf( [X~ \j `_d qljk\_\( \`e\e dz^c`Z_jk _f_\e Kif]`k
Xlj`_i_\iXljqljZ_cX^\e*

-.0

KfjklcXk\{Y\i[`\IXkli[\jd\ejZ_c`Z_\e=\nl~kj\`ej
D]abcZOb2Ilid\ejZ_c`Z_\R\j\e_XY\e\`e=\nl~kj\`e*
IXZ_ <ej`Z_k [\i d\`jk\e KjpZ_fcf^\e _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ Y\` Xcc\e Xe[\é
i\e G\Y\n\j\e( j\cYjk Y\` [\e _z_\i\e O`\i\e( `d Ki`eq`g ld Ji^Xé
e`jd\e( [`\ eXZ_ Xe^\c\iek\e f[\i Xe^\Yfi\e\e Q\i_Xck\ejdljk\ie
d\Z_Xe`jZ_ Xl] M\`q\ i\X^`\i\e( `d Bile[\ bzeek\ dXe d`k C`c]\
\`e\j >fdglk\igif^iXddj [Xj Q\i_Xck\e a\[\j \`eq\ce\e O`\i\j j`é
dlc`\i\e* IXZ_ `_i\i <ej`Z_k _Xk Xcc\`e [\i H\ejZ_ \`e =\nl~kj\`e(
le[ qnXi `e [\d N`ee\( [X~ \i j`Z_ e`Z_k eli j\`e\i j\cYjk Y\nl~k
`jk( jfe[\ie XlZ_ [\i M\`q\( [`\ Xl] `_e \`en`ib\e* Qfe _`\i Xlj cv~k
[`\ <ljY\lkle^ [\i Xe[\i\e fY\e \inv_ek\e G\Y\n\j\e j`Z_ i\Z_k]\ié
k`^\e( [\ee [X [`\j\ {Y\i b\`e =\nl~kj\`e m\i]{^\e(j`e[j`\XlZ_ e`Z_k
c\`[\ej]v_`^( ^Xeq ^c\`Z_( nXj n`i `_e\e XlZ_ Xekle* ?`\j\j fik_f[fo\
KfjklcXk( [X~ eli [`\ H\ejZ_\e \`e =\nl~kj\`e _XY\e( _ve^k \e^ qlé
jXdd\e d`k [\i <eeX_d\( n`i j\`\e [`\ Y\` n\`k\d bc{^jk\e B\é
jZ_zg]\Xl][`\j\dKcXe\k\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e _XY\e `d Xcc^\d\`e\e [`\ Qfijk\ccle^(
[X~ XlZ_ [`\ _z_\i\e $e`Z_kbzig\ic`Z_\e% B\jZ_zg]\ \`e =\nl~kj\`e
Y\j`kq\e( le[ [`\j\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e jZ_i\`Y\e _vl]`^ j\cYjk [\e e`\[\i\e
Ji^Xe`jd\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\ ) Xcc\i[`e^j j`Z_ mfd d\ejZ_c`Z_\e
=\nl~kj\`e lek\ijZ_\`[\e[\ ) =\nl~kj\`ej]fid\e le[ )^iX[\ ql*
C`\iql `jk Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e bfcc\bk`m\j =\nl~kj\`e `ee\i_XcY \`e\i
^\n`jj\e Ng\q`\j ql i\Z_e\e( [\i\e Bc`\[\i b\`e mfcc Xlj^\Y`c[\k\j
@`eq\cY\nl~kj\`e Y\j`kq\e* R\ee dXe [Xmfe Xlj^\_k( [X~ [Xj( nXj
dXe Xcj ã=\nl~kj\`eä Y\q\`Z_e\k( `e \`e\i Q`\cqX_c mfe G\Y\n\j\e
mfi_Xe[\e j\`e bXee( [Xee cf_ek \j j`Z_ [liZ_Xlj( [Xj =\nl~kj\`e
Xcj Xccld]Xjj\e[\j Ki`eq`g ql jkl[`\i\e7 ^\_k dXe [X^\^\e mfe [\i
QfiXljj\kqle^ Xlj( [X~ XljjZ_c`\~c`Z_ d\ejZ_c`Z_\ R\j\e \`e
=\nl~kj\`e Y\j`kq\e( [Xee _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ _`\i \_\i ld \`e jg\q`\cc\j
KifYc\d( ld [Xj dXe j`Z_ e`Z_k jf Y\d{_\e dl~ n`\ ld \`e Xcc^\é
d\`e\i\j=\^i\`]\e[\iR\ck*
D]abcZOb2?\iH\ejZ_Y\j`kqk\`e=\nl~kj\`e*
HXe ^\_k mfe [\i QfiXljj\kqle^ Xlj( [X~ Xcc\ efidXc\e d\ejZ_c`Z_\e
R\j\e \`e Y\jk`ddk\j =\nl~kj\`e _XY\e( [Xj _\`~k( [X~ j`\ j`Z_( nv_é
i\e[ j`\ \knXj nX_ie\_d\e( `_i\i Y\jfe[\i\e D[\ek`kvk Y\nl~k j`e[
-.1

le[ [X~ j`\ {Y\i `_i\ RX_ie\_dle^\e eXZ_[\eb\e le[ Y\jk`ddk\
R`cc\ej\ekjZ_\`[le^\e ki\]]\e* @`e\ QXi`Xek\ [`\j\i jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[
Xbq\gk`\ik\e QfiXljj\kqle^ `jk [`\( [X~ `Z_ j\cYjk \`e =\nl~kj\`e
_XY\( [X~`Z_ XY\iXe[\i\ H\ejZ_\ejf Y\_Xe[c\(Xcjj\`\e[`\j\<lkfé
dXk\e f_e\ \`^\e\j =\nl~kj\`e7 Xcc\i[`e^j n`i[ \`e\ [\iXik`^\ @`eé
jk\ccle^ jk\kj m\ikljZ_k( n\`c j`\ ]{i [\e( [\i j`\ m\iki`kk( leXe^\e\_d\
Afc^\e _XY\e bzeek\* @i dX^ j`Z_ `_i\i lek\i Pdjkve[\e XlZ_ ^Xi
e`Z_ki\Z_kY\nl~kj\`e*
@`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e jk\cc\e [`\j\j KfjklcXk \iejk_X]k `e
AiX^\7 j`\ Y\_Xlgk\e( [X~ [\i UljkXe[( [\e n`i Xcj [Xj ^\nz_ec`Z_\
=\nl~kj\`e Y\q\`Z_e\e( {Y\i_Xlgk e`Z_k a\e\ LlXc`kvk\e Y\j`kqk( [`\
n`i [\d =\nl~kj\`e `d Ki`eq`g qljZ_i\`Y\e7 j`\ Y\jki\`k\e \knX( [X~
dXe j`Z_ j\`e\i j\cYjk Y\nl~k `jk( [`\ Xl] \`e\e \`en`ib\e[\e M\`q\
nX_ie`ddk le[ \`e\ ]i\`\ R`cc\ej\ekjZ_\`[le^ [Xi{Y\i ki`]]k( n`\
dXe Xl] \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e M\`q i\X^`\i\e n`i[* Nf jk\cck Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\
Bli[a`\]] $FXg`k\c 3% \`e]XZ_ ]\jk( [X~ [\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\ H\ejZ_ {Y\ié
_Xlgk b\`e =\nl~kj\`e Y\j`kqk ) \j _Xe[\ck j`Z_ Y\` `_d m`\cd\_i ld
\`e\e <lkfdXk\e( [\i mfe j\`e\i Pdn\ck mfccjkve[`^ Xl] d\Z_Xe`jZ_\
M\Xbk`fe\e gif^iXdd`\ik `jk7 Xl~\i[\d `jk \i j`Z_ j\`e\i j\cYjk XlZ_
e`Z_k Xcj \`e\i Y\jfe[\i\e R\j\e_\`k Y\nl~k( le[ \i i\X^`\ik e`Z_k
d`k \`e\i ]i\`\e R`cc\ej\ekjZ_\`[le^( fYjZ_fe [`\ `ee\i\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k
[Xql ^\^\Y\e `jk* <e[\i\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\jZ_i\`Y\e `d Xccé
^\d\`e\e [\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ [\j H\ejZ_\e Xcj
\`e\e UljkXe[( [\i mfe Dcclj`fe\e le[ OX^kivld\e Y\_\iijZ_k n`i[(
XY\i j`\ Y\kfe\e Xlj[i{Zbc`Z_( [X~ \`e \Z_k\j =\nl~kj\`e [liZ_Xlj
mfi_Xe[\e j\`e bXee* ?Xj KfjklcXk( [X~ dXe \`e =\nl~kj\`e Y\j`kqk(
cv~k j`Z_ Y\jfe[\ij jZ_n\i `e AiX^\ jk\cc\e* Bli[a`\]] jk\cck\ ]\jk( [X~
H\ejZ_\e( [`\ dXe Y\jZ_lc[`^k( j`Z_ `_i\i j\cYjk e`Z_k Y\nl~k ql
j\`e( kXkjvZ_c`Z_ ]{i \`e\e <l^\eYc`Zb cXe^ Y\nl~k i\X^`\i\e( evdc`Z_
nv_i\e[ j`\ [`\j\ <ejZ_lc[`^le^ \eki{jk\k Y\jki\`k\e7 [XeXZ_ ]Xcc\e
j`\ a\[fZ_ eX_\ql jf]fik `e `_i\ Oivld\ qli{Zb le[ m\ic`\i\e
n`\[\i [Xj =\nl~kj\`e `_i\i j\cYjk* Ili cve^\i\ Q\ijlZ_\( [Xj \`^\e\
=\nl~kj\`e ql Y\fYXZ_k\e( Y\n\`j\e [\d H\ejZ_\e( [X~ \i ]Xjk `dé
d\i m\i^`~k( j`Z_ j\cYjk ql Y\fYXZ_k\e7 dXe m\ic`\ik j`Z_ led`kk\cYXi
eXZ_ [\d =\^`ee \`e\i [\iXik`^\e N\cYjkY\fYXZ_kle^ n`\[\i Xlj [\d
<l^\( jfYXc[ dXe `e j\`e\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e UljkXe[( `e [\d dXe eli
\`e ^\i`e^\j f[\i {Y\i_Xlgk b\`e =\nl~kj\`e j\`e\i j\cYjk _Xk( qlé
i{Zb]vcck*
-.2

D]abcZOb2 ?Xj =\nl~kj\`e `jk \`e Kif[lbk [\i B\_`iekvk`^b\`k(
le[ [X_\i `jk [`\ Ovk`^b\`k [\j =\nl~kj\`ej `[\ek`jZ_ d`k [\i
B\_`iekvk`^b\`k*
?\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\ O\id`elj _`\i]{i _\`~k ÑgjpZ_fe\liXc\ D[\ek`)
kvkj)O_\j\É* ?X [`\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k c\kqkc`Z_ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\i IXkli `jk(
dl~ XlZ_ [Xj =\nl~kj\`e j\cYjk \`e Kif[lbk g_pj`bXc`jZ_\i Kifq\jj\
j\`e* N\`e\ Ffdgc\o_\`k le[ NlYk`c`kvk j`e[ <lj[ilZb bfdgc`q`\ik\i
Nkilbkli\e e\liXc\i <Ycvl]\ `ee\i_XcY [\j B\_`iej le[ Y`j ql \`e\d
^\n`jj\e BiX[\ XlZ_ `ee\i_XcY [\j I\im\ejpjk\dj `d Xcc^\d\`e\e*
?XiXl] jk{kqk j`Z_ [Xj KfjklcXk [\i fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j
R\jk\ej( [X~ a\[\i mfe lej ^Xeq Xcc\`e [Xjk\_k6 ?X [Xj =\nl~kj\`e
\`e\ Alebk`fe [\i Ovk`^b\`k [\j I\im\ejpjk\dj `jk le[ [X [`\ I\ié
m\ejpjk\d\ e`Z_k d`k\`eXe[\i m\iYle[\e j`e[( j`e[ n`i [Xql m\ié
lik\`ck( ]{i `dd\i Xcc\`e ql Yc\`Y\e $qld`e[\jk jf cXe^\( Y`j \j \`e\d
Nlg\iZ_`ili^\e [\i Ulble]k ^\c`e^k( [`\ I\im\ejpjk\d\ d`k\`eXe[\i
qlm\iY`e[\e%*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\_Xe[\ce B\_`ie le[ I\im\ejpjk\d
`d Xcc^\d\`e\e Xcj \`e =\ab`c[S\b [\j =\nl~kj\`ej( XY\i j`\ bcXjj`]`é
q`\i\e [Xj =\nl~kj\`e Xcj \`e\e AXbkfi( [\i \Y\ejf i\Xc `jk n`\ [`\ HXé
k\i`\* Qfi m`\c\e EX_i\e _Xk R`cc`Xd EXd\j Xi^ld\ek`\ik( \j ^\Y\ b\`e
cf^`jZ_ jZ_c{jj`^\j Q\i]X_i\e( d`k C`c]\ mfe =\fYXZ_kle^\e ]\jkql)
jk\cc\e( fY [Xj =\nl~kj\`e [liZ_ [Xj B\_`ie USaQVOTTS\ f[\i m\ié
d`kk\ck n`i[* R\ee dXe [Xj =\nl~kj\`e e`Z_k d`k [\i B\_`iekvk`^)
b\`k `[\ek`]`q`\ik( `jk [\i Y\[\lkjXd\ NZ_cl~ [\i( [X~ [Xj =\nl~ké
j\`e( leXY_ve^`^ [Xmfe( `en`\n\`k j\`e\ Ovk`^b\`k mfd B\_`ie Y\é
\`e]cl~k n`i[( [fZ_ leXY_ve^`^ mfe [`\j\d \o`jk`\i\e bzeek\* @j
^`Yk d`kkc\in\`c\ Xlj^\q\`Z_e\k\j n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\j =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc
]{i [`\j\ Cpgfk_\j\( le[ qnXi \`edXc [liZ_ M{Zb^i`]] Xl] K_vefd\é
e\ [\i Xl~\ij`eec`Z_\e RX_ie\_dle^ le[ qld Xe[\i\e Xl] [`i\bé
k\d R\^\ [liZ_ @ic\Ye`jj\ [\j <ljki\k\ej Xlj [\d Fzig\i $flk f]) k_\
Yf[p\og\i`\eZ\j%(n`\j`\`eFXg`k\c/\izik\ikn\i[\e*

-.3

KfjklcXk\{Y\im\ive[\ik\=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\
D]abcZOb2 =\` [\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e _Xe[\ck \j
j`Z_ ^Xeq \`e]XZ_ ld \`e\ mfi{Y\i^\_\e[\ <YnXe[cle^ [\i
B\_`ie]lebk`fe*
@ekjgi\Z_\e[ [\i <eeX_d\( [X~ [Xj ^\nz_ec`Z_\ =\nl~kj\`e d`k [\i
B\_`ie]lebk`fe `[\ek`jZ_ `jk( Y\kiXZ_k\k dXe a\[\ iX[`bXc Xe[\i\
Alebk`fejn\`j\ ) \`e\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ) XlZ_ Xcj
\`e\ Xe[\ijXik`^\ Alebk`fejn\`j\ [\j I\im\ejpjk\dj* UnXi jZ_c`\~\e
[`\ @i]X_ile^\e `d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ XlZ_ a\e\ Qfié
^ve^\ \`e( [`\ n`i Xcj dpjk`jZ_ f[\i gXiXefidXc Y\q\`Z_e\e ) n`\ Y\`é
jg`\cjn\`j\ [\e FfekXbk ql _z_\i\e R\j\e( k\c\gXk_`jZ_\ Dek\iXbk`fe
f[\i [`\ Qfi_\ijX^\ [\i Ulble]k )( XY\i Xcc [`\j\ Qfi^ve^\ n\i[\e
Xcj `ccljfi`jZ_ Xe^\j\_\e( [X j`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_ ledz^c`Z_ Yqn* e`Z_k
eXZ_gi{]YXi j`e[* Nf bXee Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e H\ejZ_ `e \`e\d m\iveé
[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ \knXj \ic\Y\e( [Xj n`i \knX Xcj Ñjg`i`kl\cc\
RX_i_\`kÉ Y\q\`Z_e\e n{i[\e( kifkq[\d Y\jk\_k a\[fZ_ [`\ fik_fé
[fo\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [XiXl]( [X~ [`\ M\Xc`kvk [`\j\i @i]X_ile^ e`Z_k \ié
n`\j\e j\` ) \j q\`^\ j`Z_ eli( Xl] n`\ le^\nz_ec`Z_\ R\`j\ [Xj
B\_`ie `d m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ]lebk`fe`\i\e bXee*
IXZ_ <l]]Xjjle^ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e `jk [Xj B\_`ie `e \ijk\i
G`e`\ \`e iPS`[WbbZS` dfe =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e7 [X_\i bzee\e XlZ_
[`\ m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ \knXj mzcc`^ Xe[\i\j Y\[\lk\e
Xcj \`e\ Ycf~\ <YnXe[cle^ [\i B\_`ie]lebk`fe* @j bXee j`Z_ [XY\`
ld [Xj R`ibjXdn\i[\e e\l\i gjpZ_`jZ_\i Hz^c`Z_b\`k\e _Xe[\ce
$[`\ `_i\d R\j\e eXZ_ e`Z_k g_pj`jZ_\i IXkli j`e[%( le[ \j bXee j`Z_
ld \`e\ Dek\im\ek`fe f[\i ld \`e B\jZ_\eb _z_\i\i HvZ_k\ _Xe[\ce
f[\i XY\i ld \`e\ GfZb\ile^ Yqn* Q\ive[\ile^ [\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
=\q`\_le^ qn`jZ_\e B\`jk le[ Fzig\i( jf Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\( n\ee [\i
B\`jk j`Z_ mfi{Y\i^\_\e[ ^Xeq f[\i k\`cn\`j\ mfd Fzig\i cfjczjk*
HXe jfcck\ [X_\i [`\ Xlj [\i @i]X_ile^ `e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkve[\e ^\nfee\e\e =\]le[\ \iejk_X]k jkl[`\i\e le[ j`\ e`Z_k \`eé
]XZ_ Xcj Ycf~\ Q\i`iile^ XYkle( [`\ [liZ_ Alebk`fejjkzile^\e m\ilié
jXZ_kn\i[\e*
D]abcZOb2 Pej\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ `jk `d Xcc^\é
d\`e\e [`\ XegXjjle^j]v_`^jk\ le[ iXk`fe\ccjk\ Ji^Xe`jXk`fejé
]fid lej\i\j ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_j( le[ [\d\ekjgi\Z_\e[
-.4

_Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ Y\` Xcc\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e ld
d`e[\in\ik`^\f[\igXk_fcf^`jZ_\<Yn\`Z_le^\e*
@j `jk n`ibc`Z_ \ijkXlec`Z_( n`\ n\`k m\iYi\`k\k [Xj KfjklcXk `jk( lej\i
^\nz_ec`Z_\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ j\` `i^\e[n`\ [\i Y\jkdz^c`Z_\*
DZ_ _XY\ Xl] n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e OX^le^\e \ic\Yk( [X~ Xcc\ dz^c`Z_\e
<i^ld\ek\ j`Z_ [XiXl] jk{kq\e( fYjZ_fe [Xj ]Xjk e`\dXcj Xlj[i{Zbc`Z_
Y\kfek nli[\* DZ_ m\ijlZ_\( \`e\e \_\i bfej\imXk`m\e gjpZ_fcf^`é
jZ_\e NkXe[glebk [liZ_qlj\kq\e( evdc`Z_ [\e( [X~ [`\ ãB{k\ä Yqn*
[`\ LlXc`kvk \`e\j Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j [Xmfe XY_ve^k(
Y\` n\d [`\j\i UljkXe[ Xl]ki`kk le[ n\cZ_\ jg\q`\cc\ <l]^XY\ dXe
[`\j\i K\ijfe ql^\[XZ_k _Xk6 Nf bzeek\ j`Z_ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [\i
UljkXe[ < Y\` \`e\i Y\jk`ddk\e K\ijfe ]{i Y\jk`ddk\ ?`e^\ Xcj j\_i
^lk( a\[fZ_ ]{i Xe[\i\ ?`e^\ Xcj j\_i jZ_c\Z_k \in\`j\e* Pd eli SW\
bfebi\k\j =\`jg`\c Xeql]{_i\e6 @j jZ_\`ek bcXi( [X~ lej\i ^\nz_ec`é
Z_\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ [\d UljkXe[ [\j HXi`_lXeX)MXljZ_\j \`eé
nXe[]i\` {Y\ic\^\e `jk( n\ee dXe \knX [Xd`k Y\jZ_v]k`^k `jk( Y\` \`e\i
<Yi\Z_ele^ cXe^\ UX_c\ebfcfee\e qljXdd\eqlqv_c\e* R\ee [`\
<l]^XY\ XY\i cXlk\k( dXe jfcc\ `e \`e Hlj\ld ^\_\e le[ j`Z_ `e [\e
<eYc`Zb [\i B\dvc[\ m\ik`\]\e( [Xee \in\`jk j`Z_ eXZ_ [\e Y`j_\i
mfic`\^\e[\e =\]le[\e ]{i m`\c\ \i]X_i\e\ HXi`_lXeX)MXlZ_\i [\i
UljkXe[ [\j HXi`_lXeX)MXljZ_\j lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ Xcj \ekjZ_`\[\e {Y\ic\^\e $OXik( -53-%* RXj n`i YiXlé
Z_\e( `jk \`e\ `e ^if~\d HX~jkXY [liZ_^\]{_ik\ Pek\ijlZ_le^ [Xié
{Y\i( n\cZ_\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ n\cZ_\ @`^\ejZ_X]k\e Y\` [\i
@i]{ccle^ m\ijZ_`\[\e\i <l]^XY\e \ib\ee\e cXjj\e( le[ e`Z_k ^cfYXc\
A\jkjk\ccle^\e n`\ [`\( lej\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ j\`
[\i jZ_c\Z_k_`e {Y\ic\^\e\7 [X n`i XY\i jfcZ_\ Pek\ijlZ_le^\e efZ_
e`Z_k Y\j`kq\e( ^\_k eX_\ql a\[\i mfe [\i <eeX_d\ Xlj( j\`e ^\nz_eé
c`Z_\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ j\` [\i Y\jk\* KjpZ_fcf^\e Y\b\ee\e j`Z_
qnXi m\iYXc ql [\i D[\\( \j jZ_\`e\ ãbi\Xk`m\ Uljkve[\ä ql ^\Y\e(
[`\ [\d NZ_X]]\e \`e\j B\e`\j ]zi[\ic`Z_ j\`e bzeek\e( XY\i _`ej`Z_ké
c`Z_ [\j <ljdX~\j( `e [\d [\iXik`^\ ãbi\Xk`m\ Uljkve[\ä Xej KXk_fcfé
^`jZ_\ ^i\eq\e bzeek\e( j`e[ [`\ <ej`Z_k\e [liZ_Xlj XdY`mXc\ek*
UnXi \ib\ee\e [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Xe( [X~ \j =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkve[\ $n`\ q*=* Oileb\e_\`k% ^`Yk( [`\ [\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ lek\ic\^\e j`e[( XY\i j`\ j`e[ kifkq[\d {Y\ié
q\l^k( [X~ m`\c\ m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ ) mfi Xcc\d [`\ `eé
k\ej`m\e dpjk`jZ_\e Uljkve[\ ) lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e =\nl~ké
-.5

j\`ejqljkXe[ \`e[\lk`^ {Y\ic\^\e j`e[* HXeZ_\ m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\ ^\ck\e _vl]`^ Xcj efkn\e[`^ ]{i [Xj Q\ijkve[e`j
^\n`jj\i <jg\bk\ [\j jg`i`kl\cc\e R\^j( [`\ n`i `e lej\i\d ^\nz_ec`é
Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ e`Z_k \i]Xjj\e bzee\e* ?Xj nli[\ Y\i\`kj
`d UljXdd\e_Xe^ d`k [\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e le[
[\e [XiXe fi`\ek`\ik\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kj]fid\e $FXg`k\c -% \`e^\_\e[\i
\izik\ik* R`\ [`\ <l]]Xjjle^( [X~ \`e m\ive[\ik\i =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkXe[ dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ d\_i `jk Xcj eli \`e\ Q\ive[\ile^ `e [\i B\é
_`ie]lebk`fe( jf jfcck\ lej XlZ_ [`\j\i ld]Xjj\e[\ B\j`Z_kjglebk
[\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e [Xql \idlk`^\e( lej \`edXc \iejk_X]k\i
d`k [\d ql Y\]Xjj\e( nXj H\ejZ_\e `e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkve[\e\i]X_i\ele[^\c\iek_XY\e*
D]abcZOb2 @`e\ K\ijfe( [`\ jgfekXe `e m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkve[\_`e{Y\in\Z_j\ck(`jkdz^c`Z_\in\`j\^\`jk\jbiXeb*
HXe Y\q\`Z_e\k [\iXik`^\ G\lk\ `d Xcc^\d\`e\e Xcj ÑjZ_`qf`[É( nXj
jfm`\c _\`~\e jfcc n`\6 e`Z_k jf m\i[i\_k( [X~ dXe j`\ Xcj mzcc`^
jZ_`qfg_i\e Y\q\`Z_e\e bzeek\ $\`e\ q`\dc`Z_ mX^\( [XY\` XY\i `e [\i
?`X^efjk`b _vl]`^ m\in\e[\k\ FXk\^fi`\%( [X~ j`\ XY\i d`k N`Z_\i_\`k
\`e n\e`^ ql leefidXc j`e[( Xcj [X~ dXe `_e\e kiXl\e [{i]k\* CXk
\`e fik_f[fo\i KjpZ_fcf^\ [\j R\jk\ej \`e\e H\ejZ_\e \ijk \`edXc
Xcj ãjZ_`qf`[ä \k`b\kk`\ik( [Xee `jk dXe e`Z_k d\_i ^\ezk`^k( `i^\e[ \ké
nXj mfe [\d( nXj \i jX^k( \iejk ql e\_d\e* =i`e^k \i \`e jZ_cX^\e[\j
<i^ld\ek ^\^\e `i^\e[ \knXj mfi( nfiXe dXe j\cY\i ^cXlYk( [Xee
q\`^k [Xj eli( n`\ Zc\m\i [fZ_ jfcZ_\ =lijZ_\e `e `_i\i gXiXef`[\e
H\ekXc`kvkj`e[
?`\j\j KfjklcXk [\i fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^`\ `jk Xcc\i[`e^j jkXib Xe leé
j\i\e Flcklibi\`j ^\Yle[\e6 De m`\c\e Xe[\i\e Flckli\e Y\kiXZ_k\k
dXe \`e\e H\ejZ_\e( [\i jgfekXe `e \`e\e m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ _`e{Y\in\Z_j\ck( Xcj Y\jfe[\ij Y\^XYk( le[ dXe cv~k `_d \`e\
^Xeq jg\q`\cc\ <ljY`c[le^ Xe^\[\`_\e( ld `_d Y\` [\i @ekn`Zbcle^
j\`e\jOXc\ekjY\_`c]c`Z_qlj\`e*
R\ee \`e KjpZ_fcf^\ ^\c\^\ekc`Z_ j\cYjk `e \`e\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ^\ivk( `jk \i j\_i [XiXl] Y\[XZ_k( [Xj ]{i j`Z_ ql
Y\_Xck\e( ld e`Z_k j\`e\e ^lk\e Ml] Xcj R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i ql ^\]v_i[\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e j`e[ jgfekXe Xl]ki\k\e[\e m\ive[\ik\e
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e ^\^\e{Y\i \ekjZ_`\[\e Xl]^\jZ_cfjj\e\i* @`e
jfcZ_\i Qfi]Xcc YO\\ ]{i j`\ \`e Bile[ j\`e( [X~ \`e H\ejZ_ \i_\Yc`Z_\
-/,

<egXjjle^jjZ_n`\i`^b\`k\e _Xk( \j bXee j`Z_ [XY\` XY\i XlZ_ ld \`e\
IXkliXecX^\ $f[\i ld \`e\ `e \`e\d ]i{_\i\e G\Y\e \infiY\e\ Av_`^é
b\`k% _Xe[\ce( [`\ j`Z_ \ekn`Zb\ce cv~k le[ [`\ ql n`Z_k`^\e jg`i`kl\cé
c\e @ib\eeke`jj\e ]{_i\e bXee* ?\j_XcY dl~ a\[\i AXcc eXZ_ j\`e\i
`e[`m`[l\cc\e=\jfe[\i_\`kY\lik\`ckn\i[\e*
D]abcZOb2 <lZ_ [Xj Y\nl~k\ C\iY\`]{_i\e mfe m\ive[\ik\e =\é
nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e ^`ck Xcj \`e U\`Z_\e mfe gjpZ_fgXk_fcf^`)
jZ_\iQ\iXecX^le^*
N\kqk dXe [Xj fik_f[fo\ KfjklcXk mfiXlj( [X~ lej\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\i
=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ Y\i\`kj [\i fgk`dXc\ UljkXe[ ]{i giXbk`jZ_ Xcc\
d\ejZ_c`Z_\e Alebk`fe\e `jk( [Xee ]iX^k dXe j`Z_ eXk{ic`Z_( nXild
\`e ^\jle[\i H\ejZ_ ^Xeq Y\nl~k m\ijlZ_\e jfcck\( j`Z_ `e \`e\e [\d
^\nz_ec`Z_\e lek\ic\^\e\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ql m\ij\kq\e* <lZ_
\`e KjpZ_fcf^\( [\i ) Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ d`k C`c]\ [\i H\[`kXk`fe ) ^Xeq
Y\nl~k m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ `e j`Z_ n\Zb\e n`cc(
dl~ [Xj klec`Z_jk ]{i j`Z_ Y\_Xck\e* R\i jfcZ_\ Uljkve[\ blck`m`\ik(
^\ivk Xccqlc\`Z_k `e [\e Q\i[XZ_k( \i bfb\kk`\i\ d`k \`e\i KjpZ_fj\(
le[ [Xj c`\~\ qld`e[\jk [XiXl] jZ_c`\~\e( [X~ jf a\dXe[ d`k [\i
R`ibc`Z_b\`k e`Z_k ^lk qli\Z_kbfddk le[ [X_\i eXZ_ `i^\e[\`e\d
<ljn\^jlZ_\edl~*
?Xj Y\nl~k\ C\iY\`]{_i\e mfe m\ive[\ik\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e
`jk eXk{ic`Z_ \`e\ O\Z_e`b( [`\ ]{i m`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ R\^\ mfe =\[\lé
kle^ `jk ) Xcc\i[`e^j e`Z_k [Xj C\iY\`]{_i\e `i^\e[\`e\j Y\c`\Y`^\e(
jfe[\ie a\n\`cj \`e\j ^Xeq Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[j ql ^Xeq
Y\jk`ddk\eUn\Zb\ele[U`\c\e*

KfjklcXk\{Y\i[`\=\q`\_le^qn`jZ_\eB\`jk
le[Fzig\i
D]abcZOb2 =\`d Fzig\i _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \`e\e i\cXk`m gXjj`m\e
M\^\cbi\`j( [\i [`\ <l]^XY\ _Xk( [`\ <efi[ele^\e [\j I\im\eé
jpjk\djXljql]{_i\e*
IXZ_ [\d KfjklcXk [\i fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j R\jk\ej _XY\e
[Xj =\nl~kj\`e le[ [`\ ]i\`\ R`cc\ej\ekjZ_\`[le^ `_i\e N`kq `d q\eé
-/-

kiXc\e I\im\ejpjk\d( le[ [\i Fzig\i `jk `e \ijk\i G`e`\ \`e Dejkild\ek
qli <lj]{_ile^ [\i mfe [`\j\e Fiv]k\e Xlj^\_\e[\e R\`jle^\e* DZ_
j\cYjk $d\`e B\_`ie% [\eb\ le[ \ekjZ_\`[\( d\`e Fzig\i `jk ^\n`jj\ié
dX~\e eli d\`e NbcXm\* DZ_ dl~ eXk{ic`Z_ [X]{i jfi^\e( [X~ \i Y\é
bfddk( nXj \i YiXlZ_k ) n`\ `Z_ \j aX XlZ_ d`k a\[\d ^lk\e NbcXm\e
dXZ_\e n{i[\( [Xd`k \i d\`e\ <efi[ele^\e n`ible^jmfcc Xlj]{_i\e
bXee7 Xl~\i[\d jfcck\ `Z_ j\`e\ Av_`^b\`k\e le[ j\`e\ Bi\eq\e b\eé
e\e( XY\i d`k N`Z_\i_\`k YiXlZ_\ `Z_ `_e e`Z_k n\^\e `i^\e[n\cZ_\i
ql]vcc\e[\e@ekjZ_\`[le^\eqlbfejlck`\i\e*
@`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e k\`c\e Y`j ql \`e\d ^\n`jj\e BiX[\
[`\j\ <l]]Xjjle^( XY\i Xe[\i\ _XY\e \`e\ ^Xeq Xe[\i\ @`ejk\ccle^6 N`\
Y\kiXZ_k\e [\e Fzig\i Xcj \`e\ <ik B\_`ie f[\i =\nl~kj\`e \`^\e\i
<ik( [Xj [liZ_Xlj `e [\i GX^\ `jk( n`Z_k`^\ De]fidXk`fe\e ql c`\]\ie
le[ @ekjZ_\`[le^\e ql ]vcc\e* <l~\i[\d ^cXlYk dXe `e \`e`^\e
jg`i`kl\cc\e ?`jq`gc`e\e( n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [\d Tf^X( [X~ [`\ Alebé
k`fejn\`j\ [\j Fzig\ij \`e\e k`\]^i\`]\e[\e @`e]cl~ Xl] [\e ^\`jk`^)
j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_ _Xk* Nf _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ Y\` [\e jf^\é
eXeek\e AcR`Oa% [\e jpdYfc`jZ_\e CXe[) le[ A`e^\ijk\ccle^\e( d`k
[\e\e [`\ Tf^`j _vl]`^ XiY\`k\e( [Xild( [X~ j`\ \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e
B\`jk\j) Yqn* N\\c\eqljkXe[ Y\n`ib\e( le[ qnXi Xcj led`kk\cYXi\
Afc^\ \`e\i Y\jk`ddk\e Fzig\i_Xckle^* ?`\j\ Qfijk\ccle^ _Xk f]]\eé
j`Z_kc`Z_ XlZ_ `d ]i{_\e >_i`jk\ekld jZ_fe \`e\ n`Z_k`^\ Mfcc\ ^\é
jg`\ck* >* N* G\n`j Y\i`Z_k\k [Xi{Y\i Xl] ^Xeq Xd{jXek\ R\`j\ `e j\`e\e
Ñ?`\ejkXen\`jle^\e Xe \`e\e Pek\ik\l]\cÉ( `e [\e\e \i \`e\e vck\i\e
O\l]\c \`e\d a{e^\i\e MXkjZ_cv^\ [Xi{Y\i \ik\`c\e cv~k( n`\ dXe [`\
H\ejZ_\e Xd Y\jk\e `e Q\ijlZ_le^ ]{_i\e bXee* ?\i Xck\ O\l]\c
dXZ_k[\dale^\e[XY\`bcXi([X~\jn`Z_k`^j\`([`\H\ejZ_\e^cXlY\e
ql cXjj\e( j`\ bzeek\e \j j`Z_ Y\`d =\k\e ^Xeq Y\hl\d dXZ_\e( [\ee
[Xj n{i[\ j`\ [Xmfe XY_Xck\e( CXckle^\e \`eqle\_d\e( [`\ \`e B\Y\k
`eR`ibc`Z_b\`km`\cn`ibjXd\idXZ_\e*
DZ_ ]i\l\ d`Z_( ]\jkjk\cc\e ql bzee\e( [X~ [`\ fik_f[fo\ AXjjX[\ Xccé
dv_c`Z_ [fZ_ i\Z_k Yi{Z_`^ n`i[( le[ qnXi Xl]^ile[ [\j `e [\i
_ldXe`jk`jZ_\e KjpZ_fcf^`\ le[ [\i kiXejg\ijfeXc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\
e\l \inXZ_\e[\e Dek\i\jj\j Xd d\ejZ_c`Z_\e Fzig\i le[ j\`e\d
@`e]cl~Xl][`\gjpZ_`jZ_\eAlebk`fe\e*
D]abcZOb2 ?\i g_pj`jZ_\ Fzig\i `jk [\i \`eq`^\( [\e n`i Y\j`kq\e*
?Xj \ijZ_\`ek XYjfclk \`ec\lZ_k\e[( XY\i `e [\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcfé
-/.

^`\e e`ddk dXe [fZ_ `e [`\j\i AiX^\ ^Xeq Xe[\i\ Kfj`k`fe\e \`e* ?`\
d\`jk\e mfe `_e\e gfjklc`\i\e( [X~ n`i qld`e[\jk efZ_ \`e\e Xe[\é
i\e( e`Z_kg_pj`jZ_\e Fzig\i _XY\e( [\i lej\i\d g_pj`jZ_\e Fzig\i
v_e\ck( [XY\` XY\i [fZ_ Xe[\ijXik`^\ Av_`^b\`k\e Y\j`kqk( [Xilek\i
XlZ_ [`\a\e`^\( [\e g_pj`jZ_\e Of[ ql {Y\ic\Y\e* <e[\i\ jg`i`kl\cc\
KjpZ_fcf^`\e ^\_\e [Xmfe Xlj( [X~ n`i d\_i\i\ Fzig\i Y\j`kq\e(
[`\ Xl] lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\e Xl~\ig_pj`bXc`jZ_\e @Y\e\e \o`jk`\é
i\e le[ \`eXe[\i Xl] dXeZ_\ic\` R\`j\ Y\\`e]cljj\e* <e[\i\ ^cXlé
Y\e [X^\^\e( [X~ n`i dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ eli lej\i\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e(
g_pj`jZ_\e Fzig\i _XY\e( [X~ n`i XY\i [liZ_ jg`i`kl\cc\ =\d{_le^\e
Xe[\i\ Fzig\i jZ_X]]\e bzee\e( [`\ `e [\i GX^\ j`e[( [\e Of[ ql
{Y\i[Xl\ie* @Y\ejf n`\ m`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e [\e i\`e g_pé
j`jZ_\e Fzig\i e`Z_k eli Xcj \`e\e N\imf)H\Z_Xe`jdlj Y\kiXZ_k\e(
jfe[\ie Xcj \`e\e Xbk`m\e KXike\i Y\` [\i @ekn`Zbcle^ lej\i\j
=\nl~kj\`ej( jk\cc\e j`\ j`Z_ XlZ_ [`\j\ e`Z_kg_pj`jZ_\e Fzig\i
e`Z_kXcj\knXji\`eKXjj`m\jmfi*

KfjklcXk\{Y\i[\eOf[
D]abcZOb2 ?\i Of[ `jk [Xj leXljn\`Z_c`Z_\ @e[\ [\j d\ejZ_c`é
Z_\eG\Y\ej*
C`\i _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \knXj( Xe [Xj n`i e`Z_k ^\ie [\eb\e6 ?\i
Of[ `jk `e [\i KjpZ_fcf^`\ \`e OXYl7 _vl]`^ ]`e[\k dXe `_e e`Z_k \`eé
dXc Xcj Nk`Z_nfik `e [\e M\^`jk\ie mfe KjpZ_fcf^`\Y{Z_\ie( ^Xeq ql
jZ_n\`^\e [Xmfe( [X~ [`\j\j O_\dX \knX \`e^\_\e[ Y\_Xe[\ck n{i[\*
<Y\i n`i Xcc\ ^cXlY\e [XiXe( [X~ lej\i g_pj`jZ_\i Fzig\i \`e\j OX^\j
jf jZ_c\Z_k ]lebk`fe`\i\e n`i[( [X~ n`i jk\iY\e d{jj\e* UnXi dX^
[`\ d\[`q`e`jZ_\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k `e [\i GX^\ j\`e( [Xj G\Y\e ql m\icveé
^\ie( XY\i [\i Of[ Yc\`Yk leXljn\`Z_c`Z_ ) kifkq Xcc\i NZ`\eZ\)]`Z)
k`fe)Oivld\ mfe \`e\i [liZ_ [`\ H\[`q`e \idz^c`Z_k\e Pejk\iYc`Z_é
b\`k*
@`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e ^cXlY\e a\[fZ_( [X~ [\i Of[ qnXi leé
j\i Xcc^\d\`e\j NZ_`ZbjXc `jk( [X~ XY\i \`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc _fZ_\ekn`Zb\ck\
De[`m`[l\e dz^c`Z_\in\`j\ `e [\i GX^\ j\`e bzeek\e( [`\ G\Y\ejmfié
^ve^\ `e `_i\d Fzig\i jf ql m\ive[\ie( [X~ j`\ \`e\ G\Y\ejjgXee\
mfe Cle[\ik\e mfe EX_i\e f[\i jf^Xi \`e\ i\cXk`m\ Pejk\iYc`Z_b\`k
-//

\icXe^\e* Qfi Xcc\d `e \`e`^\e XcZ_`d`jk`jZ_\e OiX[`k`fe\e ) n`\ Y\`é
jg`\cjn\`j\ `e [\i Z_`e\j`jZ_\e ) n`i[ [`\j Xcj \`e U`\c _`e^\jk\cck( [Xj
ql \ii\`Z_\e \`e`^\e [\i vck\i\e H\`jk\i ^\cle^\e `jk* Dd Xcc^\d\`e\e
m\iki`kk dXe [Xj Ki`eq`g( [X~ dXe \`e\ j\_i jkXib m\icve^\ik\ G\Y\ejé
jgXee\ Yqn* \`e\ i\cXk`m\ Pejk\iYc`Z_b\`k e`Z_k d`k C`c]\ mfe d\[`é
q`e`jZ_\e H`kk\ce \icXe^\e bXee( jfe[\ie [liZ_ [`\ F\eeke`j( Ffeé
kifcc\ le[ <lj^\nf^\e_\`k [\i Xl~\ig_pj`jZ_\e @e\i^`\e( [`\ [`\
@jj\eq lej\i\j G\Y\ej XljdXZ_\e( efidXc\in\`j\ a\[fZ_ d\`jk d`~é
YiXlZ_k n\i[\e* HXe dl~ Xcc\i[`e^j _`\i ]\jk_Xck\e( [X~ [`\ Q\icveé
^\ile^ [\j g_pj`jZ_\e G\Y\ej eli [Xee ]{i j`eemfcc \iXZ_k\k n`i[(
n\ee ^c\`Z_q\`k`^ XlZ_ \`e\ \ekjgi\Z_\e[\ jg`i`kl\cc\ Afik\ekn`Zbé
cle^ jkXkk]`e[\k( le[ j\cYjk [Xee dX^ j`\ e`Z_k `dd\i n{ejZ_\ejn\ik
\ijZ_\`e\e*
D]abcZOb2 ?\i g_pj`jZ_\ Of[ Y\[\lk\k XlZ_ [Xj \e[^{ck`^\ @iczé
jZ_\e[\jd\ejZ_c`Z_\e=\nl~kj\`ej*
?X [Xj =\nl~kj\`e \`e I\Y\egif[lbk [\i \c\bkifZ_\d`jZ_\e Alebé
k`fe\e [\j B\_`iej le[ [\j I\im\ejpjk\dj `jk( le[ [X [\i Of[ qlé
^c\`Z_ XlZ_ [\e mfccjkve[`^\e( `ii\m\ij`Yc\e UljXdd\eYilZ_ [\j
I\im\ejpjk\dj Y\[\lk\k( \ic`jZ_k [Xj =\nl~kj\`e f]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_( jfé
YXc[ [`\j\i UljXdd\eYilZ_ \`e\e ^Xeq Y\jk`ddk\e Klebk
{Y\ijZ_i`kk\e _Xk( le[ \j bXee [XeXZ_ e`\dXcj n`\[\i \inXZ_\e* <cc\j
d\ejZ_c`Z_\ =\nl~kj\`e( Xcc\j Nki\Y\e( Xcc\ Ai\l[\ le[ Xcc\j G\`[ jfé
n`\ Xcc\ NlZ_\ eXZ_ [\d N`ee [\j G\Y\ej \e[\e Xcjf d`k [\d Of[*
?Xj `jk b\`e\ j\_i Y\^c{Zb\e[\ <ljj`Z_k( le[ n`i [\eb\e XlZ_ d\`é
jk\ej ^Xi e`Z_k Xe j`\* ?\i B\[Xeb\ Xe [\e \`^\e\e Of[ n`i[ `e [\i
OXk jf m\i[ive^k( [X~ m`\c\ KjpZ_fcf^\e ]\jk^\jk\cck _XY\e( a\[\i
H\ejZ__Xe[c\jf(Xcjj\`\ilejk\iYc`Z_*
De [\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e ^\_\e [`\ Qfijk\ccle^\e {Y\i [\e Of[
n\`k Xlj\`eXe[\i* ?\i bcXjj`jZ_\ =l[[_`jdlj _vck Y\`jg`\cjé
n\`j\ \`e\ Ng\blcXk`fe [Xi{Y\i( fY [Xj =\nl~kj\`e [\e Of[ {Y\ié
[Xl\i\ f[\i e`Z_k( ]{i mzcc`^ {Y\i]c{jj`^6 @j bfddk `_d eli [XiXl]
Xe( ^\`jk`^\ @ic\lZ_kle^ _`\i le[ a\kqk ql \icXe^\e( [\ee [Xj `jk [`\
\`eq`^\ U\`kjgXee\( [`\ n`ibc`Z_ qv_ck* ?`\ d\`jk\e jg`i`kl\cc\e Kjpé
Z_fcf^`\e gfjklc`\i\e a\[fZ_( [X~ `i^\e[ \knXj `d H\ejZ_\e [\e
g_pj`jZ_\e Of[ {Y\i[Xl\ik* ?`\j\j Ñ@knXjÉ bXee `e \`e`^\e Npjk\d\e
[liZ_Xlj =\nl~kj\`e le[ g\ijzec`Z_\ D[\ek`kvk Y\`Y\_Xck\e( `e Xe[\é
i\e Npjk\d\e bXee \j XY\i XlZ_ \knXj Bile[c\^\e[\j le[ n\é
-/0

e`^\i K\ijzec`Z_\j j\`e* <e[\i\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e( n`\ \knX
[`\a\e`^\ mfe Bli[a`\]]( e\_d\e Xe( [X~ \j `d Xcc^\d\`e\e \`e uY\ié
c\Y\e [\j `e[`m`[l\cc\e =\nl~kj\`ej e`Z_k ^`Yk( [X~ \j XY\i d`k C`c]\
Xlji\`Z_\e[\i jg`i`kl\cc\i =\d{_le^\e [fZ_ _\iY\`^\]{_ik n\i[\e
jXee* Q`\c\ gfjklc`\i\e( [X~ [Xj( nXj {Y\ic\Yk( e`Z_k [`\ De[`m`[lXc`kvk
\`e\j H\ejZ_\e `jk* ?Xj ^`ck mfi Xcc\d ]{i [`\ D[\\ [\i M\`ebXieXk`fe7
[XeXZ_ n`i[ `e `i^\e[\`e\i O`\]\ [\j d\ejZ_c`Z_\e N\`ej `d GXl] \`e\i
Y\jk`ddk\e G\Y\ejjgXee\ \knXj ^\c\iek( f[\i dXe m\ijvldk \j(
n`Z_k`^\ G\_i\e Xlj `_i Xl]qle\_d\e7 [`\ Afc^\ [Xmfe `jk( [X~ j`Z_
`e \`e\d jgvk\i\e G\Y\e q\`^k( fY dXe `e j\`e\d ]i{_\i\e G\Y\e Y\é
jk`ddk\ G\bk`fe\e ^\c\iek _Xk f[\i e`Z_k* ?X~ [Xj <ee\_d\e f[\i
I`Z_kXee\_d\e mfe G\_i\e `e ]i{_\i\e G\Y\e ]{i jgvk\i\ G\Y\e Afcé
^\e _Xk( `jk [\i Bile[^\[Xeb\ [\i G\_i\ mfd FXidX7 \i Y\il_k Xl]
[\dB\j\kqmfePijXZ_\le[R`ible^*
?\i G\j\i dX^ j`Z_ `eqn`jZ_\e `e [\i H\`ele^ Y\jkvk`^k j\_\e( [X~
\j j`Z_ _`\i qnXi ld `ek\i\jjXek\ Qfijk\ccle^\e _Xe[\ck( [X~ n`i XY\i
f]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_ eli \`e\ \`eq`^\ G\Y\ejjgXee\ Y\j`kq\e le[ [X~ \j j`Z_
Y\` [\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\e KfjklcXk\e [\i n\jkc`Z_\e fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fé
cf^`\ ld \`e]XZ_\ A\jkjk\ccle^\e mfe OXkjXZ_\e _Xe[\ck* ?Xj XY\i j`e[
j`\ ele ^\iX[\ e`Z_k7 m`\cd\_i _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld O_\fi`\e {Y\i [\e
N`ee [\j G\Y\ej* A{i \`e`^\ mfe `_e\e ^`Yk \j _Xe[]\jk\j \dg`i`jZ_\j
=\n\`jdXk\i`Xc( [Xj j`\ Xcj e{kqc`Z_\ \dg`i`jZ_\ O_\fi`\e Xljn\`jk(
XY\i `Z_ dzZ_k\ N`\ efZ_ \`edXc ]iX^\e6 Den`\n\`k _XY\e N`\ [`\j\
<ejZ_Xlle^\e \`e]XZ_ [\j_XcY gXjj`m Xbq\gk`\ik( n\`c j`\ D_e\e `e [`\é
j\i Afid Y\`^\YiXZ_k nli[\e le[ n\`c j`\ mfe [\i B\j\ccjZ_X]k Xbq\gé
k`\ik n\i[\e( le[ `en`\n\`k _XY\e j`\ Xe[\i\ O_\fi`\e kXkjvZ_c`Z_
i\`Yjk Xl] `_i\ M`Z_k`^b\`k _`e {Y\igi{]k; CXY\e N`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ `d
C`eYc`Zb Xl] [Xj KifYc\d [\i M\`ebXieXk`fe kXkjvZ_c`Z_ `i^\e[\`e\
[\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e <Y_Xe[cle^\e {Y\i Avcc\ ^\c\j\e( `e [\e\e
mfe M{Zb\i`ee\ile^\e Xe mfiXlj^\^Xe^\e\ DebXieXk`fe\e Y\i`Z_k\k
nli[\( n`\ \knX `e Nk\m\ejfej Xlj^\q\`Z_e\k\i NXddcle^ mfe -522;
CXY\e N`\ j`Z_ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ \`edXc d`k [\e gXiXgjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e Nklé
[`\e {Y\i H\[`\e Y\]X~k( [`\ [\e <ejgilZ_ \i_fY\e( ^Xeq jg\q`]`jZ_\
=fkjZ_X]k\e mfe m\ijkfiY\e\e K\ijfe\e {Y\id`kk\ce le[ [Xd`k [Xj
bfek`el`\ic`Z_\ AfikY\jk\_\e `_i\i D[\ek`kvk Y\n\`j\e ql bzee\e;
De [\e <eeXc\e [\i KXiXgjpZ_fcf^`\ c`\^\e [Xi{Y\i Xlj]{_ic`Z_\
=\i`Z_k\mfi*
R\[\i [Xj uY\ic\Y\e [\j g_pj`jZ_\e Of[\j efZ_ [`\ M\`ebXieXk`fe
bfeek\ mfe [\e n\e`^\e AfijZ_\ie( [`\ [`\j\ K_vefd\e\ n`jj\eé
-/1

jZ_X]kc`Z_ lek\ijlZ_k _XY\e( Xlji\`Z_\e[ ÑY\n`\j\eÉ n\i[\e( XY\i \j
`jk ^\el^ {Y\iq\l^\e[\j =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc [X]{i qljXdd\e^\kiX^\e
nfi[\e( [X~ [`\j\ AiX^\ efZ_ f]]\eYc\`Y\e le[ e`Z_k O ^`W]`W Xl]^ile[
mfe KfjklcXk\e XlkfdXk`jZ_ Xcj ^\czjk Y\kiXZ_k\k n\i[\e jfcck\* HX^
dXeZ_\j ]{i [`\ =\n\`jYXib\`k Xcc\i( m`\c\i f[\i \kc`Z_\i [\i m\ijZ_`\é
[\e\e KfjklcXk\ [\i fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j R\jk\ej jgi\Z_\e(
j`\ Xcc\ bzee\e n`\[\ild [liZ_ [\e \`e\e f[\i Xe[\i\e =\n\`j `e
AiX^\ ^\jk\cck n\i[\e( le[ `Z_ [Xi] N`\ [X_\i efZ_dXcj Xe [`\ OXkjXZ_\
\i`ee\ie( [X~ n`i jfcZ_\ <eeX_d\e( jkXkk `_i\e _pgfk_\k`jZ_\e >_Xé
iXbk\i ]\jkqljk\cc\e( lek\i [`\ =\nl~kj\`ejjZ_n\cc\ XYj`eb\e le[ ql
jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[ Xbq\gk`\ik\e KfjklcXk\e n\i[\e cXjj\e( le[ [X~ j`\
[X[liZ_\`e\le^\_\li\HXZ_k{Y\ilejXcc\Xlj{Y\e*

KfjklcXk\{Y\i[`\K\ijzec`Z_b\`k
D]abcZOb2 ?`\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`k `jk [Xj( nXj \`e De[`m`[lld ql
\knXj @`edXc`^\d dXZ_k( `_d ql @i]X_ile^\e le[ ql [\d B\é
]{_c m\i_`c]k( [X~ j\`e G\Y\e c\Y\ejn\ik `jk( le[ j`\ `jk [Xj( nXj
`_dD[\ek`kvkjY\nl~kj\`e^`Yk*
?`\ ÑK\ijzec`Z_b\`kÉ `jk \`e U\ekiXck_\dX [\i n\jkc`Z_\e KjpZ_fcfé
^`\6 @j ^\_k [XY\` ld [`\ @`eq`^Xik`^b\`k a\[\j De[`m`[lldj le[ ld
[Xj B\]{_c( [X~ dXe \`e \`edXc`^\j B\jZ_zg] le[ e`Z_k O\`c \`e\i
^\j`Z_kjcfj\e HXjj\ `jk* Uli K\ijzec`Z_b\`k ^\_zi\e eXZ_ [`\j\i <l]é
]Xjjle^ Y\jk`ddk\ `ee\i_XcY \`e\j cve^\i\e U\`kiXldj \ekn`Zb\ck\
Av_`^b\`k\e( <ejZ_Xlle^\e( @i`ee\ile^\e( Q\i_Xck\ejn\`j\e( BcXlé
Y\ejmfijk\ccle^\e le[ @dfk`fe\e( [`\ [\d @i]X_ile^jY\i\`Z_ \`e\j
H\ejZ_\e \`e\ ^\n`jj\ Ffej`jk\eq m\ic\`_\e ) \`e\ Ffej`jk\eq( [`\
[`\j\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`k XlZ_ `e [\e <l^\e Xe[\i\i _Xk( jf [X~ j`\ `_e
ql b\ee\e Y\_Xlgk\e* R\ee n`i( n`\ jf f]k( ]\jkjk\cc\e( \`e Y\jk`ddk\i
H\ejZ_ j\` b\`e\ ÑK\ijzec`Z_b\`kÉ( nfcc\e n`i jX^\e( \i Y\j`kq\ b\`e\
$gfj`k`m\e% Z_XiXbk\i`jk`jZ_\e H\ibdXc\( [`\ `_e mfe Xe[\i\e H\eé
jZ_\elek\ijZ_\`[\e*
<cj Ffej\hl\eq \`e\j [\iXik`^\e KfjklcXkj m\ijlZ_\e n`i lej\i\ K\ié
jzec`Z_b\`k ql \ekn`Zb\ce le[ a\e\ @`^\ejZ_X]k\e XljqlY`c[\e( ql
jkvib\e le[ ql m\imfccbfdde\e( mfe [\e\e n`i Xee\_d\e( [X~ j`\
lej lej\i\ ^Xeq g\ijzec`Z_\ @`^\eXik m\ic\`_\e* A\jkjk\ccle^\e n`\6
-/2

Ñ@i `jk n`ibc`Z_ \`e\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`kÉ ^\ck\e `e lej\i\i B\j\ccjZ_X]k
_vl]`^Xcj\`e^XeqY\jfe[\i\jFfdgc`d\ek*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e d\jj\e a\[fZ_ [`\j\d Dek\i\jj\ Xe [\i
K\ijzec`Z_b\`k le[ `_i\i @ek]Xckle^ \ekn\[\i \`e\ ^\i`e^\i\ =\[\lé
kle^ Y\`( f[\i j`\ Y\kiXZ_k\e \j jf^Xi Xcj \`e \iejk_X]k\j C`e[\ie`j
Xl] [\d R\^\ qli jg`i`kl\cc\e @ekn`Zbcle^* ?`\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`kj\Y\e\
n`i[ Xcc^\d\`e Xcj \`e\ lek\i\ @ekn`Zbcle^jjkl]\ Xe^\j\_\e( le[
d\_i le[ d\_i @e\i^`\ Xl] `_i\ @ek]Xckle^ ql m\in\e[\e ^`ck Xcj \`e\
<Yc\eble^ mfe [\e \`^\ekc`Z_\e jg`i`kl\cc\e U`\c\e [\j H\ejZ_\e*
?`\ d\`jk\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e jgi\Z_\e mfe \`e\d k`\]\ic`\é
^\e[\e ÑN\cYjkÉ( mfe \`e\d R\j\ejb\ie f[\i mfe \`e\i N\\c\( [`\ _`eé
k\i [\i i\cXk`m fY\i]cvZ_c`Z_\e AXjjX[\ [\i i\Xc\e K\ijzec`Z_b\`k c`\^k
le[ [`\ [`\ Ll\cc\ [\i N\_ejlZ_k [\j H\ejZ_\e eXZ_ nXZ_j\e[\i Ng`é
i`klXc`kvk `jk( aX j`\ j\cYjk `jk [Xj( nXj \`^\ekc`Z_ nvZ_jk le[ j`Z_ \ek]Xcé
k\k* @`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc\ ?`jq`gc`e\e( n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [`\ dzeZ_`é
jZ_\e( Y\d{_\e j`Z_ ^Xeq Y\nl~k ld Q\ii`e^\ile^ [\i K\ijzec`Z_é
b\`kjd\ibdXc\( nv_i\e[ Xe[\i\ Y\kfe\e( [X~ dXe e`Z_k Xccqlj\_i Xe
`_e\e _ve^\e jfcc* ?`\j\ <l]]Xjjle^\e ]{_i\e eXk{ic`Z_ [Xql( [X~ [`\
gjpZ_`jZ_\e @e\i^`\e `e \`e\ M`Z_kle^ ^\_\e( [`\ j`Z_ mfe [\i `d
R\jk\em\i]fc^k\en\j\ekc`Z_lek\ijZ_\`[\k*
D]abcZOb2 N`Z_ Xcj K\ijzec`Z_b\`k ql ]{_c\e le[ j\`e\ D[\ek`kvk
ql ]`e[\e `jk c\Y\ejn`Z_k`^( le[ `_i Q\icljk `jk <lj[ilZb \`e\i
KjpZ_fgXk_`\*
H`k [\d =\^i`]] ã?\g\ijfeXc`jXk`feä $@ekg\ijzec`Z_le^% Y\jZ_i\`Yk
dXe gjpZ_`jZ_\ Nkzile^\e( le[ \`e jg{iYXi\j NZ_n`e[\e [\j g\ijzeé
c`Z_\e D[\ek`kvkj^\]{_cj ^`ck `d Xcc^\d\`e\e Xcj gXk_fcf^`jZ_( \j j\`
[\ee( \`e H\ejZ_ `[\ek`]`q`\i\ j`Z_ n\`k^\_\e[ d`k \`e\i ã^lk\e
NXZ_\ä( [* _* d`k \`e\i NXZ_\( [`\ n`i Y`cc`^\e ) [Xee evdc`Z_ Y\kiXZ_é
k\e n`i [Xj Xcj ^\jle[\j U\`Z_\e ]{i [`\ C`e^XY\]v_`^b\`k [\i Y\ki\]é
]\e[\e K\ijfe* R\ee [X^\^\e \`e\i lej\i\i Ai\le[\ jX^k6 ÑDZ_ n\`~
e`Z_k i\Z_k( n\i `Z_ \`^\ekc`Z_ Y`e( `Z_ _XY\ Un\`]\c Xe d\`e\i D[\ek`é
kvkÉ( e\`^\e n`i \_\i [Xql( `_e qld KjpZ_`Xk\i ql jZ_`Zb\e*
=\jk`ddk\ Avcc\ mfe Q\ive[\ile^\e [\i g\ijzec`Z_\e D[\ek`kvk bzeé
e\e XlZ_ eXZ_ <ej`Z_k [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e gXk_fcf^`jZ_\i
IXkli j\`e( XY\i j`\ ^cXlY\e [Xi`e XlZ_ \`e U\`Z_\e [X]{i \ib\ee\e
ql bzee\e( [X~ [\i =\ki\]]\e[\ j\`e\ D[\ek`kvk d`k M\Z_k `e AiX^\
jk\cck ) le[ qnXi n\`c [Xj \`e\ efkn\e[`^\ QfiXljj\kqle^ ]{i \`e\
-/3

jg`i`kl\cc\ R\`k\i\ekn`Zbcle^ `jk* NfcXe^\ a\dXe[ j\`e\ fY\i]cvZ_)
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Y\[\lk\e[\e H\ibdXc\e( Xcj g\ijzec`Z_\i Nk`c f[\i <lj[ilZbjdf[lj7
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Z_`jZ_\e Av_`^b\`k\e le[ @`ejk\ccle^\e7 [Xj n\`k\i\ G\Y\e m\iYi`eé
^\e n`i `e [`\j\d \`edXc XY^\jk\Zbk\e MX_d\e* R`i bzee\e Xcj i\`]\
H\ejZ_\e j`Z_\ic`Z_ efZ_ [XiXe XiY\`k\e( lej\i\ vl~\i\ Pd^\Yle^
ql m\ive[\ie le[ ql \ekn`Zb\ce( XY\i lej\i gjpZ_`jZ_\j RXZ_jkld
`jk XY^\jZ_cfjj\e( le[ [`\ Bile[q{^\ lej\i\i K\ijzec`Z_b\`k j`e[ Y\é
i\`kjq`\dc`Z_jkXii]\jk^\c\^kle[cXjj\ej`Z_e`Z_kd\_im\ive[\ie
) \j j\` [\ee `d AXcc\ mfe I\lifk`b\ie( [`\ \`e\ `e `_i\d \ijk\e
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-/4

Yqn* eXZ__fc\e d{jj\e* HXe bXee XlZ_ jX^\e6 R\ee n`i \inXZ_j\e
j`e[([Xeej`e[n`ilej\i\iH\`ele^eXZ_XlZ_i\`]*
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<l]]Xjjle^( [X~ [`\ @ekn`Zbcle^ d`k [\d @inXZ_j\ej\`e b\`e\jn\^j
XY^\jZ_cfjj\e `jk( jfe[\ie [X~ [`\ @iq`\_le^ ql \`e\d Xe^\d\jj\e
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\`e\ <ik mfiY\i\`k\e[\i Bile[XljY`c[le^ [Xijk\cck( eXZ_ [\i [Xee [`\
\`^\ekc`Z_\ jg`i`kl\cc\ @ekn`Zbcle^ Y\^`eek* ?`\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`k jfcck\
e`Z_k Xl] [`\j\d i\cXk`m j\`Z_k\e( mfe [\i blckli\cc\e Pdn\ck Y\jk`ddé
k\e I`m\Xl jk\_\eYc\`Y\e7 [Xj \`eq\ce\ De[`m`[lld jfcck\ m`\cd\_i
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k\e _Xk* ?`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i m\ijlZ_\e( {Y\i [`\ m\ijZ_`\[\e\e
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G\`[Xljlej\i\dG\Y\e_\iXljql_fc\e*
-/5

?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e ^\_\e [X^\^\e mfe \`e\i m`\c ld]Xjj\eé
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jfi`jZ_ \in`\j\e _XY\e( [Xee jfcck\ a\dXe[( [\i n`ibc`Z_ \`e\ jg`i`klé
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-0,

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b\`kXcj\`e\d\`e_\`kc`Z_\eBXeq\e\ekn`Zb\ce*

-0-

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ql B\^e\ie ql dXZ_\e( [`\ [XiXl] Y\jk\_\e( [X~ Xcc\j e\l\ R`jj\e
`e cf^`jZ_\d UljXdd\e_Xe^ d`k `_i\e Y\i\`kj mfi^\]\ik`^k\e <l]]Xjé
jle^\ejk\_\edl~*N`\n\i[\e[X_\i]fik^\_\ele[[`\U\`k[\jjg`i`é
kl\cc\e G\_i\ij e`Z_k lee{kq `e <ejgilZ_ e\_d\e* R\ee XY\i [\i
Nkl[\ek [Xj mfi^\c\^k\ HXk\i`Xc \iejk e`ddk( fYnf_c \i [\jj\e cf^`é
jZ_\ Pejk`dd`^b\`k\e \ek[\Zbk( [Xee n`i[ [`\j\i Flejk^i`]] `_e [Xql
qn`e^\e( [Xd`k ql Y\^`ee\e( j\`e cf^`jZ_\j Npjk\d e\l ql j\_\e( jkXkk
\jn\`k\i_`ele^\gi{]kmfiXljqlj\kq\e*
D]abcZOb2 R\ee [`\ H\ejZ_\e d`k d`i {Y\i\`ejk`dd\e( [Xee
j`e[ j`\ m\ie{e]k`^7 kle j`\ [Xj e`Z_k( [Xee j`e[ j`\ m\idlkc`Z_
lem\ie{e]k`^*
<l] [`\j\j KfjklcXk _XY\e [`\ KjpZ_fcf^\e b\`e\jn\^j \`e Hfefgfc7
n`i Xcc\ ^\_\e ]fiknv_i\e[ [Xmfe Xlj( le[ a\[\idXee Y\bcX^k [Xj(
jY\i\j`jk^lk(n`\[\i\`edXc[XiXe\i`ee\ikqln\i[\e*
D]abcZOb2 =\` [\i K_XekXj`\ _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \`e\ q\`kc`Z_ Y\é
^i\eqk\ bf^e`k`m\ Ovk`^b\`k( [`\ `e [\i M\^\c Xl] lej\i\ Hl~\é
jkle[\eY\jZ_ivebkYc\`Yk*
IXZ_ [\d fik_f[fo\e =`c[ mfd H\ejZ_\e m\iYi`e^k [`\j\i [`\ d\`jk\
U\`k j\`e\j G\Y\ej [Xd`k( [X~ \i XiY\`k\k( [\ebk( \knXj nX_ie`ddk
-05

le[ KifYc\d\ czjk( le[ eli I\lifk`b\i le[ Xe[\i\ XefidXc\ H\eé
jZ_\e dXZ_\e XlZ_ Xl~\i_XcY `_i\i Hl~\q\`k i\`Z_c`Z_ mfe `_i\i
K_XekXj`\ B\YiXlZ_* ?`\j\j =`c[ gX~k ^lk ql [\d Ñm\ie{e]k`^\e
B\jZ_zg]É([Xjn`iqlj\`e^cXlY\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\kfe\e [X^\^\e( [X~ n`i ]Xjk [`\ ^Xeq\
U\`k lej\i\j G\Y\ej lej\i\ K_XekXj`\ Y\kvk`^\e le[ [X~ XlZ_ lej\i\
Dek\iXbk`fe\e d`k [\i R\ck le[ d`k Xe[\i\e H\ejZ_\e `e lej\i\i
Pd^\Yle^ d\_i f[\i d`e[\i mfe lej\i\i K_XekXj`\ Y\\`e]cl~k j`e[*
Dee\i_XcY a\[\j Flcklibi\`j\j k\`c\e [`\ H\ejZ_\e m`\c\ K_XekXj`\mfié
jk\ccle^\e le[ _Xck\e j`\ ]{i M\Xc`kvk\e* ?X_\i \icXlY\e lej [`\ ^\é
nz_ec`Z_\e ^\j\ccjZ_X]kc`Z_\e Dek\iXbk`fe\e eli j\ck\e M{ZbjZ_c{jj\
[XiXl]( n`\m`\c K_XekXj`\ n`i [XY\` \`ej\kq\e* Gve^\i [liZ_^\]{_ik\
N\cYjkY\fYXZ_kle^ q\`^k( [X~ n`i j\_i _vl]`^ eli `e \`e\i <ik OiXldé
n\ck c\Y\e* BXeq ^\jZ_`Zbk le[ ]Xjk XlkfdXk`jZ_ m\id\e^\e n`i j`\
d`k @`e[i{Zb\e Xlj [\d =\i\`Z_ [\i R`ibc`Z_b\`k( le[ qnXi ^Xeq `d
@`ebcXe^ d`k lej\i\e =\[{i]e`jj\e le[ <Yn\_id\Z_Xe`jd\e* ?`\j\
le^\_\li\ @e\i^`\m\ijZ_n\e[le^ dl~ i\[lq`\ik le[ jZ_c`\~c`Z_
^Xeq \c`d`e`\ik n\i[\e( n\ee lej\i\ Ng`i`klXc`kvk j`Z_ \ek]Xck\e
jfcc*
D]abcZOb2 BcXlY\e Y\[\lk\k6 ?`e^\ ]{i nX_i _Xck\e( [`\ e`Z_k
n`ibc`Z_ j`e[ f[\i ]{i [`\ dXe b\`e Xlji\`Z_\e[\j =\n\`jdXk\é
i`XcY\j`kqk*
A{i [`\ d\`jk\e KjpZ_fcf^\e [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck `jk ãBcXlY\eä \`e
d`k e\^Xk`m\e <jjfq`Xk`fe\e Y\cXjk\k\i =\^i`]]7 \i q\`^k Xe( [X~ [`\
H\ejZ_\e [`\ n`[\im\ie{e]k`^jk\e le[ lej`ee`^jk\e ?`e^\ ^cXlY\e
bzee\e le[ [Xee XlZ_ efZ_ jkfcq [XiXl] j`e[( [X~ j`\ [XiXe ^cXlY\e(
Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ Xe jf \knXj n`\ [`\ @o`jk\eq Bfkk\j* R\ee dXe Xe \ké
nXj ^cXlYk(mfe[\ddXe{Y\iq\l^k`jk([X~\jnX_i`jkle[[X~\jj`Z_
jZ_c`\~c`Z_ XlZ_ Y\n\`j\e cXjj\e n`i[( fYjZ_fe dXe qli U\`k efZ_
e`Z_k {Y\i Xlji\`Z_\e[\j =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc m\i]{^k( [Xee n`i[ [Xj e`Z_k
^Xeq jf e\^Xk`m Y\lik\`ck7 kifkq[\d `jk ]{i [\e BcXlY\e `e n`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc`Z_\e Q\i]X_i\e b\`e KcXkq* <e \`e\ Y\jk`ddk\ gfjklc`\ik\
Cpgfk_\j\ qlevZ_jk \`edXc ql ^cXlY\e( [Xj bXee dXe lek\i Pdjkveé
[\e _`ee\_d\e( XY\i BcXlY\( [\i eXZ_ M\c`^`fj`kvk jZ_d\Zbk( n`i[
^cXkkXY^\c\_ek*
<lZ_ `d =\i\`Z_ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\kiXZ_k\k dXe [\e
BcXlY\e _vl]`^ Xcj lem\ie{e]k`^\j A\jk_Xck\e Xe `i^\e[n\cZ_\e Qfi)
-1,

Nk\ccle^\e( jf Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [\e BcXlY\e Xe [`\ leY\^i\eqk\ HXZ_k
[\j Q\ijkXe[\j* <Y\i [\i BcXlY\ bXee XlZ_ [Xql [`\e\e( [`\ =\d{é
_le^\e \`e\j H\ejZ_\e `e [`\ i`Z_k`^\e =X_e\e ql c\eb\e( n\ee \i
eXZ_ =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc ]{i ?`e^\ jlZ_k( [`\ e`Z_k g_pj`bXc`jZ_\i IXkli
j`e[* ?Xj _\`~k( [\i BcXlY\ bXee \`e\ uY\iq\l^le^ i\givj\ek`\i\e(
[`\ Xl] jlYjkXek`\cc\d =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc ]{i jg`i`kl\cc\ M\Xc`kvk\e YXj`\ik(
[`\ j`Z_ a\[fZ_ e`\dXcj Xl] c\`Z_k ql Y\fYXZ_k\e[\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\
HXe`]\jkXk`fe\e {Y\ikiX^\e cXjj\e* ?X_\i dl~ dXe Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\
[\e i\c`^`zj\e BcXlY\e( [\i [X[liZ_ \ekjk\_k( [X~ dXe U\l^\ mfe
Rle[\ie n`i[( Xcj \`e\ e`\[\i\ Afid [\j BcXlY\ej Y\q\`Z_e\e( [\ee
\i _vck j`Z_ jZ_c`\~c`Z_ [fZ_ Xe [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ M\Xc`kvk Xcj B{ck`^é
j\`kjY\n\`j7 [X^\^\e bXee [\i BcXlY\( [\i j\`e\ @i]X_ile^jYXj`j
XljjZ_c`\~c`Z_ `e jg`i`kl\cc\e M\Xc`kvk\e _Xk( Xcj vl~\ijk n`Z_k`^\j
C`c]jd`kk\c]{i[`\jg`i`kl\cc\@ek]Xckle^Xe^\j\_\en\i[\e*
D]abcZOb2 Dekl`k`fe `jk \`e Rfik( d`k [\d n`i ^c{Zbc`Z_\ @`e]vcc\
le[ gczkqc`Z_\ @`ej`Z_k\e( XY\i XlZ_ iXk`feXc\ Kifq\jj\ Y\q\`Z_é
e\e( [`\ n`i qnXi e`Z_k Y\nl~k Xcj jfcZ_\ nX_ie\_d\e( [`\ XY\i
kifkq[\diXk`feXcj`e[*
?`\ fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e [\j R\jk\ej _XY\e j`Z_ d`k [\i Dekl`é
k`fe `dd\i jZ_n\i^\kXe* NfcXe^\ dXe d`k C`c]\ [\i Dekl`k`fe ql [\e
^c\`Z_\e NZ_cl~]fc^\ile^\e bfddk n`\ d`k [\d Q\ijkXe[( \i^\Y\e
jZ_ eXk{ic`Z_ b\`e\ NZ_n`\i`^b\`k\e7 n\ee j`Z_ XY\i [`\ Dekl`k`fe ^\)
^\e [\e Q\ijkXe[ jk\cck( dl~ j`\ `_d n\`Z_\e* MXk`feXc\ Qfi^ve^\(
[`\ j`Z_ Xl~\i_XcY lej\i\i =\nl~kj\`ejjg_vi\ mfccq`\_\e( _vck dXe
Xccqlc\`Z_k ]{i m\ijZ_nfdd\e le[ leY\[\lk\e[7 [`\j ^`ck ^Xeq Xcc^\é
d\`e ]{i m\ive[\ik\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\( fYnf_c ^\iX[\ \`e\j mfe
Y\`[\e ^\c\^\ekc`Z_ ql Y\[\lk\e[\e jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e G\`jkle^\e ]{_i\e
bXee* Dekl`k`m\ @`ej`Z_k\e jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\i H\ejZ_\e Y\kiXZ_k\e n`i
Xcj Ul]Xccjki\]]\i( XY\i n`i ]zi[\ie j`\ d`k N`Z_\i_\`k e`Z_k Y\` [\e Kjpé
Z_fcf^\e* DZ_ bXee d`Z_ e`Z_k [XiXe \i`ee\ie( [X~ nv_i\e[ d\`e\i
Nkl[\ek\eq\`k `i^\e[\`e\i f[\i )\`e\ mfe [\e\e( [`\ j`Z_ Xl] [`\
Kifdfk`fe mfiY\i\`k\k\e( XlZ_ eli `d ^\i`e^jk\e [Xql \idlk`^k
nfi[\ej\`(`_i\`ekl`k`m\eAv_`^b\`k\en\`k\iql\ekn`Zb\ce*
Q`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\^i\`]\e [`\ Dekl`k`fe Xcj \`e\ jkXib
Xlj^\giv^k\ @ib\eeke`j]v_`^b\`k( [`\ eXZ_ Xe[\i\e B\j\kq\e XiY\`k\k
Xcj [`\ Gf^`b [\j Q\ijkXe[\j le[ [`\ XlZ_ Xl~\i_XcY lej\i\i =\nl~ké
j\`ejjg_vi\ n`ibk ) ÑXl~\i_XcYÉ `e [\d N`ee\( [X~ [`\ <eknfik Xl]
-1-

\`e Y\jk`ddk\j KifYc\d gczkqc`Z_ [X `jk( [`\ Alebk`fejn\`j\ [\j
Dekl`k`fejgifq\jj\j j\cYjk XY\i e`Z_k nX_i^\efdd\e n`i[* <l~\ié
[\d e`ddk dXe Xe( [X~ Dekl`k`fe j`Z_ \ekn`Zb\ce cv~k le[ [X~ j`\
\`e n\`k k`\]\i\j Q\ijkve[e`j qX_ci\`Z_\i K_vefd\e\ m\id`kk\ce bXee
Xcj[\iYcf~\Q\ijkXe[*
D]abcZOb2 NpdYfc\ j`e[ e`Z_kj Xe[\i\j Xcj i\`e g_pj`bXc`jZ_\
JYa\bk\ d`k \dfk`feXc\i =\[\lkle^ Yqn* \c\bkifg_pj`fcf^`)
jZ_\Nkilbkli\e`ee\i_XcY[\jB\_`iej*
@`e NpdYfc `jk \knXj( [Xj ]{i a\dXe[( [\i \j XeYc`Zbk( \`e\ Y\jk`ddk\
=\[\lkle^ _Xk( n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ \`e\ =l[[_X]`^li f[\i \`e Filq`]`o*
KjpZ_fcf^`jZ_ Y\kiXZ_k\k( Y\j`kqk \`e NpdYfc eli `d ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e
=\i\`Z_ \`e\ ^\n`jj\ M\Xc`kvk7 [X dXe [\i <l]]Xjjle^ `jk( [`\j\i ^\`)
jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\ =\i\`Z_ j\` d`k [\e Qfi^ve^\e `d B\_`ie `[\ek`jZ_( Y\é
[\lk\k [Xj( [X~ j`Z_ [`\ NpdYfc\ Xl] \c\bki`jZ_\ <bk`fej]\c[\i `d
B\_`ie qli{Zb]{_i\e cXjj\e* <cj jfcZ_\ bzee\e j`\ [Xj B\_`ie Y\\`eé
]cljj\e( `e [\d j`\ \o`jk`\i\e( f[\i j`\ bzee\e XlZ_ Xe[\i\ B\_`ie\
Y\\`e]cljj\e( n\ee j`\ `_e\e d`k C`c]\ [\i N`ee\jfi^Xe\ Xlji\`Z_\e[
m\id`kk\ck n\i[\e( XY\i [Xi{Y\i _`eXlj Y\j`kq\e j`\ b\`e\e M\Xc`kvkjé
n\ik*
?X^\^\e j`e[ \`e`^\ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e [\i <l]]Xjjle^( [X~
Y\jk`ddk\ NpdYfc\ \`e\ \`^\e\ @o`jk\eq le[ HXZ_k {Y\i [\e B\`jk
[\jj\e Y\j`kq\e( [\i j`\ nX_ie`ddk* NpdYfc\ \ekjk\_\e e`Z_k Xljé
jZ_c`\~c`Z_ `d ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_ [\j H\ejZ_\e( jfe[\ie j`\
bzee\e [fik XlZ_ Xcj HXe`]\jkXk`fe\e \`e\i Xl~\i_XcY a\e\j =\i\`é
Z_\j \o`jk`\i\e[\e jg`i`kl\cc\e M\Xc`kvk Xl]kXlZ_\e* N`\ Y`c[\e Xcjf \`e
=`e[\^c`\[ qn`jZ_\e [\d De[`m`[lld( [Xj j`\ nX_ie`ddk( le[ [`\j\i
M\Xc`kvk le[ cXjj\e j`Z_ [X_\i Xcj uY\id`kkc\i Yqn* Ffem\ik\i mfe
@e\i^`\Xl]Xe[\i\@o`jk\eq\Y\e\eY\kiXZ_k\e*
Q`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e ^cXlY\e `e [\i Q\i\_ile^ mfe NpdYfé
c\e le[ `e [\e m`\c\e _fZ_\ekn`Zb\ck\e KiXbk`b\e [\j Pd^Xe^j d`k
`_e\ed\_ij\_\eqld{jj\eXcjãeliä\`e\gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\O\Z_e`b*
D]abcZOb2 Pej\i\ BcXlY\ejmfijk\ccle^\e le[ lej\i\ gjpZ_`é
jZ_\e @i]X_ile^\e n`ib\e eli Xl] lej j\cYjk le[ e`Z_k Xl] [`\
i\Xc\ R\ck ) Xl~\i j`\ n\i[\e qli ki\`Y\e[\e FiX]k [\j CXeé
[\cej*
-1.

?`\j\j KfjklcXk \ekjgi`Z_k `e \knX [\i Qfijk\ccle^( [X~ [\i ^\`jk`^é
j\\c`jZ_\ =\i\`Z_ `ee\i_XcY [\i Bi\eq\e [\j I\im\ejpjk\dj kfkXc `jfé
c`\ik `jk( XY\i \j \ek_vck XlZ_ \`e Hfd\ek [\i <Yj`Z_\ile^7 n\cZ_\
[ldd\e Q\ii{Zbk_\`k\e f[\i se^jk\ `Z_ d`i XlZ_ `dd\i Xlj[\eb\e
dX^( [`\ ^lk\ Xck\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k n`i[ [X[liZ_ `e b\`e\i
R\`j\ ^\jZ_v[`^k( \j j\` [\ee( `Z_ Y\elkq\ d\`e\e Fzig\i( ld j`\ ql
Y\\`ekivZ_k`^\e7 `Z_ bXee d`Z_ [X_\i jk\kj f_e\ \`e Y\jfe[\i\j M`j`bf
\`eql^\_\e Xl] j`\ m\icXjj\e* R\ee [`\ Rve[\ ld d`Z_ _\ild j`Z_
Xl]qlczj\eY\^`ee\e([Xeen\`~`Z_([X~[Xjeli\`eNki\`Z_`jk([\ed`i
d\`e =\nl~kj\`e jg`\ck( [\ee `e R`ibc`Z_b\`k bzee\e Rve[\ j`Z_ ^Xi
e`Z_k Xl]czj\e* R\ee d`Z_ `i^\e[n\cZ_\ ?vdfe\e XkkXZb`\i\e( [Xee
n\`~ `Z_( [X~ \j j`Z_ _`\i ld \`e\ Kifa\bk`fe d\`e\i j\\c`jZ_\e Ffeé
]c`bk\ _Xe[\ck( [\ee Xl~\ig_pj`bXc`jZ_\ Fi\Xkli\e n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\
?vdfe\e bzee\e aX eli `ee\i_XcY d\`e\j ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_j
\o`jk`\i\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e ^\_\e e`Z_k `dd\i mfe [\i QfiXljj\ké
qle^ Xlj( [X~ [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ R\ck n`ibc`Z_ `jk le[ Xcc\ ^\`jk`^)j\\c`)
jZ_\e K_vefd\e\ len`ibc`Z_ j`e[7 j`\ n\`j\e [XiXl] _`e( [X~ \`e
^\`jk`^\i Qfi^Xe^ [liZ_Xlj \`e\ <ik led`kk\cYXi\ gXiXgjpZ_`jZ_\
<ljn`ible^ Xl] [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ M\Xc`kvk( XY\i XlZ_ Xl] [`\ ^\`jk`^\
R`ibc`Z_b\`k Xe[\i\i H\ejZ_\e _XY\e bXee* ?X_\i e`ddk dXe Xe(
[X~ m`\c\ @ic\Ye`jj\ `e dpjk`jZ_\e f[\i Xe[\i\e m\ive[\ik\e
Uljkve[\e [\j =\nl~kj\`ej e`Z_k eli `d ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e =\i\`Z_
\o`jk`\i\e( jfe[\ie [X~ j`\ [Xi{Y\i _`eXlj Xl] [`\j\ M\Xc`kvk le[ XlZ_
Xl] Xe[\i\ M\Xc`kvkj\Y\e\e n`ib\e bzee\e* HXe bXee [`\j\e B\[Xeé
b\e efZ_ n\`k\i m\i]fc^\e le[ [`\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k \`eY\q`\_\e( [X~ [`\
ÑR`ibc`Z_b\`kÉ f[\i( ^\eXl\i( [Xj( nXj {Y\i\`ejk`dd\e[ Xcj R`ibé
c`Z_b\`k Xe^\j\_\e n`i[( e`Z_k eli [\i\e \`^\e\i jg\q`]`jZ_\i IXkli
\ekjgi`Z_k( jfe[\ie \Y\ejfj\_i <lj[ilZb \`e\j n\`k_`e Xbq\gk`\ik\e(
lej\i\ N`Z_k Y\\`e]cljj\e[\e BcXlY\ejjpjk\dj `jk* JY lej [`\j\
Ffeq\gk`fe Y\^\`jk\ik f[\i \ijZ_i\Zbk( jX^k \knXj [Xi{Y\i Xlj( n`\
n`ilej\iH\ejZ_j\`em\ijk\_\e*

KfjklcXk\{Y\iB\]{_c\
D]abcZOb2 =\` [\e B\]{_c\e _Xe[\ck \j j`Z_ ld \c\bki`jZ_\ le[
Z_\d`jZ_\PdjZ_Xckle^\e`ee\i_XcYlej\i\jI\im\ejpjk\dj*
-1/

?`\j\j KfjklcXk _Xk \`e\ ^\n`jj\ s_ec`Z_b\`k d`k [\ea\e`^\e( [\e\e
ql]fc^\ B\[Xeb\e f[\i NpdYfc\ Ñe`Z_kj Xe[\i\jÉ j`e[ Xcj \c\bkifZ_\é
d`jZ_\ A\c[\i `d I\im\ejpjk\d* B\]{_c\ c\`k\e j`Z_ [\deXZ_ mfe
ãe`Z_kj Xe[\i\dä _\i Xcj mfe [\i Dek\iXbk`fe e\lif_ldfiXc\i >_\é
d`bXc`\e `d =clkjkifd d`k m\ijZ_`\[\e\e Qfi^ve^\e `e ^Xeq jg\q`]`é
jZ_\e B\_`ieqfe\e( n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [\d Cpgfk_XcXdlj le[ [\d
c`dY`jZ_\e Npjk\d* @`e jfcZ_\j KfjklcXk ]{_ik led`kk\cYXi ql [\i mfe
[\i ÑZ_\d`jZ_\e KjpZ_`Xki`\É le[ ÑK_XidXgjpZ_fk_\iXg`\É Xe^\é
nXe[k\e H\k_f[\( [\e KXk`\ek\e ^c{Zbc`Z_ ql dXZ_\e* R\ee \j j`Z_
Y\` [\e B\]{_c\e ld e`Z_kj Xe[\i\j _Xe[\ck Xcj ld Z_\d`jZ_\ le[
\c\bki`jZ_\ Nkilbkli\e( [Xee bXee [`\ Dea\bk`fe [\i i`Z_k`^\e Z_\d`é
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-10

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-11

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-12

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-13

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-14

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Ng`\cj `d c\Y\e[`^\e Pe`m\ijld j\_i nf_c k\`c_XY\e bXee* Q`\c]XZ_
nli[\ XlZ_ Y\fYXZ_k\k( [X~ H\ejZ_\e d`k \`e\d _f_\e BiX[ mfe
Ng`i`klXc`kvk Y\qXlY\ie[ jg`\c\e le[ j`Z_ b`e[c`Z_ Xd ãC`\i le[
E\kqkä]i\l\ebzee\e*
D]abcZOb2NZ_d\iq`jk\knXjPeXe^\e\_d\j([XjdXem\i_`e[\ie
jfcck\*
Rv_i\e[ [`\ fik_f[fo\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j R\jk\ej \`e\ij\`kj [liZ_Xlj
Xe\ib\eek( [X~ \j j`Z_ Y\`d NZ_d\iq ld \`e e{kqc`Z_\j N`^eXc _Xe[\ce
bXee( [Xj lej mfi \`e\i g_pj`jZ_\e FiXeb_\`k f[\i \`e\i Y\[if_c`Z_\e
N`klXk`fe nXiek( Y\kiXZ_k\k dXe `_e Xe[\i\ij\`kj Xcj \knXj( [Xj lek\i
Xcc\e Pdjkve[\e m\id`\[\e n\i[\e jfcck\* R\ee dXe NZ_d\iq\e _Xk(
^\_k dXe e`Z_k eli qld <iqk( ld j`Z_ mfe [\i [`\j\e NZ_d\iq Xljczé
j\e[\e FiXeb_\`k _\`c\e( jfe[\ie XlZ_ ld j`Z_ mfe [\d NZ_d\iq
j\cYjk Y\]i\`\e ql cXjj\e* R\ee dXe j`Z_ j\\c`jZ_ e`Z_k nf_c ]{_ck(
`jk \j {Yc`Z_( [X~ dXe qld <iqk f[\i qld KjpZ_`Xk\i ^\_k( ld j`Z_
KjpZ_fg_XidXbX m\ijZ_i\`Y\e ql cXjj\e( [`\ [\e j\\c`jZ_\e NZ_d\iq
jk`cc\e* <cj e`Z_kd\[`q`e`jZ_\j H`kk\c n`i[ `e lej\i\d Flcklibi\`j
<cbf_fc `e ^\iX[\ql le^cXlYc`Z_\e H\e^\e bfejld`\ik( ld gjpZ_`é
jZ_\e NZ_d\iq ql ã\ikiveb\eä* ?`\ vck\i\( jkvib\i gli`kXe`jZ_ fi`\e)
k`\ik\ @k_`b jX_ `d G\`[\e \knXj( [Xj dXe \ikiX^\e dl~k\ le[ mfe
[\d dXe j`Z_ e`Z_k jf c\`Z_k lek\ibi`\^\e cXjj\e [li]k\7 XY\i [`\ f])
]\ej`Z_kc`Z_ e\lifk`jZ_\e le[ dXjfZ_`jk`jZ_\e @c\d\ek\ [`\j\i gli`é
kXe`jZ_\e @`ejk\ccle^ qld NZ_d\iq jk\cc\e b\`e\ Y\jfe[\i\ @dg]\_é
cle^[Xi*
?`\ _\lk\ Y\` lej n\`km\iYi\`k\k\( Xcc^\d\`e Xbq\gk`\ik\ G\Y\ejg_`cfé
jfg_`\ cvl]k Xcc\i[`e^j [XiXl] _`eXlj( [X~ \`e HXo`dld Xe Gljk le[
\`e H`e`dld Xe NZ_d\iq Xeqljki\Y\e j\`* R`i[ [`\j\ @`ejk\ccle^
g_`cfjfg_`jZ_ lek\idXl\ik( jgi\Z_\e n`i mfe C\[fe`jdlj* UnXi Y\é
b\ee\e j`Z_ eli n\e`^\ H\ejZ_\e Xlj[i{Zbc`Z_ [Xql( XY\i jk`ccé
jZ_n\`^\e[kle\jj\_im`\c\*
=\` [\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\^\^e\e n`i `e [\i M\^\c \`e\i ^Xeq
Xe[\i\e @`ejk\ccle^6 N`\ Y\kfe\e( [X~ ^\iX[\ [liZ_ [Xj =\jki\Y\e(
[\d NZ_d\iq Xljqln\`Z_\e le[ \`e HXo`dld Xe Gljk^\n`ee ql \ié
q`\c\e( d\ejZ_c`Z_\j G\`[\e \ijk qld KifYc\d n`i[* ?X `e lej\i\i
lemfccbfdd\e\e R\ck qnXe^jcvl]`^ a\[\i H\ejZ_ \`e ^\n`jj\j HX~
Xe NZ_d\iq le[ Pe^c{Zb \ikiX^\e dl~( n\i[\e n`i [liZ_ lej\i <ljé
-15

n\`Z_\e mfi [\d NZ_d\iq le[ [liZ_ lej\i\ Q\i^e{^le^jjlZ_k `e
efZ_ jkvib\i\d HX~\ ql NbcXm\e lej\i\j Q\i^e{^\ej( XY\i XlZ_ ql
Jg]\ie [\j NZ_d\iq\j( n\ee n`i `_d \`edXc XYjfclk e`Z_k d\_i Xlj)
n\`Z_\e bzee\e* Q`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ Npjk\d\ \dg]\_c\e lej eXZ_[i{Zbé
c`Z_( lej `e \`e\d ?Xi{Y\ijk\_\e ql {Y\e( [Xj lej _`c]k( [`\ <Y_ve^`^é
b\`k mfe Gljk le[ NZ_d\iq ql {Y\in`e[\e* ?Xj _\`~k Xcc\i[`e^j e`Z_k(
[X~ dXe giXbk`jZ_ Xcc\ IXZ_k\`c\ le[ NZ_v[`^le^\e `e FXl] e\_d\e
f[\i j`Z_ [`\ Ai\l[\ Xd G\Y\e m\i^vcc\e cXjj\e jfcc7 \j Y\[\lk\k eli(
[X~ dXe j\`e\ `ee\i\ @`ejk\ccle^ ql Gljk le[ NZ_d\iq jkXib m\iveé
[\iejfcck\*
Ai\l[\ n`\ NZ_d\iq bzee\e [\e M\`]le^jgifq\~ \`e\j H\ejZ_\e
j\_i ^{ejk`^ Y\\`e]cljj\e( n\ee [`\j\i Y`j ql \`e\d ^\n`jj\e BiX[
`e [\i GX^\ `jk( Y\`[\e ^\^\e{Y\i \`e\ [`jkXeq`\ik\ CXckle^ \`eqle\_é
d\e7 XY\i `d Ki`eq`g ^\_k dXe [Xmfe Xlj( [X~ Y\`[\ `_i\d R\j\e
eXZ_ d`k\`eXe[\i UljXdd\e_ve^\e6 ?`\ jkXib\ C`ee\`^le^ ql
Ai\l[\ le[ Gljk dXZ_k \`e\e H\ejZ_\e XlkfdXk`jZ_ Xe]vcc`^\i ]{i
[\eNZ_d\iq*

KfjklcXk\{Y\i[XjG\ie\e
D]abcZOb2 ?Xj G\ie\e Y\il_k Xl] g\idXe\ek\e le[ _XcYg\idXé
e\ek\e \c\bkifZ_\d`jZ_\e Q\ive[\ile^\e `e B\_`ie le[ I\ié
m\ejpjk\d*
?`\j\j KfjklcXk n`i[ ]{i Xcc\ <ik\e [\j G\ie\ej jf n\`k^\_\e[ Xbq\gé
k`\ik( [X~ dXe le^\_\li\ Nldd\e ]{i B\_`ie]fijZ_le^\e Xlj^`Yk(
ld _\iXljql]`e[\e( n\cZ_\ O\`c\ [\j B\_`iej ]{i n\cZ_\ G\ieXik\e
qljkve[`^ j`e[* UnXi _XY\e n`i eli n\e`^\ =\n\`j\ [X]{i( [X~ \`e\
Y\jk`ddk\ <ik [\j G\ie\ej j`Z_ Xl] \`e\e ^Xeq Y\jk`ddk\e O\`c [\j
B\_`iej cfbXc`j`\i\e cv~k( XY\i dXe e`ddk Xcc^\d\`e Xe( [X~ [`\j\i
HXe^\c Xe jg\q`]`jZ_\e =\]le[\e \`e\ Afc^\ [\i le^\_\li\e Ffdgc\é
o`kvk [\j d\ejZ_c`Z_\e B\_`iej `jk le[ j`Z_ `e Ulble]k j`Z_\ic`Z_ d`k
C`c]\\ekjgi\Z_\e[\iH\k_f[\eY\_\Y\ecXjj\en`i[*
?X [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e e`Z_k [Xmfe Xlj^\_\e( [X~ [\i ^\`é
jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\ =\i\`Z_ [\j H\ejZ_\e j`Z_ [liZ_ [Xj Alebk`fe`\i\e [\j
B\_`iej le[ [\j I\im\ejpjk\dj \ijZ_zg]\e[ [\]`e`\i\e cv~k( bXee
\j j`Z_ ]{i j`\ Y\`d Kifq\~ [\j G\ie\ej XlZ_ e`Z_k ld Ñe`Z_kj Xe[\i\jÉ
-2,

Xcj \c\bkifZ_\d`jZ_\ Q\ive[\ile^\e `d I\im\ejpjk\d _Xe[\ce* ?`\
D[\\e [\i M\`ebXieXk`fe le[ [\j FXidXj j\kq\e Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [\lké
c`Z_ mfiXlj( [X~ [Xj( nXj dXe `d Q\icXl] \`e\j G\Y\ej \ic\iek( j`Z_
qld`e[\jk k\`cn\`j\% Xl] \`e\ Xl~\ig_pj`bXc`jZ_\ R\j\e_\`k {Y\ikiXé
^\e cXjj\e dl~( [`\ Xcj \`e\ <ik Q\id`kkc\i ]lebk`fe`\ik( ld [Xj `e
SW\S[ G\Y\e @ic\iek\ Xl] \`e\ n\`k\i\ G\Y\ejjgXee\ ql {Y\ikiX^\e*
Nfd`k `jk [Xj( nXj dXe `e j\`e\d G\Y\e \ic\iek _Xk( j\_i n`Z_k`^( [\ee
\j n`i[ Y\`d g_pj`jZ_\e U\i]Xcc [\j B\_`iej le[ [\j I\im\ejpjk\dj
e`Z_k mfccjkve[`^ ãXljiX[`\ikä( jfe[\ie \j _Xk Ffej\hl\eq\e Xl] j\_i
n\`k\N`Z_k_`e*
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?`\ fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^\e [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck \ib\ee\e `e ?`jé
jljj`fe\e {Y\i [Xj G\ie\e le[ `e GXYfiXkfi`ldj\og\i`d\ek\e Xe(
[X~ [\i Qfi^Xe^ [\j G\ie\ej m`\c bfdgc`q`\ik\i`jk(Xcj[Xj fY`^\Kfjklé
cXk Y\jX^k( [\ee n`i d{jj\e XlZ_ `djkXe[\ j\`e( lei`Z_k`^\ M\Xbk`fe\e
le[ ]XcjZ_\ Ffeq\gk\ ql m\ic\ie\e* <Y\i nXj [`\ =\nvck`^le^ mfe
lej\i Xcc\i $XlZ_ [\i KjpZ_fcf^\e% <cckX^jc\Y\e Y\ki`]]k( j\kq\e n`i
iXjk `dd\i mfiXlj( n`i d{~k\e [SV` c\ie\e* R\ee n`i \`e KifYc\d
eXY\e le[ \j e`Z_k czj\e bzee\e( jk\cc\e n`i lej eli j\ck\e [`\ AiX^\(
fY [`\ Ffeq\gk`fe( d`k [\i\e C`c]\ n`i lej\i KifYc\d czj\e nfcc\e(
{Y\i_Xlgk i`Z_k`^ `jk7 jkXkk [\jj\e [\eb\e n`i6 RXj dl~ `Z_ efZ_ qlé
jvkqc`Z_ c\ie\e; R`i m\i]{^\e {Y\i \`e\ le^\_\li\ UX_c mfe @iq`\)
_le^j) le[ =`c[le^j`ejk`klk`fe\e( [`\ n`i lek\ijk{kq\e le[ [`\ [Xql
Y\jk`ddk j`e[( lej {Y\i qX_ccfj\ ?`e^\ le[ O_\d\e `dd\i d\_i
De]fidXk`fe\e ql c`\]\ie* I\lifk`b\i le[ [`\ H\ejZ_\e d`k NZ_lc)
jZ_n`\i`^b\`k\e dz^\e B\nf_e_\`k\e _XY\e( [`\ j`\ n`\[\i m\ic\ie\e
d{jj\e( XY\i n`i _Xe[\ce eX_\ql `dd\i jf( Xcj YivlZ_k\e n`i lej\i\d
Y`j_\i`^\e R`jj\e eli n\`k\i\ De]fidXk`fe\e _`eqlql]{^\e7 n`i
j\kq\e [XY\` mfiXlj( [X~ [Xj( nXj n`i Y\i\`kj n`jj\e( `d Ki`eq`g i`Z_é
k`^ `jk le[ eli `e [\ea\e`^\e =\i\`Z_\e \i^veqk n\i[\e dl~( `e [\e\e
lejY`j_\i[\i@i]fc^m\ijX^kYc`\Y*
Q`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\kfe\e [`\ Ifkn\e[`^b\`k [\j Q\ic\i)
e\ej6 N`\ n\`j\e [XiXl] _`e( [X~ [`\ d\`jk\e lej\i\i KifYc\d\ e`Z_k
Xlj \`e\d AO\USZ O\% jfe[\ie Xlj \`e\i iPS`hOVZ d]\ lei`Z_k`^\e
f[\i mfe lej ]XcjZ_ `ek\igi\k`\ik\e De]fidXk`fe\e \ekjk\_\e* R`i
e\`^\e ^\]{_cjdv~`^ jkXib ql [`\j\i ]XcjZ_\e B\c\_ijXdb\`k( le[ [Xj
dXZ_k \j ]{i lej jZ_n`\i`^( [`\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k ql \inv^\e( [X~ j`\ Xl]
-2-

\`e\d Diikld Y\il_\e bzeek\ f[\i [X~ n`i j`\ Xe[\ij \`ejZ_vkq\e
d{~k\e* Pd lej\i\i jg`i`kl\cc\e IXkli qld ?liZ_YilZ_ ql m\ié
_\c]\e( n`i[ \j `e m`\c\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e Xcj n`Z_k`^\i Xeé
^\j\_\e(]XcjZ_\@ib\eeke`jj\ql\c`d`e`\i\e(Xcje\l\Xeql_vl]\e*
D]abcZOb2 ?Xj G\ie\e `d `ek\cc\bkl\cc\e =\i\`Z_ `jk [`\ _zZ_jk\
Afid [\j G\ie\ej( le[ \`e H\ejZ_ d`k \`e\d _f_\e Dek\cc`é
^\eqhlfk`\ek\e m\idX^ gfk\ek`\cc Xcc\j R`Z_k`^\ kXkjvZ_c`Z_ ql
c\ie\e*
Ul [\e FXk\^fi`\e [\i n\jkc`Z_\e fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^\e ^\_zi\e
FXk\^fi`\e n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [Xj dfkfi`jZ_\ G\ie\e7 [XY\` _Xe[\ck
\j j`Z_( n`\ \knX Y\`d Ngfik( ld [`\ Fffi[`eXk`fe mfe =\n\^le^\e7
k_\fi\k`jZ_ ivld\e j`\ Y`j ql \`e\d ^\n`jj\e BiX[ XlZ_ [`\ Hz^c`Z_é
b\`k [\j \dfk`feXc\e G\ie\ej \`e( XY\i `Z_ ^cXlY\ e`Z_k( [X~ `d
=\i\`Z_ [\i fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j R\jk\ej `i^\e[\`e Pe`m\ij`é
kvkjgif^iXdd U\`k [XiXl] m\ijZ_n\e[\k( \`e\d Nkl[\ek\e Y\`qlYi`eé
^\e( n`\ \i d`k j\`e\e B\]{_c\e f[\i j\`e\d Fzig\i ldql^\_\e _Xk*
?`\ Pe`m\ij`kvk `jk ROa _pg\i`ek\cc\bkl\cc\ Npjk\d jZ_c\Z_k_`e( le[
dXe bfddk Xl] `_i mfiXe( n\ee dXe m`\c\ Rfik\ dXZ_k* E\dXe[(
[\i j`Z_ {Y\i[liZ_jZ_e`kkc`Z_ m`\c d`k Ngfik le[ v_ec`Z_\e ?`e^\e
XY^`Yk( cvl]k B\]X_i( lek\i B\c\_ik\e eli \`e ^\i`e^\j <ej\_\e ql
^\e`\~\e* UnXi \ib\eek dXe XlZ_ Xe[\i\ FXk\^fi`\e [\j G\ie\ej
^ile[jvkqc`Z_ Xe( XY\i [`\ `ek\cc\bkl\cc\ ^`ck Xcj [`\ _zZ_jk\ Afid [\j
G\ie\ej jZ_c\Z_k_`e( le[ [Xj Xl] ]Xjk Xcc\e B\Y`\k\e( Xl] [\e\e lej\i\
fik_f[fo\eKjpZ_fcf^\ej`Z_Y\kvk`^\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e j\_\e `e [\i <ljY`c[le^ [\j Dek\cc\bkj
eli SW\S le[ e`Z_k \`edXc [`\ n`Z_k`^jk\ <ik [\j G\ie\ej* ?\i Pek\ié
jZ_`\[ `e [\i <l]]Xjjle^ n`i[ [\lkc`Z_( n\ee dXe j`Z_ [`\ Fi`k\i`\e
Xej`\_k(eXZ_[\e\eBli[a`\]][`\jg`i`kl\cc\eNpjk\d\Yqn*ãR\^\8
) n`\ \i j`\ e\eek ) bcXjj`]`q`\ik* @`e R\^ ]{_ik {Y\i [\e Fzig\i( [\i
R\^ [\j AXb`ij( Xl] [\d [liZ_ Xl~\i^\nz_ec`Z_\ le[ cve^\i\ U\`k
[liZ_^\_Xck\e\ ?`jq`gc`e`\ile^ [\j Fzig\ij [`\ R`cc\ejbiX]k ^\jZ_lck
n`i[* ?\i qn\`k\ R\^ `jk [\i [\i C`e^XY\ le[ Q\i\_ile^( [\i R\^
[\j HzeZ_j( Xl] [\d [`\ B\]{_c\ \ekn`Zb\ck n\i[\e* ?\i [i`kk\( [\i
R\^ [\j Tf^`( `jk [\i `ek\cc\bkl\cc\ R\^7 j\`e U`\c `jk [`\ @ekn`Zbcle^
[\j B\`jk\j( ãB\`jkä Xcc\i[`e^j e`Z_k eli Xcj ãDek\cc\bkä m\ijkXe[\e( n`\
qld\`jk `e [\i ^\c\_ik\e R\ck [\j R\jk\ej( jfe[\ie XlZ_ Xcj H`kk\c
qli@icXe^le^m\ijZ_`\[\e\im\ive[\ik\i=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\*
-2.

Bli[a`\]] nXi [Xmfe {Y\iq\l^k( [X~ a\[\i [\i _`\i Xl]^\qv_ck\e R\^\
j\`e\ =\[\lkle^ _Xk( le[ [X~ a\[\i mfe `_e\e ql n\ikmfcc\e @i^\Yé
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mfcc \in\`j\e[\e @ekn`Zbcle^ Xlj7 j\`e\ \`^\e\e G\_i\e ]{_ik \i Xl]
\`e\e m`\ik\e R\^ qli{Zb( Y\` [\d \j Xl] \`e\ Xlj^\nf^\e\ @ekn`Zbé
cle^ mfe Fzig\i( B\`jk le[ B\]{_c Xebfddk* DZ_ _XY\ Bli[a`\]]j
Ffeq\gk`fe Xcj j\_i _`c]i\`Z_ \dg]le[\e6 R\ee dXe j`Z_ [`\ fik_fé
[fo\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j R\jk\ej f[\i XY\i ^Xeq Xcc^\d\`e [\e n\jkc`é
Z_\e Flcklibi\`j ev_\i Xej`\_k( jk\cck dXe ]\jk( [X~ dXe j`Z_ Y\` lej
m`\c ql j\_i Xl] [`\ @ekn`Zbcle^ [\j Dek\cc\bkj bfeq\eki`\ik le[ m`\c
qln\e`^ Xe [`\ <ljY`c[le^ le[ @ekn`Zbcle^ lej\i\i \dfk`feXc\e
le[bzig\ic`Z_\eAv_`^b\`k\e[\ebk*
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?`\j\j KfjklcXk jk`ddk mzcc`^ d`k [\i dXk\i`Xc`jk`jZ_\e <l]]Xjjle^
mfd H\ejZ_\e {Y\i\`e* ?\i \`eq`^\ R\^( Xl] [\d [\i H\ejZ_ e\l\
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[XiXlj ql q`\_\e* R\ee n`i Xcjf lej\i\ G\ie]v_`^b\`k\e \in\`k\ie
kifcc\e( bzee\e n`i lej \ekn\[\i [XiXl] bfeq\eki`\i\e( lej\i\ =\fYé
XZ_kle^j^XY\ ql jZ_lc\e( f[\i XY\i [XiXl]( lej\i\ bf^e`k`m\e Av_`^é
b\`k\en`ibjXd\i\`eqlj\kq\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e O_\fi`\e \in\`k\ie `d Xcc^\d\`e\e [`\j\ Ffeq\gk`fe(
`e[\d j`\ Y\kfe\e( [X~ \`e j\_i n`Z_k`^\i O\`c lej\i\j R`jj\ej e`Z_k
Xlj De]fidXk`fe\e jkXddk( [`\ n`i d`k C`c]\ lej\i\i N`ee\ Xl]e\_é
d\e( jfe[\ie Xlj Xl~\ij`eec`Z_\e =\i\`Z_\e f[\i Xlj [\e d\`jk m\ié
jZ_{kk\k\e O`\]\e lej\i\j R\j\ej* <d d\`jk\e n`i[ lej\i\ jg`i`kl\cc\
@ekn`Zbcle^ [liZ_ lej\i\ <iY\`k Xe lej j\cYjk le[ [`\ @ek[\Zble^
[\i k`\]\i\e NZ_`Z_k\e lej\i\j DZ_j ^\]zi[\ik( [`\ XlZ_ d`k [\d c\Y\eé
[`^\eBXeq\e[\jPe`m\ijldj`eQ\iY`e[le^jk\_\e*
@j j\` efZ_ \inv_ek( [X~ XlZ_ _`ej`Z_kc`Z_ Xcc\i Xe[\i\e `e [`\j\d
=lZ_ \izik\ik\e gjpZ_`jZ_\e Alebk`fe\e gfjklc`\ik n`i[( j`\ c`\~\e
j`Z_ c\kqkc`Z_ Xl] \c\bki`jZ_\ le[ Z_\d`jZ_\ Kifq\jj\ `e B\_`ie le[
I\im\ejpjk\d qli{Zb]{_i\e7 [XiXlj \i^\Y\e j`Z_ n`Z_k`^\ Ffej\é
hl\eq\e ]{i [Xj Nkl[`ld [`\j\i K_vefd\e\* DZ_ n\i[\ Xl] [`\j\e
Klebke`Z_ka\[\jdXcn`\[\iXlj[i{Zbc`Z__`en\`j\e*
-2/

KfjklcXk\{Y\i[XjB\[vZ_ke`j
D]abcZOb2 ?Xj B\[vZ_ke`j `jk e`Z_k j\_i qlm\icvjj`^7 \j `jk m`\c
Y\jj\i(dXem\icv~kj`Z_Xl]\`efYa\bk`m\jU\l^e`j*
<l] [\e \ijk\e =c`Zb jZ_\`ek \j j`Z_ _`\i ld \`e {Y\iq\l^\e[\j Kfjklé
cXk ql _Xe[\ce6 Q`\c\ gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\ AfijZ_le^\e _XY\e Y\n`\j\e(
[X~ [Xj B\[vZ_ke`j( nXj [Xj =\_Xck\e mfe De]fidXk`fe\e Y\ki`]]k( m\ié
jX^\e f[\i @`e[i{Zb\ `e [\i M{Zb\i`ee\ile^ m\iq\ii\e bXee( jf [X~
\j Xcj q`\dc`Z_ leqlcve^c`Z_ le[ leqlm\icvjj`^ \ijZ_\`e\e dl~* AiX^é
n{i[`^ `jk Xe [`\j\d KfjklcXk a\[fZ_( [X~ dXe [`\ RX_i_\`k( aX giXbé
k`jZ_ ^\iX[\ql [`\ Pe]\_cYXib\`k jf^\eXeek\e ãfYa\bk`m\e U\l^e`jj\eä
qljZ_i\`Yk ) Xcjf jZ_i`]kc`Z_\e =\i`Z_k\e( K_fkf^iXg_`\e( A`cé
d\e( HX^e\kY`c[Xl]q\`Z_ele^\e f[\i OfeYXe[Xl]eX_d\e* R\ee \`e
ãfYa\bk`m\jä U\l^e`j [Xj ql m\i`]`q`\i\e jZ_\`ek( nXj n`i nX_i_XY\e
nfcc\e( [Xee m\i^\jj\e n`i Xccqlc\`Z_k( `e n`\ jkXib\d <ljdX~ [`\
@ekjk\_le^ le[ [`\ Dek\igi\kXk`fe jfcZ_\i ãfYa\bk`m\eä U\l^e`jj\
mfed\ejZ_c`Z_\dRlejZ_[\eb\eY\\`e]cl~kn\i[\e*
DZ_ ^cXlY\( [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e n{i[\e `e [\i M\^\c eXZ_é
[i{Zbc`Z_ [`\ <l]]Xjjle^ m\iki\k\e( [X~ n`i Xlj [\i ãJYa\bk`m`kvkä \`e\
<ik A\k`jZ_ dXZ_\e( n\`c j`\ `d <l^\eYc`Zb [Xj `jk( nXj m`\c\ ]{i j`Z_
`e <ejgilZ_ e\_d\e7 XY\i `e R`ibc`Z_b\`k j`e[ n`i b\`e\jn\^j jf
fYa\bk`m* HXe bzeek\ jf^Xi Y\_Xlgk\e( ãfYa\bk`m\ä U\l^e`jj\ j\`\e
^Xi e`Z_k jf n`Z_k`^( [X j`\ \`e`^\ [\i n\j\ekc`Z_jk\e De]fidXk`fe\e(
[`\ j`Z_ Xl] [Xj d\ejZ_c`Z_\ G\Y\e `d Xcc^\d\`e\e le[ ^Xeq Y\jfeé
[\ij Xl] [\e jg`i`kl\cc\e =\i\`Z_ Y\q`\_\e( ^Xi e`Z_k jg\`Z_\ie bzee\e*
Dejf]\ie `jk [Xj d\ejZ_c`Z_\ B\[vZ_ke`j ^\iX[\ql \`e Hljk\iY\`jg`\c
]{i [\e Pd^Xe^ d`k Y\jk`ddk\e <ik\e mfe @i]X_ile^\e( le[ [`\
Q\iki\k\i [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e ^cXlY\e( [X~ \j `e m\ijZ_`\[\é
e\e _z_\i\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e d`k n\`k ^iz~\i\i @oXbk_\`k
]lebk`fe`\i\ebXeeXcj`d^\nz_ec`Z_\eG\Y\e*
D]abcZOb2 ?Xj \`eq`^\( nfiXe n`i lej \i`ee\ie bzee\e( j`e[
@`e[i{Zb\ Xlj lej\i\d G\Y\e Y`j qld ^\^\envik`^\e <l^\eé
Yc`Zb*
?Xj KfjklcXk( [\i H\ejZ_ n\i[\( nXj j\`e B\[vZ_ke`j Y\ki`]]k( Xcj \`e\
<ik bOPcZO `OaO% \`e leY\jZ_i`\Y\e\j =cXkk( ^\Yfi\e( n`i[ `d Xcc^\d\`é
e\e jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[ Xbq\gk`\ik* ?`\ @`e[i{Zb\( [`\ n`i Xl]e\_d\e(
-20

Y\^`ee\e [XeXZ_ d`k [\d <l^\eYc`Zb lej\i\i B\Ylik7 Xcc\i[`e^j e\_é
d\e j`\ Y\`d F`e[ b\`e\ ]\jk ldi`jj\e\ Afid Xe le[ jk\_\e [X_\i
XlZ_ `d jgvk\i\e G\Y\e e`Z_k Xcj @i`ee\ile^\e qli Q\i]{^le^* <Y\i
jfYXc[ [`\ bf^e`k`m\e Kifq\jj\ \`e\ ^\n`jj\ Ji[ele^ `e [`\ R\ck [\j
F`e[\j Yi`e^\e( Y\^`eek \j [Xd`k( @i`ee\ile^\e Xe @ic\Yk\j( @iqv_cé
k\j le[ B\c\j\e\j ql jg\`Z_\ie* ?Xj Xcc\j jZ_cv^k j`Z_ `d B\[vZ_ke`j
e`\[\i*
Q`\c\e jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e ql]fc^\ Y\jZ_iveb\e [Xj B\[vZ_ke`j
le[ [`\ @i`ee\ile^\e j`Z_ e`Z_k XljjZ_c`\~c`Z_ Xl] [`\j\j G\Y\e `e
[\i R\ck* @`e`^\ m\iki\k\e [`\ <l]]Xjjle^( @i`ee\ile^\e Xlj [\i
]i{_\jk\e F`e[_\`k c`\~\e j`Z_ lek\i ^\\`^e\k\e Pdjkve[\e n`\[\i
_\imfiil]\e( le[ [Xj ^c\`Z_\ ^\ck\ XlZ_ ]{i @i`ee\ile^\e Xlj [\i U\`k
[\j mfi^\Ylikc`Z_\e G\Y\ej `d Hlkk\ijZ_f~* <e[\i\ ^\_\e [Xmfe
Xlj( [X~ XlZ_ \`e\ M{Zb\i`ee\ile^ Xe B\[vZ_ke`j`e]fidXk`fe\e
dz^c`Z_ `jk( [`\ O\`c lej\i\j @iY^lkj j`e[( {Y\i [Xj n`i Xcj d\ejZ_c`Z_\
R\j\e m\i]{^\e7 n`\[\i Xe[\i\ ^cXlY\e( [X~ dXe j`Z_ XlZ_ Xe \`e
]i{_\i\j G\Y\e ) f[\i [\i\e d\_i\i\ ) qli{Zb\i`ee\ie bXee* <cc\
jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e jgi\Z_\e Xcjf [\d B\[vZ_ke`j \`e\ n\`k
^iz~\i\ M\`Z_n\`k\ ql7 Xl] [`\ _`\i ^\jg\`Z_\ik\e @i]X_ile^\e bXee
[\i H\ejZ_ j`Z_ `d Q\icXl] j\`e\i ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e @ekn`Zbcle^
jk{kq\e* =l[[_X qld =\`jg`\c jfcc j`Z_ nv_i\e[ j\`e\i @ic\lZ_kle^jé
g_Xj\e Xe Xcc\ j\`e\ ]i{_\i\e DebXieXk`fe\e \i`ee\ik _XY\e( le[ \i
jfcc Xcj Afc^\ [`\j\i M{Zb\i`ee\ile^ K\ijzec`Z_b\`kjm\ive[\ile^\e
[liZ_^\dXZ_k _XY\e( [`\ j\`e @ic\lZ_k\kj\`e efZ_ ]\jk`^k\e le[ \ié
n\`k\ik\e*
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Y\e(j`e[lej\i\\`^\e\e*
?Xj Y\[\lk\k( [Xj \`eq`^\( nXj \j `e lej\i\e g\ijzec`Z_\e @i`ee\ileé
^\e^\Y\ebXee(`jk[Xj(nXjn`i{Y\ilej\i\\`^\e\eN`ee\Xl]^\efdé
d\e _XY\e* Ul [\e @i`ee\ile^\e Xe[\i\i H\ejZ_\e Y\j`kq\e n`i eli
\`e\e `e[`i\bk\e Ul^Xe^6 [liZ_ [Xj( nXj j`\ lej [Xi{Y\i \iqv_ck f[\i
^\jZ_i`\Y\e f[\i lej [liZ_ `_i Q\i_Xck\e {Y\i j`Z_ j\cYjk m\iiXk\e
_XY\e* ?Xj jk`ddk mfccbfdd\e d`k [\d KfjklcXk {Y\i\`e( [X~ [`\
\`eq`^\e De]fidXk`fe\e( [`\ n`i \i_Xck\e( [`\a\e`^\e j`e[( [`\ n`i d`k
lej\i\eN`ee\eXl]e\_d\e*
Q`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e gfjklc`\i\e e`Z_k( [X~ n`i mzcc`^ `e leé
j\i a\n\`c`^\j I\im\ejpjk\d \`e^\jZ_cfjj\e j`e[7 [\d\ekjgi\Z_\e[
-21

^cXlY\e j`\ XlZ_( [X~ n`i lek\i \ekjgi\Z_\e[\e Pdjkve[\e \`e\ <ik
[`i\bk\e Ul^Xe^ ql [\e @i`ee\ile^\e Xe[\i\i H\ejZ_\e _XY\e bzeé
e\e* ?Xql ^\_zik Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [`\ Xl~\ij`eec`Z_\ Ffddle`bXk`fe
d`k Xe[\i\e H\ejZ_\e( [`\ lej [\i\e @i`ee\ile^\e led`kk\cYXi qlé
^ve^`^ dXZ_k7 [Xql bXee XY\i XlZ_ [`\ Xl~\ij`eec`Z_\ jg`i`kl\cc\
Ffddle`bXk`fe d`k Xl~\id\ejZ_c`Z_\e R\j\e_\`k\e ^\_zi\e( [`\ `_é
i\i jg`i`kl\cc\e @ekn`Zbcle^ eXZ_ jfnf_c _z_\i Xcj XlZ_ k`\]\i jk\_\e
bzee\e Xcj n`i j\cYjk* <lZ_ `e [\i dX^`jZ_\e OiX[`k`fe [\i n\jkc`Z_\e
R\ck ]`e[\k j`Z_ {Yi`^\ej [\i BcXlY\( [X~ dXe ql [\e @i`ee\ile^\e(
[`\ `e JYa\bk\e n`\ =vld\e le[ Nk\`e\e ^\jg\`Z_\ik j`e[( XY\i XlZ_
qld R`jj\e Xl~\ig_pj`bXc`jZ_\i R\j\e_\`k\e lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\i <ik
Ul^Xe^\icXe^\ebXee*

KfjklcXk\{Y\iHfk`mXk`fe
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k`fe( [`\ \`e\e H\ejZ_\e Xd G\Y\e _vck7 j`Z_ e`Z_kj d\_i ql
n{ejZ_\e`jk\`eU\`Z_\emfej\\c`jZ_\i@ibiXeble^*
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c`Z_\e G\Y\ej\c\d\ek\j XY* <d d\`jk\e \ekY\_ik n\i[\e [`\a\e`^\e
g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e AXbkfi\e( [`\ Fzig\i]lebk`fe\e `e BXe^ _Xck\e( n`\
Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ Gl]k( IX_ile^ le[ RXjj\i* Ul [\e ^ile[c\^\e[\e Hfé
k`mXk`fe\e ^\_zik XY\i XlZ_ [Xj Q\id\`[\e mfe N`klXk`fe\e( [`\ [\d
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g_pj`jZ_\ <kkXZb\e [liZ_ O`\i\ f[\i Xe[\i\ H\ejZ_\e* C`\i _Xe[\ck
\j j`Z_ [liZ_n\^ ld ]le[Xd\ekXc\ uY\ic\Y\ej) le[ N`Z_\i_\`kjY\é
[{i]e`jj\* N`e[ j`\ Y\]i`\[`^k( bzee\e eXZ_ H\`ele^ [\i KjpZ_fcf^\e
Xe[\i\ =\[{i]e`jj\ n`Z_k`^ n\i[\e( n`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ j\ol\cc\j Q\ié
cXe^\e( f[\i jfq`Xc\ Hfk`mXk`fe\e( n`\ \knX [Xj =\[{i]e`j( \`e\i Y\é
jk`ddk\e Bilgg\ Xeql^\_zi\e le[ mfe `_i Xbq\gk`\ik ql n\i[\e(
[Xee XY\i XlZ_ `e[`m`[l\cc\i\ Hfk`mXk`fe\e( n`\ \knX [Xj =\jki\Y\e(
j`Z_ \`e\ R\ckXejZ_Xlle^ Xl]qlYXl\e( [`\ [\d G\Y\e [\j =\ki\]]\eé
[\e \`e\e N`ee ^`Yk* De [\i M\^\c Y\kiXZ_k\k dXe [`\ qlc\kqk ^\eXeek\e
R{ejZ_\ Xcj qn\`kiXe^`^ ^\^\e{Y\i [\e d\_i ]le[Xd\ekXc\e uY\ic\é
Y\ej) le[ N`Z_\i_\`kjY\[{i]e`jj\e7 n\ee \`e H\ejZ_ [`\ RX_c _Xk(
-22

fY \i j\`e G\Y\e jZ_{kq\e f[\i fY \i `i^\e[\`e jfq`Xc\j U`\c Xejki\Y\e
jfcc( [Xj `_d [`\ <e\ib\eele^ [\i Bilgg\( ql [\i \i ^\_zik( \`eé
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k\k dXe ^\nz_ec`Z_ d`k ^\d`jZ_k\e B\]{_c\e6 R`i j`e[ ]if_( [X~ aWS
\j ^\kXe _XY\e( XY\i n`i j`e[ e`Z_k ^Xeq j`Z_\i( fY n`i j\cYjk \j XlZ_
klen{i[\e*
De [\i KiXo`j e`ddk [`\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\i Hfk`mXk`fe Xcc^\d\`e\i\
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jZ_X]k YXj`\ik `e [\i OXk Xl] [`\j\i QfiXljj\kqle^ le[ Xl] [\e R\iY\é
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^\ie* R\ee a\dXe[ jX^k( \i j\` e`Z_k [XiXe `ek\i\jj`\ik( d\_i B\c[
ql m\i[`\e\e( \`e jZ_ze\i\j C\`d ql _XY\e( d\_i <e\ib\eele^ Y\`
[\e H`kd\ejZ_\e ql ]`e[\e ljn*( [Xee Y\q\`Z_e\e n`i [Xj Xcj \`e
<ek`dfk`mXk`fej)Npe[ifd( le[ n`i Xi^nz_e\e( [X~ d`k [`\j\d
H\ejZ_\e`i^\e[\knXje`Z_k`eJi[ele^`jk*
De[\d uY\idX~ lej\i\i R{ejZ_\ j\_\e [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcfé
^`\e [`\ CXlgklijXZ_\ [X]{i( [X~ n`i lej Xl] lej\i\e Xl^\eYc`Zbc`é
Z_\e @ekn`Zbcle^jjkXe[ ]\jkc\^\e le[ [Xd`k Xe \`e\i Cz_\i\ekn`Zbé
cle^ lej\i\i jg`i`kl\cc\e Fiv]k\ _`e[\ie cXjj\e* JY [`\j\j jkve[`^\
Q\icXe^\e eXZ_ Y\jk`ddk\e ?`e^\e( [`\ n`i Y\j`kq\e dzZ_k\e(
Xcj CXY^`\i f[\i eli Xcj \`e Q\i_X]k\kj\`e ql [\lk\e `jk ) \j ]{_ik `e
a\[\d AXcc [Xql( [X~ \`e De[`m`[lld `e \`e\d R\ckY`c[ ^\]Xe^\e
Yc\`Yk( [Xj `_d \icXlYk( Hfk`mXk`fe\e ]{i j\`e\ `dd\i e\l\e R{ejZ_\
ql ]`e[\e* <l] m`\c\e ãjg`i`kl\cc\e K]X[\eä n`i[ [Xj Q\iq`Z_k\e d\é
k_f[`jZ_ giXbk`q`\ik6 n\ee dXe j`Z_ ^Xeq Y\nl~k [Xi`e {Yk( Xl] dXeé
Z_\ ?`e^\ ql m\iq`Z_k\e( [Xee bXee dXe j`\ _XY\e f[\i e`Z_k _XY\e(
XY\i `e a\[\d AXcc \ic`\^k dXe e`Z_k d\_i [\e `ek\ej`m\e @`e]c{jj\e(
[`\ lej [Xql Yi`e^\e( [Xj( nXj n`i lej n{ejZ_\e( \i_Xck\e le[ XlZ_
Y\_Xck\eqlnfcc\e0*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e \dg]\_c\e lej( m`\c\ lej\i\i Ñ]le[Xé
d\ekXc\e Hfk`mXk`fe\e Xl]ql^\Y\e( le[ qnXi ql^lejk\e m\ijZ_`\[\é
e\i ?`e^\ mfe \jj\ek`\cc\i\i =\[\lkle^* IX_\ql Xcc\j( nXj n`i [i`eé
^\e[ ql Y\ezk`^\e ^cXlY\e( `jk `e R`ibc`Z_b\`k len\j\ekc`Z_* @`e
^\i`e^\i\j Q\icXe^\e eXZ_ Y\jk`ddk\e n\ckc`Z_\e B{k\ie ql _XY\e
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n`Z_k`^\eNZ_i`kkXl][\dR\^qljg`i`kl\cc\dRXZ_jkld*
-23

D]abcZOb2 ?\i H\ejZ_ n`i[ gi`dvi mfd Q\icXe^\e eXZ_ HXZ_k
le[ eXZ_ j\ol\cc\i =\]i`\[`^le^ dfk`m`\ik7 _`eql bfddk [Xj
=\jki\Y\e(Xcc\d(nXjNZ_d\iqY\i\`k\k(Xljqln\`Z_\e*
R\ee XlZ_ n\e`^\ KjpZ_fcf^\e j`Z_ Xcj Ai\l[`Xe\i f[\i <[c\i`Xe\i
Y\q\`Z_e\e n{i[\e( n`i[ [\eefZ_ [`\ mfe Ai\l[ \ekn`Zb\ck\ le[ mfe
<[c\i \in\`k\ik\ gjpZ_fXeXcpk`jZ_\ Ffeq\gk`fe( eXZ_ [\i [`\ j\ol\cc\
=\]i`\[`^le^ jfn`\ [`\ HXZ_k {Y\i Xe[\i\ H\ejZ_\e lej\i\ gi`dvi\e
Hfk`mXk`fe\e j`e[( mfe \`e\i ^if~\e <eqX_c mfe KjpZ_fcf^\e Xbq\gé
k`\ik* HXe Y\^i\`]k j`\ Xcj leY\nl~k\ =\[{i]e`jj\ Yqn* ki\`Y\e[\
Fiv]k\( ql [\e\e j`Z_ \`e De[`m`[lld eli j\ck\e Y\nl~k Y\b\ee\e
n{i[\7 \j `jk j`Z_ e`Z_k bcXi [Xi{Y\i( n`\ n`Z_k`^ j`\ j`e[* IXZ_ [\d
=`c[( [Xj Ai\l[ j`Z_ mfd H\ejZ_\e dXZ_k( n`i[ [`\j\i mfe j\ol\cc\e
=\[{i]e`jj\e le[ HXZ_k_le^\i ^\ki`\Y\e7 XY\i n\ee \i `e j\`e\i jfé
q`Xc\e Bilgg\ e`Z_k leXe^\e\_d Xl]]Xcc\e n`cc( bXee \i j`\ eli Y\]i`\é
[`^\e( `e[\d \i Ffdgifd`jj\ \`e^\_k* @`e =c`Zb Xl] [`\ M\bcXd\j\`é
k\e lej\i\i U\`kjZ_i`]k\e q\`^k lej( n`\ ^\q`\ck j\ol\cc\j Q\icXe^\e(
[\i RlejZ_( ^\j\ccjZ_X]kc`Z_ Xe\ibXeek ql n\i[\e( HXZ_k ql _XY\e
le[ ã[Xqlql^\_zi\eä( mfe [\e\e( [`\ lej \knXj m\ibXl]\e nfcc\e( ^\é
n\Zbkn\i[\e*
?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e \ib\ee\e `e [\i M\^\c [`\ =\[\lkle^
[\j Nki\Y\ej eXZ_ N`Z_\i_\`k( [\j j\ol\cc\e Q\icXe^\ej le[ [\i jfé
q`Xc\e =\[{i]e`jj\ [liZ_Xlj Xe( XY\i `_i\i <l]]Xjjle^ eXZ_ `jk \`e
]le[Xd\ekXc\j a^W`WbcSZZSa =\[{i]e`j( evdc`Z_ [Xj =\[{i]e`j( j\`e
\`^\e\j nX_i\j R\j\e le[ j\`e\e Nk\cc\en\ik `d Pe`m\ijld b\ee\eé
qlc\ie\e( d`e[\jk\ej \Y\ejf n`Z_k`^( n\ee e`Z_k ^Xi efZ_ n`Z_k`^\i
Xcj Xcc\ Xe[\i\e* ?\d RlejZ_ eXZ_ jg`i`kl\cc\i Cz_\i\ekn`Zbcle^
jfcck\e [\j_XcY Xcc\ Xe[\i\e =\[{i]e`jj\ lek\i^\fi[e\k n\i[\e( nfY\`
dXe j`Z_ a\[fZ_ mfi [\i\e gXk_fcf^`jZ_\i Q\ic\l^ele^ _{k\e dl~*
?`\ fik_f[fo\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j R\jk\ej _vck jg`i`kl\cc\ =\[{i]e`jj\
n`\ [`\( j`Z_ j\cYjk le[ [Xj G\Y\e ql m\ijk\_\e( ]{i \`e\ <ik Glolj7
j`\ bzee\e [liZ_Xlj ql `_i\d M\Z_k bfdd\e( jfYXc[ \ijk \`edXc [\i
uY\ic\Y\ejn`cc\ le[ [`\ ^\j\ccjZ_X]kc`Z_\e =\[{i]e`jj\ Y\]i`\[`^k
nfi[\e j`e[7 [Xj _\`~k( j`\ j`e[ eli mfe j\ble[vi\i =\[\lkle^* ?X^\é
^\e _Xck\e [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e [`\j\ jg`i`kl\cc\e =\[{i]e`jj\
]{i jf mfiiXe^`^( [X~ [\i H\ejZ_( n\ee \i `_e\e e`Z_k `e Xlji\`Z_\eé
[\d HX~\ =\XZ_kle^ jZ_\ebk( qld I\lifk`b\i f[\i KjpZ_fgXk_\e
n`i[* ?`\j\e gXk_fcf^`jZ_\e UljkXe[ ]{_i\e j`\ [XiXl] qli{Zb( [X~
[`\ d\`jk\e H\ejZ_\e _\lkqlkX^\ b\`e\ jg`i`kl\cc\e U`\c\ _XY\e le[
-24

ql n\e`^ Xe j`Z_ XiY\`k\e7 \Y\e[`\j j\` [`\ PijXZ_\ ]{i [`\ kiXli`^\
Q\i]Xjjle^ [\i _\lk`^\e R\ck* ?`\ OXkjXZ_\( [X~ [`\ fik_f[fo\e Kjpé
Z_fcf^\e [\i n\jkc`Z_\e R\ck [`\ @o`jk\eq [\iXik`^\i jg`i`kl\cc\i
=\[{i]e`jj\ c\l^e\e( kiv^k e`Z_k ^\iX[\ ql [\i\e =\]i`\[`^le^ Y\` le[
m\i_`c]kleje`Z_kql\`e\d\i]{cck\i\eG\Y\ele[\`e\iY\jj\i\eR\ck*

KfjklcXk\{Y\i[`\RX_ie\_dle^
D]abcZOb2 ?Xj \`eq`^\( nXj n`i nX_ie\_d\e bzee\e( j`e[ [`\
g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ R\ck le[ [`\ [liZ_ Qfi^ve^\ `e lej\i\d Fzig\i
le[lej\i\dI\im\ejpjk\dXlj^\czjk\e@dg]`e[le^\e*
A{i [`\ fik_f[fo\e KjpZ_fcf^\e [\j R\jk\ej jk\cc\e [`\ vl~\i\ R\ck
le[ [`\ `ee\i\ R\ck lej\i\j Fzig\ij le[ lej\i\j I\im\ejpjk\dj [`\
B\jXdk_\`k [\jj\e [Xi( nXj dXe nX_ie\_d\e bXee* ?`\j\ Y\`[\e
@ijZ_\`ele^j]fid\e [\i g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e R\ck cXjj\e j`Z_ \ekn\[\i
led`kk\cYXi d`k [\e lej qli Q\i]{^le^ jk\_\e[\e N`ee\e f[\i d`k
C`c]\ \`e\j Dejkild\ekj nX_ie\_d\e( [Xj g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ @e\i^`\e( [`\
n`i d`k lej\i\e N`ee\jfi^Xe\e e`Z_k led`kk\cYXi \i]Xjj\e bzee\e(
`enX_ie\_dYXi\@e\i^`\em\inXe[\ck*
A{i [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e cv~k j`Z_ n\[\i [`\ vl~\i\ efZ_ [`\
`ee\i\ M\Xc`kvk Xl] [Xj Y\^i\eq\e( nXj j`Z_ g_pj`bXc`jZ_ \ibcvi\e cv~k*
D_i\i H\`ele^ eXZ_ ^`Yk \j `e [\i Xl~\i_XcY mfe lej \o`jk`\i\e[\e
M\Xc`kvk n`Z_k`^\ K_vefd\e\( [`\ j`Z_ d`k C`c]\ m\ijZ_`\[\e\i <ik\e
mfe Xl~\ij`eec`Z_\i RX_ie\_dle^ \i]Xjj\e cXjj\e7 le[ [X dXe [Xmfe
Xlj^\_k( [X~ [\i ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\ =\i\`Z_ j`Z_ e`Z_k Xl] [Xj I\im\ejpé
jk\d Y\jZ_ivebk( bXee dXe Xee\_d\e( [X~ \j a\ej\`kj [\i Xl] Qfié
^ve^\ `d B\_`ie le[ `d Fzig\i qli{Zb]{_iYXi\e M\Xc`kvk\e XlZ_
efZ_ gjpZ_`jZ_\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k\e ^`Yk( [`\ dXe \Y\e]Xccj nX_ie\_d\e
bXee* ?`\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e jk\Zb\e [`\ Bi\eq\e lej\i\i
RX_ie\_dle^jbiX]kXcjfm`\cn\`k\i*
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IXklilej\i\iRX_ie\_dle^\e*
?XeXZ_ `jk N\_\e \`e\ Alebk`fe [\j <l^\j( [`\ j`Z_ Xlj [\i Ffejkilbé
k`fe [\j <l^Xg]\cj le[ j\`e\i I\im\e _\ic\`k\k( le[ [Xj ^c\`Z_\ ^`ck
]{i[XjCzi\eXcj\`e\iAlebk`fe[\jJ_ij*
-25

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dle^jbXk\^fi`\e ld gjpZ_`jZ_\ Alebk`fe\e7 qnXi n`ib\e j`\ efié
dXc\in\`j\ [liZ_ [`\ N`ee\jfi^Xe\( XY\i j`\ bzee\e \Y\ejf^lk XlZ_
leXY_ve^`^ mfe [`\j\e fg\i`\i\e* Nf j\kqk dXe \knX mfiXlj( [X~ a\é
dXe[ `e Y\jk`ddk\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\e `e [\i GX^\ `jk( Y\jk`ddk\
?`e^\ XlZ_ Xlj \`e\i ^\n`jj\e @ek]\iele^ ql \ib\ee\e( fYjZ_fe \j
d`k N`Z_\i_\`k b\`e g_pj`jZ_\j <l^\ ^`Yk( [Xj [\iXik`^\ De]fidXk`fe\e
m\id`kk\ce bzeek\* ?X~ [`\ KXiXgjpZ_fcf^\e ) a\e\ bc\`e\ Bilgg\
mfe n\jkc`Z_\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ie( [`\ [`\j\e =\i\`Z_ \iejk e\_d\e )
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R\ee dXe jk`ccjZ_n\`^\e[ mfiXljj\kqk( [X~ j`Z_ eli {Y\i [`\ qljkveé
[`^\e N`ee\jfi^Xe\ \knXj nX_ie\_d\e cv~k( dXZ_k dXe j`Z_ eXk{ic`Z_
e`Z_k [`\ H{_\( eXZ_ Xe[\i\e <ik\e le[ Hf[Xc`kvk\e mfe RX_ié
e\_dle^<ljjZ_Xlql_Xck\e*
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le[ e`Z_k `dd\i lemfi\`e^\efdd\e( XY\i `d ^if~\e le[ ^Xeé
q\e \ekjgi`Z_k [Xj =`c[( [Xj n`i lej mfe [\i lej ld^\Y\e[\e
R\ckdXZ_\e([fZ_[\iM\Xc`kvk*
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Z_fcf^\e [\j R\jk\ej j\kq\e\j mfiXlj(fYjZ_fe [fZ_^\iX[\j`\j\cYjk
ld]Xe^i\`Z_\j =\n\`jdXk\i`Xc [X]{i ^\jXdd\ck _XY\e( n`\ jkXib
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lej\i\ RX_ie\_dle^\e Y\\`e]cljj\e* ?`\j\j HXk\i`Xc Y\il_k a\[fZ_
Xl] @og\i`d\ek\e d`k Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe\e6 R\ee `Z_ Xcj KjpZ_fcf^\
\knXj Y\kiXZ_k\( [Xee j\_\ `Z_ \j j\cYjkm\ijkve[c`Z_ jf( n`\ \j n`ibc`Z_
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_Xck\e`jk
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HX~\ ql [\i <l]]Xjjle^( [X~ lej\i\ R{ejZ_\ le[ =\^`\i[\e lej m`\é
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[X~ n`i lej le[ lej\i\ Pdn\ck i\cXk`m i\Xc`jk`jZ_ j\_\e( jfe[\ie j`\
^\_\e [Xmfe Xlj( [X~ lej\i =`c[ mfe lej j\cYjk le[ mfe [\i R\ck
^Xeq leqlcve^c`Z_ `jk( le[ [X~ n`i `d GXl]\ lej\i\i jg`i`kl\cc\e @eké
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j\e*
-3,

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CXe[cle^jn\`j\e Xe[\i\i H\ejZ_\e j`e[ [`\ CXlgklijXZ_\ leé
j\i\ig\ijzec`Z_\ec\`[mfcc\e@i]X_ile^\e*
@j `jk j\_i c\`Z_k ]\jkqljk\cc\e( n`\ lem\ie{e]k`^ [`\ R{ejZ_\( B\[Xeé
b\e le[ CXe[cle^\e lej\i\i H`kd\ejZ_\e j`e[* Rvi\e j`\ e`Z_k jf
e\lifk`jZ_( n{i[\ lej\i \`^\e\j G\Y\e m`\c ^cXkk\i le[ ^c{Zbc`Z_\i
m\icXl]\e* ?`\j\j KfjklcXk n`i[ b\`e\jn\^j eli mfe KjpZ_fcf^\e m\ié
ki\k\e* <l]^ile[ `_i\i F\eeke`j [\i KjpZ_fgXk_fcf^`\ [\j <cckX^jc\é
Y\ejjfcck\ej`\\`^\ekc`Z_jf^Xin\e`^\iXe`_d]\jk_Xck\eXcj[\iHXee
Xl] [\i NkiX~\( XY\i `d ^if~\e le[ ^Xeq\e j`e[ j`\ [fZ_ mfe [`\j\i
Xcc^\d\`e\e<eeX_d\jkXibY\\`e]cl~k*
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i\i g\ijzec`Z_\e G\`[\e lej\i\ \`^\e\ gjpZ_`jZ_\ @`ejk\ccle^ le[ leé
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_vl]`^( [X~ n`i lej Y\c\`[`^k f[\i Xe^\^i`]]\e ]{_c\e( n\`c \`e Xe[\i\i
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Yi`e^k( jf Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\( n\ee a\dXe[ lej e`Z_k d`k [\d ^\Y{_i\eé
[\e M\jg\bk Y\^\^e\k f[\i j`Z_ XYjZ_vkq`^ {Y\i lej vl~\ik7 [\iXié
k`^\ CXe[cle^jn\`j\e bzee\e eli [Xee m\ic\kq\e[ n`ib\e( n\ee j`\
j`Z_ e`Z_k d`k [\d \`^\e\e ãDdX^\ä m\ikiX^\e* De Bli[a`\]]j Npjk\d
\knX n`i[ ^if~\j B\n`Z_k [XiXl] ^\c\^k( [X~ n`i j\cYjk ]{i Xcc\ lej\i\
c\`[mfcc\e @i]X_ile^\e m\iXeknfikc`Z_ j`e[ le[ e`Z_k Xe[\i\ H\eé
jZ_\e[X]{i_X]kYXidXZ_\ebzee\e*
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?Xj jZ_\`ek f]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_* NZ_d\iq `jk leXe^\e\_d( G\`[\e `jk leXeé
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R`i j\_\e qnXi( [X~ dXeZ_\ I\lifk`b\i j`Z_ j\cYjk Bi{e[\ qld G\`é
[\e jlZ_\e( XY\i [X n`i aX XZ_ jf efidXc j`e[( ^`ck \j ]{i lej eXk{ic`Z_
e`Z_k*
Q`\c\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e Y\kfe\e eXZ_[i{Zbc`Z_( [X~ n`i `e
R`ibc`Z_b\`k Xe lej\i\e G\`[\e ^\iX[\ql _ve^\e( le[ qnXi e`Z_k eli
-3-

`e [\d N`ee\( [X~ lej\i CXe^ qld Q\i^e{^\e Xe j`Z_ jZ_fe XlZ_
[`\ QfiXljj\kqle^\e ]{i lej\i H`~m\i^e{^\e jZ_X]]k( jfe[\ie n\`c
n`i( `e[\d n`i Y\jk`ddk\ c\`[mfcc\ @i]X_ile^\e dXZ_\e( XlZ_ ^\é
n`jj\ DZ_)=\[{i]e`jj\ Y\]i`\[`^\e* ?X]{i efZ_dXcj \`e =\`jg`\c Xlj
Bli[a`\]]j Npjk\d6 @i Y\kfek( [X~ eli \`e \`eq`^\j Blk ^\fg]\ik n\ié
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R`\ j\_i dXe kXkjvZ_c`Z_ Xe `_e\e _ve^k( bXee dXe eli eXZ_ cXe^\i
N\cYjkY\fYXZ_kle^\ib\ee\e*
D]abcZOb2AfikjZ_i`kk`jk^\j\ccjZ_X]kc`Z_\iAfikjZ_i`kk*
R`i j\kq\e m`\c FiX]k [X]{i \`e( [`\ HXjj\ f[\i Xlj^\nv_ck\ Bilgg\e
n\`k\iqlY`c[\e( lej\i B\j\ccjZ_X]kjjpjk\d ql m\iY\jj\ie le[ Pe^\é
i\Z_k`^b\`k\e ql Y\j\`k`^\e( le[ n`i ^cXlY\e( [X~ [`\ @ii\`Z_le^ [`\é
j\iU`\c\\`e\e\Z_k\eAfikjZ_i`kkY\[\lk\en{i[\*
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n`ibc`Z_\ AfikjZ_i`kk( [\e n`i dXZ_\e bzee\e( [\i `jk( [\i [liZ_ [`\
jg`i`kl\cc\ @ekn`Zbcle^ [\i \`eq\ce\e _\iY\`^\]{_ik n`i[* De [\d
HX~\( `e [\d \`e`^\ H\ejZ_\e `_i\ Ng`i`klXc`kvk \ekn`Zb\ce( m\iY\jé
j\ie j`Z_ `_i\ jfq`Xc\e =\q`\_le^\e( le[ j`\ {Y\e \`e\ gfj`k`m\i\ R`ié
ble^ Xl] `_i\ H`kd\ejZ_\e Xlj* @`e`^\ jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\e n\`é
j\e mfi Xcc\d [XiXl] _`e( [X~ a\[\j =\d{_\e ld Q\iY\jj\ile^ \`e\i
B\j\ccjZ_X]kjjkilbkli( [Xj e`Z_k `e [\i `ee\i\e M\`]\ [\i K\ijfe nlié
q\ck( g\im\ik`\ik n`i[ le[ ql b\`e\d \Z_k\e AfikjZ_i`kk ]{_ik* Dem\é
jk`\ik a\dXe[ \`e\e Bif~k\`c j\`e\i @e\i^`\e `e jfq`Xc\i\ Afid\e ljn*(
bXee dXe [Xj lek\i Pdjkve[\e Xcj \`e\ <ik @ijXkq ]{i [`\ @ekn`Zbé
cle^ j\`e\i Ng`i`klXc`kvk Xej\_\e ) \`e\e @ijXkq( [liZ_ [\e ^\iX[\ [`\é
a\e`^\e Uljkve[\( [`\ m\iY\jj\ik n\i[\e jfcc\e( Xl]i\Z_k\i_Xck\e n\ié
[\e* B\iX[\ B\j\ccjZ_X]kjjpjk\d\ kiX^\e [`\j\i <l]]Xjjle^ ql]fc^\
m`\c qli @ekjk\_le^ le[ <l]i\Z_k\i_Xckle^ mfe R\ckXejZ_Xlle^\e
Y\`( [`\ Xl] Dcclj`fe\e Y\il_\e( le[ j`\ YcfZb`\i\e [X[liZ_ \`e\e
n`ibc`Z_\e AfikjZ_i`kk `d jg`i`kl\cc\e =\i\`Z_* C`\i q\`^k j`Z_ n`\[\i(
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[\i CXlgkfi`\ek`\ile^\e [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e b\eeq\`Z_e\k*
?Xj Y\[\lk\k Xcc\i[`e^j e`Z_k( [X~ [`\j\ jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\e
e`Z_k [XiXe `ek\i\jj`\ik nvi\e( n`\ [`\ H\ejZ_\e d`k\`eXe[\i Xlj)
bfdd\e6 N`\ Y\kfe\e eli eXZ_[i{Zbc`Z_( [X~ m\iY\jj\ik\ jfq`Xc\
-3.

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Npjk\dj bfeq\eki`\ik( eli ld [\i @ib\eeke`j Xljqln\`Z_\e( n`\m`\c
Q\iXeknfikle^dXej\cY\ikiv^k*

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jZ_X]k ãAXbk\e \ek[\Zbkä( [`\ jfqljX^\e _\ildc`\^\e le[ [XiXl] nXié
k\e( ^\]le[\e ql n\i[\e( le[ [X~ [Xj( nXj j`Z_ `e `_i\d =\i\`Z_ nXeé
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AXbk\e Xl]^\jk\cck n\i[\e* Nf YXl\e n`i \`e `dd\i ld]Xe^i\`Z_\i\j
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e\l ql `ek\igi\k`\i\e* ?`\j\j KfjklcXk v_e\ck Xcjf [\d Y\i\`kj \izik\ié
k\e( [\d ql]fc^\ [\i R\^ ql d\_i @ib\eeke`j le[ R\`j_\`k [Xi`e
Y\jk\_k( Y\i\`kj Y\bXeek\e AXbk\e e\l\ _`eqlql]{^\e ) eXk{ic`Z_ leé
k\i [\i QfiXljj\kqle^( [X~ [Xj( nXj dXe Y\i\`kj n\`~( XlZ_ i`Z_k`^ `jk*
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j\cYjk _\]k`^ Xe^\]fZ_k\e7 mfi Xcc\d O_fdXj Fl_e n`\j -52. [XiXl]
_`e( [X~ [`\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k KXiX[`^d\e Y\j`kqk ) {Y\i^i\`]\e[\ B\é
jXdkbfeq\gk`fe\e d`k \ekjgi\Z_\e[\e KfjklcXk\e {Y\i [`\ M\Xc`kvk)(
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-30

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-32

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-35

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-4,

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-4-

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{Y\i[XjPe`m\ijldnvi\lej\i\iGX^\[liZ_XljXe^\d\jj\e*

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-4.

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-40

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-41

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-42

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-43

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Qfibfdd\e( [X~ H\[`\e Y\` \`e\i N\XeZ\ \`e\d <en\j\e[\e \oXbk\
<e^XY\e {Y\i j\`e Qfic\Y\e dXZ_k\e( [`\ Xe^\Yc`Z_ mfe \`e\d B\`jk
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-44

K_vefd\e\ ql \iq\l^\e( Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ B\^\ejkve[\ [liZ_ [`\ Gl]k
jZ_n\Y\eqlcXjj\e*
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-45

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-50

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-51

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-52

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<YjZ_`idle^ ^\^\e gXiXefidXc\ K_vefd\e\ \ek[\Zbk7 Xcc\i[`e^j
nli[\e `e [`\j\d =\i\`Z_ Y`j_\i eli j\_i n\e`^ Pek\ijlZ_le^\e
[liZ_^\]{_ik( [\ee j`\ m\ilijXZ_\e ^if~\ Ffjk\e( le[ [`\ KXiXgjpé
Z_fcf^\e nli[\e ]`eXeq`\cc e`\ Y\jfe[\ij i\`Z_c`Z_ lek\ijk{kqk*
Ddd\i_`e _Xk ?fl^cXj ?\Xe $-525% Xlj^\q\`Z_e\k\ U\l^e`jj\ ]{i [`\
=\[\lkle^jcfj`^b\`k mfe <YjZ_`idle^ le[ @ek]\iele^ mfi^\c\^k7 `e
\`e\d AXcc Y\]Xe[ j`Z_ [\i N\e[\i `e ile[ [i\`~`^ H\k\i O`\]\ mfi
[\i F{jk\ mfe Acfi`[X le[ `e d\_i Xcj /,,, F`cfd\k\i @ek]\iele^
mfe [\d @dg]ve^\i `e U{i`Z_* Mljj`jZ_\ KXiXgjpZ_fcf^\e _XY\e
{Y\i \`e\ @ek]\iele^ mfe Cle[\ik\e mfe F`cfd\k\ie _`en\^ \og\i`é
d\ek`\ik $QXj`c`\m( -52/%( nfY\` \`e\ [\i Q\ijlZ_jg\ijfe\e j`Z_ `e
\`e\d \`j\e^\gXeq\ik\e MXld Y\]Xe[( [\i j`\ ^\^\e \c\bkifdX^e\é
-53

k`jZ_\ NkiX_cle^ eX_\ql mzcc`^ XYjZ_`idk\* R\ee j`Z_ {Y\i_Xlgk \`e\
R`ible^ q\`^k\( [Xee f]]\eYXi [`\( [X~ \`e\ [\iXik`^\ <YjZ_`idle^
k\c\gXk_`jZ_\ FfekXbk\ \knXj \ic\`Z_k\ik( \`e @i^\Ye`j( [Xj Kl_Xi`Z_
XlZ_ lek\i Q\in\e[le^ mfe [liZ_ Flg]\i XY^\jZ_`idk\e Mvld\e
\iq`\ck_Xk*
Pd KNc)K_vefd\e\ m`\cc\`Z_k [fZ_ Xl] ^\^\envik`^ Y\bXeek\ g_pé
j`bXc`jZ_\ Kifq\jj\ qli{Zb]{_i\e ql bzee\e( c`\~\ j`Z_ Xee\_d\e( [\i
d\ejZ_c`Z_\ Ji^Xe`jdlj j\` ]v_`^( @e\i^`\e mfe jfcZ_\i Dek\ej`kvk ql
\ekn`Zb\ce( [X~ j`\ j\cYjk `e XY^\jZ_nvZ_k\d UljkXe[ {Y\i [`\ Xl]
[\i @i[\ ^\^\Y\e\e @ek]\iele^\e _`en\^ efZ_ n`ibjXd j`e[*
NZ_c`\~c`Z_ bzee\e n`i d`k C`c]\ \`e\j j\_i jkXib\e Aleb^\ivkj Q\ié
Y`e[le^ d`k H\ejZ_\e Xe eX_\ql Xcc\e Jik\e [\i @i[\ Xl]e\_d\e*
?Xj KifYc\d Y\jk\_k eli [Xi`e( [X~ @e\i^`\e mfe jfcZ_\i NkiX_cbiX]k
{Y\iXcc c\`Z_k eXZ_n\`jYXi j\`e d{~k\e* R\ee Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ [`\ k\c\é
gXk_`jZ_\ @e\i^`\ `i^\e[n`\ `e [\e =\i\`Z_ [\j Ng\bkildj [\i Mle[é
]lebn\cc\e ]`\c\( d{~k\e `e [\i Pd^\Yle^ \`e\j H\ejZ_\e( [\i \`e\
j\_i `ek\ej`m\ k\c\gXk_`jZ_\ =fkjZ_X]k Xljj\e[\k( giXbk`jZ_ Xcc\ MX[`fé
iz_i\e ql ^c{_\e Y\^`ee\e* <Y\i [`\ m\ijZ_`\[\e\e Q\ijlZ_\( [`\ leé
k\iefdd\e nli[\e( ld [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e @e\i^`\e ql d\jj\e( [`\
mfe H\ejZ_\e d`k Xl~\ij`eec`Z_\e Av_`^b\`k\e Xlj^\_\e( _XY\e
) j\cYjk lek\i Q\in\e[le^ _fZ_\dg]`e[c`Z_\i Dejkild\ek\ ) b\`e\ié
c\`\`e[\lk`^gfj`k`m\@i^\Ye`jj\\iYiXZ_k*
<lZ_ [`\ f]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_\ PeXY_ve^`^b\`k [\i Xl~\ij`eec`Z_\e RX_ié
e\_dle^ mfe [\i ?`d\ej`fe [\i U\`k ) n`\ j`\ \knX Y\` [\i Kivbf^e`é
k`fe \ib\eeYXi n`i[ ) m\ikiv^k j`Z_ e`Z_k d`k lej\i\d g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e
R\ckY`c[* UnXi m\ij`Z_\ie d`i d\`e\ Ffcc\^\e mfe [\i K_pj`b( [X~
\j Y\` Y\jk`ddk\e Bc\`Z_le^\e dXk_\dXk`jZ_\ Gzjle^\e ^`Yk( [`\
[lXc\e >_XiXbk\i _XY\e6 N`\ cXjj\e \`e\e efidXc\e U\`kXYcXl] \Y\ejf
ql n`\ \`e\e U\`kXYcXl] `e ld^\b\_ik\i M`Z_kle^( XY\i [`\ qn\`k\
Gzjle^ jk\cck dXe j`Z_ `d Xcc^\d\`e\e e`Z_k Xcj i\Xc\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k mfi(
le[ j`\ jk\_k XlZ_ `d R`[\ijgilZ_ ql [\d g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e =`c[( [Xj
n`i{Yc`Z_\in\`j\mfelej\i\dPe`m\ijld_XY\e*

8WSDagQV]Z]UWSRS`U`c\RZSUS\RS\DG=&DVk\][S\S
Nki\e^ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ ^\j\_\e( n`jj\e n`i `d Ki`eq`g {Y\i_Xlgk
e`Z_kj {Y\i [`\ jg\q`]`jZ_\ IXkli [\i KND)K_vefd\e\( [\ee kifkq `eé
k\ej`mjk\i =\d{_le^\e j`e[ j`\ eli jZ_n\i ql ]Xjj\e( le[ j`\ cXjj\e
-54

j`Z_ XlZ_ e`Z_k Y\c`\Y`^ `e lej\i\e GXYfij qli @ijZ_\`ele^ Yi`e^\e*
<lj \`e\i M\`_\ mfe Pek\ijlZ_le^\e _Xk j`Z_ XY\i jZ_c`\~c`Z_ [fZ_
\`e Xcc^\d\`e\j =`c[ \i^\Y\e( [Xj \ib\ee\e cv~k( [X~ [`\ m`\i ^ile[c\é
^\e[\e KND)K_vefd\e\( v_ec`Z_ n`\ [`\ lej Y\bXeek\e j\ejfi`jZ_\e(
dfkfi`jZ_\e le[ bf^e`k`m\e Kifq\jj\( [liZ_ m\ijZ_`\[\e\ gjpZ_`jZ_\
AXbkfi\e Y\\`e]cl~k n\i[\e* ?`\ KND)K_vefd\e\ \ijZ_\`e\e lej Y`jé
_\i( gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_ ^\j\_\e( `d Ki`eq`g j`eemfcc( [\ee j`\ v_e\ce Xeé
[\i\e @ijZ_\`ele^\e( d`k [\e\e n`i m\ikiXlk j`e[7 mfd NkXe[glebk
[\j g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e R\ckY`c[j Xlj ^\j\_\e Yc\`Y\e j`\ Xcc\i[`e^j XlZ_
n\`k\i_`e\`eB\_\`de`j*
R`i nfcc\e ele bliq [`\ gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\ N\`k\ [\i KND)K_vefd\e\
\izik\ie*
<YY`c[le^ - q\`^k \`e m\i\`e]XZ_k\j RX_ie\_dle^jdf[\cc* DZ_ _XY\
\j Xe Xe[\i\i Nk\cc\ $OXik( -5227 -53/% efZ_ [\kX`cc`\ik\i [Xi^\jk\cck*
E\[\ RX_ie\_dle^( XlZ_ [`\ ^\nz_ec`Z_\ j`eec`Z_\( `jk Xl] N`^eXc\
Yqn* \`e\e B\^\ejkXe[ ^\i`Z_k\k( [\i nX_i^\efdd\e n\i[\e jfcc
le[ [\i j`Z_ Xl~\i_XcY [\j RX_ie\_d\e[\e j\cYjk Y\]`e[\k* ?`\ mfe
[`\j\d j`^eXc`j`\i\e[\e B\^\ejkXe[ Xlj^\_\e[\ De]fidXk`fe Y\n\^k
j`Z_( ^\kiX^\e mfe `e [\i Pdn\ck mfi_Xe[\e\e g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e @e\ié
^`\e( mfe [\d \ek]\iek\e JYa\bk Xl] N`\ ql7 le[ [`\j\i G\`kn\^ bXee
Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ ) n`\ Y\`d Czi\e [`\ Gl]k f[\i n`\ Y\`d N\_\e \`eé
]XZ_ [\i g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ MXld qn`jZ_\e lej j\`e* @`e\ <ik OiXej]fié
dXkfi nXe[\ck [`\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\e @e\i^`\e( [`\ Xl] D_i\ CXlkfY\i]cvé
Z_\ ki\]]\e( `e e\liXc\ Ddglcj\ ld( [`\ `_i\ij\`kj n\`k\i Y`j qld
B\_`ie Qfi[i`e^\e* =\` [\i ^\nz_ec`Z_\e RX_ie\_dle^ Y\q\`Z_e\e
n`i [`\j\ OiXej]fidXkfi\e Xcj N`ee\jfi^Xe\* Nf nXe[\ck qld =\`é
jg`\c [Xj <l^\ G`Z_k `e e\liXc\ Ddglcj\ ld* ?`\j\ e\liXc\e Ddglcj\
dXZ_\e [Xee efZ_ Xcc\ dz^c`Z_\e n\`k\i\e Kifq\jj\ [liZ_( Y\mfi j`\
`e D_i\d =\nl~kj\`e Xebfdd\e* DZ_ _XY\ [Xj `d =`c[ Xe^\q\`^k( le[
qnXi `e Afid \`e\j K]\`c\j( [\i mfd OiXej]fidXkfi Xlj^\_k le[ ql
[\d mfe d`i Xcj ãDeglkä Y\q\`Z_e\k\e Kifq\~ ]{_ik7 \j _Xe[\ck j`Z_
[XY\` ld [`\ m`\c\e leY\nl~k( XlkfdXk`jZ_( ^\nf_e_\`kjdv~`^ XY)
cXl]\e[\e Kifq\jj\( `e [\e\e le^\]`ck\ik\ j\ejfi`jZ_\ De]fidXk`fe\e
Xl]^\efdd\e le[ `e \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e =\]le[ ld^\nXe[\ck n\i[\e*
R\ee dXe Xlj [\d A\ejk\i jZ_Xlk( e`ddk dXe aX e`Z_k \knX eli \`e\
<ejXddcle^ mfe G`Z_k\ie( G`e`\e le[ AXiY\e nX_i le[ q`\_k [\e
NZ_cl~( [X~ j`\ Xd Y\jk\e Xl] [`\ Qfijk\ccle^ ã<lkfä gXjj\e n{i[\e(
jfe[\ie dXe xaWSPbw \`e <lkf* HXe bXee [Xee jX^\e6 ÑDZ_ j\_\ [iXlé
~\e \`e <lkfÉ ?\i De]fidXk`fej]cl~( [\i mfe D_i\d =\nl~kj\`e Xlj)
-55

^\_k le[ j`Z_ Xl] D_i dfkfi`jZ_\j f[\i Hljb\cjpjk\d {Y\ikiv^k( ]{_ik
Xcjfql\`e\ibcXi\e<eknfik*
?`\ CXlgk]lebk`fe [\j Deglk)Kifq\jj\j Y\jk\_k [Xi`e( [`\ d\`jk\e
De]fidXk`fe\e XYqln\_i\e le[ lej eli ãj`eemfcc\ä De]fidXk`fe\e(
[*_* \`e\e e{kqc`Z_\e <Yi`~ [\i R\ck ql givj\ek`\i\e( [\i lej \ijgXik(
lej d`k leqv_c`^\e ?\kX`cj Y\]Xjj\e ql d{jj\e* <Y\i e`Z_k Xcc\ De]fié
dXk`fe\e( [`\ [Xj =\nl~kj\`e e`Z_k \ii\`Z_\e( ^\_\e mzcc`^ m\icfi\e6
@`e`^\ m\ij`eb\e `e \`e\d =\i\`Z_( [\e n`i _`\i \`edXc ^Xeq Xcc^\d\`e
Xcj [Xj ãPeY\nl~k\ä Y\q\`Z_e\e nfcc\e7 [fik bzee\e j`\ n\`k\i\
M\Xbk`fe\e le[ Kifq\jj\ Xljczj\e( f_e\ [X~ n`i lej [\jj\e Y\nl~k
n\i[\e* Nf _Xk j`Z_ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ `e m`\c\e gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e @og\i`é
d\ek\e( Y\` [\e\e \`e\d H\ejZ_\e lek\i jZ_n`\i`^\e RX_ie\_é
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@`ejZ_Xck\e fYjqze\i Rzik\i `e \`e\e ld]Xe^i\`Z_\e le[ bfdgc\o\e
O\jk f[\i [liZ_ [Xj Qfic\^\e Xe[\i\e \dfk`fejY\cX[\e\e HXk\i`Xcj(
[Xj `ee\i_XcY \`e\i jf bliq Y\d\jj\e\e U\`kjgXee\ Xl]^\efdd\e
n\i[\e dl~( [X~ \`e Y\nl~k\j @ib\ee\e vl~\ijk jZ_n`\i`^ `jk ) [Xj
Q\i_Xck\e [\j Y\ki\]]\e[\e H\ejZ_\e Y\\`e]cl~k n`i[( XlZ_ n\ee \i
j`Z_ j\cYjk [\jj\e e`Z_k i\Z_k Y\nl~k ^\nfi[\e `jk* <cc^\d\`e Y\é
q\`Z_e\k dXe [`\j\j K_vefd\e Xcj Ñlek\ijZ_n\cc`^\ RX_ie\_dle^ä*
N`\ bXee [\e De_Xck lej\i\j =\nl~kj\`ej Xl] \`e\ <ik le[ R\`j\ m\ié
ve[\ie( [`\ b\`e\e UljXdd\e_Xe^ d`k [\d j`\ lijgi{e^c`Z_ Xljczé
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g\i n`ib\e( `e[\d j`\ Y\`jg`\cjn\`j\ eXZ_ \`e\d Y\[if_c`Z_\e M\`q(
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RX_ie\_dle^ `jk Xcjf i\Z_k bfdgc\o( le[ qljvkqc`Z_ ql [\i f]]\eé
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m`\c\ leY\nl~k\ Kifq\jj\( [`\ j`Z_ ^c\`Z_q\`k`^ XYjg`\c\e le[ lej Y\é
\`e]cljj\ebzee\e*
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d`k [\i O\c\gXk_`\( [\d C\ccj\_\e f[\i [\i Kivbf^e`k`fe( [Xee ^\ck\e
v_ec`Z_\ gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\ @inv^le^\e* R`i _XY\e \j [\i ?\]`e`k`fe
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[\i Xl~\ij`eec`Z_\e RX_ie\_dle^ [fZ_ `e Xccql ^if~\i Q\i\`e]Xé
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le[ czjk [fik m\ijZ_`\[\e\ Kifq\jj\ Xlj ) [Xql ^\_zi\e XlZ_ \`e]XZ_\
j\c\bk`m\ Kifq\jj\ mfd Opg [\i Deglk)Kifq\jj\ le[ j`\ \iq\l^k [Xé
[liZ_ jZ_c`\~c`Z_ \`e\e c\`Z_k Y`j jkXib m\ive[\ik\e Jlkglk qld
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.-/

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g\ijzec`Z_\@ic\Ye`j{Y\iq\l^\e[\i`jkXcj@og\i`d\ek\*

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.-0

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le[ `e [\e m`\c\e EX_i\e j\`k [`\j\i Q\iz]]\ekc`Z_le^ _Xk b\`e\ n`jj\eé
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efd\e\ j`e[ Xcjf efZ_ e`Z_k Xlji\`Z_\e[ eXZ_^\n`\j\e( fYnf_c
dXeZ_\j]{ij`\jgi`Z_k*

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jZ_\iRX_ie\_dle^[`\j\^\jg\`Z_\ik\De]fidXk`feql\eke\_d\e*
.-1

Q`\c\ {Y\ij`eec`Z_\e @`e]c{jj\e ql^ve^c`Z_\ H\ejZ_\e Y\_Xlgk\e(
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j`Z_ Xl] Xe[\i\ H\ejZ_\e $Yqn* [\i\e B\^\ejkXe[% Y\qf^\e( bzee\e
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.-2

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./2

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./3

b\`k le[ `_i Pijgile^7 [Xj Pe`m\ijld Xcj Ji[ele^jjpjk\d7 [Xj
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j`e[É $Bfm`e[X( -525( N* /2%* Dd <Y_`[_XddX lek\ik\`ck =l[[_X [`\
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ql [\i lijgi{e^c`Z_\e M\`e_\`k [\j =l[[_X)R\j\ej*** qld *** <Yjfé
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.01

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\j [Xj U`\c [\i M\c`^`fe `jk( [X~ [\i H\ejZ_ j`Z_ j\cYjk m\in`ibc`Z_k
le[Xdle`m\ij\cc\e=\nl~kj\`ek\`c_Xk(`e[\dXcc\B\^\ejvkq\
) HXk\i`\ le[ B\`jk( [Xj N\cYjk le[ [`\ <e[\i\e( NlYa\bk le[ JYa\bk(
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[\e([X~j`\`_iU`\c\ii\`Z_k_Xk*

?Xj=\nl~kj\`e
?`\ Q\i]c\Z_kle^ [\i K_`cfjfg_`\ [\j U\e)=l[[_`jdlj d`k [\i Kjpé
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=\nl~kj\`e Xlj [\d PeY\nl~k\e* ?`\ <ej`Z_k\e mfe U\e( Ele^ jf)
.02

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Xe[\i\Y\c\lZ_k\e[le[lek\ijki\`Z_\e[*
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lek\ijlZ_k\e [`\ jgfekXe\( e`Z_k [`\ [liZ_ Y\jk`ddk\ O\Z_e`b\e
Xlj^\czjk\ N\cYjkm\in`ibc`Z_le^* HXe dl~ [\e Pek\ijZ_`\[ qn`jZ_\e
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j`Z_ a\[fZ_ m\iYc{]]\e[* Nf^Xi [`\ <ej`Z_k\e {Y\i [\e N`kq [\j
=\nl~kj\`ej ^\_\e Xlj\`eXe[\i* <e[\ij Xcj [\i R\jk\e m\ic\^k U\e
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Xlj `jk B\`jk $`d N`ee\ mfe H`e[ f[\i d`e[% ÑkfkXc\ =\nl~k_\`kÉ
$FXgc\Xl(-523(N*//4%*
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m\inXe[\ckn\i[\e*

.03

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[`\ek Xcj uY\id`kkc\i mfe N`ee\jnX_ie\_dle^\e Xe [`\ XZ_k\ BXké
kle^( [`\ [\j PeY\nl~k\e( [\j le`m\ij\cc\e =\nl~kj\`ej $XcXpX)
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le[ ]{i [`\ =\q`\_le^ mfe NlYa\bk le[ JYa\bk le[ [X[liZ_
^\Yle[\e Xe B\Ylik le[ Of[* ?`\ j`\Yk\ le[ XZ_k\ BXkkle^ ld]X~k
[Xj =\nl~k\ le[ [Xj PeY\nl~k\( le[ n\ee [\i XZ_k\ =\nl~kj\`ejé
qljkXe[ \ii\`Z_k `jk( ^`Yk \j b\`e\ bzig\ic`Z_\ B\Ylik le[ b\`e\e bzié
g\ic`Z_\eOf[d\_i*
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k\`ck U\e [Xj Pek\iY\nl~k\ f[\i PeY\nl~k\ `e qn\` CXlgkjkl]\e
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.04

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.05

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Z_fk_\iXg\lk`jZ_\=\_Xe[cle^*
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jZ_\e U\eki\e( [\e Z_XbiXj( {Y\i_Xlgk G\ie Y\i\`Z_\( f[\i \`e]XZ_ eli
Ng\`Z_\i; NfcXe^\ [`\j\ AiX^\e e`Z_k mfe [\i R`jj\ejZ_X]k ^\bcvik
j`e[( `jk \j jZ_n`\i`^( [\e G\iegifq\~( n`\ U\e `_e m\ijk\_k( n`jj\eé
jZ_X]kc`Z_ Xeql^\_\e* ?fZ_ m\idX^ `e [\i Un`jZ_\eq\`k [\i Q\ijlZ_(
uY\i\`ejk`ddle^\e ql \ek[\Zb\e( m`\cc\`Z_k jZ_fe qli @i_\ccle^
Y\`qlkiX^\e* ?`\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e KjpZ_fcf^\e _XY\e [i\` G\ieé
gifq\jj\ ]\jk^\jk\cck6 [`\ bcXjj`jZ_\ Ffe[`k`fe`\ile^( [`\ `ejkild\e)
k\cc\ Ffe[`k`fe`\ile^ le[ [Xj g\iq\gk`m\ G\ie\e* R`i[ [\i uY\e[\
[liZ_ [Xj qXq\e( [`\ B\^\enXik [\j ^\`jk`^\e G\_i\ij le[ [`\ Yl[é
[_`jk`jZ_\ Dbfef^iXg_`\ [XiXl] bfe[`k`fe`\ik ql c\ie\e( n`\ dXe \`e
=l[[_Xn`i[;
Dd Kifq\~ [\j `ejkild\ek\`c\e G\ie\ej n`i[ Ñ[\i G\ie\e[\ Xl] \`e
U`\c _`e dfk`m`\ik( le[ [`\ Afc^\ `jk `d Xcc^\d\`e\e \`e\ <bk`m`\ile^
[\j R`jj\ej[iXe^j* Dd GXl]\ jfcZ_\i <bk`m`\ile^ n`i[ \`e\ M\Xbk`fe
Xlj^\czjk( [`\ [\d @ii\`Z_\e [\j ^\j\kqk\e U`\cj ]zi[\ic`Z_ `jkÉ $Hfié
^Xe le[ F`e^( -512( N* 5,%* ?`\j\ M\Xbk`fe `jk ã`ejkild\ek\ccä( n\`c
j`\ \`e\ M\`qm\ijkvible^ Y\n`ibk* Dd U\e jZ_\`ek [`\ `ejkild\ek\cc\
<ik [\j G\ie\ej giXbk`q`\ik ql n\i[\e* @`e\ qXq\e)uYle^( [\i\e U`\c
[`\ @ic\lZ_kle^ `jk( bXee j`Z_ Xcj Ffe[`k`fe`\ile^ Xl] \`e\e jX)
dX[_`)UljkXe[ Xljn`ib\e( [\i \`e\e Qfi^\jZ_dXZb [\i N\cYjkm\ié
n`ibc`Z_le^ m\id`kk\ck* ?`\j\ M\Xbk`fe n`\[\ild bXee Xcj Ñm\ijkvié
b\e[\i M\`qä( [Xj U`\c ql \ii\`Z_\e( ]le^`\i\e* <lZ_ g\iq\gk`m\j
G\ie\e( [\i [i`kk\ Kifq\~( cv~k j`Z_ Xl] qXq\e Xen\e[\e* C`ej`Z_kc`Z_
[`\j\i FXk\^fi`\ j`e[ j`Z_ [`\ KjpZ_fcf^\e Xcc\i[`e^j e`Z_k \`e`^* @`e\i
`_i\i k_\fi\k`jZ_\e <ejvkq\ `jk [`\ <jjfq`Xk`fejk_\fi`\( `e [\i \`e\
bf^e`k`m\ GXe[bXik\ $ãZf^e`k`m\ dXgä( \`e\ mfe @* >* OfcdXe \`e^\é
]{_ik\ =\q\`Z_ele^6 <ed* [* uY\ij*% Y\elkqk n`i[* B\jkXckgjpZ_fcfé
^\e _`e^\^\e ÑY\kiXZ_k\e g\iq\gk`m\j G\ie\e Xcj \`e\ Pd^\jkXckle^
[\j RX_ie\_dle^j]\c[\j( [`\ \knXj s_ec`Z_\j `jk n`\ \`e\ i\cXk`m
gczkqc`Z_\ @`ej`Z_k*** KifYc\d\ jZ_\`e\e j`Z_ f_e\ [Xj C`e le[ C\i
mfe Q\ijlZ_ le[ Diikld [liZ_ gczkqc`Z_\ @`ej`Z_k\e ql czj\eÉ
$Hfi^Xe le[ F`e^( -512( N* -,/)-,0%* Ile `jk [`\ Av_`^b\`k( mfi_\i
leczjYXi\ KifYc\d\ `ekl`k`m ql czj\e( XlZ_ \`e\j [\i Xd _zZ_jk\e
.31

^\jZ_vkqk\e @i^\Ye`jj\ [\i @ic\lZ_kle^( aX jZ_fe [\j ]fik^\jZ_i`kk\é
e\e qXq\e* Pe[ [`\ @ic\lZ_kle^ bfddk jf gczkqc`Z_ n`\ [`\ `ekl`é
k`m\e@`ej`Z_k\e([`\`_imfiXe^\_\ef[\i]fc^\ef[\ij`\Y\^c\`k\e*
ÑNfcZ_\ gczkqc`Z_\e Gzjle^\e ]`e[\e j`Z_ ^\nz_ec`Z_ Y\` Ji^Xe`jd\e( [`\ mfi_\i
m`\c B\c\^\e_\`k qld G\ie\e _Xkk\e le[ {Y\i \`e\ Y\kivZ_kc`Z_\ <l]eX_d\]v_`^b\`k
m\i]{^\e* Dd U\e g]c\^\e EX_i\ _Xik\i uYle^ [\i gczkqc`Z_\e @ic\lZ_kle^ mfiXeqlé
^\_\e* @og\i`d\ek\ d`k [\i `ekl`k`m\e @`ej`Z_k jfcc\e dXeZ_dXc XlZ_ Y\n\`j\e( [X~
G\ie\e Xcj Pd^\jkXckle^ [\j K\iq\gk`fej]\c[\j Xe^\j`Z_kj \`e\j leY\]i`\[`^k\e =\é
[{i]e`jj\jql[\eb\e`jkÉ$Hfi^Xele[F`e^(-512(N*--,)---%*

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@ic\ie\e[\ijZ_n`\i`^\eH\k_f[\[\jqXq\e*
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jZ_\`ek [\i U\e)NkXe[glebk mfccjkve[`^\i {Y\i\`eqljk`dd\e Xcj d`k
[\e [i\` G\iek_\fi`\e* ?\i De_Xck [\jj\e( nXj [liZ_ U\e ^\c\iek n`i[(
lek\ijZ_\`[\k j`Z_ a\[fZ_ [iXjk`jZ_ mfe [\d( nfi{Y\i KjpZ_fcf^\e
ql[`jblk`\i\eg]c\^\e*
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q\e Y\`d C\ildnXe[\ie $b`e_`e% f[\i qXq\e nv_i\e[ [\i <iY\`k
[XjG\ie\e`ek\ej`m`\ikn\i[\ebXee/*
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/* [`\ Ffekifm\ij\ G\ie\e [liZ_ G\j\e f[\i G\ie\e [liZ_ QfikiX^\e*
=\`d Ngi\Z_\e [\i m`\i B\c{Y[\ le[ Y\`d N`e^\e mfe Rfik\e( [`\
[\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[ ^{ejk`^ Y\\`e]cljj\e( _Xk [\i U\e)=l[[_`jé
dlj _\iXlj^\]le[\e( [X~ Xbk`m\j QfikiX^\e n`ibjXd\i `jk Xcj G\j\e*
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[liZ_ G\j\e Xcj [liZ_ Czi\e c\ie\e* ?`\ =l[[_`jk\e `e lej\i\d
U\e)U\ekild jZ_\`e\e [Xj Qfic\j\e $k\`j_f% [liZ_ [\e ifj_` [\d
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.32

0* [Xj G\ie\e [\j BXeq\e ^\^\e [Xj jZ_i`kkn\`j\ G\ie\e* U\e cv~k
_`\i b\`e\ RX_c* QfijZ_i`]k `jk( [X~ Xlj @i]X_ile^\e le[ e`Z_k
k_\fi\k`jZ_ ^\c\iek n\i[\e jfcck\* ?Xj ]{_ik qli <l]k\`cle^ [\j G\ié
e\ej eXZ_ \`e\i H\k_f[\( [\i j`Z_ Dek\cc\bkl\cc\ Xd <e]Xe^ dXeZ_dXc
n`[\ij\kq\e* N`\ n{i[\e c`\Y\i [`\ ^\jXdk\ K_`cfjfg_`\ le[ KjpZ_fé
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[\d Fzig\i XlZ_ ql Y\`jg`\ccfj\i @e\i^`\ m\i_\c]\e $CXbl`e `jk \`e
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j\`ejqljkve[\e`e@ijZ_\`ele^*

.33

KjpZ_fgXk_fcf^`\
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Q\i_Xck\ejjkzile^\e `e gXk_fcf^`jZ_\e Uljkve[\e n`\ I\lifj\ le[
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e`Z_k dz^c`Z_ `jk* Pd ^Xeq \i j\cYjk ql n\i[\e( dl~ [\i H\ejZ_ j`Z_
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c`\^\e *** <l] a\[\i Nkl]\ [\i KjpZ_fj\ *** `jk kiXejg\ijfeXc\ @i]X_é
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.34

e`Z_k mfiY\i\`k\k `jk( le[ \i n`i[ =\n\iY\i( [`\ Xe `_e\e c\`[\e( e`Z_k
qlcXjj\e* E\[fZ_ `jk \j eXk{ic`Z_( [X~ Q\iki\k\i [\i a{e^\i\e B\e\iXé
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B\nXckkvk`^b\`k f[\i m`\cc\`Z_k XlZ_ `e [\i KjpZ_fXeXcpj\ jlZ_k\e(
C`c]\ mfe \`e\i M\c`^`fe [\i @i]X_ile^ n`\ [\d U\e \inXik\e* N`\
jlZ_\e e`Z_k eli =\]i\`le^ mfe [\i I\lifj\( jfe[\ie j\_e\e j`Z_
XlZ_eXZ_jg`i`kl\cc\e@ic\Ye`jj\e*
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kle^ ]\_ck( Xcj dXbpf Xe( a\[fZ_ ^`Yk \j m\ijZ_`\[\e\ <ik\e mfe dXé
bpf* R\ee [`\ e\lifk`jZ_\ Nkzile^ \iejk `jk( bXee a\[\i bfdg\k\ek\
U\e)G\_i\i( n`\ Y\i\`kj \inv_ek( ql \`e\i KjpZ_fk_\iXg`\ iXk\e*
<e[\ie]Xccj \dg]`\_ck \i Xlj[Xl\ie[\j qXq\e le[( ]Xccj [`\ Nkzile^
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@`ebcXe^d`kOXf([\dR\^qlic\kqk\eR`ibc`Z_b\`k(qlc\Y\e*

N`eec`Z_\le[Xl~\ij`eec`Z_\RX_ie\_dle^
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^\ifZ_\e( \ic\Yk n`i[É $Hfi^Xe le[ F`e^( -512( N* /23%* ?Xj `jk [`\
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.35

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H`k [\i <eev_\ile^ Xe jXkfi` e`ddk \i j\`e\ g_pj`jZ_\ Pd^\Yle^
`dd\i n\e`^\i nX_i7 [Xee [liZ_nXe[\ik \i [`\ m`\i NZ_`Z_k\e [\j
PeY\nl~k\e* De [\i @ic\lZ_kle^ m\ic`\ik \i ) f[\i m\ic`\ik \i `d n\é
j\ekc`Z_\e ) a\^c`Z_\j =\nl~kj\`e* @i `[\ek`]`q`\ik j`Z_ d`k [\d le`é
m\ij\cc\e B\`jk* ?XeXZ_( `d m\ive[\ik\e UljkXe[( XiY\`k\k j\`e
=\nl~kj\`e `e @`ebcXe^ d`k j\`e\d k`\]\i\e PeY\nl~k\e( le[ \j
jZ_\`ek( Xcj j\` \j mfe [\i len`[\ijk\_c`Z_\e FiX]k [\j kiXejq\e[\ek\e
=\nl~kj\`ej^\c\`k\k*
.40

RXj _vck [\i U\e)=l[[_`jdlj mfe ?if^\e; ?`\ q\_e mfe j\`e\e
<e_ve^\ie Xe\ibXeek\e CXlgk^\Yfk\ [\j =l[[_`jdlj m\iY`\k\e [`\
@`eeX_d\ mfe MXljZ_d`kk\ce le[ <cbf_fc* D_i B\YiXlZ_ n`i[ Xcj
jZ_v[c`Z_ ]{i Fzig\i le[ B\`jk d`~Y`cc`^k* @j jZ_\`ek Y\d\ib\ejn\ik(
[X~ ale^\ G\lk\ ]i\`n`cc`^ `e \`e\d U\e)U\ekild Yc\`Y\e( `e [\d [`\
?`jq`gc`e jki\e^ le[ [`\ uYle^\e Xejki\e^\e[ le[ _vl]`^ jZ_d\iqé
_X]k j`e[* Mfj_` FXgc\Xl \ibcvik( \j bzee\ j\`e( [X~ [`\ a{e^\i\ B\e\é
iXk`fe j`Z_ qnXi d`k C`c]\ mfe ?if^\e \`e\e ]c{Z_k`^\e @`e[ilZb mfe
[\i Hz^c`Z_b\`k [\i N\cYjkm\in`ibc`Z_le^ ql m\ijZ_X]]\e m\idzZ_k\(
XY\i ]\jk^\jk\cck _Xk( [X~ dXe [liZ_ qXq\e ql Y\]i`\[`^\e[\i\e le[
n\e`^\i^\]v_ic`Z_\e@i^\Ye`jj\ebfddk*
?Xj ]{_ik lej ql [\d NZ_cl~( [X~ Nkilbkli le[ Alebk`fe [\j d\ejZ_é
c`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ej Y\`d ^\nz_ec`Z_\e le[ Y\`d \ic\lZ_k\k\e H\eé
jZ_\e `e dXeZ_\i C`ej`Z_k lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_( `e Xe[\i\i v_ec`Z_ j`e[*
@j nvi\ ]{i [\e AfijZ_\i m`\c \`e]XZ_\i( n\ee [`\ Y\`[\e Npjk\d\ `e
mzcc`^\d R`[\ijgilZ_ ql\`eXe[\i jk{e[\e* NkXkk [\jj\e \i^`Yk j`Z_(
[X~( n`\ Y\` [\d B\^\ejXkqgXXi p`e le[ pXe^( [`\ Y\`[\e KjpZ_fcfé
^`\e \`eXe[\i Xl] dXeZ_\d B\Y`\k {Y\ijZ_e\`[\e* FXee [`\ Q\ijz_é
ele^ [\i B\^\ejvkq\ ) M\c`^`fe le[ R`jj\ejZ_X]k ) \`e\ Gzjle^ Y`\é
k\e;
R\[\i [\i Q\ijkXe[\jd\ejZ_ [\j R\jk\ej efZ_ [\i `ekl`k`m\ H\ejZ_
[\j Jjk\ej nXi Y`j_\i Xcc\`e `djkXe[\( [`\ KifYc\d\ [\i R\ck ql czj\e*
?\i R\jk\e _Xk cf^`jZ_\j ?\eb\e( R`jj\ejZ_X]k( O\Z_efcf^`\ le[
M\`Z_kld Y\`^\jk\l\ik( [XiYk XY\i jg`i`kl\cc* ?\i Jjk\e _Xk `ekl`k`m\
R\`j_\`k( i\c`^`zj\j G\Y\e le[ [`\ Flejk [\j Pd^Xe^j d`k [\e jg`i`é
kl\cc\e Fiv]k\e Y\`^\jk\l\ik( c\`[\k XY\i Xe <idlk( FiXeb_\`k le[
<eXcg_XY\k\ekld* IXk`fe\e le[ Flckli\e bzeek\e j`Z_ ^\eXljf n`\
[\i `e[`m`[l\cc\ H\ejZ_ `e M`Z_kle^ Xl] \`e\ BXeq_\`k _`e Y\n\^\e*
?Xql Y\[Xi] [\i R\jk\e mfi Xcc\d [\i NZ_lcle^ `e [\i N\cYjkm\in`ibé
c`Z_le^*

?\iU\e)K]X[
RXj Y\[\lk\k [\i U\e)K]X[ ]{i [`\ N\cYjkm\in`ibc`Z_le^; UXq\e `jk
[\i K]X[ qli @ic\lZ_kle^* @j ^`Yk qn\` R\^\( [\e U\e)=l[[_`jdlj
ql m\ijk\_\e6 [\e `ek\cc\bkl\cc\e le[ [\e ãd\_i Xcj `ek\cc\bkl\cc\eä(
[\eR\^[\i@i]X_ile^*
.41

FXee \`e e`Z_k \ic\lZ_k\k\i H\ejZ_ [\j R\jk\ej [`\ NlkiXj le[ Ffdé
d\ekXi\ c\j\e le[ U\e d`k j\`e\d Dek\cc\bk \i]Xjj\e; J_e\ [`\ Dek\ié
gi\kXk`fe [liZ_ \`e\e \i]X_i\e\e G\_i\i n{i[\ `_d [Xj jZ_n\i]Xcc\e*
A{i [\e ^\nz_ec`Z_\e H\ejZ_\e dz^\e [`\ Afi[\ile^\e [\j U\e)
=l[[_`jdlj g_XekXjk`jZ_ bc`e^\e( XlZ_ n\ee j`\ `_d \ibcvik n\i[\e*
U\e bXee a\[fZ_ [liZ_ K_`cfjfg_`\ le[ KjpZ_fcf^`\ $[`\ j`Z_ ^\^\eé
j\`k`^ lek\ijk{kq\e bzee\e% m\ijkXe[\jdv~`^ Y\^i`]]\e n\i[\e* De leé
j\i\i n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ fi`\ek`\ik\e Flckli dX^ [`\ n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\
KjpZ_fcf^`\ jf^Xi ^iz~\i\ uY\iq\l^le^jbiX]k _XY\e* ?\ee U\e
n{i[\ [Xee Xcj jg`i`kl\cc\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ \ijZ_\`e\e( [`\ j`Z_ Xl] [`\
B\j\kq\ [\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\e KjpZ_\ ^i{e[\k* ?`\ m`\c\e KXiXcc\c\e d`k
[\i n\jkc`Z_\e KjpZ_fcf^`\( d`k Ai\l[( Ele^( Cfljkfe le[ HXjk\ij
jZ_\`e\e [`\j ql Y\jkvk`^\e* Un\`]\ccfj n`i[ >_Xic\j OXikj Xe [\e
a\n\`c`^\e lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\e Uljkve[\e [\j =\nl~kj\`ej j`Z_ fi`\eé
k`\i\e[\ R`jj\ejZ_X]k [\i Ulble]k $j`\_\ FXg`k\c -% [`\ B{ck`^b\`k
\`e\i ãM\c`^`fe [\i @i]X_ile^ä n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_ Y\n\`j\e*
Dek\cc\bkl\cc\j Q\ijk\_\e ]fidk a\[fZ_ [\e >_XiXbk\i le[ [Xj Q\i_Xcé
k\e e`Z_k ld* ?X]{i `jk \`e Q\ijk\_\e ezk`^( [Xj Xl] @i]X_ile^ YXj`\ik*
?XiXlj \i^`Yk j`Z_ ]{i [\e U\e)=l[[_`jdlj( [X~ U\e qlevZ_jk giXbé
k`jZ_ ^\c\_ik le[ [Xj `ek\cc\bkl\cc\ Q\ijk\_\e [\i U\`k eXZ_ [\i
@ic\lZ_kle^ {Y\icXjj\e n\i[\e jfcck\* U\e bXee qnXi eXZ_ le[ eXZ_
XlZ_ {Y\i [\e ifj_` le[ j\`e k\`j_f Xl]^\efdd\e n\i[\e* <Y\i [\i
U\e)=l[[_`jdlj Y\_Xlgk\k( [X~ e`\dXe[ ]v_`^ j\`( [`\j\ i\c`^`zj\
?`jq`gc`e mfccbfdd\e ql m\ijk\_\e( \j j\` [\ee [liZ_ \`^\e\ @i]X_é
ile^* PijXZ_\ [X]{i `jk( [X~ [`\ @ic\lZ_kle^ a\ej\`kj [\i Bi\eq\e mfe
Q\ijk\_\e( Rfik\e le[ =\^i`]]\e \i]X_i\e n`i[* E\[fZ_ ^`Yk \j lek\i
df[\ie\e R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\ie XlZ_ jfcZ_\( [`\ jfnf_c [`\j\ `e[`m`[l\cc
\ic\Yk\ @i]X_ile^ Xcj XlZ_ [\i\e =\^cXlY`^le^ [liZ_ [\e Dek\cc\bk
ql]fi[\iejZ_\`e\e*
De [\e Q\i\`e`^k\e NkXXk\e Y\^`eek [\i @i]X_ile^jn\^ qld Q\ijkve[é
e`j [\j U\e ^\nz_ec`Z_ d`k \`e\d \`e) f[\i d\_ikv^`^\e <l]\ek_Xck
`e \`e\i R\ibjkXkk( \`e\d U\e)U\ekild f[\i `e [\i Pe`m\ij`kvk* ?fik
^`Yk \j Qfic\jle^\e( bliq\ uYle^\e `d qXq\e( AiX^\) le[ <eknfik)
U\`k\e le[ Qfi^\jgivZ_\ ]{i \`e\ H`k^c`\[jZ_X]k* ?Xj b{e]k`^\ H`ké
^c`\[ dl~ j`Z_ ld j`kkc`Z_\ M\`e_\`k Y\d{_\e( \j dl~ Xe [`\ R`ibé
c`Z_b\`k mfe =l[[_Xj @ic\lZ_kle^ le[ Xe [`\ Hz^c`Z_b\`k [\i \`^\e\e
@ic\lZ_kle^ ^cXlY\e* Nf]\ie [\i Nkl[\ek eX_\ Y\` \`e\d U\ekild
f[\i \`e\i [`\j\d Xe^\jZ_cfjj\e\e Bilgg\ c\Yk( ^\_k \i `d Xcc^\d\`é
e\e m`\i) f[\i ]{e]dXc nzZ_\ekc`Z_ [fik_`e( ld qXq\e ql {Y\e* ?`\
.42

N`kqle^\e \ijki\Zb\e j`Z_ ^\nz_ec`Z_ {Y\i qn\` Nkle[\e( jfeekX^j
dXeZ_dXc {Y\i [\e ^Xeq\e OX^ ) XZ_k Nkle[\e* <l] [\d GXe[\ c\é
Y\e[\ H`k^c`\[\i Xlj [\e ^\jXdk\e Q\i\`e`^k\e NkXXk\e nf_e\e [\e
j\jj_`ej ]{i \`e\e U\`kiXld mfe j`\Y\e OX^\e d`k kv^c`Z_ le^\]v_i
j\Z_q\_eNkle[\eY\`*

UXq\e
R\cZ_\j j`e[ [`\ jg\q`]`jZ_\e H\k_f[\e [\j N`kq\ej; Dd q\e[f j`kqk
[\i NZ_{c\i kiX[`k`fej^\dv~ d`k lek\i^\jZ_cX^\e\e ) `e mfcc\i Gfklj)
_Xckle^ d`k ^\bi\lqk\e ) =\`e\e Xl] \`e\d ile[\e ]\jk\e F`jj\e( [Xj
Xl]\`e\iHXkk\c`\^k*=\`dmfccjkve[`^\eGfkljc`\^k(n`\`eA`^li-

A`^li -6 @`e U\e)NZ_{c\i `d bcXjj`jZ_\e mfccjkve[`^\e Gfkljj`kq* @j `jk n`Z_k`^( [X~
Ffg]( CXcj le[ R`iY\cjvlc\ `e \`e\i ^\iX[\e( m\ik`bXc\e G`e`\ ^\_Xck\e n\i[\e* Dd
Xcc^\d\`e\e Y\[`\ek dXe j`Z_ qli <e_\Yle^ [\j B\jv~\j \`e\j \kc`Z_\ U\ek`d\k\i
[`Zb\eF`jj\ej*
A`^li .6 @`e U\e)NZ_{c\i `d j\`qX)N`kq( \`e\i CXckle^( [`\ `e EXgXe _vl]`^ qli H\[`é
kXk`fe\`e^\efdd\en`i[*?Xj]\jk\(\kc`Z_\U\ek`d\k\i_f_\F`jj\elek\i[\dB\jv~
e`ddk [\e Pek\ijZ_\eb\ce le[ A{~\e [Xj d\`jk\ B\n`Z_k XY* @`e\ bc\`e\ =Xeb qn`é
jZ_\e Pek\ijZ_\eb\ce le[ B\jv~ \i]{cck [`\j\ <l]^XY\ efZ_ Y\jj\i* B\eXl n`\ Y\`
[\i mfccjkve[`^\e Gfklj_Xckle^ d{jj\e Ffg]( CXcj le[ R`iY\cjvlc\ \`e\ ^\iX[\( m\ié
k`bXc\G`e`\Y`c[\e*
.43

m\iXejZ_Xlc`Z_k( [\i i\Z_k\ Al~ Xl] [\d c`eb\e( [\i c`eb\ Al~ Xl] [\d
i\Z_k\e JY\ijZ_\eb\c* ?`\j\ CXckle^ [`\ek Xcj jfc`[\ Bile[cX^\ ]{i
cve^\i\j N`kq\e* N`\ bXee ]{i Fe`\ le[ M{Zb\e ql\ijk j\_i jZ_d\iq_X]k
j\`e( XY\i XlZ_ [`\j\i NZ_d\iq bXee Xcj <ei\`q qld uY\e [`\e\e*
@j ^`Yk efZ_ Xe[\i\ Fzig\i_Xckle^\e6 [\i _XcY\ Gfklj d`k [\d c`eb\e
Al~ Xl] [\d i\Z_k\e JY\ijZ_\eb\c7 [\i aXgXe`jZ_\ Nk`c d`k [\e CXb)
b\e lek\i [\d B\jv~ le[ \`e\d F`jj\e [Xqn`jZ_\e $j\`qX%( m\iXeé
jZ_Xlc`Z_k `e A`^li .* HXe [Xi] XlZ_ Xl] \`e\d Nkl_c j`kq\e( n\ee
dXe \`e F`jj\e jf lek\i [Xj B\jv~ c\^k( [X~ Fzig\i le[ =\`e\ \`e\e
R`eb\c mfe le^\]v_i 51 | Y`c[\e* ?`\j\i R`eb\c `jk qli B\iX[\jk\ccle^
[\iR`iY\cjvlc\efkn\e[`^*
?\i uY\e[\ j`\_k( ld e`Z_k XY^\c\ebk ql n\i[\e( Xl] \`e\ c\\i\ RXe[*
N\`e\ <l^\e j`e[ ]Xjk ^\jZ_cfjj\e* @i \ekjgXeek j\`e\ Hljb\ce( [fZ_
dl~ j\`e\ R`iY\cjvlc\ [`\ ^Xeq\ U\`k ^\jki\Zbk Yc\`Y\e* @i `jk Xe^\é
n`\j\e( `e jZ_n\`^\e[\i R{i[\ CXckle^ ql Y\nX_i\e le[ Y\n\é
^le^jcfj n`\ \`e A\cj ql m\i_Xii\e* I`\ [Xi] \i j`Z_ Xd J_i biXkq\e
f[\i [`\ IXj\ glkq\e* ÑQfccbfdd\e\j NZ_n\`^\e Y`j `e [`\ k`\]jk\e
O`\]\e [\j =\nl~kj\`ej kiv^k qli NZ_X]]le^ fgk`dXc\i QfiY\[`e^leé
^\e [X]{i Y\`( [X~ dXe `ej Dee\ijk\ [\j B\`jk\j ql jZ_Xl\e le[ [`\
nX_i\ IXkli [\j ?Xj\`ej ql \ek[\Zb\e m\idX^É $FXgc\Xl( -523( N* 5%*
R\ee [\i <jg`iXek qld \ijk\edXc `d qXq\e j`kqk( bXee `_d j\`e B\`jk
n`\ \`e Xl]^\i{_ik\i O{dg\c ki{Y\e RXjj\ij Qfibfdd\e* =\n\é
^le^jcfj\j N`kq\e dXZ_k \j a\[fZ_ dz^c`Z_( [X~ j`Z_ Xcc\ <YcX^\ile^
le[ =\]c\Zble^ Xl] [\d Bile[ XYj\kq\e bXee( jf [X~ \i j`Z_ jZ_c`\~é
c`Z_ [liZ_ j\`e\ PeY\n\^c`Z_b\`k( Ml_\ le[ Ffeq\ekiXk`fe jfe[\ié
YXi^\i\`e`^k]{_ck*
Rv_i\e[ [\j qXq\e jfcc [\i Nkl[\ek Xl] <en\`jle^ [\j ifj_` Y\`d
@`e) le[ <ljXkd\e Y`j q\_e qv_c\e le[ [Xee d`k \`ej n`\[\i Y\^`eé
e\e* ?Xj <kd\e bXee jf ql \`e\d C`c]jd`kk\c Xl] [\d R\^\ qli
Ng`i`klXc`kvk n\i[\e* J[\i [\i NZ_{c\i bXee j`Z_ \e[cfj [`\ `_d ql^\é
k\`ck\ bfXe)AiX^\ jk\cc\e* ?Xj bfXe `jk \`e Flejk^i`]]( [\i Y\` Xcc\e
U\e)N\bk\e `e B\YiXlZ_ `jk* @j _Xe[\ck j`Z_ [XY\` ld [\d Q\ijkXe[
j`eecfj mfibfdd\e[\ AiX^\e n`\ q*=* ÑRXj `jk HP;É f[\i ÑR`\
bc`e^k [Xj FcXkjZ_\e d`k \`e\i CXe[;É ?\i Un\Zb [\j bfXe `jk( [\e
[`jblij`m\e Q\ijkXe[ jf ql ]iljki`\i\e( [X~ \i j\`e\ C\iijZ_X]k {Y\i
[`\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`k Xl] ^`Yk le[ [\d ãRX_i\e N\cYjkä f[\i [\d k`\]\i\e
PeY\nl~k\e \icXlYk( j`Z_ ]i\` ql Y\kvk`^\e* De Xcc\e U\e)N\bk\e ^\é
YiXlZ_k [`\ <l]j`Z_kjg\ijfe \`e\e bpfjXbl( \`e\e _zcq\ie\e NkfZb(
d`k [\d j`\ [\d N`kq\e[\e `e Y\jk`ddk\e U\`kXYjkve[\e Xl] [`\
.44

NZ_lck\i jZ_cv^k* ?X[liZ_ jfcc\e [`\ <blglebkli)G`e`\e Xe^\i\^k
n\i[\e( [`\ [`\ gjpZ_`jZ_\ @e\i^`\ qli _XiX( [\i M\^`fe [`i\bk lek\i
[\d IXY\c( n\`k\ic\`k\e* Rv_i\e[ [\i =\jZ_v]k`^le^ d`k j\`e\d bfXe
bfeq\eki`\ik j`Z_ [\i U\e)<e_ve^\i Xl] [`\ _XiX* ?`\ _XiX n`i[ Xcj
Ll\cc\ [\i gjpZ_`jZ_\e G\Y\ej\e\i^`\ Xe^\j\_\e le[ jk\_k f]]\eYXi
`e=\q`\_le^qldNfcXigc\olj*
B\nz_ec`Z_ [Xl\ie [`\ N`kqle^jile[\e a\n\`cj /1 H`elk\e( [Xee cvlé
k\k [`\ <l]j`Z_kjg\ijfe d`k \`e\i BcfZb\( ]{i ]{e] H`elk\e n`i[ qXq\e
`e =\n\^le^ ) b`e_`e ) giXbk`q`\ik* <cc\ ^\_\e cXe^jXd `d Bvej\é
dXijZ_ ld [Xj q\e[f _\ild le[ bfeq\eki`\i\e j`Z_ n\`k\i Xl] `_i
bfXef[\iXl]Xe[\i\uYle^\e*
<d @e[\ \`e\j cXe^\e j\jj_`e ]{_c\e j`Z_ [`\ H`k^c`\[\i ^\nz_ec`Z_
jf ^c{Zbc`Z_( [X~ j`\ cXZ_\e le[ n\`e\e( j`Z_ ldXid\e le[ b{jj\e*
N`\ j`e[ bzig\ic`Z_ d{[\( [\j_XcY \dg]`\_ck [\i ifj_` ]{i \`e gXXi OX^\
Ml_\( XY\i qli ^c\`Z_\e U\`k j`e[ j`\ mfcc mfe afi`b` ) [\i [peXd`jZ_\e
FiX]k( [`\ Xlj [\i Ffeq\ekiXk`fe ]c`\~k( n\ee [\i B\`jk ^\jXdd\ck
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ql `dd\i k`\]\i^\_\e[\e @ic\lZ_kle^j\i]X_ile^\e bfdd\e( `e [\é
e\e [\i [`jblij`m\ Q\ijkXe[ qli Ml_\ bfddk le[ [\i =l[[_X)B\`jk
[\j H\ejZ_\e le[ j\`e d`kc\`[mfcc\j C\iq \in\Zbk n`i[* Un\Zb [\j
@in\Zb\ej `jk \j( [`\ O{i qli NZ_XkqbXdd\i [\i Ol^\e[\e ) H`k^\é
]{_c( G`\Y\( [\i RlejZ_ ql [`\e\e( N\cYjkcfj`^b\`k( `ee\i\ B\n`~_\`k
le[ jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\ FiX]k )( [`\ Xcc\e H\ejZ_\e Xe^\Yfi\e j`e[( ql z]]é
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G\lk\ \ijkXlec`Z_ jZ_zg]\i`jZ_* N`\ dXc\e( df[\cc`\i\e( jZ_i\`Y\e(
jZ_e`kq\e( bfdgfe`\i\e le[ [`Z_k\e( bfZ_\e le[ ev_\e( gcXe\e le[
fi^Xe`j`\i\e A\`\ie( k{eZ_\e( c\^\e \c\bki`jZ_\ G\`kle^\e le[ ^\Y\e
\`e\CXljq\`kle^_\iXlj([\eãU\e)=f^\eä*
GXe^\ mfi [\i @ic\lZ_kle^ m\ive[\ik qXq\e Xccdv_c`Z_ [\e =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkXe[ [\i <jg`iXek\e( nXj [Xee Y\` `_e\e qld RXe[\c mfe
>_XiXbk\i( Q\i_Xck\e le[ R\ikjpjk\d ]{_ik* UXq\e dXZ_k j`\ n\e`^\i
\^f`jk`jZ_( ^if~q{^`^\i le[ j\cYjkcfj\i* N`\ k\`c\e Rf_ele^\e( <lkfj(
B\c[( KifYc\d\ le[ XiY\`k\e d`k\`eXe[\i* <cj `Z_ eXZ_ MfZ_\jk\i
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.53

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.54

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[`\j\ Nkl]\ ]\jk^\c\^k _Xk( b\_ik [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ n`\[\i Xlj [\i Q\ié
j\eble^qli{Zb*
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XVO\O)Nkl]\ \ii\`Z_k( [liZ_cvl]k \i eXZ_\`eXe[\i Xcc\ [Xilek\ic`\^\eé
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[\e le[ \c`d`e`\ik [\i\e Ffdgfe\ek\e* IXZ_ \`e`^\i uYle^ ^\c`e^k
[Xj ?liZ_cXl]\e [\i XVO\O)Nkl]\e ]Xjk `d Il( [X [\i B\`jk Y\` j\`e\d
R\^ [liZ_ [`\ \`eq\ce\e Nkl]\e Xl] a\[\i eli \`e`^\ =\nl~kj\`ejdfé
d\ek\ cXe^ m\in\`ck* De [\d HX~( n`\ [`\ d\ekXc\e AXbkfi\e \c`d`é
e`\ikn\i[\e(`ek\ej`m`\ikj`Z_[`\Ffeq\ekiXk`fe*

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j\`e\i mfcc\ek]Xck\k\e @`ej`ee`^b\`k le[ B\cXjj\e_\`k m\in\`ck [\i
B\`jk ele `e \`e\i Ng_vi\( `e [\i Xcc\ RX_ie\_dle^\e mfe Afid le[
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/,5

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nv_i\e[ [Xj fYa\bkcfj\ le\e[c`Z_\ =\nl~kj\`e Yc\`Yk* ?Xj `jk [Xj
>_XiXbk\i`jk`bld [\i j\Z_jk\e Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O' R\ee [\i H\[`k`\é
i\e[\ [`\ j\Z_jk\ XVO\O)Nkl]\ d\`jk\ik( \ii\`Z_k \i [`\ j`\Y\ek\( `e[\d
\i ql\ijk `e [`\ j\Z_jk\ \`eki`kk le[ [Xee [`\ I`Z_k\o`jk\eq [\j le\e[é
c`Z_\e =\nl~kj\`ej qld B\^\ejkXe[ j\`e\i Ffek\dgcXk`fe dXZ_k*
?`\ j`\Y\ek\ Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O `jk Xcjf Q\ij\eble^ `e [`\ I`Z_k)?`e^é
c`Z_b\`k( [`\ G\\i\* ?Xj _\`~k B\^\ejkXe[ [\j =\nl~kj\`ej `jk [`\
I`Z_k)@o`jk\eq a\^c`Z_\e JYa\bk\j* CXk [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ [`\j\ Nkl]\
[\i XVO\O ^\d\`jk\ik le[ Yc`Zbk \i [Xee Xl] j`\ qli{Zb( jf \ijZ_\`ek
`_d a\^c`Z_\ RX_ie\_dle^ Xcj \`e C`e[\ie`j( [X f_e\ j`\ \`e _z_\i\i
UljkXe[dz^c`Z_`jk*
NfcZ_\idX~\e dfk`m`\ik( bXee [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ [`\ XZ_k\ Nkl]\ [\i
XVO\O \ii\`Z_\e( `e[\d \i ql\ijk `e [`\ j`\Y\ek\ \`eki`kk le[ [Xee j\`e\
<l]d\ibjXdb\`k mfe [\i RX_ie\_dle^ [\i G\\i\ _`en\^ Xl] [\e
<jg\bk [\i k`\]\e Ml_\ i`Z_k\k* ?`\ QfiY\[`e^le^( [X~ j`Z_ b\`e\
Ngli \`e\j RlejZ_\j eXZ_ [`\j\i Ml_\ f[\i [XeXZ_( [`\ I`Z_k)?`e^)
c`Z_b\`k e`Z_k d\_i nX_iqle\_d\e( i\^\e [Xi]( c\^k `_d vl~\ijk\
=\_lkjXdb\`k[\jQfi^\_\ejeX_\*
R\e[\k \i j`Z_ [\i k`\]\e Ml_\ ql( \ii\`Z_k \i [\e lckiXjlYk`c\e
UljkXe[( `e [\d eli efZ_ Ngli\e d\ekXc\i Afid\e mfi_Xe[\e j`e[*
C`\i ^`Yk \j b\`e\ ^\nz_ec`Z_\ RX_ie\_dle^ d\_i( `ejf]\ie Xcjf
ÑI`Z_k)RX_ie\_dle^É* ?`\j\ XZ_k\ Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O n`i[ Xcj [`\
Ng_vi\ [\i ÑR\[\i)RX_ie\_dle^)efZ_)I`Z_knX_ie\_dle^É Y\é
q\`Z_e\k* <cc\e =\nl~kj\`ej]Xbkfi\e `jk _`\i [\ij\cY\ BiX[ Xe NlYk`)
c`kvk [\j N\`ej qlqljgi\Z_\e* @j \o`jk`\i\e b\`e\ `d \`^\ekc`Z_\e N`ee
d\ekXc\e Uljkve[\ d\_i( eli efZ_ M\jk\ `e Afid \`e\j UljkXe[j(
[\i ql^c\`Z_ Iv_\ le[ <Yn\j\e_\`k `jk* ?Xj Q`jl[[_`dX^^X jX^k {Y\i
[`\ d\ekXc\e Uljkve[\ `e [\i XZ_k\e Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O2 ÑN`\( [`\ e`Z_k
nXi\e( n\i[\e7 bXld ^\nfi[\e( m\ijZ_n`e[\e j`\ n`\[\i*É GXdX
Bfm`e[X $-525% Y\jZ_i\`Yk [`\j\e UljkXe[ Xcj [`\ vl~\ijk\ Bi\eq\ [\i
RX_ie\_dle^* Nf n`\ [\d B\`jk ^\_k \j XlZ_ [\d Fzig\i6 ?\i
Nkf]]n\Z_j\c m\icvl]k `e [\e ]fid\ecfj\e XVO\O)Uljkve[\e `dd\i
cXe^jXd\i( Y`j qli XZ_k\e Nkl]\( Xl] [\i FXj_pXgj ?\]`e`k`fe [\i
bf^e`k`m\e Kifq\jj\ $-510% XlZ_ ]{i [`\ g_pj`fcf^`jZ_\e ^`ck6 @j
_Xe[\ck j`Z_ ld \`e\e jf {Y\iXlj jlYk`c\e UljkXe[( [X~ dXe e`Z_k
\ekjZ_\`[\ebXee(fY\j`_e^`Ykf[\ie`Z_k^`Yk*
?`\ `e [\i XVO\O j`Z_ dXe`]\jk`\i\e[\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ \ekjgi\é
/-,

Z_\e [\d( nXj `d Npjk\d [\j Q`jl[[_`dX^^X [Xj ÑM\`Z_ =iX_dXjÉ(
[`\ Ñ@Y\e\e [\i @ic\lZ_kle^É le[ ÑNkl]\e i\`e\e Q\in\`c\ejÉ _\`~k*
Nf n`\ [`\ XVO\O)Uljkve[\ [\i M\cXk`m`kvk mfe N`ee\jnX_ie\_dle^(
?\eb\e( U\`k le[ MXld \ek_fY\e( n`\ j`\ mfe N\c`^b\`k le[+f[\i
B\cXjj\e_\`k \i]{cck le[ HXe`]\jkXk`fe\e [\j le\e[c`Z_\e =\nl~ké
j\`ej j`e[ le[ jf ]fik( jf n\i[\e [`\j\ Xe[\i\e N\`ej\Y\e\e Xcj eli
`e [\e ?`d\ej`fe\e [\i XVO\O \o`jk`\i\e[ Xe^\j\_\e* @`e R\j\e bXee
\ekjgi\Z_\e[ [\d FXidX j\`e\i ]i{_\i\e G\Y\e( mfi Xcc\d XY\i \eké
jgi\Z_\e[ [\d BiX[( Y`j ql n\cZ_\d \j `e \`e\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\e
DebXieXk`fe [`\ Nkl]\e [\i XVO\O ^\d\`jk\ik _Xk( `e `i^\e[\`e\ [`\j\i
Nkl]\e _`e\`e^\Yfi\e n\i[\e1* Nf n`i[ qld =\`jg`\c( n\i [`\ qn\`é
k\ Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O \ii\`Z_k le[ Y`j ql _zZ_jk\i Qfcc\e[le^ giXbk`q`\ik
_Xk( `d M\`Z_ [\i ÑjkiX_c\e[\e =iX_dXjÉ( [\i\e Fzig\i G`Z_ké
jkiX_c\en`\=c`kq\Xljj\e[\e(n`\[\i^\Yfi\en\i[\e*

NlgiXefidXc\Fiv]k\
?\i <YjZ_e`kk {Y\i [`\ jlgiXefidXc\e Fiv]k\ `jk mfd n\jkc`Z_\e
NkXe[glebk Xlj [\i Xe]\Z_kYXijk\ O\`c [\j Q`jl[[_`dX^^X( [\ee \i
Y\_Xe[\ck K_vefd\e\ Xcj M\Xc`kvk\e( [`\ efZ_ a\ej\`kj [\i vl~\ijk\e
Bi\eq\e c`\^\e( [`\ mfe [\i df[\ie\e eXklin`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e Afié
jZ_le^ \ii\`Z_k nli[\e* ?Xj Q`jl[[_`dX^^X qv_ck ql [`\j\e jlgiXé
efidXc\e Av_`^b\`k\e6 B\[Xeb\ec\j\e( C\ccj\_\e( HXk\i`Xc`jXk`fe
mfe B\^\ejkve[\e( {Y\i ^if~\ @ek]\iele^\e _`en\^ j\_\e le[ _zé
i\e( Xl] [\d RXjj\i ^\_\e( [liZ_ [`\ Gl]k ]c`\^\e ljn* RXj efZ_
`ek\i\jjXek\i `jk6 ?Xj Q`jl[[_`dX^^X Y\jZ_i\`Yk `e Xcc\e @`eq\c_\`k\e(
n`\ [`\j\ ÑFlejkjk{Zb\É Xlj^\]{_ik n\i[\e( nv_i\e[ [`\ n\jkc`Z_\
R`jj\ejZ_X]k j`Z_ qli U\`k efZ_ e`Z_k \`edXc d`k [\d B\[Xeb\e m\ié
jz_e\e bXee( [X~ j`\ {Y\i_Xlgk dz^c`Z_ j`e[2* ?fZ_ n\i[\e j`\ mfe
Xcc\e H\[`kXk`fejjZ_lc\e Xcj =\^c\`k\ijZ_\`ele^\e _z_\i\i =\nl~ké
j\`ejqljkve[\ Xe\ibXeek( le[ j\` \j XlZ_ eli( ld j`Z_ ^\^\e H`~é
YiXlZ_ [`\j\i Fiv]k\ XYqlj`Z_\ie* ?Xj Q`jl[[_`dX^^X j`\_k j`\ Xcj
@i^\Ye`j [\i Ffeq\ekiXk`fe Xe( XY\i XlZ_ Xcj C`e[\ie`j ]{i [`\ k`\]jk\
@`ej`Z_k le[ j\kqk( lek\i C`en\`j [XiXl]( [X~ j`\ eli jZ_n\i ql \i_Xcé
k\e le[ j\_i c\`Z_k ql q\ijkzi\e j`e[( jki\e^\ =\[`e^le^\e ]\jk( lek\i
[\e\e jlgiXefidXc\ Fiv]k\ Xe^\nXe[k n\i[\e [{i]\e* D_i\ <en\eé
[le^ \i]fi[\ik \`e CzZ_jkdX~ Xe B\`jk\jY\_\iijZ_le^* HXe dl~ qlé
/--

\ijk m`\iq\_e m\ijZ_`\[\e\ H\k_f[\e [\i Ffekifcc\ {Y\i [\e B\`jk
Y\_\iijZ_\e( le[ dXe dl~ Xcc\ XZ_k Nkl]\e [\i XVO\O% a\[\jdXc mfe
\`e\i [\i XZ_k YOaW\Oa Xlj^\_\e[( [liZ_cXl]\e _XY\e( nfY\` XlZ_ efZ_
a\[\ qn\`k\ YOaW\O le[ a\[\ qn\`k\ XVO\O&Nkl]\ ql {Y\ijgi`e^\e `jk
) [*_*( [`\ \ijk\ Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O dl~ {Y\i [`\ @i[&YOaW\O% [`\ [i`kk\
Nkl]\ RS` XVO\O {Y\i [`\ A\l\i)YOaW\O \ii\`Z_k n\i[\e ljn* ) le[ [Xj
Xcc\j XlZ_ `e ld^\b\_ik\i M\`_\e]fc^\* ?Xj Q`jl[[_`dX^^X jZ_vkqk(
[X~ mfe -,,,,, f[\i \`e\i H`cc`fe H\ejZ_\e( [`\ [Xj m\ijlZ_\e( eli
\`e\i [\e \i]fi[\ic`Z_\e BiX[ [\i H\`jk\ijZ_X]k \ii\`Z_k* ?Xj =\[{i]é
e`j( Xl] [`\j\ j\`e\ \`^\e\e Av_`^b\`k\e Xl]d\ibjXd ql dXZ_\e( n`i[
Xcj ÑHXb\cÉ Y\q\`Z_e\k7 nXj Rle[\i( [X~ [`\ n\jkc`Z_\e KXiXgjpZ_fé
cf^\e efZ_ Xl] [\i NlZ_\ eXZ_ \`e\d H\ejZ_\e j`e[( [\i [`\ ^\eXeeé
k\e jlgiXefidXc\e Fiv]k\ ) n`\ qld =\`jg`\c O\c\b`e\j\ le[ jlgiXé
efidXc\jAcfi\e)Y\j`kqk*
Qfd Yl[[_`jk`jZ_\e NkXe[glebk Xlj `jk [\i @in\iY jlgiXefidXc\i
Fiv]k\ mfe ^\i`e^\d Ilkq\e le[ ]{i [\e R\^ qli =\]i\`le^ mfe b\`é
e\ic\` R\ik* NfcZ_\ Fiv]k\ n`ib\e Xcj C`e[\ie`jj\ Y\` H\ejZ_\e( [`\
[\e UljkXe[ [\j \W`dO\O efZ_ e`Z_k \ii\`Z_k _XY\e( [\ee j`\ bzee\e
`_i AfikjZ_i\`k\e ^\]v_i[\e( `e[\d j`\ [Xj N\cYjkn\ik^\]{_c jk\`^\ie
le[ jf [`\ =`e[le^ Xe [Xj DZ_ m\ijkvib\e* De [\i Yl[[_`jk`jZ_\e OiXé
[`k`fe [{i]\e [`\j\ Fiv]k\ eli qld Rf_c\ Xe[\i\i Xe^\n\e[\k n\ié
[\e* @j ^`ck Y\` dzeZ_`jZ_\e B\d\`ejZ_X]k\e Xcj si^\ie`j( n\ee
\`e Yl[[_`jk`jZ_\i HzeZ_ gjpZ_`jZ_\ Fiv]k\( {Y\i [`\ ^\nz_ec`Z_\
H\ejZ_\e e`Z_k m\i]{^\e( mfi GX`\e gif[lq`\ik7 [`\ lenX_i\ =\é
_Xlgkle^ XY\i( j`\ ql Y\j`kq\e( n{i[\ <ljjZ_cl~ Xlj [\d Ji[\e
Y\[\lk\e*

KiXaeX6[\iK]X[[\i@`ej`Z_k
Qfd NkXe[glebk [\j Q`jl[[_`dX^^X Xlj j`e[ [Xj H\`jk\ie [\i XVO\O
jfn`\ [`\ _zZ_jk\ N\c`^b\`k le[ [`\ jlgiXefidXc\e Fiv]k\( [`\ [XiXlj
\inXZ_j\e bzee\e( mfe lek\i^\fi[e\k\i =\[\lkle^ ^\^\e{Y\i [\i
@ek]Xckle^ [\i ^`OX\O% [\i \ib\ee\e[\e R\`j_\`k* ?Xj H\`jk\ie [\i
XVO\O `jk qnXi O\`c \`e\j XY^\jZ_cfjj\e\e uYle^jgif^iXddj( [fZ_
[XY\` ^\_k \j mfi Xcc\d [Xild( [\e B\`jk ^\nXe[k le[ Y`\^jXd ql
dXZ_\e( [Xd`k \i ]{i [Xj @`e{Y\e [\i ^`OX\O ^\\`^e\k `jk* OXkjvZ_c`Z_
n\i[\e[`\lek\i\eNkl]\e[\iaO[ORVW`dKXc`([\iNgiXZ_\[\j
/-.

Q`jl[[_`dX^^X( dXeZ_dXc Xcj Ffeq\ekiXk`fejjg`\c\ Y\q\`Z_e\k( [Xj
ÑNg`\cÉ [\i\i( [`\ `e [\e uYle^\e jZ_fe n\`k ]fik^\jZ_i`kk\e j`e[*
?fZ_ [\i n\j\ekc`Z_\ O\`c [`\j\i NZ_lcle^ `jk [\i K]X[( [\i d`k [\i
^\`jk`^\e RXZ__\`k "aObW^ObbVO\O# Y\^`eek le[ {Y\i [`\ @`ej`Z_k "dW&
^OaaO\O#qld\W`dO\O]{_ik*
?`\ \ijk\ K_Xj\ Y\jk\_k [Xi`e( [`\ B\nf_e_\`k jk\i\fkpg\e RX_ie\_é
d\ej ql [liZ_Yi\Z_\e* ?\i H\ejZ_ _Xk mfe IXkli Xlj [`\ O\e[\eq(
j`Z_ Xe [`\ `_e ld^\Y\e[\ R\ck ql Ñ^\nz_e\eÉ( [`\ led`kk\cYXi\
j`eec`Z_\ @i]X_ile^ [liZ_ XYjkiXbk\ ?\eb) f[\i mfi^\giv^k\ RX_ié
e\_dle^jdljk\i ql \ij\kq\e* RXZ__\`k n`i[ ^\{Yk( `e[\d dXe j`Z_
Y\nl~k j\`e\ Y`j_\i`^\ N`Z_kn\`j\ XY^\nz_ek( [* _* @i]X_ile^jkXkjXé
Z_\e lemfi\`e^\efdd\e `ej <l^\ ]X~k le[ a\[\j @i\`^e`j jf j`\_k(
Xcj ^\jZ_\_\ \j qld \ijk\edXc* ?`\ @eknz_ele^jd\k_f[\ Y\jk\_k
[Xi`e( [X~ dXe [`\ \ijk\ RX_ie\_dle^jg_Xj\( `e [\i [\i B\`jk j`Z_
\_\i `ShS^bWd Xcj i\Xbk`m m\i_vck( jkve[`^ {Y\inXZ_k* ?`\ <l]d\ibé
jXdb\`k Y\jZ_ivebk j`Z_ [XY\` Xl] [Xj Ycf~\ <l]e\_d\e [\i =\kiXZ_é
kle^j^\^\ejkve[\* ?`\ RX_ie\_dle^\e n\i[\e `e [\ij\cY\e M\`é
_\e]fc^\ Xl] ^\efdd\e( `e [\i j`\ Xe \`e\d [\i ]{e] N`ee\j)Ofi\ f[\i
`d B\`jk( [\i [\d Q`jl[[_`dX^^X ql]fc^\ \`e\e j\Z_jk\e N`ee [Xié
jk\cck( Xl]kXlZ_\e* Rv_i\e[ [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ j\`e\ <l]d\ibjXdb\`k
Xl] [`\ j`eec`Z_\e @`e[i{Zb\ i`Z_k\k( Y\jZ_iveb\e j`Z_ j\`e\ M\Xbk`fé
e\e Xl] \`e Ycf~\j M\^`jki`\i\e [\i Y\fYXZ_k\k\e AXbk\e* AXccj `_d
[Xi{Y\i _`eXlj Ffdd\ekXi\( Pik\`c\ f[\i uY\ic\^le^\e [liZ_ [\e
Ffg] ^\_\e jfcck\e( n\i[\e j`\ `_i\ij\`kj qld B\^\ejkXe[ i\`e\i <l]é
d\ibjXdb\`k ^\dXZ_k7 j`\ n\i[\e n\[\i XY^\n`\j\e efZ_ ]fik^\jgfeé
e\e( jfe[\ie( eXZ_[\d j`\ i\^`jki`\ik nli[\e( \`e]XZ_ ]Xcc\e^\cXjj\e*
?Xj R\j\e [\i ^\`jk`^\e RXZ__\`k `jk eXZ_ [\e Rfik\e IpXeXgfe`bX
O_\iXj $-52.% i\`e\j( lem\ijk\cck\j =\nl~kj\`e [\jj\e( nXj `e [\e \`eé
q\ce\e <l^\eYc`Zb\e [\i RX_ie\_dle^ [Wb lej le[ W\ lej n`ibc`Z_
^\jZ_`\_k*
=\` [\e `ek\ej`m\e =\d{_le^\e ld RXZ__\`k ]`e[\k [`\ mfi_\i \eké
n`Zb\ck\ Ffeq\ekiXk`fe `_i\ giXbk`jZ_\ <en\e[le^* A{i [Xj @ic\ie\e
le[ KiXbk`q`\i\e [\i e\l\e B\nf_e_\`k [\j i\`e\e RX_ie\_d\ej
j`e[ [`\ @`ej`ee`^b\`k le[ [`\ j`\ Y\^c\`k\e[\ Ffeq\ekiXk`fe n\j\eké
c`Z_* ?`\ fgk`dXc\ Ffeq\ekiXk`fejjkl]\ ]{i [Xj @`e{Y\e ^\`jk`^\i
RXZ__\`k `jk Xcc\i[`e^j [`\ lek\ijk\6 [`\ @`e^Xe^jjkl]\* B\`jk`^\
RXZ__\`k dl~ [\e RX_ie\_dle^jmfi^Xe^ [\j efidXc\e =\nl~ké
j\`ej Y\^c\`k\e7 mfe [\i \ijk\e Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O Xe bfdd\e [`\j\
Kifq\jj\ a\[fZ_ qld Nk`ccjkXe[* <e[\i\ij\`kj n{i[\e Xl] \`e\i
/-/

Ffeq\ekiXk`fejjkl]\ lek\i_XcY [\i @`e^Xe^jjkl]\ [`\ RXZ__\`kj)
uYle^\e [liZ_ jkzi\e[\ B\[Xeb\e le[ <YjZ_n\`]\e [\j B\`jk\j Y\é
\`ekivZ_k`^k* Ili Xl] [\i @`e^Xe^jjkl]\ Y\jk\_k \`e mfccbfdd\e\j
Bc\`Z_^\n`Z_k6 ?\eb) le[ RX_ie\_dle^jm\idz^\e Yc\`Y\e mfcc
]lebk`fej]v_`^( [fZ_ [`\ Ffeq\ekiXk`fe `jk jkXib ^\el^( a\[\ <Yc\eé
ble^ [\j B\`jk\j mfe [\i jk\k\e =\fYXZ_kle^ [\i RX_ie\_dle^jé
le[?\ebmfi^ve^\qlm\i_`e[\ie*
?`\ ^\YivlZ_c`Z_jk\ H\k_f[\ qli @ekn`Zbcle^ ^\`jk`^\i RXZ__\`k Y\é
jk\_k [Xi`e( j`Z_ mfi_\i `e [\i XVO\O ql {Y\e* IXZ_[\d [\i H\[`k`\é
i\e[\ `e [\i aO[ORVW \`e\e ^\n`jj\e BiX[ [\i H\`jk\ijZ_X]k \icXe^k
_Xk( n\e[\k \i j\`e\ Ffeq\ekiXk`fej]v_`^b\`k `e [\i NZ_lcle^ [\i
^\`jk`^\e RXZ__\`k Xe* @j ^`Yk Xcc\i[`e^j \`e\ H\k_f[\ [\i Ñi\`e\e
@`ej`Z_kÉ( Y\` [\i [`\j\ uYle^\e f_e\ mfi_\i`^\j @ii\`Z_\e [\i Q\ié
j\eble^ [liZ_^\]{_ik n\i[\e* C`\i n`i[ [`\ \i]fi[\ic`Z_\ Nkl]\ [\i
Q\ij\eble^ Y\` [\i ?liZ_]{_ile^ [\i RXZ__\`kj)uYle^\e j\cYjk
\icXe^k* <l] [\e \ijk\e Nkl]\e [\i i\`e\e @`ej`Z_k cv~k [\i B\`jk [\j
H\[`k`\i\e[\e j`Z_ `dd\i n`\[\i [liZ_ jZ_n\`]\e[\( jkzi\e[\
B\[Xeb\e XYc\eb\e( [`\ qn`jZ_\e [\e <l^\eYc`Zb\e [\i =\fYXZ_é
kle^ Xl]kXlZ_\e* HXeZ_dXc n\i[\e [`\j\ B\[Xeb\e nX_i^\efdd\e(
dXeZ_dXc e`Z_k* IXZ_ le[ eXZ_ biv]k`^k j`Z_ [`\ Xe]Xe^j bliqq\`k`^\
Ffeq\ekiXk`fe [\j B\`jk\j Xl] [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^ [\i K_vefd\e\ jf
n\`k( [X~ jZ_c`\~c`Z_ giXbk`jZ_ Xcc\ jZ_n\`]\e[\e B\[Xeb\e i\^`jki`\ik
n\i[\e7 [`\j\ m\ijZ_n`e[\e [Xee( jfYXc[ j`\ i\^`jki`\ik nli[\e(
le[ [`\ uYle^ bXee jf^c\`Z_ n`\[\i ]fik^\j\kqk n\i[\e* NZ_c`\~c`Z_
`jk \`e Klebk \ii\`Z_k( Xe [\d j`Z_ [\i B\`jk e`Z_k d\_i XYc\eb\e cv~k*
?Xee n\i[\e [`\ RX_ie\_dle^j) le[ ?\ebmfi^ve^\ f_e\ Pek\ié
Yi\Z_le^ Y\fYXZ_k\k7 [`\j\i UljkXe[ _Xk [`\j\cY\ Alebk`fe n`\ [`\
Ffeq\ekiXk`feXl][\i@`e^Xe^jjkl]\*
De [\i KiXo`j ki\k\e m`\i <ik\e [\i ^\`jk`^\e RXZ__\`k Xl]( [`\ `[\eé
k`jZ_\ Alebk`fe _XY\e( j`Z_ XY\i [liZ_ [\e Klebk lek\ijZ_\`[\e( Xl]
[\e j`\ j`Z_ a\n\`cj i`Z_k\e* ?`\ Ffek\dgcXk`fe bXee j`Z_ Xl] [\e
Fzig\i i`Z_k\e( Xl] B\]{_c\( Xl] [\e B\`jk Xcj jfcZ_\e f[\i Xl]
JYa\bk\ [\j ?\eb\ej* N`\ Xcc\ bzee\e [\i i\`e\e <l]d\ibjXdb\`k
^\^\e{Y\i [\e @i]X_ile^jgifq\jj\e Xcj A`o`\ile^jglebk\ [`\e\e*
RXZ__\`k [\d Fzig\i ^\^\e{Y\i Y\[\lk\k( j`Z_ a\[\e Hfd\ek\j bzié
g\ic`Z_\i <bk`m`kvk( qld =\`jg`\c [\i Nk\ccle^ le[ =\n\^le^ [\i
Bc`\[\i( leXY_ve^`^ mfe [\i <ik [\i Xlj^\{Yk\e Ovk`^b\`k( Y\nl~k
ql j\`e* <cc\ Fzig\i]lebk`fe\e [\j kv^c`Z_\e G\Y\ej d{jj\e [liZ_
\`e]XZ_\j M\^`jki`\i\e `_i\j <YcXl]j ^\eXl \i]X~k n\i[\e7 [Xj CXe[é
/-0

cle^jq`\c `jk len`Z_k`^ ) \ekjZ_\`[\e[ `jk [`\ bzig\ic`Z_\ Q\ii`Z_kle^
j\cYjk* RXZ__\`k ^\^\e{Y\i [\e B\]{_c\e Y\[\lk\k( j`Z_ Xl] Xcc\ `ee\é
i\e @dg]`e[le^\e ql bfeq\eki`\i\e( fY j`\ Xe^\e\_d j`e[ f[\i
e`Z_k* <cc\ gifgi`fq\gk`m\e Nk`dlc` n\i[\e \`e]XZ_ i\^`jki`\ik( jfYXc[
j`\ Y\d\ibk n\i[\e* HXeZ_\ \ekjk\_\e Xcj [`i\bk\ M\Xbk`fe\e Xl] N`eé
e\ji\`q\( dXeZ_\ Xcj g_pj`fcf^`jZ_\ =\^c\`k\ijZ_\`ele^\e gjpZ_fcfé
^`jZ_\i Uljkve[\( dXeZ_\ Xcj I\Y\egif[lbk\ g_pj`fcf^`jZ_\i
G\Y\ejgifq\jj\7 n\cZ_\i C\ible]k XlZ_ `dd\i6 [`\ @dg]`e[le^ Xcj
jfcZ_\n`i[i\^`jki`\ik*
?`\ RXZ__\`k ^\^\e{Y\i [\d B\`jk _Xk [`\ d\ekXc\e Uljkve[\ qld
B\^\ejkXe[* R\cZ_\ Nk`ddle^( ?\ebn\`j\ f[\i j\\c`jZ_\ Q\i]Xjjle^
j`Z_ XlZ_ q\`^k ) j`\ dl~ \`e]XZ_ Xcj jfcZ_\ i\^`jki`\ik n\i[\e* =\`
si^\i {Y\i \`e jkzi\e[\j B\ivljZ_ qld =\`jg`\c jk\cck dXe `e [`\j\d
Hfd\ek eli ]\jk6 Ñsi^\iÉ* =\` [\i m`\ik\e <ik [\i RXZ__\`k( evdc`Z_
[\i ^\^\e{Y\i JYa\bk\e [\j ?\eb\ej( ^\_k dXe `d Bile[\ ^\eXljf
mfi n`\ \Y\e [Xi^\jk\cck( XY^\j\_\e mfe [\i @Y\e\( Xl] [\i [Xj Alebé
k`fe`\i\e [\j B\`jk\j Y\fYXZ_k\k n`i[* NkXkk [\i IXkli [\i Xl]ki\k\e)
[\e d\ekXc\e Uljkve[\ i\^`jki`\ik [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ [`\ `e `_e\e
\ijZ_\`e\e[\e ?\eb^\^\ejkve[\( qld =\`jg`\c Ñjkzi\e[\ B\ivljZ_\É*
R\ee \`e B\[Xeb\ Xl]kXlZ_k( jf n`i[ \i `e \`e FcXjj`]`bXk`fejjpjk\d
d\ekXc\i De_Xck\ \`e^\fi[e\k( [Xj Xcc\ <ik\e mfe B\[Xeb\e `e qn\`
FXk\^fi`\e \`ek\`ck6 `e jfcZ_\( [`\ [`\ @ic\lZ_kle^ Y\_`e[\ie( le[ `e
jfcZ_\([`\j`\]zi[\ie*

?`\Nkl]\e[\i@`ej`Z_k
R\ee [`\j\ m`\i O\Z_e`b\e ^\`jk`^\i RXZ__\`k bfej\hl\ek Xe^\n\eé
[\k n\i[\e( q\ijkzi\e j`\ [`\ {Yc`Z_\ Dcclj`fe( ?\eb) le[ RX_ie\_é
dle^jgifq\jj\ j\`\e mfe Ffek`el`kvk le[ Q\iele]k Y\jk`ddk* ?\i
B\`jk Y\^`eek [`\ ql]vcc`^\e( ]c{Z_k`^\e @`eq\c\c\d\ek\ ql lek\ijZ_\`é
[\e( Xlj [\e\e j`Z_ [`\ M\Xc`kvk jkve[`^ e\l Xl]YXlk* @i ^\cXe^k ql
\`e\i M\`_\ mfe @ib\eeke`jj\e {Y\i [`\ nX_i\ IXkli [`\j\i Kifq\jj\(
le[ [`\ RXZ__\`k i\`]k qli @`ej`Z_k _\iXe* ?`\ ]Xbk`jZ_\ =\kvk`^le^
[\i @`ej`Z_k j\kqk led`kk\cYXi `d <ejZ_cl~ Xe [`\ lelek\iYifZ_\e
Xl]i\Z_k\i_Xck\e\ Ffek\dgcXk`fe \`e7 [\i B\`jk `jk jf Xl] j\`e JYa\bk
]`o`\ik( [X~ bfek\dgcXk`m\i B\`jk le[ JYa\bk \`e\ lelek\iYifZ_\e\
@`e_\`kY`c[\e*?XjY\q\`Z_e\k[\e=\^`ee\`e\iF\kk\mfe@`ej`Z_k\e
/-1

K]X[[\i@`ej`Z_k
@iczjZ_\e

\W`]RV2
\W`dO\O2

mzcc`^\j@iczjZ_\e[\j=\nl~kj\`ej
mfccbfdd\e\j NZ_n`e[\eg_pj`bXc`jZ_\ile[
d\ekXc\iK_vefd\e\`jkJYa\bk[\j=\nl~kj\`ej7

H{_\cfj\
@`ej`Z_k

Ffek\dgcXk`fe jZ_e\cc( d{_\cfj( le\id{[c`Z_7 led`kk\cYXi\j
R`jj\e ld O\ObbO% O\WQQO le[ RcYYVO3 @iczjZ_\e [\i NZ_d\iqé
\dg]`e[le^\e7Xcc\j[liZ_[i`e^\e[\B\cXjj\e_\`k7

@ib\eeke`jj\(
[`\[\eRlejZ_
eXZ_AclZ_k
\iq\l^\e

@ib\ee\e [\j NZ_i\Zbc`Z_\e( PeY\]i`\[`^\e[\e le[ @id{[\eé
[\e g_pj`bXc`jZ_\i le[ d\ekXc\i K_vefd\e\7 bzig\ic`Z_\i
NZ_d\iq7 RlejZ_( [`\j\e K_vefd\e\eql \ek]c`\_\e7NZ_n`e[\e
[\i d\ekXc\e JYa\bk\7 jZ_e\cc\( ]\_c\icfj\ RX_ie\_dle^7
NZ_n`e[\emfeG`Z_k\ijZ_\`ele^\e(Q\iq{Zble^ljn*

Kj\l[fe`imXeX6
R`jj\eld
@ekjk\_\ele[
Q\i^\_\e

[\lkc`Z_\ RX_ie\_dle^ [\j @ekjk\_\ej le[ Q\i^\_\ej Xl]é
\`eXe[\i]fc^\e[\i =\nl~kj\`ejdfd\ek\( Y\^c\`k\k mfe6
jkiX_c\e[\dG`Z_k
`ek\ej`m\i ^\`jk`^\i RXZ__\`k(
Q\iq{Zble^
B\cXjj\e_\`k ^\^\e{Y\i [\e Ffek\dé
C`e^XY\
gcXk`fejfYa\bk\e(
@e\i^`\
Q\i_X]k\kj\`e d`k [`\j\e e\l \ekjkXeé
Bc{Zb
[\e\eUljkve[\e(
jZ_e\cc\ile[[\lkc`Z_\iRX_ie\_dle^

Nkl]\ [\i
M\]c\o`fe

?`\j\ Kifq\jj\ n\i[\e Xcj n\[\i Xe^\e\_d efZ_ m\icv~c`Z_
\dg]le[\e*@i]X_ile^[\jPeY\]i`\[`^\e[\e"RcYYVO#3
?`\j\ Kifq\jj\ n\i[\e Xcj `e a\[\d Ffek\dgcXk`fejdfd\ek
\ekjk\_\e[\le[m\i^\_\e[\\ibXeek*@i]X_ile^le[PeY\jkveé
[`^b\`k"O\WQQO#3
?`\j\ Kifq\jj\ n\i[\e Xcj åDZ_)cfjÜ \ibXeek* @i]X_ile^ [\j
åI`Z_k)DZ_Ü"O\ObbO#3
?Xj =\nl~kj\`e le[ j\`e JYa\bk n\i[\e `e a\[\d Hfd\ek Xcj
lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_\ le[ mfe\`eXe[\i ^\ki\eek XYcXl]\e[\ Kifq\jj\
\ibXeek*

B\`jk`^\
RXZ__\`k

^\`jk`^\ RXZ__\`k ^\^\e{Y\i Fzig\i]lebk`fe\e( bzig\ic`Z_\e
@dg]`e[le^\e(d\ekXc\eUljkve[\ef[\id\ekXc\eJYa\bk\e7

<en\e[le^ [\i
Ffeq\ekiXk`fe

@`e^Xe^jbfeq\ekiXk`fe6
mfi_\i`^\uYle^`e[\i
aO[ORVW

/-2

M\`e\@`ej`Z_k6
b\`e\mfi_\i^\_\e[\euYle^\e7
aO[ORVWn`i[[liZ_^\`jk`^\
RXZ__\`kqli@`e^Xe^jjkl]\
n\`k\i\ekn`Zb\ck

) [\i B\`jk \ib\eek j`Z_ j\cYjk [`\ jZ_c`\~c`Z_ `d UljkXe[ [\j \W`z
dO\O^`g]\ck*
?`\ \ijk\ bf^e`k`m\ @i]X_ile^ `jk( [X~ [`\ Y\kiXZ_k\k\e K_vefd\e\
mfe [\d j`\ Y\kiXZ_k\e[\e B\`jk m\ijZ_`\[\e j`e[* ?`\ Av_`^b\`k( [`\
[\e B\`jk qld U\l^\e j\`e\j \`^\e\e Alebk`fe`\i\ej dXZ_k( n`i[ Xcj
\knXj mfe [\d( nXj Y\fYXZ_k\k n`i[( Pek\ijZ_`\[\e\j \i]X_i\e* R`\
Xl] Xcc\e Nkl]\e [\i @`ej`Z_k \ekjk\_k [`\j\ @ib\eeke`j b\`e\jn\^j Xl]
[\i @Y\e\ [\i Q\iYXc`j`\ile^( Xl] [\i j`\ _`\i [Xi^\jk\cck n`i[( jfe[\ie
m`\cd\_i Xl] [\i @Y\e\ [\i i\`e\e @i]X_ile^* ?Xj Q\ijk\_\e jk\cck
j`Z_ \`e( XY\i e`Z_k efkn\e[`^\in\`j\ [`\ m\iYXc\ Afidlc`\ile^ [`\j\j
Q\ijk\_\ej*
R\ee \i [\e ?lXc`jdlj mfe B\`jk le[ JYa\bk \`edXc \ibXeek _Xk(
^\n`eek [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ \`e k`\]\j Q\ijkve[e`j [X]{i( [X~ `e [`\j\e
[lXc`jk`jZ_\e Kifq\jj\e b\`e DZ_ \ek_Xck\e `jk* @i j`\_k j`\ Xcj R`ible^
`_i\i a\n\`c`^\e PijXZ_\e( le[ e`Z_k Xcj [Xj @i^\Ye`j [\i <bk`m`kvk
\`e\j De[`m`[lldj* N`\ m\icXl]\e Xcc\ eXZ_ \`^\e\e `ee\i\e B\j\kq\e(
leXY_ve^`^ mfd d\ejZ_c`Z_\e R`cc\e* ?\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ ^\cXe^k ql
[\i B\n`~_\`k( [X~ j`Z_ e`i^\e[nf `e [\e d\ekXc\e Kifq\jj\e \`e\
`_e\e `ee\nf_e\e[\ R\j\e_\`k eXZ_n\`j\e cv~k* ?Xj `jk [`\ led`ké
k\cYXi\ @i]X_ile^ [\i Yl[[_`jk`jZ_\e G\_i\ mfd O\ObbO% nzikc`Z_
ÑI`Z_k)DZ_É( [X~ evdc`Z_ Xcc\ K_vefd\e\ ]i\` j`e[ mfe \`e\i `_e\e
`ee\nf_e\e[\e g\ijfe\e_X]k\e R\j\e_\`k( XlZ_ [Xj Ñ\`^\e\ DZ_É*
?Xj ^Xeq\ \`^\e\ G\Y\e( [Xj m\i^Xe^\e\ n`\ [Xj qlb{e]k`^\( n`i[ eli
Xcj bfe[`k`fe`\ik\i Kifq\~ mfe PijXZ_\ le[ R`ible^ Y\^i`]]\e* ?`\
AiX^\( fY Ñ`Z_É n`ibc`Z_ \o`jk`\i\( `jk ^\^\ejkXe[jcfj ^\nfi[\e* ÑDZ_
Y`eÉ n`i[ Xcj A\_cbfeq\gk`fe \ibXeek* ?`\ RX_i_\`k [\i Rfik\
=l[[_Xj$`dNXdplkkX)I`bXpX(-/1%n`i[qliB\n`~_\`k6
B\eXln`\Xlj[\e@`eq\ck\`c\e
[XjRfeÑNki\`knX^\eÉ\ekjk\_k(
\ekjk\_kXlZ_[\i=\^i`]]ÑDe[`m`[lldÉ(
n\ee[`\@`eq\ck\`c\mfi_Xe[\ej`e[*

R\`k\i\ Ffek\dgcXk`fe \ek_{cck( [X~ [\i \ib\ee\e[\ B\`jk le[ [`\
K_vefd\e\( [`\ \i Xcj B\^\ejkve[\ nv_ck( `e \`e\d M_pk_dlj \ekjk\é
_\e le[ m\i^\_\e( [\e [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ e`Z_k ql \i]Xjj\e `e [\i GX^\
`jk* RXe[\c le[ Ac`\~\e Y\jk`dd\e [Xj ^\jXdk\ =\nl~kj\`ej]\c[*
?\d H\[`k`\i\e[\e n`i[ Yc`kqXik`^ bcXi( [X~ [`\ R\ck j\`e\i R`ibé
c`Z_b\`k j`Z_ `e \`e\i jZ_\`eYXi \e[cfj\e F\kk\ mfe @i]X_ile^\e leXYé
cvjj`^ e\l ^\jkXck\k* ?`\ PeY\jkve[`^b\`k Xcc\e N\`ej $KXc`6 O\WQQO# n`i[
`_d `d k`\]jk\e Dee\ie Y\nl~k* ?X [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ [`\j\ K_vefd\e\
/-3

jkve[`^ \ekjk\_\e le[ m\i^\_\e j`\_k( \ijZ_\`e\e j`\ `_d ele n\[\i
Xcj Xe^\e\_d efZ_ Xcj m\icv~c`Z_* @i n`i[ \ek)kvljZ_k6 RXj j`Z_ [Xlé
\ie[ nXe[\ck( bXee e`Z_k Ll\cc\ `dd\inv_i\e[\i =\]i`\[`^le^ j\`e*
?\i gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\ Kifq\~( `e BXe^ ^\j\kqk [liZ_ [`\ @ib\eeke`j(
[X~ [`\ M\Xc`kvk DZ_)cfj le[ jkve[`^\d R\Z_j\c lek\infi]\e `jk( ]{_ik
\e[c`Z_ ql \`e\d UljkXe[ [\j N`Z_)Gzj\ej mfe [\i \`^\e\e @i]X_é
ile^jn\ck Y`j ql \`e\d Klebk( Xe [\d j`\ Xcj Ll\cc\ Xcc\e G\`[\ej
$KXc`6RcYYVO#ql\ib\ee\e`jk*
?`\ Ffek\dgcXk`fe n`i[ ele f_e\ n\`k\i\ uY\ic\^le^\e [`\j\i <ik
]fik^\]{_ik* @j ]fc^k \`e NkX[`ld( `e [\d [Xj <l]kXlZ_\e le[ Q\ié
jZ_n`e[\e a\[\j [\i Xl]\`eXe[\i]fc^\e[\e Ffek\dgcXk`fejfYa\bk\
[\lkc`Z_ nX_i^\efdd\e n`i[* Ul^c\`Z_ d`k [`\j\i NZ_vi]\ [\i RX_ié
e\_dle^ki\k\e]fc^\e[\K_vefd\e\Xl]6
[`\ Q`j`fe \`e\j ab`OVZS\RS\ @WQVbSa f[\i \`e\i Xe[\i\e Afid mfe C\cc`^b\`k(
[`\dXeZ_dXceli\`e\e<l^\eYc`Zb(dXeZ_dXcXY\iXlZ_cve^\iXe_vck7
JS`hnQYc\U% [`\ Bvej\_Xlk m\ilijXZ_k( U`kk\ie [\i Bc`\[\i( G\m`kXk`fej^\é
]{_c\ljn*$m^c*n\`k\ifY\e[`\=\jZ_i\`Yle^[\i\ijk\eXVO\O&Nkl]\%7
\`e\ bWSTS FcVS [\j B\`jk\j le[ [\j Fzig\ij7 Y\`[\ n\i[\e c\`Z_k le[ ^\é
jZ_d\`[`^le[j`e[d{_\cfjql_Xe[_XY\e7
<W\UOPS c\R ;ZOcPS% [`\ [\e H\[`kXk`fejc\_i\i =l[[_X( [\jj\e G\_i\e ) \`eé
jZ_c`\~c`Z_[\iH\k_f[\[\i@`ej`Z_kj\cYjk)le[[\eaO\UVOqldB\^\ejkXe[
_XY\e bzee\e( Y\^c\`k\k mfe ]i\l[`^\d Q\ikiXl\e `e [`\ R`ibjXdb\`k [\i
H\[`kXk`fe le[ mfe [\d RlejZ_( Ai\le[\e le[ Q\inXe[k\e qld H\[`k`\i\e
qliXk\e7
le\ijZ_zg]c`Z_\9\S`UWSY\`[\in\[\iqlcXoefZ_qlXe^\jgXeekXlj^\]{_ik\e
Ffek\dgcXk`fe7
jlYc`d\ ;ZnQYaUSTnVZS [liZ_]clk\e [\e ^Xeq\e Fzig\i7 \`e\ efZ_ e`\ \ic\Yk\(
e`Z_k \e[\e[\ N\c`^b\`k ki\`Yk [\e H\[`k`\i\e[\e [Xql( Xe[\i\e mfe [`\j\i
Xl~\ifi[\ekc`Z_\e@i]X_ile^qlY\i`Z_k\e7
aQV\SZZS c\R RScbZWQVS KOV`\SV[c\U [\i Y\fYXZ_k\k\e K_vefd\d\7 [`\
=\fYXZ_kle^ `jk jZ_Xi]( `ek\ej`m le[ [liZ_[i`e^\e[( le[ [`\ >_XiXbk\i`jk`bX
[\i PeY\jkve[`^b\`k( [\i DZ_cfj`^b\`k( [\j PeY\]i`\[`^\e[\e n\i[\e jf]fik
[\lkc`Z_\ibXeek7
W\bS\aWdS USWabWUS KOQVVSWb Y\` [\e uYle^\e qli @`ej`Z_k(jf [X~Xcc\eXZ_\`eé
Xe[\i Xl]ki\k\e[\e K_vefd\e\ [\d Y\fYXZ_k\e[\e B\`jk d{_\cfj j`Z_kYXi
n\i[\e7
/-4

\`ejlYk`c\jJS`VOTbSbaSW\Xe[`\G`Z_k\ijZ_\`ele^\ele[[`\Xe[\i\e_`\iXl]é
^\]{_ik\eAXbkfi\ele[Xe[`\GljkXe[\iFfek\dgcXk`fe7
;SZOaaS\VSWb Xcc\e d\ekXc\e B\Y`c[\e ^\^\e{Y\i7 e\lkiXc\ B\]{_c\ Y\jk\_\e
^\^\e{Y\i[\eB\^\ejkve[\e[\i@`ej`Z_k([`\d{_\cfjmfej\cYjk^\jZ_`\_k7

?\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ ]{_ck Y\`d <l]ki\k\e [`\j\i q\_e K_vefd\e\ ]i\lé
[`^\ @ii\^le^ le[ k\`ck m`\cc\`Z_k j\`e\ @i]X_ile^\e Xe[\i\e d`k `e
[\i <eeX_d\( \i j\` qli @ic\lZ_kle^ ^\cXe^k le[ _XY\ [Xj U`\c [\i
H\[`kXk`fej{Yle^\e \ii\`Z_k* ?fZ_ XlZ_ n\ee \i e`Z_k d\`ek( j`\
q\`^k\e j\`e\ =\]i\`le^ Xe( lek\iYi`Z_k \i m`\cc\`Z_k [`\ uYle^\e( [`\
qli @`ej`Z_k ]{_i\e jfcc\e( ]{i \`e\ R\`c\( ld j`Z_ ^Xeq [\i Ai\l[\
Xe [`\j\e @i]X_ile^\e _`eql^\Y\e* ?\jn\^\e `jk [`\ _`\i Y\jZ_i`\é
Y\e\ Nkl]\( [`\ ÑR`jj\e ld @ekjk\_\e le[ Q\i^\_\eÉ _\`~k( `d
Q`jl[[_`dX^^X d`k [\d Pek\ik`k\c Ñ?`\ q\_e Ffiilgk`fe\e [\i @`eé
j`Z_kÉ m\ij\_\e7 j`\ `jk \`e Kj\l[fe`imXeX* ?`\ ^if~\ B\]X_i c`\^k [XY\`
[Xi`e( Ñ[Xj( nXj e`Z_k [\i K]X[ `jk( ]{i [\e K]X[ ql _Xck\eÉ f[\i Xl]
[\d R\^ qli @`ej`Z_k jZ_nXeb\e[ ql n\i[\e( n\`c dXe [\e \inv_eé
k\e K_vefd\e\e m\i_X]k\k Yc\`Yk* R\ee [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ \ekn\[\i
Xlj \`^\e\i FiX]k f[\i mfe j\`e\d G\_i\i Y\iXk\e \ib\eek( [X~ [`\j\
@i]X_ile^\e eli \`e H\`c\ejk\`e Xd R\^\ le[ e`Z_k \knX jZ_fe [Xj
U`\c j`e[( bfeq\eki`\ik \i [`\ Ffek\dgcXk`fe Xl] j`\ le[ Xl] j\`e Q\ié
_X]k\kj\`e*
IXZ_ n\`k\i\d QfiXejZ_i\`k\e Xl] [\d K]X[ d\ibk [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\(
n`\ @i]X_ile^\e [`\j\i <ik Xccdv_c`Z_ Xl]_zi\e le[ [`\ RX_ie\_é
dle^ [\i JYa\bk\ j`Z_ m\ijZ_vi]k* ?`\ Pek\ijZ_\`[le^ qn`jZ_\e Xl]é
\`eXe[\i]fc^\e[\e K_vefd\e\e n`i[ qle\_d\e[ ^\eXl\i( [`\ RX_ié
e\_dle^ [\i JYa\bk\ mfccq`\_k j`Z_ ]\_c\i]i\` le[ `dd\i iXjZ_\i7 [Xj
Q\ijZ_n`e[\e [\i JYa\bk\ n`i[ [\lkc`Z_\i nX_i^\efdd\e Xcj `_i
<l]kXlZ_\e( Y`j [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ jZ_c`\~c`Z_ eli efZ_ `_i Q\ié
jZ_n`e[\e `e a\[\d e\l\e Hfd\ek \ic\Yk6 ?\i Y\kiXZ_k\e[\ B\`jk
le[ [Xj Ffek\dgcXk`fejfYa\bk czj\e j`Z_ Y\`[\ ql^c\`Z_ `e a\[\d
Hfd\ek Xl]* ?`\ M\Xc`kvk jZ_\`ek [\d H\[`k`\i\e[\e `e jkve[`^\i <l]é
czjle^ Y\^i`]]\e* <lj [`\j\i @i]X_ile^ \invZ_jk `_d \`e\ M\`_\ mfe
@ib\eeke`jj\e* AliZ_k le[ NZ_Xl[\i \i]Xjj\e j\`e\e B\`jk7 Xcc\ d\eé
kXc\e B\Y`c[\ \ijZ_\`e\e Xcj \knXj NZ_i\Zbc`Z_\j* ?Xj R\i[\e ) [* _*
[Xj @ekjk\_\e [\i B\[Xeb\e ) \ijZ_\`ek Xcj UljkXe[ [\j NZ_i\Zb\ej*
?Xj <l]ki\k\e d\ekXc\i K_vefd\e\ ) ^\nz_ec`Z_ \`e Ll\cc [\i
Ai\l[\ ) \ijZ_\`ek ele Xcj \`e UljkXe[ jkve[`^\e =\[ive^kj\`ej(
[\d[\iB\`jk_`c]cfjXlj^\c`\]\ik`jk*
/-5

?Xee n`i[ \ibXeek( n`\ ]\_c\i_X]k le[ leY\]i`\[`^\e[ Xcc\ K_vefé
d\e\ j`e[* <cc\ d\ekXc\e B\Y`c[\ \ijZ_\`e\e Xcj YXi a\^c`Z_\i =\[\lé
kle^ le[ leY\]i`\[`^\e[* N`\ Y\i^\e eli B\]X_i* ?\i H\[`k`\i\e[\
Y\^`eek ql ]{_c\e( [X~ `e Xcc\d R\i[\e[\e e`Z_kj `jk( `e [Xj \i j\`e\
Cf]]ele^ j\kq\e( Xl] [Xj \i YXl\e bzeek\* <cc\ d\ekXc\e B\Y`c[\
) [`\ Y\fYXZ_k\k\e f[\i jfejkn`\ `d B\`jk givj\ek\e JYa\bk\ ) \ié
jZ_\`e\e ]X[ le[ c\\i* De Xcc\d( nXj [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ nX_ie`ddk(
j`\_k\ieliG\`[le[@c\e[*
R\ee [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ jf [Xj `e Xcc\e @ijZ_\`ele^\e m\iYfi^\e\
@c\e[ \ibXeek _Xk( \dg]`e[\k \i k`\]\e <YjZ_\l ^\^\e j`\* JYnf_c \i
[`\ uYle^\e qli @`ej`Z_k n\`k\i [liZ_]{_ik( _\iijZ_\e `e j\`e\d
B\`jk Peql]i`\[\e_\`k le[ Gljkcfj`^b\`k Xcc\e d\ekXc\e B\Y`c[\e
^\^\e{Y\i* N\cYjk [\i B\[Xeb\ Xe \`e mfccbfdd\e ^c{Zbc`Z_\j G\Y\e
le[ Xe [`\ \ijki\Y\ejn\ik\jk\e ?`e^\ \ijZ_\`ek `_d n\e`^ m\icfZb\e[
le[ cXe^n\`ck `_e* @i `jk XYjfclk c\`[\ejZ_X]kjcfj ^\nfi[\e le[ _Xk
\`e\ <Ye\`^le^ ^\^\e [\e =\i\`Z_ m`\c]vck`^\i d\ekXc\i B\Y`c[\ le[
^\^\e a\[\ <ik mfe R\i[\e( NZ_`ZbjXc f[\i =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[*
Un`jZ_\e [\e \`eq\ce\e Hfd\ek\e [\j =\fYXZ_k\ej n`i[ [\i
B\[Xeb\ Xl]kXlZ_\e( [X~ M\kkle^ Xcc\`e `d <l]_zi\e Xcc\i d\ekXc\e
B\Y`c[\ c`\^k* Ile _Xbk [\i B\`jk j`Z_ e`Z_k cve^\i Xe jfcZ_\e B\Y`cé
[\e ]\jk7 [\e H\[`k`\i\e[\e [ive^k \j( [\d [liZ_ [`\j\ K_vefd\e\
m\ilijXZ_k\e G\`[\e ql \ek]c`\_\e* @j bzee\e `d ^Xeq\e Fzig\i
NZ_d\iq\e Xl]ki\k\e( le[ \i bXee le]v_`^ j\`e( cXe^\ `e \`e\i Nk\ccle^
ql m\i_Xii\e* ?Xj Oifjkcfj\ Xcc\i De_Xck\ [\j B\`jk\j n`i[ `_d [\lkc`é
Z_\i Xcj a\ qlmfi( \i n`i[ `d k`\]jk\e Dee\ie dfk`m`\ik( j`Z_ [Xmfe ql
Y\]i\`\e* ?`\j\ jkXib\ Hfk`mXk`fe( Xcc\e d\ekXc\e B\Y`c[\e \`e @e[\
ql dXZ_\e( `ek\ej`m`\ik j\`e\ <ejki\e^le^\e( [`\j\ B\Y`c[\ ql \ib\eé
e\e( [Xd`k \i j`Z_ [X[liZ_ mfe `_e\e Y\]i\`\e bXee* Ile n`i[ [`\
IXkli [`\j\i K_vefd\e\ ) `_i\ PeY\jkve[`^b\`k( [Xj @c\d\ek [\j
G\`[\ej le[ `_i\ DZ_cfj`^b\`k ) mfcc\e[j f]]\eYXi* <l] [`\j\i Nkl]\
`jk [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ efidXc\in\`j\ XlZ_ `dd\i `ek\ej`m\i\e bzig\ié
c`Z_\e NZ_d\iq\e lek\infi]\e* Fzig\i le[ B\`jk jZ_\`e\e \`e \`eq`é
^\j G\`[\e ql j\`e* ?`\ =\d{_le^ ld @`ej`Z_k bXee _`\iY\` mfe
Ml_\cfj`^b\`k m\i[ive^k n\i[\e* ?fZ_ [`\ NZ_d\iq\e m\ijZ_n`e[\e
Xccdv_c`Z_( n\ee j`\ Y\nl~k `ej <l^\ ^\]X~k n\i[\e* De [`\j\d
<l^\eYc`Zb n`i[ [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^ jZ_Xi] le[ bcXi* ?\i H\[`k`\i\e[\
`jk j`Z_ `e a\[\d <l^\eYc`Zb ^Xeq [\lkc`Z_ [\i [i\` >_XiXbk\i`jk`bX
[`\j\i K_vefd\e\ Y\nl~k( le[ \`e\j [\i [i\` Y\_\iijZ_k `_e jZ_c`\~é
c`Z_Xcjn`Z_k`^jk\@ib\eeke`j*
/.,

Ile n`i[ [`\ Ffek\dgcXk`fe XlkfdXk`jZ_ ]fik^\j\kqk( f_e\ <ejki\eé
^le^( Xcj n{i[\ j`\ Xlj j`Z_ j\cYjk _\iXlj mfiXe^\kiX^\e* B\]{_c\ [\j
BiXl\ej( [\i Q\iqn\`]cle^( [\j @c\e[j ljn* m\ijZ_n`e[\e* Fzig\ic`é
Z_\i NZ_d\iq _Xk ^Xeq Xl]^\_zik* ?Xj BiXl\e mfi d\ekXc\e JYa\bk\e(
XY\i XlZ_ [`\ Ai\l[\ Xe `_e\e ]\_ck ele mzcc`^* @`e\ {Y\iXlj jlYc`d\
FcXi_\`k [\j B\`jk\j le[ \`e\ k`\]\ B\cXjj\e_\`k Xcc\e d\ekXc\e B\Y`cé
[\e ^\^\e{Y\i Yi\`k\e j`Z_ Xlj* ?\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ YiXlZ_k b\`e\ Y\é
nl~k\ <ejki\e^le^ d\_i ql lek\ie\_d\e7 [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^ ^\_k
jkle[\ecXe^ f_e\ Pek\iYi\Z_le^ f[\i @id{[le^ `e jk\k\d Acl~
n\`k\i* ?`\ Ffek\dgcXk`fe jZ_i\`k\k Xlj \`^\e\i FiX]k mfiXe( le[ [`\
@`ej`Z_kn`i[Y\jfe[\ijjZ_e\ccle[Xbk`m*
?`\ @`ej`Z_k jk\_k ele bliq mfi [\d B`g]\cglebk7 [`\ =\fYXZ_kle^
`jk `ek\ej`m le[ bcXi* <cc\ d\ekXc\e B\Y`c[\ n\i[\e( \`e]XZ_ n\`c dXe
`_i\ <l]czjle^ Y\fYXZ_k\k( jf]fik Xcj leY\jkve[`^( jZ_d\iq_X]k le[
DZ_)cfj \ibXeek* <cc\ n\i[\e Xcj Y\^i\eqk le[ ]\jk^\c\^k( Xcj e`Z_k \i)
j\_e\ejn\ik f[\i Xcj ]i\d[ ^\j\_\e* HXe _Xk j`Z_ mzcc`^ mfe `_e\e
^\czjk* ?`\ =\fYXZ_kle^ cv~k j`Z_ e`Z_k cve^\i Xl] `i^\e[\`e d\ekXc\j
B\Y`c[\ \`e* ?Xee \ekjk\_k a\e\j =\nl~kj\`e( n\cZ_\j [Xj ÑU\`Z_\eé
cfj\( [Xj I`Z_k)B\jZ_\_\e( [Xj I`Z_k)=`c[\eÉ qld B\^\ejkXe[ _Xk6
\W`dO\O' K_pj`jZ_\ le[ d\ekXc\ K_vefd\e\ j`e[ mzcc`^ m\ijZ_nleé
[\e* ?\i <l^\eYc`Zb [\i @i]X_ile^ [\j \W`dO\O [Xl\ik Y\`d \ijk\eé
dXc e`Z_k \`edXc \`e\ N\ble[\* Ped`kk\cYXi [XiXl] [\ebk [\i B\`jk
jZ_fe{Y\i[`\\Y\em\i^Xe^\e\@i]X_ile^eXZ_*

I`imXeX
?`\ @i]X_ile^ [\j \W`dO\O `jk \`e bf^e`k`m\i NZ_fZb mfe n\`ki\`Z_\eé
[\e gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e Ffej\hl\eq\e* @j ^\_zik \`e\d =\i\`Z_ a\ej\`kj
[\i Y\[`e^k\e R`ibc`Z_b\`k [\i @ijZ_\`ele^\e( Xlj [\i lej\i\ NgiXZ_\
_\imfi^\^Xe^\e `jk( Xe( le[ jf bXee [Xj \W`dO\O( [\i UljkXe[ [\j
I`Z_k)=\[`e^kj\`ej( eli [liZ_ [Xj Y\jZ_i`\Y\e n\i[\e( nXj \j e`Z_k
`jk* @j `jk [Xj ÑI`Z_k)B\Yfi\e\( I`Z_k)B\nfi[\e\( I`Z_k)B\dXZ_k\(
I`Z_k)=\[`e^k\É3* ?Xj Rfik j\cYjk c\`k\k j`Z_ Xlj [\d e\^Xk`m\e Kivé
]`o \W` le[ [\i Rliq\c dO\O% Yi\ee\e( _\i( `jk Xcjf \`e\ H\kXg_\i
]{i [Xj Q\iczjZ_\e Xcc\i Afid\e [\j R\i[\ej6 [\i =\^`\i[\( [\j Q\ié
_X]k\kj\`ej le[ [\j @^f* <lj [`\j\d RXe[\c [\j =\nl~kj\`ej ]fc^k
\`e \ekjZ_\`[\e[\i RXe[\c [\j Q\i_Xck\ej* H`k [\i @i]X_ile^ [\j \W`&
/.-

dO\O n\i[\e <jg\bk\ [\j @^f f[\i [\j efidXc\e =\nl~kj\`ej ]{i
Xcc\ U\`k XY^\c\^k* ?\i K]X[ [\i @`ej`Z_k lek\ijZ_\`[\k j`Z_ ^Xeq n\é
j\ekc`Z_ mfe [\d [\i aO[ORVW `e [`\j\d \`e\e Klebk6 ?Xj \W`dO\O
q\ijkzik ÑY\]c\Zb\e[\É U{^\ [\j @^f ) CX~( B`\i( RX_e le[ v_eé
c`Z_\j )( nv_i\e[ [`\ XVO\O j`\ eli lek\i[i{Zbk* Dd \W`dO\O n`i[
[`\ aWZO d{_\cfj7 j`\ n`i[ `e [\i OXk [Xj \`eq`^ dz^c`Z_\ Q\i_Xck\e*
?`\ XVO\O m\i[ive^k Y\]c\Zb\e[\ U{^\( XY\i [\i\e Rliq\ce Yc\`é
Y\e Xcj m\iYfi^\e\ <ecX^\e \i_Xck\e7 Y\`d Q\icXjj\e [\i XVO\O
n\i[\e jfcZ_\ CXe[cle^\e lek\i \ekjgi\Z_\e[\e Pdjkve[\e
n`\[\idz^c`Z_*
@j ^`Yk m`\i @Y\e\e [\i \W`dO\O&@ib\eeke`j( [`\ mfe [\i O`\]\ [\i
bliq mfi [\d @`eki`kk `ej \W`dO\O \ii\`Z_k\e @`ej`Z_k XY_ve^\e* H\eé
jZ_\e( [`\ [Xj \W`dO\O \ii\`Z_k _XY\e( n\i[\e eXZ_ [\i a\n\`cj \ié
i\`Z_k\e @Y\e\ lek\ijZ_`\[\e* R`\ f]k a\dXe[ [Xj \W`dO\O \ii\`Z_k(
Y\jk`ddk [\e BiX[ j\`e\i H\`jk\ijZ_X]k ) [* _* [`\ Av_`^b\`k( [Xj \W`z
dO\O ql \icXe^\e( nXee( nf( jfYXc[ le[ jfcXe^\ \i n`cc )( XY\i \j
_Xk b\`e\e =\ql^ ql [\i \ii\`Z_k\e @Y\e\* HXe bXee [Xj \W`dO\O Xl]
\`e\i ^\^\Y\e\e @Y\e\ [\i @`ej`Z_k leqv_c`^\ HXc\ Y\ki\k\e( f_e\
[X~ [X[liZ_ \`e R\Z_j\c Xl] \`e\ Xe[\i\ @Y\e\ jkXkk]ve[\* E\ k`\]\i
[`\ mfi [\d @`eki\k\e `ej \W`dO\O \ekn`Zb\ck\ @`ej`Z_k( [\jkf _z_\i
[`\ \ii\`Z_k\ @Y\e\ le[ [\jkf ^ile[c\^\e[\i [`\ [XiXlj ]fc^\e[\ K\ié
jzec`Z_b\`kjm\ive[\ile^* ?`\ @i]X_ile^ [\j \W`dO\O Xcj jfcZ_\d `jk
Xl] a\[\i [\i \ii\`Z_k\e @Y\e\e [`\j\cY\7 [\i Pek\ijZ_`\[ qn`jZ_\e
[\e @Y\e\e c`\^k `d [XiXl]]fc^\e[\e Yc\`Y\e[\e Q\icljk [\j @^f Y\`d
Q\icXjj\e [\j \W`dO\O' @`eki`kk `ej \W`dO\O Y\[\lk\k Ñ@inXZ_\eÉ7 [\i
[XiXl]]fc^\e[\ Q\icljk [\j @^f `jk [`\ Ñ=\]i\`le^É mfe [\e A\jj\ce
[\i K\ijzec`Z_b\`k* ?*O* Nlqlb` $-513( N* 11% jX^k mfe =l[[_Xj gif)
kfkpg`jZ_\e @i]X_ile^\e [\i @ic\lZ_kle^6 Ñ?Xj B\]{_c [\i @ic\lZ_é
kle^ Y\\`e]cl~k [`\ ^\jXdk\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`k( `_i\ CXckle^ [\d G\Y\e
le[ [\i R\ck ^\^\e{Y\i*** =l[[_Xj @i]X_ile^ nXi e`Z_k \`e]XZ_ eli
\`e\ NXZ_\ [\j j`Z_ Xe [\i K\i`g_\i`\ [\j =\nl~kj\`ej Y\n\^\e[\e
B\]{_cj( jfe[\ie \knXj `d <cc\i`ee\ijk\e \`e\j H\ejZ_\e @inXZ_é
k\j*É
?`\ \ijk\ @Y\e\ `jk [`\ [\j a]bO^O\\O% [\j ÑDe)[\e)Nkifd)@`ekXl)
Z_\ejÉ* HXe n`i[ \`e De)[\e)Nkifd)@`ekXlZ_\e[\i `d \ijk\e <l^\eé
Yc`Zb [\i \ijk\e @i]X_ile^ [\j \W`dO\O le[ Yc\`Yk \j( Y`j [`\ @`ej`Z_k
j`Z_ Y`j ql [\d BiX[ m\ik`\]k _Xk( [\i ]{i [Xj @ii\`Z_\e [\i evZ_jk\e
@Y\e\ \i]fi[\ic`Z_ `jk* ?\i ÑNkifdÉ( `e [\e dXe \`ekXlZ_k( `jk a\e\i
Nkifd( [\i qld kfkXc\e Q\icljk [\j @^f( qld @e[\ Xcc\e R\i[\ej(
/..

]{_ik* ?`\j\ \e[^{ck`^\ @iczjle^( jf _\`~k \j( ^\jZ_`\_k d`k N`Z_\ié
_\`k Ñ`ee\i_XcY j`\Y\e n\`k\i\i G\Y\eÉ* <l] [`\j\i \ijk\e @Y\e\ ]Xcc\e
]fc^\e[\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`kjd\ibdXc\ le[ @`ejk\ccle^\e XY6 B`\i eXZ_
N`ee\jfYa\bk\e le[ jkXib\ <e`dfj`kvk\e7 Y\^\_ic`Z_\j Nki\Y\e eXZ_
\`^\e\d Qfik\`c( eXZ_ =\j`kq le[ Ml_d( [Xj jkXib ^\el^ `jk( a\[\ Ai\`é
^\Y`^b\`k ledz^c`Z_ ql dXZ_\e7 Pe]v_`^b\`k( [Xj M\cXk`m\ le[ Dcclé
j`fevi\ [\j jZ_\`eYXi <e^\e\_d\e le[ NZ_ze\e ql \ib\ee\e7 [`\
]vcjZ_c`Z_\ <eeX_d\( \j ^\Y\ =\jkve[`^b\`k( nf PeY\jkve[`^b\`k "O\&
WQQO#% le[ \`e DZ_( nf DZ_cfj`^b\`k "O\ObbO# `jk7 A\jk_Xck\e Xe Ycf~\e
M`k\e le[ M`klXc\e( le[ [`\ uY\iq\l^le^( [`\j\j f[\i a\e\j j\` Ñ[`\
RX_i_\`kÉ7 Un\`]\c f[\i Pej`Z_\i_\`k( fY [\i K]X[ [\i dW^OaaO\O
n`ibc`Z_ Ilkq\e Yi`e^k7 G{^\e( Nk\_c\e( j\ol\cc\ <ljjZ_n\`]le^\e(
Xe[\i\e bzig\ic`Z_\e NZ_X[\e ql]{^\e le[ j\`e\e G\Y\ejlek\i_Xck
Xl]Ffjk\eXe[\i\im\i[`\e\e*
R\ee [`\ @`ej`Z_k j`Z_ jf n\`k m\ik`\]k( [X~ [`\ @ib\eeke`j [\j RcYYVO
$G\`[\ej%( [\i O\ObbO le[ [\i O\WQQO [\e H\[`k`\i\e[\e `dd\i d\_i
\i]{cck( \icXe^k j`\ Xl~\ifi[\ekc`Z_\ Dek\ej`kvk6 ?Xj \W`dO\O n`i[ ele
{Y\i \`e\ Nkl]\ Y\ki\k\e( Xl] [\i [`\ B`\i eXZ_ N`ee\jfYa\bk\e le[
Xcc\ R`cc\ejjZ_nvZ_\ eXZ_cXjj\e* HXe `jk ele \`e aOYORUO[W% \`e
ÑIfZ_)\`edXc)Uli{Zbb\_i\e[\iÉ( [\i `e [`\j\d f[\i [\d evZ_jk\e
G\Y\e ^Xeq \iczjk n`i[* Ul [\e @c\d\ek\e [\j @^f( [`\ Y\`d @`ekXlé
Z_\e `e [\e Nkifd XY^\c\^k n\i[\e( bfdd\e a\kqk efZ_ [Xj Q\icXe^\e
eXZ_ N`ee\jfYa\bk\e le[ jkXib\ <e`dfj`kvk\e* ?`\ Dek\ej`kvk [\i
@i]X_ile^ mfe <eq`\_le^ le[ <Ye\`^le^ cv~k eXZ_7 dXe bXee j`Z_
e`Z_k d\_i jkXib ql \`e\d K_vefd\e _`e^\qf^\e f[\i mfe `_d XY^\é
jkf~\e ]{_c\e7 [`\ N\olXc`kvk qld =\`jg`\c m\ic`\ik `_i\e M\`q( n\ee
dXe j`Z_ m`\cc\`Z_k XlZ_ efZ_ [\i Afikg]cXeqle^ n\^\e d`k `_i Y\]X~k*
@`e\ k\`ceX_djcfj\ CXckle^ Xcc\e Nk`dlc` ^\^\e{Y\i `jk kpg`jZ_ ]{i
[`\j\eUljkXe[*
=\` [\i evZ_jk\e Dek\ej`m`\ile^ [\i @`ej`Z_k _zik [`\ B`\i eXZ_ N`eé
e\jfYa\bk\e le[ Xcc\ R`cc\ejjZ_nvZ_\ ^Xeq Xl]* RXj Xl] [\i Nkl]\
[\j IfZ_)\`edXc)Uli{Zbb\_i\e[\e ^\d`e[\ik nli[\( n`i[ ele
^Xeq Xlj^\czjZ_k* HXe ^\cXe^k `e [\e UljkXe[ [\j O\OUO[W% \`e\j
ÑI`Z_k)d\_i)Uli{Zbb\_i\e[\eÉ( le[ `jk [Xql Y\jk`ddk( mfd Fi\`jé
cXl] [\j R\i[\ej `e [`\j\d G\Y\e ]{i `dd\i \iczjk ql n\i[\e*
Uljvkqc`Z_ ql [\e mfi_\i jZ_fe XY^\c\^k\e @c\d\ek\e [\j @^f ]Xcc\e
[`\ c\kqk\e M\jk\ mfe B`\i le[ <e`dfj`kvk XY* <cc\ <Ye\`^le^ ^\^\eé
{Y\i n\ckc`Z_\e Uljkve[\e n`\ Q\icljk( NZ_dXZ_( NZ_d\iq le[ OX[\c
m\ic`\ik j`Z_* =zjXik`^\ Hfk`mXk`fe\e( <Yj`Z_k\e le[ M\[\e n\i[\e
/./

ledz^c`Z_ ) dXe bXee e`Z_k \`edXc d\_i Yzj\ B\[Xeb\e \`e\d Xeé
[\i\e ^\^\e{Y\i _\^\e7 [`\ FXk\^fi`\e ÑA\`e[É le[ Ñ<Ye\`^le^É
m\ijZ_n`e[\e Y\`[\ Xlj [\d =\nl~kj\`e* Bc\`Z_q\`k`^ jZ_n`e[\k
XlZ_ [Xj c\`j\jk\ Q\icXe^\e eXZ_ N`ee\jfYa\bk\e7 jf j`e[ j\ol\cc\
<bk`m`kvk\e qld =\`jg`\c `e [`\j\d NkX[`ld vl~\ijk lenX_ijZ_\`eé
c`Z_( n\`c B\]{_c\ [\j =\^\_i\ej le[ [\i Rfccljk Xlj^\czjZ_k
j`e[* @j _\iijZ_k B\cXjj\e_\`k ^\^\e{Y\i Xcc\e vl~\i\e JYa\bé
k\e7 [\i I`Z_k)d\_i)Uli{Zbb\_i\e[\ j`\_k j`\ Xcj XYjfclk n\iké
e\lkiXc*
H`k [\i \e[^{ck`^\e mfccbfdd\e\e M\`]\ [\i @`ej`Z_k ]Xcc\e Xcc\ =`eé
[le^\e Xe [Xj @^f XY( le[ Xcc\ jlYa\bk`m\e =\[\lkle^\e [\j Y\[`e^é
k\e =\^i`]]j Pe`m\ijld czj\e j`Z_ Xl]* ?\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ `jk ele \`e
O`OVO\b% \`e ÑQfccbfdd\e @ic\lZ_k\k\iÉ( \`e C\`c`^\i* @i `jk \e[^{cé
k`^ Y\]i\`k mfd G\`[\e le[ mfd @ek]Xck\e \`e\j e\l\e YO`[O' ?X
\i b\`e DZ_)=\nl~kj\`e _Xk( j`e[ Xcc\ j\`e\ CXe[cle^\e i\`e ]lebk`fé
eXc7 j`\ [`\e\e \ekn\[\i [\i @i_Xckle^ [\j \`^\e\e Fzig\ij f[\i [\d
Rf_c\ Xe[\i\i* F\`e \`eq`^\i e`Z_k XY^\c\^k\i `ee\i\i UljkXe[ Xlj
[\i \`^\e\e Q\i^Xe^\e_\`k `jk ^\Yc`\Y\e( Xl]^ile[ [\jj\e B\[Xeb\e
Xe B`\i( CX~ le[ v_ec`Z_\j `d B\`jk Xl]jk\`^\e bzeek\e* <cc\ m\i^Xeé
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Y\q\`Z_e\k n\i[\e* 8cYYVO nXi [Xj Ffdgc\d\ek mfe acYYVO% mfe Ñ=\_X^\e le[
Rf_cY\]`e[\eÉ( *** ]{i =l[[_X bfeek\ e`Z_kj @ijZ_\`e\e[\j acYYVO j\`e( n\ee \j
`ee\i_XcY [\i R\ck [\i @ijZ_\`ele^\e `d B\^\ejXkq qld RcYYVO XlZ_ jf S`aQVSW\S\
dfZ_k\$-524(N*2-%*

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Xl] [\i @c\d\ekXijkl]\ [\j @ib\ee\ej nX_i^\efdd\e* =\`d O`Oz
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=\nl~kj\`ejdfd\ek\* IXZ_ [\i uY\ic`\]\ile^ eX_d =l[[_X
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=\jkve[`^b\`kle[?Xl\i*

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Nkl]\e [\i XVO\O ^\d\`jk\ik _Xk* R\[\i \`e De)[\e)Nkifd)@`ekXl)
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Q\icXe^\eeXZ_N`ee\jfYa\bk\e\`eC`e[\ie`j*
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/.1

Bile[cX^\ \`e\i Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O eXZ_ [\i Xe[\i\e( Y`j _`eXl] qli XZ_é
k\e( [\i R\[\i)RX_ie\_dle^)efZ_)I`Z_knX_ie\_dle^* H`k [\d
@iczjZ_\e [`\j\j c\kqk\e lckiXjlYk`c\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\j ki`kk [\i
H\[`k`\i\e[\ `ej \W`]RV \`e* ?Xj @iczjZ_\e `jk ÑXl] Xe[\i\ <ik le[
R\`j\ i\XcÉ( [\ee \j ]\_c\e Xcc\ ?XkX lej\i\i M\Xc`kvkj\i]X_ile^( XlZ_
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lej\i\i U\`k\`ek\`cle^ [Xl\ie bXee( b\eek [\i UljkXe[ j\cYjk b\`e\e
U\`kXYcXl]6 [\i Hfd\ek led`kk\cYXi mfi_\i le[ [\i led`kk\cYXi [Xé
eXZ_ n\i[\e Xcj [`i\bk Xl]\`eXe[\i]fc^\e[ \ic\Yk* ?`\ fY\i\ Bi\eq\
mfe j`\Y\e OX^\e ]{i [`\ ?Xl\i [\j \W`]RV `jk m`\cc\`Z_k [liZ_ [`\
@`^\eXik j\`e\i g_pj`fcf^`jZ_\e Kifq\jj\ Y\[`e^k6 C\iqjZ_cX^ le[
efidXc\i Nkf]]n\Z_j\c _zi\e( jf _\`~k \j( d`k [\d @iczjZ_\e [\j
=\nl~kj\`ej giXbk`jZ_ Xl]( fYnf_c ^\n`jj\ i\jkc`Z_\ Nkf]]n\Z_j\cé
gifq\jj\ n\`k\i XYcXl]\e( jf [X~ [\i Fzig\i [\j H\[`k`\i\e[\e j`Z_
mfe \`e\d G\`Z_eXd lek\ijZ_\`[\k* Qfi [\d @`eki`kk `e [`\j\e
UljkXe[ dl~ [\i H\[`k`\i\e[\ \`e\e Y\jk`ddk\e U\`kiXld ]\jkj\ké
q\e( `e [\d \i [Xi`e Yc\`Y\e n`cc* IXZ_ [\d C\iXljki\k\e Xlj [\d
\W`]RV [liZ_cvl]k \i n`\[\i Xcc\ Nkl]\e [\i XVO\O( `e ld^\b\_ik\i M\`é
_\e]fc^\( Y`j qld efidXc\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[* <l] [\i XZ_k\e
Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O b\_ik [`\ =\nl~k_\`k qli{Zb( Xl] [\i [i`kk\e jk\cc\e
j`Z_ [`\ efidXc\e Fzig\i]lebk`fe\e n`\[\i \`e( Xl] [\i \ijk\e [Xj
bi`k`jZ_\?\eb\ele[[`\j`eec`Z_\eRX_ie\_dle^\e*

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[`\ XVO\O&Nkl]\e le[ [\i K]X[ [\i @`ej`Z_k qld \W`dO\O ]Xjk qljXdé
d\e* <Y\i qn`jZ_\e [`\j\e c\kqk\e Uljkve[\e jlYc`d\e =\nl~kj\`ej
Y\jk\_\e [fZ_ efZ_ Xl~\ifi[\ekc`Z_ jlYk`c\( XY\i n\j\ekc`Z_\ Pek\ié
jZ_`\[\* ?`\ j`\Y\ek\ Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O `jk \`e UljkXe[ [\i =\nl~k_\`k
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Nkl]\ [\i XVO\O bXee e`Z_k \`edXc d\_i [Xj =\nl~kj\`e [\i I`Z_k)
?`e^c`Z_b\`k Xcj kvk`^ j\`\e[ Y\q\`Z_e\k n\i[\e7 \j Yc\`Yk a\[fZ_ Xcj
Alebk`fe cXk\ek \i_Xck\e le[ bXee [X_\i e`Z_k Xcj e`Z_k)\o`jk\ek Y\é
q\`Z_e\k n\i[\e6 [`\j `jk [\i =\i\`Z_ [\i R\[\i)RX_ie\_dle^)
efZ_)I`Z_knX_ie\_dle^*
/.2

Dd \W`dO\O Y\^`eek [Xj \e[^{ck`^\ @iczjZ_\e [\j =\nl~kj\`ej d`k
\`e\d UljkXe[( [\i =\nl~k_\`k [\j e`Z_kmfi_Xe[\e\e =\nl~kj\`ej
`jk* ?`\j\i Kifq\~ [\j @iczjZ_\ej ^`g]\ck `d \W`]RV% nf \j {Y\i_Xlgk
b\`e\ =\nl~k_\`k d\_i ^`Yk* N\cYjk [Xj @ii\`Z_\e [\i _zZ_jk\e Nkl]\
[\i XVO\O n`ibk j`Z_ e`Z_k efkn\e[`^ eXZ_ [\d Q\icXjj\e [\j
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[\j \W`dO\O len`[\iil]c`Z_ ql Q\ive[\ile^\e [\i @^f)Alebk`fe
]{_ik*
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elldj [\i @i]fijZ_le^ le[ =\_\iijZ_le^ [\j B\`jk\j [Xi* E\dXe[(
[\i ^\el^ @`ej`ee`^b\`k qld =\`jg`\c ]{i [`\ ]fid\ecfj\e XVO\O&
Uljkve[\ Xl]Yi`e^\e bfeek\( bXee XlZ_ c\`Z_k [\e UljkXe[ [\j \W`z
dO\O \ii\`Z_\e( n\ee \i Y\jZ_c`\~k( j\`e\ jkXib\ Ffeq\ekiXk`fej]v_`^é
b\`k [\i =\fYXZ_kle^ [\j \`^\e\e B\`jk\j qlqln\e[\e* Pe[
ld^\b\_ik bXee \`e H\ejZ_( [\i jZ_fe [Xj \W`dO\O \ii\`Z_k _Xk( ^\^\e
C`e[\ie`jj\ le[ <Yc\eble^\e jf ^\]\`k j\`e( [X~ \i j\_i c\`Z_k `e [`\
XVO\O \`eki\k\e le[ Xcc\ Nkl]\e [liZ_cXl]\e bzeek\( n\ee \i j`Z_ Xl]
\`e \`eq`^\j =\nl~kj\`ejfYa\bk bfeq\eki`\ik\* ?X_\i ^\_zi\e a\e\(
[`\ \`e\e [`\j\i Y\`[\e [\lkc`Z_ lek\ijZ_`\[\e\e K]X[\ Y`j qld vl~\ié
jk\e @e[\ ^\^Xe^\e j`e[( m`\cc\`Z_k e`Z_k d\_i eli \`e\d Xe( jfe[\ie
Y\`[\e* R`i[ \ekn\[\i [`\ aO[ORVW f[\i [`\ @`ej`Z_k mzcc`^ ^\d\`é
jk\ik( cv~k j`Z_ [\i a\n\`cj Xe[\i\ UljkXe[ c\`Z_k \ii\`Z_\e( [\i Pek\ié
jZ_`\[ qn`jZ_\e [\e R\^\e [\i H\[`kXk`fe n`i[ _`e]vcc`^* Dd U\ei`e
_\`~k\j6
QfeXck\ij_\i^XY\je`Z_kqn\`K]X[\7
Ñ[`\Xe^\bfdd\ej`e[ÉbXd\eXcc\[`\j\cY\NkiX~\*

<ljYc`Zb
?`\j\ ?Xijk\ccle^( [`\ j`Z_ Xl] =l[[_Xj =\jZ_i\`Yle^ [\i d\[`kXé
k`fejjg\q`]`jZ_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ jk{kqk( jfcc Xcc [\e\e \`e\
C`c]\ j\`e( [`\ Xl] [`\j\d B\Y`\k O_\fi`\e \ekn`Zb\ce le[ Afié
jZ_le^\e k_\fi\k`jZ_ mfiY\i\`k\e nfcc\e* ?Xj a\[\e]Xccj nXi d\`e\
<Yj`Z_k*
?`\ H\ejZ_\e( [`\ d\[`kXk`m\ =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ Xl] [\d R\^ [\i
g\ijzec`Z_\e KiXo`j \i]fijZ_\e( ]`e[\e d\`e\ uY\ic\^le^\e f[\i
/.3

=l[[_Xj =\jZ_i\`Yle^ [\i d\[`kXk`fejjg\q`]`jZ_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqlé
jkve[\ m`\cc\`Z_k e{kqc`Z_( m`\cc\`Z_k XY\i XlZ_ e`Z_k* ?`\ R\^\ qli
@iczjle^ cXjj\e j`Z_ f]k eli jZ_n\i Y\jZ_i\`Y\e( [`\ Bi\eq\e j`e[
]c`\~\e[( le[ j`\ j`e[ m\ijZ_cle^\e n`\ [`\ [\i \`^\e\e G\Y\ej\i]X_é
ile^* @j ^`Yk jf m`\c\ m\ijZ_`\[\e\ K]X[\ ql _z_\i\e N\`ejn\`j\e n`\
\j H\ejZ_\e Xl] [\d K]X[ ^`Yk7 e`Z_k a\[\ =\jZ_i\`Yle^ [\j R\^\j
gX~k efkn\e[`^ ]{i [`\ G\Y\ejj`klXk`fe \`e\j Y\jk`ddk\e H\ejZ_\e*
?`\ Nl]`j _XY\e \`e Ngi`Z_nfik6 ÑR\i m\ijlZ_k( \ib\eek*É H`k [\e
Rfik\eH\_\i=XYXj6
ÑDd jg`i`kl\cc\e =\i\`Z_ dl~ dXe e`Z_k leY\[`e^k \`e\ ^\eXl Xlj^\XiY\`k\k\ FXik\
[\jK]X[\j_XY\e(\_\dXe[`\M\`j\Y\^`eek*?XjDej`jk`\i\eXl]mfccjkve[`^\iF\eeké
e`j [\j R\^\j bXee `d B\^\ek\`c [Xj QfiXebfdd\e \_\i Y\_`e[\ie( Xcj ]zi[\ie*
*** R\i mfe [\i F{jk\ Xlj =\fYXZ_kle^\e {Y\i [Xj H\\i Xejk\cck( \ib\eek eli j\`e\
JY\i]cvZ_\( [fZ_ n\i j\`e\ O`\]\e \i^i{e[\e n`cc( dl~ Y\i\`k j\`e( _`eXYqlkXlZ_\eÉ
$-523(N*-5-%*

- <Y^\j\_\e mfe [\i uY\ij\kqle^ =_`bbl IXeXdfc`j _XY\ `Z_ XlZ_ q\`k^\ezjj`jZ_\
Ffdd\ekXi\ qld Q`jl[[_`dX^^X d`k _\iXe^\qf^\e6 =_`bbl NfdX $-505%( >feq\
$-512%( ?_XddXiXkXeX $-510%( FXj_pXg $-510%( GXdX Bfm`e[X $-525%( G\[` NXpX[Xn
$-521%( HX_Xj` NXpX[Xn $-521( -53,%( IXiX[X O_\iX $-512%( IpXeXgfe`bX O_\iX
$-505(-52.(-524%(IpXeXk`cfbX$-51.X(Y%le[HX_Xk_\iX$-52.%*
. ?\i ?_XidX `jk [`\ R\ckfi[ele^( [Xj B\j\kq( [`\ C\`cjc\_i\ `e [\i Yl[[_`jk`jZ_\e
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cf^`jZ_\eQ\ijkve[e`jj\j[\i_z_\i\e=\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\n\i[\ebzeek\*
0 ?`\j\ @`ek\`cle^ \ekjgi`Z_k \`e\d gjpZ_fXeXcpk`jZ_\e NZ_\dX [\i >_XiXbk\ikpg\e(
[\dbf^e`k`m\@`^\e_\`k\eql^ile[\c`\^\e7`e[\ij\cY\eM\`_\e]fc^\$N_Xg`if(-52-%6
-* [\i ÑKXiXef`b\iÉ( [\i Xe[\i\ Xcj Xl~\ejk\_\e[ le[ m\i[vZ_k`^ Y\kiXZ_k\k7 .* [\i
ÑCpjk\i`b\iÉ( [\i `dglcj`m lik\`ck le[ _Xe[\ck7 /* [\i ÑUnXe^j)I\lifk`b\iÉ( [\i
A{_ile^ [liZ_ Xe[\i\ YiXlZ_k( le[ 0* [\i ÑKjpZ_fgXk_É( [\jj\e RX_ie\_dle^\e
qnXi [\e OXkjXZ_\e \ekjgi\Z_\e( [\i XY\i [`\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k eXZ_ j\`e\e R{ejZ_\e
ld]fidk*
1 ?`\j\ Ñ_`ddc`jZ_\e Fze`^i\`Z_\É n\i[\e `ee\i_XcY Xe[\i\i bfjdfcf^`jZ_\i
G\_ijpjk\d\ dXeZ_dXc Xcj Ñ<jkiXc\Y\e\eÉ( RSdO Z]QOa% PO`R]a le[ v_ec`Z_\j Y\é
q\`Z_e\k*
2 OXik $-53-X( -53.( XlZ_ FXg* -% Y\q\`Z_e\k Xcj ÑqljkXe[jjg\q`]`jZ_\ R`jj\ejZ_X]kÉ

/.4

\`e\R`jj\ejZ_X]k(`e[\i[`\<lj{Y\e[\e\`e\eY\jk`ddk\e=\nl~kj\`ejqljkXe[\ié
i\`Z_\e bzee\e( j`Z_ [Xee [Xi{Y\i m\ijkve[`^\e( [X~ j`\ Xcc\ [`\j\e UljkXe[ \ii\`Z_k
_XY\e( nfiXl] j`\ n\`k\i\ `ek\i\jjXek\ B\Y`\k\ lek\ijlZ_\e bzee\e ) qld =\`jg`\c
[`\ =\q`\_le^\e qn`jZ_\e [`\j\d UljkXe[ le[ [\i ÑM\Xc`kvkÉ* IXZ_ [`\j\e Fi`k\i`\e
`jk=l[[_Xd`kj\`e\ed\[`k`\i\e[\eE{e^\ie\`eXl][\dB\Y`\k[\id\[`kXk`fejjg\é
q`]`jZ_\e =\nl~kj\`ejqljkve[\ ]fijZ_\e[\i R`jj\ejZ_X]kc\i d`k j\`e\e <jj`jk\ek\e(
[Xj Q`jl[[_`dX^^X le[ Xe[\i\ Yl[[_`jk`jZ_\ G\_i\e j`e[ `_i\ AfijZ_le^j\i^\Yé
e`jj\( le[ [`\ jlgiXefidXc\e Fiv]k\( mfe [\e\e _`\i [`\ M\[\ `jk( `jk \`e kpg`jZ_\i
O\`c[\iO\Z_efcf^`\([`\j`\Y\``_i\eAfijZ_le^jXiY\`k\e\ekn`Zb\ck_XY\e*
3 C\cdlk_ mfe BcXj\eXgg6 ?\i =l[[_`jdlj ) \`e\ Xk_\`jk`jZ_\ M\c`^`fe* H{eZ_\e
-522(N*-03*

/.5

C<MD?<N>C<P?CPMD

2*TJB<)KNT>CJGJBD@

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//,

[\j N\`ej( [\d fekfcf^`jZ_\e Rliq\c^ile[ [\j Pe`m\ijldj( `jk*
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k`^\i @ic\Ye`j]fid\e n`\ RXZ_\e "XOU`Ob#% OiXld "aeO^\O#% NZ_cX]
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m`\i K_Xj\e [\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\e KjpZ_\ m`\i ?`d\ej`fe\e f[\i <jg\bé
k\e [\j N\`ej $M_X[Xbi`j_eXe( -51/( gg* 251)255%* ?Xj RXZ_\e \eké
jgi`Z_k [\d N\`e `e j\`e\i ^ifYj`eec`Z_\e @ijZ_\`ele^j]fid "dW`Ob#'
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j\`e\i Hz^c`Z_b\`k\e "VW`O\gOUO`VVO% [Xj R`ibc`Z_\ `e B\jkXck \`e\j
^fc[\e\e @`\j%* ?\i NZ_cX] \ekjgi`Z_k [\d N\`ej)<jg\bk [\i le[`]]\é
i\eq`\ik\e( `d Bc\`Z_^\n`Z_k Y\]`e[c`Z_\e @e\i^`\ $FXljXc\e\i^`\(
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[\d N\`e Xcj i\`e\i OiXejq\e[\eq f[\i Xcj [\d q\`kcfj\e Pi^ile[ [\i
bfjd`jZ_\e Q`\c]Xck "6`OV[O\% ?O`O\ObWbO#' <l] [`\j\e gjpZ_fbfj)
d`jZ_\e @ekjgi\Z_le^\e Y\il_k [`\ n\j\ejdv~`^\ Dek\i[\g\e[\eq
mfeKjpZ_fcf^`\le[K_`cfjfg_`\*
//-

F\`e\ K_`cfjfg_`\ bXee [`\ R\j\ejeXkli [\j ?Xj\`ej \ibcvi\e( f_e\
j`Z_ Xl] \`e\ gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\ ?`jq`gc`e ql jk{kq\e( [`\ qli {Y\iY\nl~é
k\e <ejZ_Xlle^ [\j N\`ej ]{_ik* <e[\i\ij\`kj bXee XlZ_ b\`e\ Kjpé
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n\ee j`\ e`Z_k ql^c\`Z_ [`\ ?`d\ej`fe\e [\j N\`ej `e j\`e\d R\Z_j\cé
m\i_vcke`j ql [\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\e @ic\Ye`jg_Xj\e [\j H\ejZ_\e \i]X~k*
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n\jkc`Z_\e KjpZ_fcf^`\ d`k j\`e\d ^ile[c\^\e[\e R\ib 5ZbS`SR
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j\`e\d Fzig\i `[\ek`]`q`\ik( j`\_k \i [`\ R\ck Xcj @in\`k\ile^ j\`e\j
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k\k( [X~ [`\ HXk\i`\ [\i jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\ Pijgile^ Xcc\e ?Xj\`ej j\`
$MX[_Xbi`j_eXe( -51/( g* 110%* R\ee j`Z_ [\i H\ejZ_ d`k j\`e\i
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G\Y\ej\e\i^`\* H`k Xe[\i\e Rfik\e( \i `jk n\ckXejZ_Xlc`Z_ `d n\é
j\ekc`Z_\e Q`kXc`jk le[ `jk [\i uY\iq\l^le^( [Xj G\Y\e j\` [\i jZ_zgé
]\i`jZ_\ Pijgile^ Xcc\e ?Xj\`ej* D[\ek`]`q`\ik \i j`Z_ d`k [\d
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c`jdlj le[ Y\kiXZ_k\k [Xj d\ekXc\ Npjk\d Xcj jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e
Pijgile^ Xcc\e ?Xj\`ej* D[\ek`]`q`\ik \i j`Z_ d`k [\d i\`e\e Q\ijkXe[(
n`i[ \i g_`cfjfg_`jZ_ qld fYa\bk`m\e D[\Xc`jk\e le[ j\kqk [`\ Q\ié
ele]k Xcj [\e jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e Pijgile^ Xcc\e ?Xj\`ej* R\ee \i j`Z_
d`k j\`e\d i\`e\e kiXejq\e[\ekXc\e =\nl~kj\`e `[\ek`]`q`\ik( nXj \`e\
Y\j\c`^\e[\ @i]X_ile^ `jk( n`i[ \i qld dpjk`jZ_\e N\_\i f[\i n\ckXeé
jZ_Xlc`Z_ qld jg`i`kl\cc\e D[\Xc`jk\e le[ \ib\eek [`\ ?Xj\`ej)
=\nl~kj\`ej)N\c`^b\`k Xcj [\e jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e Pijgile^ Xcc\e ?Xj\`ej*
R\ee \i j`Z_ \e[c`Z_ d`k [\d i\`e\e( e`Z_k [\k\id`e`\iYXi\e N\`e f[\i
I`Z_kj\`e `[\ek`]`q`\ik( `jk \i kiXeq\e[\ekXc\i Jekfcf^\ n`\ =l[[_X(
//.

f[\i NXdbXiX( [\i Y\bXeek\jk\ M\givj\ekXek [\j Q\[XekX( le[ \ibcvik
[Xj I`Z_kj\`e Yqn* [Xj e`Z_k [\k\id`e`\iYXi\ N\`e qld Pi^ile[ Xcc\e
?Xj\`ej*
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le[ jg`i`kl\cc\e R\`j_\`k( n`\ [`\ PgXe`jZ_X[\e `_e mfiq\`Z_e\k\e(
nli[\ \`e =\`jg`\c ]{i Xcc\ RX_i_\`kjjlZ_\ `e [\e ]fc^\e[\e @gfZ_\e
[\i `e[`jZ_\e Flckli^\jZ_`Z_k\ ^\j\kqk* Dd GXl] [\i ]fc^\e[\e EX_ié
_le[\ik\ \ekn`Zb\ck\e j`Z_ mfe _`\i Xlj Xcc\ <ik\e gjpZ_fg_pj`jZ_\i
?`jq`gc`e\e( [`\ lej Xcj Tf^X)Npjk\d\ Y\bXeek j`e[* N`\ jk\cc\e \`e\
Q`\c]Xck mfe \dg`i`jZ_\e Q\ijlZ_\e [Xi( j`Z_ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e RX_i_\`k
ql ev_\ie( le[ ]{_i\e ql m\ijZ_`\[\e\e <ik\e i\c`^`zj\i( dpjk`jZ_\i
f[\i fekfcf^`jZ_\i @i]X_ile^* <lj [`\j\e lek\ijZ_`\[c`Z_ `ek\igi\é
k`\ik\e @i]X_ile^\e j`e[ [`\ Bile[Y\^i`]]\ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e KjpZ_fcfé
^`\ De[`\ej _\imfi^\^Xe^\e* Qfd 1* E_* m* >_i* Y`j qld -4* E_* e* >_i*
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b\ej le[ [\i Ff[`]`q`\ile^ [\i Bile[gi`eq`g`\e [\i N\cYjk)@ek]Xcé
kle^ d\_i\i\ [\lkc`Z_ mfe\`eXe[\i lek\ijZ_`\[\e\ Tf^X)?`jq`gc`e\e*
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[\iTf^X[\j`ek\^iXc\e=\nl~kj\`ej"^c`\O#'

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d`k [\d N\cYjk `e j\`e\i kiXejq\e[\ekXc\e ?`d\ej`fe [\j @`ejj\`ej d`k
[\d q\`kcfj\e N\`e* N`\ j`e[ m\ijZ_`\[\e _`ej`Z_kc`Z_ `_i\j <lj^Xe^jé
glebk\j le[ [\i <ik `_i\j Qfi^\_\ej7 a\[\ c\^k [Xj CXlgk^\n`Z_k Xl]
\`e\ Xe[\i\ [\i \e^ d`k\`eXe[\i m\ibe{g]k\e K\ijzec`Z_b\`kjbfdgfé
e\ek\e( Xl] [\e G\Y\ejXk\d( Xl] [`\ j\\c`jZ_)^\`jk`^\e Alebk`fe\e(
[Xj jfq`Xc\ CXe[\ce( Xl] [Xj Nki\Y\e eXZ_ G`\Y\( R`jj\e( HXZ_k f[\i
eXZ_[\d`ek\^iXc\e=\nl~kj\`e*
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///

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N\cYjkelin`ibc`Z_\ib\ee\e(n\ee\i\`ejd`k`_dn`i[*

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b{ejkc\i`jZ_\i Fi\Xk`m`kvk le[ [\i Q\i\`e`^le^ d`k [\d R\ck^\`jk [\i
//0

B\jZ_`Z_k\ Xl] [\d R\^ {Y\i \`e ld]Xjj\e[\j Q\ijkve[e`j [\i i\`é
Z_\eQ`\c]Xckblckli\cc\iR\ik\`eJjkle[R\jk*
HX_XkdX BXe[_` jX_ `e OX^fi\ j\`e\e \ic\lZ_k\k\e G\_i\i ";]`c&
RSd#3 \i Y\bXeek\ j`Z_ ql [\jj\e D[\Xc [\i jg`i`kl\cc\e =\]i\`le^ ql
jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\i PeXY_ve^`^b\`k le[ m\in`ibc`Z_k\ \j Xl] [\d B\Y`\k
[\j jfq`Xcgfc`k`jZ_\e CXe[\cej* @i q\`^k\( n`\ \`e ^Xeq\i NlYbfek`é
e\ek mfe 0,, H`cc`fe\e H\ejZ_\e d`k [\e ^\`jk`^\e RX]]\e [\i
RX_i_\`k le[ B\nXckcfj`^b\`k j\`e\ gfc`k`jZ_\ PeXY_ve^`^b\`k \ii\`é
Z_\e bXee* ?Xj `jk Tf^X [\j CXe[\cej( YO`[O&Tf^X( `e j\`e\i df[\ié
e\e( ^\jZ_`Z_kc`Z_ fi`\ek`\ik\e B\jkXck* N\`e @e[q`\c `jk( [Xj M\`Z_ [\i
B\i\Z_k`^b\`k `e [\i B\j\ccjZ_X]k ql \ii`Z_k\e $MXdiXapX% $>_Xl[_li`
le[Ng`\^\cY\i^(-52,(g*./,%*
De [\i `ek\^iXc\e KjpZ_fcf^`\ Ni` <lifY`e[fj c`\^k [\i CXlgkXbq\ek
Xl] [\i `ek\^iXc\e Nkilbkli [\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\e KjpZ_\* N`\ `jk \`e\ij\`kj
\`e jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\j <bk`fejq\ekild [\j N\`ej( Xe[\i\ij\`kj \`e Xe j`Z_
Y\jk\_\e[\i Afblj( \`e Xd gcXe\kXi`jZ_\e @mfclk`fejgifq\~ d`kn`i)
b\e[\e[\i `ejkild\ekXc\i AXbkfi* Ni` <lifY`e[f j`\_k [Xj U`\c [\i
j`Z_ \ek]Xck\e[\e KjpZ_\ `e [\i \ic\lZ_k\k\e KXik`q`gXk`fe Xe [\i gcXé
e\kXi`jZ_\e @mfclk`fe( `e `_i\d =\d{_\e ld \`e\ e\l\ ^cfYXc\
B\j\ccjZ_X]kjfi[ele^( [`\ [liZ_ [Xj R`ibjXdn\i[\e [\j _z_\i\e jlé
giXd\ekXc\e =\nl~kj\`ej `e [\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\e B\d\`ejZ_X]k _\iXl]é
^\]{_ikn`i[*
<l~\i [\e ^\eXeek\e ^\jZ_`Z_kc`Z_ fi`\ek`\ik\e @ekn`Zbcle^\e `eé
e\i_XcY [\i Tf^X)KjpZ_fcf^`\ ^`Yk \j _\lk\ XlZ_ efZ_ Q\ijlZ_\ `e
Xe[\i\eM`Z_kle^\e*
NnXd` KiXkpX^XkdXeXe[X( Bfg`eXk_ FXm`iXa( Bfg` Fi`j_eX le[ Xeé
[\i\ _XY\e [\d gjpZ_fjfdXk`jZ_\e Kifq\~ [\i @`^\e)@e\i^`\)Nk\`)
^\ile^ "Yc\ROZW\W&Tf^X% \`e\ e\l\ Afid le[ \`e\ \mfclk`m\ Ji`\ek`\é
ile^ ^\^\Y\e* ?Xd`k _Xk j`Z_ [\i ]Xjq`e`\i\e[\e @i]fijZ_le^ [\i
gjpZ_felbc\Xi\e @e\i^`\ \`e ^Xeq e\l\i =\i\`Z_ \ijZ_cfjj\e $KiXkpXé
^XkdXeXe[X( -52-( -53-7 FXm`iXa( -5227 Fi`j_eX -53-( -53.%* ?\i
<lkfi [\i mfic`\^\e[\e NZ_i`]k e`ddk Xe [`\j\e Qfijkz~\e c\Y_X]k
<ek\`c le[ _Xk j\cYjk Xl] [`\j\d B\Y`\k j\`k cXe^\d k_\fi\k`jZ_ le[
\dg`i`jZ_jpjk\dXk`jZ_\AfijZ_le^\eY\ki`\Y\e*
Ni` MXdXe HX_Xij_` $-44,)-51,% Xlj <ileXZ_Xc $HX[iXj% _Xk \`e`^\
[\i Bile[gi`eq`g`\e [\j `OXO& le[ [\j X\O\O)Tf^X `e \`e\i Npek_\j\
m\i\`e`^k $HX_Xij_`( -52.( -523%* @i c\^k Y\jfe[\i\j B\n`Z_k Xl] [`\
O\Z_e`b\e [\i bi`k`jZ_\e N\cYjk\i]fijZ_le^ le[ Xl] [Xj Nki\Y\e eXZ_
[\i \`^\e\e jg`i`kl\cc\e D[\ek`kvk* <lZ_ Y\kfek \i [`\ Ifkn\e[`^b\`k
//1

[\i N\cYjkm\in`ibc`Z_le^ Xcj QfiXljj\kqle^ ]{i \`e `Z_)]i\`\j eXk{ic`é
Z_\j G\Y\e $ÑR_fÉ( -523( g* --%* ?Xj `jk \`e [`i\bk\i( XY\i e`Z_k \oé
ki\d\i R\^ qld kiX[`k`fe\cc\e U`\c [\i N\cYjkm\in`ibc`Z_le^* @i
dXZ_k a\[fZ_ b\`e\e Q\ijlZ_( j`Z_ d`k ^\j\ccjZ_X]kc`Z_\e KifYc\d\e(
d`k [\i ?`Xc\bk`b [\i B\jZ_`Z_k\ le[ [\i C\iXlj]fi[\ile^ [liZ_ [\e
R\jk\eXlj\`eXe[\iqlj\kq\e*
NnXd` N`mXeXe[X $-443)-52/% Xlj M`j_`b\j_ Y\kfek [`\ Ifkn\e[`^é
b\`k \`e\i jpebi\k`jk`jZ_\e f[\i \bc\bk`jZ_\e Afid [\j Tf^X ]{i [\e
df[\ie\e H\ejZ_\e $N`mXeXe[X( -51,%* @i m\in\e[\k [\e mfe Ni`
<lifY`e[f ^\giv^k\e O\id`elj Dek\^iXc\i Tf^X $^c`\O)Tf^X% `d
\bc\bk`jZ_\e N`ee* @i q\`^k( n`\ `e [`\ le^\_\l\i bfdgc\o\ G\Y\ejé
jkilbkli [\j df[\ie\e H\ejZ_\e n\ikmfcc\ @c\d\ek\ Xcc [\i m\ijZ_`\é
[\e\e fY\e Xl] ^\]{_ik\e Tf^X)Npjk\d\ \`eY\qf^\e n\i[\e bzee\e*
?Xj j`e[ qn\`]\ccfj j\_i e{kqc`Z_\ uY\ic\^le^\e( jfcXe^\ dXe \j XYé
c\_ek( j`Z_ Xl] [Xj \ekjZ_\`[\e[\ KifYc\d [\i =\q`\_le^\e qn`jZ_\e
B\jZ_`Z_k\ le[ @mfclk`fe \`e\ij\`kj le[ [\i \dg`i`jZ_\e ?`d\ej`fe
[\jd\ejZ_c`Z_\eN\cYjkXe[\i\ij\`kj\`eqlcXjj\e*
NnXd` FlmXcXpXeXe[X Xlj GXefmcX $KffeX% _Xk Xcj \ijk\i d`k eXklié
n`jj\ejZ_X]kc`Z_\e Pek\ijlZ_le^jd\k_f[\e [`\ Q\ive[\ile^ g_pé
j`fcf^`jZ_\i Kifq\jj\ lek\ijlZ_k( [`\ j`Z_ Xcj Afc^\ [\i [liZ_ Tf^X
le[ H\[`kXk`fe \iq`\ck\e =\nl~kj\`ejm\ive[\ile^\e \`ejk\cc\e* @`e
]ilZ_kYXi\j M\jlckXk [`\j\j gjpZ_fg_pj`fcf^`jZ_\e <ejXkq\j `jk \`e\
k`\]\i\ @`ej`Z_k `e [\e m`\c]vck`^\e k_\iXg\lk`jZ_\e Ilkq\e [\i Tf^Xé
{Yle^\e$FlmXcXpXeXe[X(-522(FXg*-/%*
HX_Xi`j_` HX_\j_ Tf^` c\^k `e j\`e\i O_\fi`\ [\i kiXejq\e[\ekXc\e
H\[`kXk`fe [Xj CXlgk^\n`Z_k Xl] [`\ Ifkn\e[`^b\`k gjpZ_`jZ_\i
@ekjgXeele^ d`k C`c]\ e`Z_kY\^i`]]c`Z_\i HXekiXj f[\i GXlk]fid\ce*
<lj Bi{e[\e [\i KfglcXi`kvk m\in\`jk \i XlZ_ Xlj[i{Zbc`Z_ Xl] [\e
_\[fe`jk`jZ_\e R\ik [\i H\[`kXk`fe Xcj \`e\j H`kk\cj ql ^iz~\i\d
G\Y\ej^\el~* Ñ?Xj G\Y\e `jk `d =\nl~k_\`kjqljkXe[ [\i N\c`^b\`k
XYjfclk( `e [\e m`\c]vck`^\e Ai\l[\e [\i @ijZ_\`ele^jn\ck i\cXk`mÉ
$HX_Xi`j_`( -52/(g* 2-%* R\[\i [\i kiX^`jZ_\ <jg\bk [\j G\Y\ej efZ_
[`\ [`Xc\bk`jZ_\e NgXeele^\e( [`\ [Xj G\Y\e qld FXdg]gcXkq ]{i [`\
jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e HXe`]\jkXk`fe\e _z_\i\i R\ik\ dXZ_\e( n\i[\e `e
j\`eFfeq\gk\`eY\qf^\e*
?`\ kiXejq\e[\ekXc\ H\[`kXk`fe _Xk `e [\e Gve[\ie [\j R\jk\ej ^ifé
~\e <ebcXe^ ^\]le[\e* De De[`\e jk\_k dXe `_i a\[fZ_ n\`k_`e d`k
Nb\gj`j le[ bi`k`jZ_\e @`enve[\e ^\^\e{Y\i* HXe n`i]k `_i mfi( Xccqlé
j\_i ql m\i\`e]XZ_\e le[ [X_\i le]v_`^ ql j\`e( [`\ H\ejZ_\e n\`k\ié
//2

qlYi`e^\e Xcj Y`j ql \`e\d jg`i`kl\cc\e F`e[\i^Xik\e* D_i _XlgkjvZ_c`é
Z_\i Ilkq\e Y\jk\_k `e gjpZ_fg_pj`jZ_\i @ekjgXeele^( [`\ Xcc\i[`e^j
[\i \ijk\ n`Z_k`^\ NZ_i`kk `e Xcc\e Tf^X)Npjk\d\e `jk* De [\i kiXejq\eé
[\ekXc\e H\[`kXk`fe n`i[ a\[fZ_ R\ik)=\nl~kj\`e bXld \ekn`Zb\ck*
<lZ_ m\i]{^k j`\ {Y\i b\`e\ic\` H\k_f[fcf^`\ qli bi`k`jZ_\e =\lik\`é
cle^ [\i m\in`ii\e[\e Q`\c]Xck dpjk`jZ_\i @i]X_ile^\e le[ [\i n\Z_é
j\ce[\e<ejZ_Xlle^j]fid\e(`e[\e\e[XjN\cYjk\ijZ_\`ek*
<d >Xc`]fie`X Dejk`klk\ f] <j`Xe Nkl[`\j `e NXe AiXeZ`jZf cXl]\e q* U*
e\l\ AfijZ_le^jgifa\bk\ Xl] [\d B\Y`\k [\i Tf^X)KjpZ_fcf^`\*
<iY\`kj^\d\`ejZ_X]k\e qli d\[`kXk`m\e @i]fijZ_le^ [\j j\\c`jZ_\e
=\i\`Z_j n\i[\e \i^veqk [liZ_ N\d`eXi\ {Y\i bi`k`jZ_\ <eXcpj\ le[
bfejkilbk`m\ <ljn\ikle^ `_i\i @i^\Ye`jj\* ?`\ O`\]\e [\i KjpZ_\
n\i[\e `e Xcc\e `_i\e <jg\bk\e jfe[`\ik( nfd`k \`e\ ld]Xjj\e[\
fYa\bk`m\ @`ej`Z_k `e [`\ m\ijZ_`\[\e\e kiX[`k`fe\cc\e le[ df[\ie\e
Tf^X)?`jq`gc`e\e ^\]zi[\ik n`i[* ?Xj NZ_n\i^\n`Z_k c`\^k a\[fZ_ Xl]
[\i KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j `ek\^iXc\e Tf^X d`k [\d U`\c [\i mfccbfdd\e\e
KjpZ_f`ek\^iXk`fe le[ [\i _\lk\ qn`e^\e[\e Ifkn\e[`^b\`k \`e\i
I\l]fidlc`\ile^ [\i ^ile[c\^\e[\e @ib\eeke`jj\ [\j Tf^X `e \`e\i
e`Z_k)d\kXg_pj`jZ_\eNgiXZ_\$>_Xl[_li`(-521X(-522%*
?`\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j `ek\^iXc\e Tf^X ^\n`eek `_i\ jg\q`]`jZ_\e >_Xé
iXbk\i`jk`bX Xlj [\i KiXo`j [\j `ek\^iXc\e Tf^X `d lijgi{e^c`Z_\e
Rfikj`ee( n`\ <lifY`e[f `_e m\ijkXe[* Dd H`kk\cglebk [`\j\i KiXo`j
jk\_k [`\ I\lfi[ele^ [\i Ki`fi`kvk\e [\j R\ik)=\nl~kj\`ej* Qfccé
bfdd\e\ KjpZ_f`ek\^iXk`fe Y\[\lk\k e`Z_k eli Q\in`ibc`Z_le^ [\i
dpjk`jZ_\e f[\i kiXejq\e[\ekXc\e ?`d\ej`fe [\j N\cYjk* N`\ \i]fi[\ik
XlZ_ [`\ <bklXc`j`\ile^ [\j gjpZ_`jZ_\e Kfk\ek`Xcj [\j De[`m`[lldj
Xcj \`e\i jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e @ek`kvk `ee\i_XcY [\i @mfclk`fe* ?`\ e\l \eké
n`Zb\ck\ O\Z_e`b [\i `ek\^iXc\e N\cYjk)Q\in`ibc`Z_le^ Y\jk\_k [Xi`e(
B\`jk( j\ol\cc\ G`Y`[f le[ kiXejg\ijfeXc\ N\`ej)@e\i^`\ $cf^fj( \ifj
le[ fekfj7 P`OV[O% dWa\c le[ aWdO&aOYbW# `e Y\n\^c`Z_\d Bc\`Z_^\é
n`Z_kql_Xck\e*

K_`cfjfg_`jZ_\Bile[cX^\e[\iTf^X)KjpZ_fcf^`\
?`\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j Tf^X YXj`\ik c\kqkc`Z_ Xl] [\d =\^i`]] [\j N\cYjk
"^c`caO% Ob[O\#' @j `jk [Xj \`^\ekc`Z_\ U\ekild( [Xj \`e`^\e[\ Ki`eq`g
[\i ^\jXdk\e K\ijzec`Z_b\`k( `_i\i g_pj`jZ_\e( ki`\Y_X]k\e( `ek\cc\b)
//3

kl\cc\e( \k_`jZ_)i\c`^`zj\e le[ fekfcf^`jZ_\e ?`d\ej`fe\e* @j `jk [Xj
`ek\^i`\i\e[\ Ki`eq`g [\i KjpZ_\( [\i\e le^\_\l\i bfdgc\o\ Nkilbkli
jZ_\`eYXi jf [`m\i^`\i\e[\ <jg\bk\ n`\ [Xj =\nl~kj\`e( [Xj PeY\é
nl~k\ le[ [Xj _z_\i\ =\nl~kj\`e f[\i uY\iY\nl~k\ ld]X~k* ?`\j\j
ÑnX_i\É N\cYjk `jk \`ej d`k [\d N\`e* N\`e nX_i\j N\cYjk b\ee\e _\`~k
Xcjf( d`k [\i ^Xeq\e @bjkXj\ k`\]jk\i @ib\eeke`j [Xj @`ejj\`e d`k [\d
N\`e( [\d \n`^\e G\Y\ej^ile[( \i]X_i\e* ?Xj @`ejj\`e d`k [\d N\`e
\i]X_i\e _\`~k XY\i XlZ_( [Xj @`ejj\`e f[\i [`\ Q\inXe[kjZ_X]k d`k
Xcc\e H`kd\ejZ_\e le[ Xcc\d G\Y\e[`^\e \i]X_i\e* Ped`kk\cYXi\i
<lj]cl~ [\i @i]X_ile^ [\j @`ejj\`ej d`k [\e Xe[\i\e `jk [\i B\`jk
le`m\ijXc\i G`\Y\ le[ le`m\ijXc\e H`k^\]{_cj( [\i b\`e\ Bi\eq\e
b\eekle[b\`e\[`jbi`d`e`\i\e[\eQfilik\`c\[lc[\k*
?`\j\ @i]X_ile^ jgfekXe\i Ai\l[\ le[ G`\Y\( n`\ j`\ [`\ `ee\i\ NZ_Xl
[\i @`e_\`k Xcc\j ?Xj\`\e[\e _\imfiil]k( jk\cck [`\ g_`cfjfg_`jZ_\
Bile[cX^\Xcc\iTf^X)?`jq`gc`e\e[Xi*
@j ^`Yk( ^ifY ^\jX^k( ]{e] g_`cfjfg_`jZ_ Y\[\lkjXd\ Tf^X)?`jq`gc`)
e\e6 Tf^X [\i ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e Ffekifcc\( Tf^X [\i G`\Y\( Tf^X [\i
@ib\eeke`j( Tf^X [\i OXkbiX]k le[ Tf^X [\i kfkXc\e Dek\^iXk`fe* Dd
]fc^\e[\e n\i[\e [`\j\ g_`cfjfg_`jZ_\e Bile[i`Z_kle^\e( [`\ _`eé
j`Z_kc`Z_ `_i\i M`Z_kle^ le[ [\i Q\ik\`cle^ [\i NZ_n\iglebk\ ^\i`e^é
]{^`^mfe\`eXe[\iXYn\`Z_\e(bliqjb`qq`\ik*
?\i Tf^X [\i ^\`jk`^)j\\c`jZ_\e Ffekifcc\ YXj`\ik g_`cfjfg_`jZ_ Xl]
[\d ?lXc`jdlj mfe IXkli le[ B\`jk "^`OY`WbW le[ ^c`caO#' <cc\
Ffdgfe\ek\e [\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\e K\ijzec`Z_b\`k ) G\`Y( N`ee\( B\`é
jk`^)N\\c`jZ_\j( MXk`f( B\[vZ_ke`j le[ DZ_ ) ^\ck\e Xcj m\ijZ_`\[\e\
<lj[ilZbj]fid\e[\iIXkli*
?`\ IXkli `jk leY\nl~k\ NZ_zg]\ibiX]k* ?`\ [i\` bfejk`kl`\i\e[\e
Bile[q{^\ [\i IXkli j`e[6 -% Oiv^_\`k( KXjj`m`kvk( R`[\ijkXe[(
?`Z_k\ "bO[Oa#3 .% <bk`m`kvk( =\n\^le^( Q\inXe[cle^ "`OXOa#3
/% OiXejgXi\eq( <lj[ilZbj]v_`^b\`k( CXidfe`\ "aObbdO#' <l]
d\ejZ_c`Z_\i @Y\e\ e`ddk [`\ NZ_zg]\ibiX]k [\i IXkli [`\ B\jkXck
gjpZ_`jZ_\i @e\i^`\ Xe "QVWbbO#' ?`\ IXkli _Xk qnXi b\`e =\nl~kj\`e(
XY\i \`e\ <ik mfe U`\c^\i`Z_k\k_\`k( [`\ Xcc\ `_i\ sl~\ile^\e Y\é
jk`ddk* RXj XlZ_ `dd\i [`\ IXkli klk( klk j`\ \ekn\[\i qli Gljk0
f[\i qli =\]i\`le^ [\j B\`jk\j* ?`\ gjpZ_`jZ_\e Alebk`fe\e( n`\ q* =*
@dg]`e[le^( RX_ie\_dle^( B\[vZ_ke`j( @`eY`c[le^jbiX]k( Q\ié
jkXe[( Pik\`c\e( =\jZ_c`\~\e( CXe[\ce le[ [Xj DZ_ j`e[ m\ijZ_`\[\e\
R`ible^jXik\e [\i gjpZ_`jZ_\e @e\i^`\* ?`\ IXkli)@e\i^`\ _Xk b\`e
\`^\e\j =\nl~kj\`e* N`\ n`i[ d\_i f[\i n\e`^\i Y\nl~k `e [\d
//4

HX~( n`\ [`\ gjpZ_`jZ_\ @e\i^`\ [Xj G`Z_k [\j j\cYjk)c\lZ_k\e[\e
R\ck)B\`jk\j n`[\ijg`\^\ck( jf n`\ [\i Hfe[ ql c\lZ_k\e Xe]ve^k(
n\ee \i [Xj G`Z_k [\i j\cYjk)c\lZ_k\e[\e Nfee\ i\]c\bk`\ik( f[\i n`\
\`e Nk{Zb @`j\e [liZ_ [`\ =\i{_ile^ d`k [\d A\l\i ql ^c{_\e Xeé
]ve^k*
?`\ Xlj [\d N\\c`jZ_)B\`jk`^\e( Dek\cc\bk( B\[vZ_ke`j le[ DZ_ Y\jk\é
_\e[\ d\ejZ_c`Z_\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`k `jk Xcj X[vhlXk\j Dejkild\ek Xl] [`\
giXbk`jZ_\ KXik`q`gXk`fe Xd G\Y\e `e [\i R\ck _`e Xe^\c\^k* Ng`i`kl\cc
^\j\_\e( c\^\e a\[fZ_ [`\j\ gjpZ_`jZ_\e Alebk`fe\e [\d B\`jk
=\jZ_iveble^\e Xl] le[ _`e[\ie j\`e\ n`ibc`Z_\ N\cYjk\ib\eeke`j*
?`\ Rliq\c Xcc\e d\ejZ_c`Z_\e G\`[\ej `jk [`\ @ek]i\d[le^ [\j \`eé
q\ce\e mfe j\`e\d \`^\e\e nX_i\e N\cYjk Yqn* j\`e\d jg`i`kl\cc\e
R\j\ejb\ie le[ [`\ ]XcjZ_\ D[\ek`]`bXk`fe d`k [\e m\ijZ_`\[\e\e
Alebk`fe\ele[sl~\ile^j]fid\e[\iIXkli*
R\ee [liZ_ i\^\cdv~`^\ Tf^X)uYle^\e ) [\e Y\i{_dk\e <Z_kjkl)
]\e)K]X[ KXkXeaXc`j ) Xcc\ gjpZ_`jZ_\e Alebk`fe\e le[ Hf[`]`bXk`fé
e\e qld Nk`ccjkXe[ ^\YiXZ_k nfi[\e j`e[( \ijkiX_ck [Xj nX_i\ N\cYjk
`e j\`e\d R\j\ej^cXeq* Ile `jk [\i N\_\i ql j\`e\i \`^\ekc`Z_\e IXkli
^\cXe^k$OX`de`(-523(g*-,%*
?Xj N\cYjk `jk e`Z_k \`e\ d`k =\nl~kj\`e Xcj \`e\d j\`e\i <kki`é
Ylk\ Xlj^\jkXkk\k\ NlYjkXeq* @j `jk i\`e\j =\nl~kj\`e Xe j`Z_( \n`^
mfccbfdd\e( XYjfclk ]i\` le[ n\j\ejdv~`^ d`k G\lZ_kbiX]k Y\é
^XYk*
?Xj c\kqk\ U`\c [\i Tf^X)?`jq`gc`e `jk [`\ nX_i\ kiXejq\e[\ekXc\
N\cYjkm\in`ibc`Z_le^ le[ ]i`\[mfcc\j N\cYjk^\e{^\e* @j \i]fi[\ik [Xj
OiXejq\e[`\i\e Xcc\i gjpZ_`jZ_\e KfcXi`kvk\e n`\ G`\Y\ le[ CX~( Gljk
le[ NZ_d\iq( NZ_X]]\e le[ U\ijkzi\e( le[ bfej\hl\ek\ De[`]]\i\eq
"cROaW\ObO#^\^\e{Y\iXcc\en\ckc`Z_\e<e^\c\^\e_\`k\e*
?\i Tf^X [\i G`\Y\ YXj`\ik g_`cfjfg_`jZ_ Xl] \`e\d dfe`jk`jZ_\e
Ng`i`klXc`jdlj* ?Xj `e[`m`[l\cc\ N\cYjk `jk e`Z_k mzcc`^ leXY_ve^`^ le[
j\cYjk^\e{^jXd* @j `jk \`e\ ^\`jk`^\ NlYjkXeq \`^\e\i <ik le[ ql^c\`Z_
\n`^\i O\`c [\i _zZ_jk\e Bfkk_\`k( [\j NZ_zg]\ij( [\i [`\ R\ck \i_vck(
c\ebk le[ n`\[\i m\i^\_\e cv~k* ?`\ n\j\ekc`Z_\e <kki`Ylk\ [\j N\cYjk
j`e[ =\nl~kj\`e( N\c`^b\`k( Pejk\iYc`Z_b\`k le[ Ai\`_\`k mfe Pen`jé
j\e le[ @^fq\eki`b* ?Xj c\kqk\ U`\c [\j G\Y\ej `jk c`\Y\e[\ B\d\`eé
jZ_X]k d`k [\i _zZ_jk\e Bfkk_\`k* ?X Xcc\ G\Y\n\j\e B\jZ_zg]\ Bfké
k\j j`e[( jZ_c`\~k [`\ mfcc \iYc{_k\ G`\Y\ ql Bfkk H`k^\]{_c ]{i Xcc\
c\Y\e[`^\eB\jZ_zg]\le[[\e?`\ejkXe`_e\e\`e*
?\i Tf^X [\i @ib\eeke`j YXj`\ik Xl] \`e\i e`Z_k[lXc`jk`jZ_\e jg`i`kl)
//5

\`c\e K_`cfjfg_`\* ?`\ D[\\ \`e\j g\ijzec`Z_\e Bfkk\j Xcj \`e\i le\e[é
c`Z_\e jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e ^\`jk`^\e NlYjkXeq `jk \`e R`[\ijgilZ_ `e j`Z_*
NlYjkXeq `jk \`e\ FXk\^fi`\ [\j d\ejZ_c`Z_\e Dek\cc\bkj( [`\ Xl] [`\
c\kqk\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k e`Z_k Xen\e[YXi `jk* A\ie\i `jk Bfkk Xcj K\ijfe
Xl] [`\ R\ck le[ Xl] \e[c`Z_\ B\`jk\i Y\qf^\e le[ [X_\i j\cYjk i\cXk`m(
e`Z_k XYjfclk* ?X_\i `jk Bfkk c\kqkc`Z_ e`Z_k n`ibc`Z_( n\ee XlZ_ mfd
i\cXk`m\e NkXe[glebk [\j H\ejZ_\e le[ [\i R\ck Xlj [Xj G\kqk\ Xcj
Bfkk \ijZ_\`ek* ?Xj <Yjfclk\ \ijZ_\`ek Xcj Bfkk( jf n`\ [\i ^i\eq\eé
cfj\C`dd\c[\dd\ejZ_c`Z_\e<l^\YcXl\ijZ_\`ek*
Dejf]\ie [Xj `e[`m`[l\cc\ N\cYjk "XWdOb[O\# Xcj ^\`jk`^\ NlYjkXeq Y\é
^i`]]\e n`i[( `jk \j \`e mfd Dek\cc\bk bfejkil`\ik\j B\Y`c[\* ?\i MXaX)
Tf^X _Xk i\Z_k( n\ee \i Y\_Xlgk\k( [Xj nX_i\ N\cYjk j\` i\`e\j ^\jkXcké
cfj\j =\nl~kj\`e* ?\i R`[\ijgilZ_ c`\^k Y\`d MXaX)Tf^X a\[fZ_
[Xi`e( [X~ \i [`\ jlYjkXek`\cc\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k [\j `e[`m`[l\cc\e N\cYjk
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N\cYjk \i_Xck\ j`Z_ \n`^ j\cYjk( \j \o`jk`\i\ XYjfclk leXY_ve^`^( ^Xeq
Xcc\`e j`Z_ j\cYjk ^\e{^\e[( ]{_ik dXe lek\i [\i CXe[ [\e d\kXg_pj`é
jZ_\e =\^i`]] [\i NlYjkXeq \`e* <l~\i[\d `jk [\i =\^i`]] \`e\j \n`^
j`Z_ j\cYjk \i_Xck\e[\e `e[`m`[l\cc\e N\cYjk e`Z_k m\i\`eYXi d`k [\i
_zZ_jk\e dpjk`jZ_\e @i]X_ile^ [\j @`ejj\`ej [\j De[`m`[lldj d`k
[\d BXeq\e [\j ?Xj\`ej le[ [\d Pi^ile[ Xcc\i ?`e^\* A{i [\e Tf^X
[\i @ib\eeke`j `jk [X_\i [Xj nX_i\ N\cYjk i\`e\j ^\jkXckcfj\j =\nl~ké
j\`e `d \`^\ekc`Z_\e N`ee [\j Rfik\j* @j bXee XY\i eli \`e \`eq`^\j
le\e[c`Z_\j( ^i\eq\ecfj\j i\`e\j =\nl~kj\`e ^\Y\e( [Xj b\`e\ic\`
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j`e[*
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q\ecfj\j =\nl~kj\`e [`\ c\kqk\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k* ?Xj N\cYjk `jk e`Z_k leé
k\ijZ_`\[\e mfe [\i c\kqk\e R`ibc`Z_b\`k( [\d N\`e( jf n`\ XlZ_ [\i
Y\^i\eqk\ MXld mfd le\e[c`Z_\e MXld e`Z_k lek\ijZ_`\[\e `jk* ?`\
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eli i\cXk`m ^{ck`^\( c\kqkc`Z_ XY\i len`ibc`Z_\ NZ_\`eg_vefd\e\* ?Xj
c\kqk\ U`\c [\j Tf^X [\i @ib\eeke`j `jk [Xj led`kk\cYXi\ @i]Xjj\e [`\é
j\i_zZ_jk\eI`Z_k[lXc`kvk*
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/0,

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_zZ_jk\ B\_`ieq\ekild "aOVOa`O`O# \ii\`Z_k( `jk [\i Tf^` ^Xeq ]i\` ^\é
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Z_\e K\ijfe( efZ_ i\`e\j( mfd le^\k\`ck\e N\`e e`Z_km\ijZ_`\[\e\j
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[\]`e`\i\e[\O`\]\e[`d\ej`fe[\jN\`ej`jk\`ejd`kj\`e\ibfjd`jZ_\e
/0-

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/0.

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/0/

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/00

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/01

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/02

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$MX[_Xbi`j_eXe( -51.( g* -11%* ?\i Bfkkd\ejZ_ `jk eXk{ic`Z_ [`\
Q\ibzig\ile^ [\j U\`k^\`jk\j f[\i [\j jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e Ddg\klj [\i
gcXe\kXi`jZ_\e@mfclk`fe*

/04

?XjB\]{_c
R`i _XY\e ^\j\_\e( [X~ [Xj B\]{_c [Xj Gljk\c\d\ek `e Xcc\e gjpZ_`é
jZ_\e Alebk`fe\e `jk* Dd <cckX^jc\Y\e j`e[ [`\ B\]{_c\ a\[fZ_ `e jkveé
[`^\i AclbklXk`fe le[ @ii\^le^* B\]{_cjjZ_nXeble^\e j`e[ \`e\
CXlgklijXZ_\ [\i G\`[\e le[ [\i Ji`\ek`\ile^jcfj`^b\`k [\j H\eé
jZ_\e*
R\ee [Xj De[`m`[lld `d GXl] j\`e\i jg`i`kl\cc\e @ek]Xckle^ j\`e\
g_pj`jZ_\ ?`d\ej`fe {Y\ijZ_i\`k\k le[ Xl] i\`e jg`i`kl\cc\i @Y\e\
n`\[\i^\Yfi\e n`i[( Xl] [\i @Y\e\ [\j I`Z_k)H\ekXc\e( I`Z_k)Dek\c)
c\bkj( I`Z_k)DZ_Y\nl~kj\`ej( \ic\Yk \j a\e\e Ai`\[\e( [\i {Y\i Xcc\
`i[`jZ_\ Q\iele]k le[ e`Z_kj Xe[\i\j Xcj kiXejq\e[\ekXc\ N\c`^b\`k
"O\O\RO# `jk* ?Xj kiXejq\e[\ekXc\ B\]{_c [\i N\c`^b\`k `jk n\j\ej^c\`Z_
d`k [\d \`^\e\e nX_i\e N\cYjk* @j `jk [\i `ee\ijk\ F\ie [\j \`^\e\e
i\`e\e ?Xj\`ej* ?X_\i `jk \j jgfekXe le[ q\`kcfj* @j `jk mfe b\`e\d
JYa\bk( b\`e\d =\j`kq( b\`e\i Ovk`^b\`k( b\`e\i RlejZ_\i]{ccle^ XYé
_ve^`^* @j `jk \`ej d`k [\d i\`e\e ?Xj\`e le[ [\d i\`e\e =\nl~kj\`e*
M\`e\j `Z_cfj\j =\nl~kj\`e `jk =\nl~kj\`e mfe [\i ]le[Xd\ekXc\e
@`e_\`k Xcc\e ?Xj\`ej( mfd n\Z_j\cj\`k`^ m\i]cfZ_k\e\e UljXdd\eé
j\`e mfe Xcc\d `d @`e\e* Nf Y\[\lk\k [Xj @ic\Ye`j [\i kiXejq\e[\ekXc\e
N\c`^b\`k ql^c\`Z_ [Xj @ic\Ye`j ledfk`m`\ik\i le`m\ij\cc\i G`\Y\*
NfYXc[ dXe qld kiXejq\e[\ekXc\e =\nl~kj\`e "bc`WdO# [liZ_jkz~k(
_Xk dXe [Xj jgfekXe\ B\]{_c( [`\ ^Xeq\ R\ck `e G`\Y\ le[ Ai\l[\ ldé
Xid\e ql d{jj\e( e`Z_k( n\`c dXe `i^\e[ \knXj [X]{i \inXik\k f[\i
_XY\e dzZ_k\( jfe[\ie n\`c \j( n`\ [\i B\jXe^ ]{i [\e Qf^\c( [Xj
=c{_\e ]{i [`\ =cld\ f[\i [Xj G\lZ_k\e ]{i [\e Nk\ie( <lj[ilZb [\j
\`^\e\e`ee\ijk\eR\j\ej`jk*
M\`e\j `Z_cfj\j =\nl~kj\`e e`ddk [`\ Q`\c]Xck [\i n\ckc`Z_\e ?`e^\
Xcj [\e bi`jkXcc`j`\ik\e <lj[ilZb le\e[c`Z_\i NZ_X]]\ejcljk [\j N\`ej
nX_i*<cc\jle[a\[\jb{e[\kmfe[`\j\ijZ_zg]\i`jZ_\eGljk*
?`\ kiXejq\e[\ekXc\ N\c`^b\`k( n`\ [`\ Tf^X)KjpZ_fcf^`\ j`\ b\eek( `jk
hlXc`kXk`m le[ fekfcf^`jZ_ m\ijZ_`\[\e mfe ^\nz_ec`Z_\e Ai\l[\e
le[ Bc{Zbj^\]{_c\e* Dd ^\nz_ec`Z_\e G\Y\e jk\cck j`Z_ \`e Bc{Zbjé
^\]{_c \`e( n\ee [Xj =\^\_i\e eXZ_ \`e\d Y\jk`ddk\e JYa\bk( m`\cé
c\`Z_k eXZ_ ^lk\d @jj\e( eXZ_ \`e\d <lkf f[\i \`e\d B\jZ_c\Z_kjé
gXike\i( ^\jk`cck `jk* ?`\ kiXejq\e[\ekXc\ N\c`^b\`k `jk mfe b\`e\d
JYa\bk XY_ve^`^* N`\ `jk [`\ R\j\ejjkilbkli [\j nX_i\e kiXejq\e[\eé
kXc\e N\cYjk f[\i i\`e\j ^\jkXckcfj\j =\nl~kj\`e* ?Xj nX_i\ N\cYjk
n`i[ Xcj i\`e\j ?Xj\`e( =\nl~kj\`ejj\c`^b\`k "aOb&QWb&O\O\RO# Y\)
/05

jZ_i`\Y\e* ?Xj \`^\e\ N\cYjk \ib\ee\e _\`~k Xcjf( [`\j\ <ik mfe N\c`^é
b\`k \ic\Y\e7 j`\ `jk [Xj jgfekXe\ @i^\Ye`j [\i nX_i\e N\cYjk)
<ejZ_Xlle^*
?Xj U`\c [\j Tf^X `jk( {Y\i [`\ fYa\bk)XY_ve^`^\e Ai\l[\e le[ G\`[\e
_`eXljql^\cXe^\e le[ [Xj N\cYjk f[\i N\`e ql \ib\ee\e6 [Xj Y\[\lk\k
?Xj\`e)=\nl~kj\`e)N\c`^b\`k* ?Xj jZ_c`\~k e`Z_k Xlj( [X~ dXe XlZ_
[`\ @o`jk\eq [\i ?lXc`kvk\e G\Y\e)Of[( ^lk)Yzj\( Gljk)NZ_d\iq Xcj
>_XiXbk\i`jk`bX [\i \dg`i`jZ_\e @ijZ_\`ele^jn\ck qli F\eeke`j
e`ddk*
@`e Tf^` `d UljkXe[ [\i N\c`^b\`k( [\i qli <ejZ_Xlle^ j\`e\j N\cYjk
^\cXe^k `jk( `jk [X_\i `e [\i GX^\( `d G\Y\e m`\c G\`[ le[ jZ_n\i\
=\cXjkle^\e ql \ikiX^\e( j\`e Fi\lq `e [\i R\ck Xl] j`Z_ ql e\_d\e(
f_e\ [X~ \j `_e j\_i Y\i{_ik* @i bXee `ee\ic`Z_ [`jkXeq`\ik( f_e\ Xl]
=\cf_ele^ f[\i <e\ib\eele^ ql nXik\e( Xe Xcc\d k\`ce\_d\e7 [\ee
\i ]{_ik `ee\ic`Z_ \`e \i]{cck\j G\Y\e* @i _Xk [\e _zZ_jk\e G\Y\ejcf_e(
evdc`Z_ [`\ @`e_\`k mfe R\`j_\`k( jgfekXe\i N\c`^b\`k le[ Y\[`eé
^le^jcfj\iG`\Y\(Y\i\`kj\dg]Xe^\e*

@i`ee\ile^le[B\[vZ_ke`j
?`\ @i`ee\ile^ `jk [`\ M\gif[lbk`fe m\i^Xe^\e\i @ic\Ye`jj\ `e `_i\i
lijgi{e^c`Z_\e Afid* <cc\ @ic\Ye`jj\ le[ <bk`m`kvk\e _`ek\icXjj\e
@`e[i{Zb\ le[ =`c[\i `d d\ekXc\e Npjk\d* N`\ n\i[\e aO[aYO`Oa ^\é
eXeek*
Dek\i\jj\ le[ <l]d\ibjXdb\`k jg`\c\e( mfe [\e @i]fi[\ie`jj\e [\j
uY\ic\Y\ej le[ RXZ_j\ej bfekifcc`\ik( Y\`d Alebk`fe`\i\e [\j
B\[vZ_ke`jj\j \`e\ c\Y\ejn`Z_k`^\ Mfcc\* ?`\a\e`^\e @c\d\ek\ \_\dXé
c`^\i @ic\Ye`jj\( [`\ \`e\e c\Y_X]k\e @`e[ilZb `d g_pj`jZ_)d\ekXc\e
=\i\`Z_ _`ek\ic`\~\e le[ [`\( n\cZ_\ ]{i lej\i uY\ic\Y\e le[ Afiké
bfdd\e `e [\i R\ck mfe Ilkq\e j`e[( n\i[\e d`k G\`Z_k`^b\`k \i`eé
e\ik* ?Xj n\`jk Xl] [`\ giX^dXk`jZ_\ <ecX^\ lej\i\i B\_`iejkilbkli
le[ lej\i\i d\ekXc\e Alebk`fe\e _`e* ?`\ \ijZ_{kk\ie[jk\e kiX^`é
jZ_\e @i]X_ile^\e lej\i\j G\Y\ej( [`\ [\e RXZ_jkldjgifq\~ _`eé
[\ie bzeek\e( ]Xcc\e ^\nz_ec`Z_ [\i Q\i[ive^le^ Xe_\`d* ?`\j\
Alebk`fe [\j B\[vZ_ke`jj\j( [Xj <ljnv_c\e le[ Q\in\i]\e "a[Wb`W#%
q\l^k mfe j\`e\i C\ible]k Xlj [\i [OgO2( [\d ]{i [Xj giXbk`jZ_\
G\Y\eqljkve[`^\eKi`eq`g*
/1,

?\i H\ejZ_ a\[fZ_( [\i \ekjZ_cfjj\e `jk( [`\ Bi\eq\e [\i R\ck giX^é
dXk`jZ_\i B{ck`^b\`k "[OgO# ql {Y\ijZ_i\`k\e( \ic\Yk \`e\ @in\`k\ile^
[\j B\[vZ_ke`j_fi`qfek\j* Qfe BXlkXdX =l[[_X n`i[ Y\i`Z_k\k( [X~
`d GXl] j\`e\i d\[`kXk`m\e @i]fijZ_le^ [\i KjpZ_\ e`Z_k eli F`e[é
_\`kj\i`ee\ile^\e jfe[\ie XlZ_ @i`ee\ile^\e Xlj j\`e\e ]i{_\i\e
DebXieXk`fe\e `e `_d Xl]qljk\`^\e Y\^Xee\e* Gve^jk m\i^Xe^\e\
@ic\Ye`jj\( j`eemfcc\ le[ j`eecfj\( ^c{Zbc`Z_\ le[ le^c{Zbc`Z_\( ^lk\
le[ Yzj\( Y\^Xee\e mfi j\`e\d i{ZbjZ_Xl\e[\e =c`Zb `e cXe^\i M\`_\
mfi{Y\iqlq`\_\e* ?Xj Y\[\lk\k \`e\e n`Z_k`^\e NZ_i`kk mfiXe Xl] [\i
NlZ_\ eXZ_ [\d \`^\e\e kfkXc\e N\`e( [Xj a\ej\`kj mfe Blk le[ =zj\
`jk* ?`\j\j NlZ_\e eXZ_ [\d kfkXc\e N\cYjk [Xi] e`Z_k [liZ_ bfem\eé
k`fe\cc\ R\iklik\`c\ f[\i @inv^le^\e {Y\i [\e giXbk`jZ_\e Ilkq\e
[\i<egXjjle^Xe[`\Pdn\ckY\_`e[\ikn\i[\e*
HXe bXee j\`e B\[vZ_ke`j ]fc^c`Z_ Xl] qn\`\ic\` R\`j\ \in\`k\ie*
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`e[\d dXe [`\ NlZ_\ eXZ_ [\i c\kqk\e RX_i_\`k f_e\ AliZ_k mfi [\e
giXbk`jZ_\eAfc^\e`ek\ej`m`\ik*
Pd qli @ic\lZ_kle^ ql ^\cXe^\e( dl~ dXe j`Z_ e`Z_k Xe Xcc\j Q\ié
^Xe^\e\ \i`ee\ie* R\ee \j ezk`^ `jk( bzee\e n`Z_k`^\ @i`ee\ile^\e
Xlj [\i Q\i^Xe^\e_\`k a\[fZ_ j\_i m`\c jZ_e\cc\i i\gif[lq`\ik le[
Xlj^\n\ik\k n\i[\e Xcj `d IfidXc]Xcc* Dd AXcc\ =l[[_Xj nXi \`e
iXjZ_\i uY\iYc`Zb {Y\i [`\ Q\i^Xe^\e_\`k le[ `_i\ Dek\^iXk`fe ]{i
[`\ @i]{ccle^ j\`e\j _`jkfi`jZ_\e <l]kiX^j( Xcc\e FcXjj\e [\j Qfcb\j
ql_\c]\e(efkn\e[`^*

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Q\ijZ_`\[\e\ Oi`\Y\ le[ R{ejZ_\( Ddglcj\ le[ G\`[\ejZ_X]k\e n\ié
[\e f]k d`k Hfk`m\e ^c\`Z_^\j\kqk7 jf q* =* mfe KjpZ_fcf^\e( [`\ Xe
\`e\e le^\i\Z_k]\ik`^k\e gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e ?\k\id`e`jdlj ^cXlY\e
le[]fc^c`Z_[`\Ai\`_\`k[\jH\ejZ_\ec\l^e\e*
IXZ_ [\i KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j Tf^X `jk [`\ R\j\ejjkilbkli [\j H\ejZ_\e
=\nl~kj\`e* @j `jk `[\ek`jZ_ d`k j\`e\d ^Xeq\e N\`e* @j dl~ a\[fZ_
^\jX^k n\i[\e( [X~ \j m\ijZ_`\[\e\ =\nl~kj\`ej^iX[\ le[ )jZ_`Z_k\e
^`Yk* Dd jf^* PeY\nl~k\e `jk =\nl~kj\`e `e lei\]c\bk`\ik\i Afid cXé
k\ek ^\^\envik`^* <l] {Y\iY\nl~k\i @Y\e\ \o`jk`\ik \j `e \in\`k\ik\i(
/1-

j\cYjk)c\lZ_k\e[\i Afid( leXY_ve^`^ mfe c\`Yc`Z_\e N`ee\jfi^Xe\e
le[ =\^i`]]jXggXiXkli\e* Rv_i\e[ [Xj ?\eb\e fYa\bk)XY_ve^`^\j
=\nl~kj\`e `jk( `jk [Xj i\`e\ N\cYjk fYa\bkcfj\j( j\cYjk)c\lZ_k\e[\j
=\nl~kj\`e"aeOgO[Xg]bW#'
?Xj i\`e\ fYa\bkcfj\ =\nl~kj\`e `jk d`k [\i Nfee\ ql m\i^c\`Z_\e(
[`\ `_i n\j\ej\`^\e\j G`Z_k XljjkiX_ck( nv_i\e[ [Xj fYa\bk)XY_ve^`^\
?\eb)=\nl~kj\`e [\d Hfe[ ql m\i^c\`Z_\e `jk( [\i ^\Yfi^k\j G`Z_k
Xljj\e[\k*
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c`Z_b\`k `jk( XlZ_ [Xj q\ekiXc\ \`e`^\e[\ Ki`eq`g Xcc\e ^\jle[\e
d\ejZ_c`Z_\e G\Y\ej* I`Z_kj `d d\ejZ_c`Z_\e G\Y\e( b\`e\ G\`jkle^(
b\`e\ <bk`m`kvk ]`e[\k jkXkk f_e\ =`cc`^le^( =\jkvk`^le^ f[\i <ljc\j\
[liZ_ [Xj Xbk`m\ Ki`eq`g [\j =\nl~kj\`ej "PcRRVW#' R\ee \`e Oi`\Y(
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gcXlj`Yc\i QfinXe[ ^\]le[\e n\i[\e( [Xd`k j\`e\ =`cc`^le^ [liZ_ [Xj
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d\ekXc\e Npjk\dj( \ii\`Z_k n`i[* ?Xd`k ki`kk [\i H\Z_Xe`jdlj [\j
MXk`feXc`j`\i\ej `e <bk`fe* F\`e H\ejZ_ bXee `i^\e[ \knXj( le[ dX^
\j efZ_ jf `iiXk`feXc \ijZ_\`e\e( f_e\ Bile[ kle( j\cYjk n\ee [`\j\i
Bile[ e`Z_kj Xcj \`e\ Ycf~\ <lj^\Ylik j\`e\j ?\eb\ej `jk* @`e =Xebé
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[Xj Jg]\i j\` \`e NpdYfc ]{i [`\ B\j\ccjZ_X]k( [`\ `_e le^\i\Z_k Y\é
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`ee\i\i ?iXe^ n\i[\e eli qld Hfk`m( n\ee j`\( i\]c\bk`\ik f[\i e`Z_k(
mfd [peXd`jZ_\e Ki`eq`g [\j =\nl~kj\`ej "PcRRVW# Xlj^\nv_ck( Xeé
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F\_i\e n`i ele qli =\jgi\Z_le^ [\i m\ijZ_`\[\e\e <ik\e mfe Hfk`é
mXk`fe\e( [`\ eXZ_ [\i KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j Tf^X `d d\ejZ_c`Z_\e G\Y\e
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blckli\cc\le[i\`ejg`i`kl\cc\f[\ifekfvjk_\k`jZ_\*
?`\ ki`\Y_X]k\e Hfk`mXk`fe\e q\i]Xcc\e `_i\ij\`kj `e [i\` <ik\e \eké
jgi\Z_\e[ [\e [i\` N\`ejn\`j\e [\i IXkli6 `OXOa% bO[Oa le[ aObbdO'
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/1.

dXe lek\i [\d =\^i`]] ÑN\cYjkY\_Xlgkle^É qljXdd\e]Xjj\e bzeek\
"`OXOa#'
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le[ CXidfe`\( Xckil`jk`jZ_\ le[ _ldXe`kvi\ Ddglcj\ [\i NpdgXk_`\
le[ =i{[\ic`Z_b\`k ^\_zi\e ql \`e\i Hfk`mXk`fej)Bilgg\( [`\ dXe
kiXejg\ijfeXc f[\i j\cYjkkiXejq\e[`\i\e[ "aObbdO# e\ee\e bzeek\*
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\k_`jZ_\e =\^i`]]\ [\j Blk\e le[ =zj\e( i\c`^`zj\ Qfijk\ccle^\e n`\
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jle^ä le[ ãFe\Z_kjZ_X]kä j`e[ [\i Iv_iYf[\e ]{i blckli\cc\ Hfk`mXé
k`fe\e* R\ee \`e H\ejZ_ q* =* j\`e G\Y\e ]{i [`\ B\d\`ejZ_X]k \`eé
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m\ijkXe[\jdv~`^ ^\i\^\ck\j G\Y\e ql ]{_i\e( n\ee \i =l~\ klk le[
i\c`^`zj\ U\i\dfe`\e Xlj]{_ik( ld `e [\e C`dd\c ql bfdd\e
$M`klXc`jdlj%( n\ee \i Xe _\`c`^\e Fi\lqq{^\e f[\i eXk`feXc\e =\]i\`é
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efZ_ [\d M\`Z_ [\i [OgO $Pen`jj\e_\`k le[ @^f`jdlj% Xe* ?\i
H\ejZ_ `jk _`\i `dd\i efZ_ f_e\ g\ijzec`Z_\ <ejZ_Xlle^ j\`e\j
\`^\e\e nX_i\e N\cYjk f[\i [\j c\kqk\e Bile[\j j\`e\j \`^\e\e N\`ej
Xe [`\ ]\jk\e \k_`jZ_)i\c`^`zj\e =\^i`]]\ j\`e\j _`jkfi`jZ_\e Flcklijpé
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/1/

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/10

mzcc`^ Y\]i\`k\e le[ mfccbfdd\e j\cYjkm\in`ibc`Z_k\e H\ejZ_\e ^\é
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/11

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/12

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/13

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nf [\i Blil \iejkc`Z_ {Y\iq\l^k `jk( [X~ Y\jk`ddk\ NZ_{c\i( qld`eé
[\jk `e [`\j\d G\Y\e( \`e]XZ_ le]v_`^ j`e[( `_i\ ]i\`\ N\cYjkm\in`ibc`é
Z_le^ ql \ii\`Z_\e* ?`\ _zZ_jk\ <ik [\i N\cYjk\i]{ccle^( [`\ `_e\e
f]]\ejk\_k( `jk \`e\ ^lil)XY_ve^`^\ N\cYjkm\in`ibc`Z_le^7 Xl] [`\j\i
=Xj`j c\`jk\e j`\ lek\i [\i jkve[`^\e G\`kle^ [\j Blil [\i B\j\ccjZ_X]k
f[\iH\ejZ__\`k`_i\eY\jkdz^c`Z_\e=\`kiX^*
?\i G\iegifq\~ kiv^k \e[^{ck`^ AilZ_k( n\ee [`\ \Z_k\ N\cYjkm\ié
n`ibc`Z_le^ ql jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\i Ai\`_\`k( ql \ic\lZ_k\k\i Fi\Xk`m`kvk
i\`]k* ?\i j\cYjkm\in`ibc`Z_k\ H\ejZ_ ^c`\[\ik j`Z_ ele Xcj n\ikjZ_X]é
]\e[\j U\ekild jl` ^\e\i`j `e [\e ^\j\ccjZ_X]kc`Z_\e Kifq\~ \`e* @i
`jk e`Z_k d\_i m\ig]c`Z_k\k f[\i ^\qnle^\e( `e [\i B\j\ccjZ_X]k ql
_Xe[\ce f[\i `_i ql [`\e\e* @i jk\_k a\ej\`kj [\i dfiXc`jZ_\e Pek\ié
jZ_\`[le^\e qn`jZ_\e Blk le[ =zj\( M\Z_k le[ Pei\Z_k* @i [liZ_é
jZ_Xlk [`\ M\cXk`m`kvk Xcc\i jfq`f)\k_`jZ_\e Ifid\e* @i \ib\eek jf [\e
Ng`\cZ_XiXbk\i "ZWZO# Xcc\e G\Y\ej* ?fZ_ Xlj [\i A{cc\ j\`e\i Ai\`_\`k
le[ [\i NgfekXe\`kvk j\`e\i NZ_X]]\ej]i\l[\ _\iXlj e`ddk \i Xd
G\Y\e [\i B\j\ccjZ_X]k le[ Xe [\e R\ck\i\`^e`jj\e `e [\i <Yj`Z_k k\`c(
j\`e\ \`^\e\ Y\jk`ddk\( n\ee XlZ_ efZ_ jf ^\i`e^\ Mfcc\ `d j`Z_ \eké
]Xck\e[\e ?iXdX [\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\e B\j\ccjZ_X]k f_e\ M{Zbj`Z_k Xl]
B\n`ee f[\i Q\icljk( GfY f[\i OX[\c( Uljk`ddle^ f[\i NZ_dv_le^
qljg`\c\e*N\`e\`^\e\jnX_i\jN\cYjk`jkj\`ec\kqk\iBlil*
?`\ =\^i`]]\ [\j aeORVO`[O $B\j\kq [\i \`^\e\e @ek]Xckle^%( [\j Uc&
`cdORO $\ekjZ_\`[\e[\ Mfcc\ [\j Blil%( aO[OXO RVO`[O $jg\q`]`jZ_\j
@ek]Xckle^jdljk\i a\[\i B\j\ccjZ_X]k%( Flckli Xcj A\c[ [\j jg`\c\i`é
/14

jZ_\e N\cYjk)<lj[ilZbj [\j N\`ej "ZWZO PVc[W# le[ [Xj mfccbfdd\e\
De[`m`[lld Xcj jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\j U\ekild [\j N\`ej n\i[\e Xcjf( n`\
dXej`\_k(Xcjc\`k\e[\Ki`eq`g`\e\Z_k\i@iq`\_le^gfjklc`\ik*

?`\=\q`\_le^qn`jZ_\eB\`jkle[Fzig\i
?Xj KifYc\d [\i =\q`\_le^ mfe B\`jk le[ Fzig\i _Xk `e [\i Afid(
n`\ \j [`\ n\jkc`Z_\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ gcX^k( ]{i [`\ KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j Tf^X
e`\Y\jkXe[\e*
?\i ZXik\j`Xe`jZ_\ ?lXc`jdlj mfe B\`jk le[ HXk\i`\ Xcj qn\` _\k\ifé
^\e\e NlYjkXeq\e ]{_ik\ `e [\i KjpZ_fcf^`\ [\j R\jk\ej ql Xcc\i_Xe[
g_XekXjk`jZ_\e Qfijk\ccle^\e `e Y\ql^ Xl] [`\ R\Z_j\cn`ible^\e
qn`jZ_\e Y\`[\e* ?\jZXik\j j\cYjk nXi [\i H\`ele^( [`\j\ Dek\iXbk`fe
n\i[\ mfe [\i U`iY\c[i{j\ m\id`kk\ck( nfY\` \i {Y\ijX_( [X~ aX [`\
U`iY\c[i{j\ `_i\ij\`kj O\`c [\j dXk\i`\cc\e Fzig\ij( e`Z_k [\j `ddXk\é
i`\cc\e B\`jk\j `jk* Ngvk\i \eknXi]\e \`e`^\ j\`e\i IXZ_]fc^\i( mfi Xcé
c\d <iefc[ B\lc`e\o( [`\ Y`qXii\ O_\fi`\ [\j JbbXj`feXc`jdlj f[\i
[\i Ñqn\` P_i\eÉ* ?\i JbbXj`feXc`jdlj Y\_Xlgk\k( \j Y\jk{e[\ b\`e\
[`i\bk\ bXljXc\ =\q`\_le^ qn`jZ_\e [\e gjpZ_`jZ_\e Alebk`fe\e le[
[\i g_pj`fcf^`jZ_\e Kifq\jj\e* B\`jk le[ Fzig\i ^c\`Z_\e [XeXZ_
qn\` P_i\e( [`\ mfe Bfkk `d mfiXlj jf \`e^\jk\cck nli[\e( [X~ j`\
jkve[`^ ^\eXl [`\j\cY\ U\`k Xeq\`^\e* D_i\ Dek\iXbk`fe `jk eli \`e [liZ_
[`\j\ ^zkkc`Z_\ <[aljk`\ile^ [\i P_i\e \iq\l^k\i kvljZ_\e[\i NZ_\`e
$Mljj\cc(-501(g*12-%*
A{i [`\ Tf^X)KjpZ_fcf^`\ j`e[ B\`jk le[ Fzig\i e`Z_k _\k\if^\e(
jfe[\ie _fdf^\e* N`\ j`e[ m\ijZ_`\[\e\ @ekn`Zbcle^j]fid\e f[\i
@ijZ_\`ele^jn\`j\e [\ij\cY\e NZ_zg]\ibiX]k( [\j KiXbi`k` $H`j_iX(
-52/%* De ^c\`Z_\i R\`j\ j`e[ XlZ_ [`\ vl~\i\ g_pj`bXc`jZ_\ Pdn\ck
le[ [`\ B\`jk)Fzig\i)@`e_\`k @ekn`Zbcle^j]fid\e [\ij\cY\e Pi)
@e\i^`\* ?X _`\i Cfdf^\e`kvk le[ \o`jk\ek`\cc\ Ffek`el`kvk Y\jk\_\e(
jk\cck [`\ OXkjXZ_\ [\i R\Z_j\cY\q`\_le^\e qn`jZ_\e B\`jk le[
HXk\i`\ b\`e KifYc\d [Xi* ?\i ?lXc`jdlj mfe B\`jk le[ Fzig\i `jk
[Xj Kif[lbk lej\i\j [`jblij`m\e Q\ijkXe[\j* @i `jk \`e\ mfe lej\i\d
[`Z_fkfd\e ?\eb\e `d Ffek`elld lej\i\i m`\c[`d\ej`feXc\e
@i]X_ile^\iq\l^k\NgXckle^*
De [\i kiX[`k`fe\cc\e Tf^X)KjpZ_fcf^`\ ^`Yk \j a\[fZ_ \`e\ e\l\ <ik
mfe ?`Z_fkfd`\6 [`\ ?`Z_fkfd`\ mfd B\`jk)Fzig\i)Npjk\d \`e\ié
/15

j\`kj le[ [\d N\cYjk Xcj lejkf]]c`Z_\d( ^\`jk]i\`\d i\`e\d =\nl~kj\`e
Xe[\i\ij\`kj* ?Xj N\cYjk n`i[ Xcj ^\jkXckcfj\j( fYa\bkcfj\j( Y`c[cfj\j
=\nl~kj\`e "^c`caO% Ob[O\# Y\^i`]]\e7 \j `jk \n`^( lem\ive[\ic`Z_(
leq\ijkziYXi( a\ej\`kj mfe G\Y\e le[ Of[( Blk le[ =zj\( Gljk le[
NZ_d\iq( PijXZ_\ le[ R`ible^* @j `jk iX[`bXc m\ijZ_`\[\e mfd
B\`jk)Fzig\i)Npjk\d( [Xj \`e\ jg\q`]`jZ_ fi^Xe`j`\ik\ Nkilbkli [\i
leY\nl~k\ePi)@e\i^`\`jk*
R`\ n`ibk ele [Xj Ki`eq`g [\j ^\jkXckcfj\e( fYa\bkcfj\e( Y`c[cfj\e i\`é
e\e =\nl~kj\`ej "^c`caO% Ob[O\# Xl] [Xj leY\nl~k\ Fzig\i)B\`jk)
Npjk\d \`e; RXj ]{i \`e\ <ik mfe =\q`\_le^ ]`e[\k _`\i bfebi\k jkXkk;
@j n`i[ ^\nz_ec`Z_ Xe^\efdd\e( [Xj B\`jk)Fzig\i)Npjk\d i\]c\bé
k`\i\ [Xj G`Z_k [\j i\`e\e =\nl~kj\`ej( jf n`\ [Xj H\\i [Xj Hfe[c`Z_k
i\]c\bk`\ik* =\` ev_\i\d Ulj\_\e jk\cck j`Z_ a\[fZ_ _\iXlj( [X~ [`\j\
<eXcf^`\ `ii\]{_i\e[ `jk le[ [Xj \`^\ekc`Z_\ KifYc\d e`Z_k ql czj\e
m\idX^* ?\i Hfe[ le[ [Xj H\\i j`e[ Y\`[\ dXk\i`\cc\ B\^\ejkve[\(
[`\ j`Z_ `e [\dj\cY\e MXld)U\`k)Ffek`elld Y\]`e[\e* N`\ lek\ié
jZ_\`[\e j`Z_ eli [Xi`e( [X~ [Xj \`e\ Xbk`m\ G`Z_k\e\i^`\ le[ [Xj Xeé
[\i\ i\cXk`m gXjj`m\ i\q\gk`m\ @e\i^`\ `jk* ?`\j\i Pek\ijZ_`\[ _\Yk a\é
[fZ_ e`Z_k [`\ ]le[Xd\ekXc\ Cfdf^\e`kvk le[ \o`jk\ek`\cc\
Ffek`el`kvkmfeHfe[le[H\\iXl]*
Dd AXcc\ mfe IXkli le[ jg`i`kl\cc\d B\`jk( mfe ^`OY`WbW le[ ^c`caO%
`jk \j ^Xeq Xe[\ij* ?`\ IXkli `jk leY\nl~k( lemfccbfdd\e( \n`^ m\ié
ve[\ic`Z_* ?\i jg`i`kl\cc\ B\`jk `jk XYjfclk mfccbfdd\e\j( lem\iveé
[\ic`Z_\j le[ lem\ive[\ik\j ^\jkXckcfj\j =\nl~kj\`e* ?\i Fzig\i)
B\`jk)Ffdgc\o \o`jk`\ik le[ ]lebk`fe`\ik `e U\`k le[ MXld `d
=\ql^jjpjk\d mfe PijXZ_\ le[ R`ible^( nv_i\e[ [\i i\`e\ jg`i`klé
\cc\ B\`jk a\ej\`kj mfe MXld le[ U\`k le[ a\ej\`kj Xcc\i =\q`\_le^\e
le[ Pek\ijZ_\`[le^\e `jk* ?\j_XcY q\`^k \i ]{i [\e iXk`feXc\e Q\ié
jkXe[ b\`e\ic\` <ik mfe Dek\iXbk`fe ) e`Z_k \`edXc Dek\iXbk`fe `e [\i
Afid( [X~ [\i jg`i`kl\cc\ B\`jk [`\ IXkli b\eek f[\i [`\ IXkli [\e
jg`i`kl\cc\eB\`jki\]c\bk`\ik*
?`\ `e[`jZ_\ OiX[`k`fe _vck( ^ifY ^\jgifZ_\e( [i\` <eknfik\e Xl] [`\é
j\j KifYc\d Y\i\`k* N`\ j`e[ mfd Tf^X [\i G`\Y\( [\d Tf^X [\j
N\cYjk)N\`ej le[ [\d Tf^X [\j e`Z_k[lXc`jk`jZ_\e =\nl~kj\`ej ]fié
dlc`\ik nfi[\e* A{i [\e Tf^X [\i G`\Y\ `jk [Xj N\cYjk \WQVb ^ile[é
jvkqc`Z_ le[ XYjfclk m\ijZ_`\[\e mfe [\i IXkli* IXkli le[ N\cYjk j`e[
Y\`[\j bfejk`kl`\i\e[\ @c\d\ek\ [\i jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e @e\i^`\ [\ij\cé
Y\e _zZ_jk\e Bfkk_\`k $Dj_nXiX%* ?`\ IXkli jk\cck j`Z_ Xcj leY\nl~k
[Xi( n\`c `e `_i [`\ jg`i`kl\cc\ FiX]k [\j Bzkkc`Z_\e `e `_i\i \ok\ieXc`)
/2,

j`\ik\jk\e( fYa\bk`m`\ik\jk\e Afid n`ibjXd `jk* ?Xj `e[`m`[l\cc\ N\cYjk
`jk j\`e\d R\j\e eXZ_ \`e [`]]\i\eq`\ik\i O\`c [\ij\cY\e ^zkkc`Z_\e
FiX]k `e `_i\i c`Z_k_X]k\jk\e B\jkXck* Nf Y\jk\_k qn`jZ_\e Fzig\i le[
N\\c\ f[\i N\cYjk jfnf_c Cfdf^\e`kvk `e Y\ql^ Xl] `_i\ =\jZ_X]]\eé
_\`kle[NlYjkXeqXcjXlZ_fekfcf^`jZ_\Ffek`el`kvk*
A{i [\e Tf^X [\j e`Z_k[lXc`jk`jZ_\e =\nl~kj\`ej "X\O\O# `jk [`\ AiX^\
Xe j`Z_ \`e NZ_\`egifYc\d( \`e Ycf~\j C`ie^\jg`ejk [\j d\ejZ_c`Z_\e
Dek\cc\bkj* ?\i d\kXg_pj`jZ_\ ?lXc`jdlj mfe IXkli le[ jg`i`kl\cc\d
B\`jk `jk \`e\ i\`e\ Dcclj`fe* ?\j_XcY \i_\Yk j`Z_ [`\ AiX^\ eXZ_ [\i
Dek\iXbk`fe Y\`[\i `e R`ibc`Z_b\`k ^Xi e`Z_k* ?Xj mfd N\`e e`Z_k leé
k\ijZ_`\[\e\ N\cYjk `jk le\e[c`Z_\j( ^\jkXckcfj\j( le[`]]\i\eq`\ik\j
=\nl~kj\`e* =\nl~kj\`e b\eek b\`e\ Bi\eq\e( Pek\ik\`cle^\e( ?`]é
]\i\eq`\ile^\e f[\i U\ijgc`kk\ile^\e* ?Xj \dg`i`jZ_\ N\cYjk( [Xj Xlj
Fzig\i le[ B\`jk Y\jk\_k( `jk `e RX_i_\`k Xlj [\d ^c\`Z_\e @e\i^`\)
Nkf]] n`\ [`\ IXkli* ?fZ_ [`\ IXkli `_i\ij\`kj _Xk c\kqkc`Z_ b\`e\
\`^\e\ R`ibc`Z_b\`k* N`\ `jk @e\i^`\ [\j I`Z_kn`jj\ej( [\j Pen`jj\ej
"[OgO% OdWRgO#' ?X [\i Fzig\i( [\i B\`jk le[ [Xj \dg`i`jZ_\ N\cYjk
Xlj [\ij\cY\e @e\i^`\ [\j I`Z_kn`jj\ej ^\dXZ_k j`e[( bzee\e qn`é
jZ_\e `_e\e eXk{ic`Z_ Dek\iXbk`fe\e jkXkk]`e[\e* ?X XY\i mfd NkXe[é
glebk [\j c\kqk\e N\`ej Xlj n\[\i [`\ IXkli efZ_ [`\ Fzig\i)B\`jk)
K\ijzec`Z_b\`k( efZ_ [`\ \dg`i`jZ_\ K\ijfe n`ibc`Z_ \o`jk`\i\e( `jk
`_i\Dek\iXbk`feeli`ccljfi`jZ_\iNZ_\`e*
IXZ_ <ej`Z_k [\j <lkfij c`\^\e Xcc\e [`\j\e O_\fi`\e le_XckYXi\ d\é
kXg_pj`jZ_\ QfiXljj\kqle^\e ql^ile[\* @j ^`Yk b\`e\e \dg`i`jZ_\e
=\n\`j( [\i [`\ O_\fi`\ mfe \`e\d \n`^ j\cYjk[Xj\`\e[\e le[ XYjfclk
mfccbfdd\e\e( lem\ive[\ik\e le[ lem\ive[\ic`Z_\e N\cYjk( j\` \j
\e[c`Z_ f[\i le\e[c`Z_( `e[`m`[l\cc( le`m\ij\cc f[\i kiXejq\e[\ekXc(
jk{kqk\* ?Xj d\ejZ_c`Z_\ De[`m`[lld `jk qnXi [X[liZ_ Z_XiXbk\i`j`\ik(
[X~ \j i\`e\j ^\jkXckcfj\j =\nl~kj\`e Y\j`kqk( [Xj `djkXe[\ `jk( [\e
Fzig\i( [\e B\`jk( [`\ IXkli le[ `_i\ Alebk`fe\e( Kifq\jj\ le[
@ijZ_\`ele^\e ql \ib\ee\e* ?Xj sl~\ijk\ a\[fZ_( nXj {Y\i [Xj i\`e\
=\nl~kj\`e ^\jX^k n\i[\e bXee( f_e\ [X~ dXe [`\ Bi\eq\e [\i
@i]X_ile^ {Y\ijZ_i\`k\k( `jk( [X~ i\`e\j =\nl~kj\`e \`e _\imfijk\é
Z_\e[\j >_XiXbk\i`jk`bld [\j d\ejZ_c`Z_\e gjpZ_fcf^`jZ_\e
Npjk\dj `jk* Nf n`\ [\i d`k \`e\d B\_`ie Xlj^\jkXkk\k\ d\ejZ_c`Z_\
Ji^Xe`jdlj `d GXl] [\i @mfclk`fe Xl]kXlZ_k\( jf kiXk XlZ_ [Xj i\`e\
^\jkXckcfj\ =\nl~kj\`e Xcj kpg`jZ_\j H\ibdXc [\j H\ejZ_\e Xl]*
?Xd`k jk\_k [`\ `ek\^iXc\ N`Z_k [\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\e K\ijzec`Z_b\`k Xl]
]\jk\e\dg`i`jZ_\eAle[Xd\ek\e*
/2-

?`\ Pek\ijZ_\`[le^ qn`jZ_\e B\`jk le[ N\cYjk Y\il_k a\[fZ_ b\`e\jé
n\^j Xl] \`e\i d\kXg_pj`jZ_\e f[\i fekfcf^`jZ_\e Q\ijZ_`\[\e_\`k*
?\i d\ejZ_c`Z_\ B\`jk `jk j\`e\i R\j\ejjkilbkli eXZ_ \`e\ \dg`i`é
jZ_\( fYa\bk)^\i`Z_k\k\ Afid [\j =\nl~kj\`ej* @i `jk \`e n`Z_k`^\j
>_XiXbk\i`jk`bld [\j d`k \`e\d B\_`ie Xlj^\jkXkk\k\e( _fZ_ \ekn`b)
b\ck\e d\ejZ_c`Z_\e Ji^Xe`jdlj* ?Xj( nXj mfe [\e Hpjk`b\ie Xcj
jg`i`kl\cc\j f[\i kiXejq\e[\ekXc\j N\cYjk Y\jZ_i`\Y\e n`i[( `jk \`e\
n\`k\i\( m\i]\`e\ik\ Afid [\j d\ekXc\e =\nl~kj\`ej* De [\d HX~(
n`\ Nkilbkli le[ Alebk`fe [\i B\_`ie)@e\i^`\ [\j j`Z_ \ekn`Zb\ceé
[\e d\ejZ_c`Z_\e Ji^Xe`jdlj \`e\e _z_\i\e BiX[ mfe Ffdgc\o`kvk
\ii\`Z_\e( Y`c[\k j`Z_ [Xj efZ_ Y\[\lk\e[\i\ >_XiXbk\i`jk`bld [\j
i\`e\ej\cYjk)c\lZ_k\e[\e=\nl~kj\`ej_\iXlj*
R\ee [`\j\j j\cYjk)c\lZ_k\e[\ =\nl~kj\`e [\j H\ejZ_\e Xl] [\i
Cz_\ j\`e\i Hz^c`Z_b\`k\e `jk( ^\_k \j `e [\i i\`e\e AcXdd\ le^\é
ki{Yk\i N\`ej)@ib\eeke`j Xl]* H`k Xe[\i\e Rfik\e( Xl] [\d _zZ_jk\e
Klebk [\i @ekn`Zbcle^ \ii\`Z_k [Xj i\`e\ =\nl~kj\`e [\j H\ejZ_\e
[`\ kiXejq\e[\ekXc\ ?`d\ej`fe [\i `ekl`k`m\e RX_ie\_dle^ [\j
N\`ejXcj[\jq\`kcfj\eBile[\jmfeIXklile[B\`jkql^c\`Z_*
?Xj N\`e \ib\ee\e _\`~k [Xj @`ejj\`e d`k [\d N\`e \ic\Y\e* R\ee
Xcjf [Xj De[`m`[lld [Xj N\`e qlk`\]jk \ib\eek( _Xk \j biX]k j\`e\i D[\eé
k`]`bXk`fe d`k `_d XlZ_ Xd \n`^\e G\Y\e [\j N\`ej k\`c* <lj [`\j\i
@i]X_ile^ [\i D[\ek`kvk f[\i [\j @`ejj\`ej [`\ G\_i\ mfe [\i `e[`m`[lé
\cc\e f[\i g\ijzec`Z_\e Pejk\iYc`Z_b\`k XYqlc\`k\e( jk\cck \`e\ le_Xcké
YXi\ d\kXg_pj`jZ_\ Yqn* k_\fcf^`jZ_\ Ng\blcXk`fe [Xi* @`e\ [\iXik`^\
Ng\blcXk`fe`jkf]]\ej`Z_kc`Z_<lj[ilZbmfeRlejZ_[\eb\e*
?`\ mfiXl]^\^Xe^\e\e =\d\ible^\e ]Xjj\e `e \`e\i Il~jZ_Xc\ [`\
`ek\^iXc\ O_\fi`\ [\i K\ijzec`Z_b\`k( n`\ j`\ mfd <lkfi [`\j\i NZ_i`]k
Xl]^ile[ j\`e\i \`^\e\e =\jZ_v]k`^le^ d`k [\d `ek\^iXc\e Tf^X \eké
n`Zb\ck nli[\( qljXdd\e* ?\e `ee\ijk\e F\ie [\i O_\fi`\ Y`c[\k [`\
B\n`~_\`k( [X~ [`\ kfkXc\ K\ijzec`Z_b\`k [\j H\ejZ_\e \`e le^\k\`ck\j
le[lek\`cYXi\jFfek`elldmfe?Xj\`e)=\nl~kj\`e)Ai\l[\`jk*

Nfq`Xc\=\q`\_le^\e
?\i Tf^X)KjpZ_fcf^`\ ql]fc^\ `jk [`\ B\j\ccjZ_X]k \`e\ fi^Xe`jZ_\
Nkilbkli bfcc\bk`m\e G\Y\ej qld Un\Zb [\i jZ_zg]\i`jZ_\e N\cYjké
[Xijk\ccle^ [\j jg`i`kl\cc\e B\`jk\j `d H\ejZ_\e( j\`e\j nX_i\e
/2.

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