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Table of Contents John' Musical bio...

Page 3

Killer Joe Nuages

Norwegian Wood Round Midnight Satin Doll Skydive Shiny Stockings Take Five

1.

2.

Blues and Variations ...Page 12 Chord Chart ...Page 37 Chord, scale, arpeggio connection....Page 31 Coltrane harmony...Page 41 Convert to Minor...Page 45 Gateway Pattern ...Page 66 Chord Theory and application...Page7

3. 4. 5. 7.

Twisted Blues West Coast Blues

6. Quartal Harmony...Page 107 8. Functional Harmony ...Page 51

9.

10. Managing Pentatonic scales...Page 97 11. Modal Harmonic Devices ...Page 69 12. Moveable Chords ...Page 83 14. Pentatonic Scales...Page 97 13. Musicians Quotes...Page 188 15The ".Bonus" section...Older worksheets Page 332 16. Triad Superimposing...Page 184 17. Scales, Ragas, and Riffs ...Page 112 18. Scale Mode Structures...Page 404 19. Scale Morphing ...Page 500

20. Scales, Intervals, and Compass ...Page 94 21. Teaching diagrams...Page 126-157 22. Three note per string scale..Page158

23.Tonal Pivots ...Page 174 24. Arrangements All Blues

All the Things You Are Autumn Leaves Blue In Green Cherokee

Chitlins con Carne Four on Six Georgia On My Mind Giant Steps Goodbye Porkpie Hat Green Dolphin Street Impressions

Musical History and Influences

1944-BORN Chicago...I don't remember much music at this stage! 1946 Early experiences

I would cry when hearing a violinist play the theme to "Morton Downey Radio Show" My Mom and Dad thought it was cute, so they would drag me into the room whenever the radio program came on.

Still don't know if I cried because the music was goods or bad "Ravels Bolero" was the record that I was allowed to play

19 46 My first "instrument... a windup record player "Victrola" . I would put toy cars on the record as it went around.

1955 Elementary school band-Clarinet ... Mr Genualdi... Mr Petrik ok until I saw a picture of myself playing. Not Cool! Sold clarinet and bought a motorbike... much better deal! Freshman boys chorus... Mr Kuns at West Leyden High School... He pushed chord theory. I didn't appreciate it until after I started playing guitar 1959 First guitar experience was a Danelectro I would borrow.. Then I got an arch top acoustic from Montgomery Wards $19.95 Black and White with a diamond shaped pick

guard.

Walter "Butch" Biniak was major influence in getting me started. We formed a group called "The Hard Guys". I had a rubber shrunken head hanging from the head stock of my guitar Very cool! "Tequila " was the big tune

New school 1961-1962 and new band..."Biscaynes" actually played gigs Elks Club in Franklin Park Illinois. We earned $6.00 apiece per night

Bertus "Cork" Thomas -Sax -George "Cook" Heinrich-Guitar and Vocals Holding the Guild-Ron "Pest" Janus ..Drums - (not seen in the photo ...He was there)- John "Johnson Rag" Riemer.. Guitar . Yes that is a Gold top Les Paul with the soap bar pickups. A repair guy broke the truss rod and that event started my efforts to learn guitar repair.

We were invited to all the rich kids parties to play... as long as we didn't talk to anybody.. We wore clothes that we would get at the stores frequented by black people. Our best outfit was yellow pants, purple shirts with patent leather shoes. We were all pretty broke so the band clothes made up a good portion of our wardrobes, so we would wear our uniforms to school. If we worked it out right we would all do it on the same day.. I loved the "Ventures" and "Booker T and the MGs"... Green Onions... Walk Don't Run... Perfidia... Blue moon... Had to know those tunes In a later version of this band I played keyboard also... A Farfisa Compact a screechy little organ made in Italy "96 tears " and "My Girl" were the hip tunes.. Sam the Sham and the Pharoahs was the group

Things took a turn when I studied with Stew Pearse Met him at Roosevelt s' Chicago school of Music. While in a teach. Sure." Next I was at Senor Carmelos Conservatory teaching guitar to kids who could play better than I

lesson he received a phone call asking if he knew of any guitar teachers. He looked at me and asked if I would like to could. Then I got a call to teach at Monti's Music that had a 72 student schedule I could walk into. I said sure and I started to study to keep ahead of my students . At Monti's I started to gig... playing weddings and parties with the also played with another teacher... Len Zenaty (accordion) I learned the fine art of making the most of a situation with as much food as possible. Accordion players were able to pack away the cake in their cases, but guitar amps were great for hiding less delicate food. I started doing BIG BAND stuff. There were a number of rehearsal bands. , usually 18 pieces. The first was led Playing songs to wear people out so you don't get hassled for taking a long break ... Filling your instrument cases Monti Brothers ...Al on Accordion (Cordovox) Emil on Sax( Varitone) and Tony on bass Ampeg Baby Bass I

by Terry Brejla .. He played horn and he got the gigs. Another big band was "Harrison Hill's Invincible Artistes" It

was mostly black, a tenor sax player and I were the white guys. We played all over the south side. The advice in

rough neighborhoods was to carry a fork in your shirt pocket, it would show you were ready to do some gouging but you wouldn't get in trouble carrying a knife. We played in a bar owned by a bass player who played for Errol Garner there I met Eddie Harris. When I was introduced to him he asked me who I was and my very nervous response was, Im nobody. He very quickly turned me around and said everybody is somebody and you will never know who you

might play with so state who you are. I did and enjoyed playing with him. He played piano that night and trumpet with a sax mouthpiece. He played both at the same time. We did a gig with Earl'Fatha' Hines...played for YMCA openings, weddings, and at churches. Then I played with Benny Zuchini's Radio AllStars... Benny played bass and was a smooth talking Italian that had a radio show (in Italian) We would sit in a small room and play on the air live. I never knew what it was all about; it could have been a show about being a Mafia member. I had no clue. All his music was chorded in solffegio (do re mi etc) so it stretched my thinking a little. I went to all the clubs on Wells street (Old Town) in the 60's Plugged Nickel was the place. When Miles Davis or Wes Montgomery were in town I would go every night and Sunday afternoon also. I got to talk with Wes quit a bit. He didn't talk about music, mostly his kids and people. He was real proud of a beautiful Chocolate colored Cadillac he just bought. He was a nervous guy, he would be practicing an hour before the club would open. I would stand by the window and listen. One time he opened the door and let me in. He said about guitar playing..."Get a good guitar and play it a whole lot!" Ok....no problem, Wes! My big gig on Wells Street was at a place called the Hungry Eye. Just a store front where the band played up in the window with your back to the street. The gig was from 8:00 to 4:00 (am) paid $25.00. It was an organ trio (guitar,B3 and drums) The B3 player played with a pop group called the Buckinghams...so he drew a crowd pretty out on the street during a break. Very cool! He was at the Plugged Nickel They made an album there. Tony Williams blew me off my chair.. this kid played hip jazz at rock and roll intensities.

well. He played everything in "C". That got tired real quick. I'm sorry I can't recall his name. I saw Miles and the band Miles was not interested with people who were white. He had a great band. Herbie Hancock Wayne Shorter, It was quite an era. Jimi Hendrix, Beatles, Miles, Coltrane...everybody was playing their hearts out and people were listening. What a concept!!! Bossa Nova hit and everybody chased that for a while. I remember a few "Bossa Nova" bars. I played a lot of casuals at all the hotels. Hotels were a hassle; you paid for parking, any help carrying stuff, and always interesting plugging in, anticipating blowing your amp. Move West Young Man I did and suffered as a musician. One of my first experiences was playing in a bar that part of it had a dirt floor. While playing everything I had learned as a jazzer in Chicago, the leader of the band turned around and grabbed the neck of my guitar and said I dont know what youre doing but I want you to stop! a gun you were going to kill somebody. So I played all my chords in open position the rest of the night.

using the john. A few of them had 220volts at the electrical outlet for their steamers in banquet rooms. This was

Man, these guys scared me; they all had guns either in a holster or in their pickup truck. All I knew was that if you had

I met Ross Herrick in Phoenix; he was a great guitar player and friend. He tried to help me get the country thing but it back fired. He got the jazz bug. We learned some duo stuff and played at the Superstition Inn in Apache Junction. Some tourists were pleasantly surprised to find a couple of guys playing Satin Doll or Misty out in the

middle of nowhere. Moving back east I found many playing opportunities in South east Michigan. I was able to find a pretty lively scene

in Kalamazoo in the 70s. I found the best players in the area and played all the local venues and theater. Some of the groups were Jazzmen, Ken Morgan Unit, Ed Joplin, Kalamazoo Connection, The Kalamazoo Big Band , and the following in Kalamazoo Chaps-own group Whistle Stop-own group John Riemer Trio Grazin in the Brass-Solo

Andrew Lloyd Weber Showcase-Civic Theater-Kalamazoo Barn Theater-Augusta-Many shows

Kalamazoo Symphony Pop series-Roger Williams,Rita Moreno, Englebert Humperdink, Sherry Lewis.

New Connection-Quartet co-lead with Bill Braham

WMU-Great American Symphony Curtis Curtis-Smith,JesusChrist,Superstar Grand Rapids Symphony-Five by Design District 211-own quartet-Kalamazoo

Bolling for Dollars Tour. Before the concert people were milling around in the lobby scoffing at the likelihood of
a guitarist pulling off Ravels Bolero which Larry was slated to do solo. I had heard Larry do it before so it was interesting watching the mood of the people change as he performed it. I happened to be sitting near the scoffers

him. I would sometimes drive him where he needed to go. Once in Ann Arbor he did a gig with Claude Bolling

I was fortunate to hang out with Larry Coryell whenever he was in the area and received much of the gospel from

and noticed they were the first to their feet at the conclusion Coryell blew the roof off using his Ovation and a went. Claude was inspired to put a towel over his forearm and started waiting on people using his best French accent. Coryell and I were rolling on the floor. Very funny episode. I developed a very strong impression of approaching the venue with confidence from Coryell. gig or clinic.

Fender twin maxed out. Food after the gig was on the agenda and a small pizza place was close and open. In we

I am currently teaching at Kalamazoo College and Kalamazoo Valley Community College and play an occasional

Chords- Theory and Application


Chords remain a mystery for most guitarists because of the mystique surrounding both the guitar and the theory behind what makes a chord appropriate. The almost limitless possibilities of how to play any given chord contributes to the confusion and leads most players to be happy with a few reliable forms. This in some cases is not a problem. Joe Pass did very well with a few dozen forms. This leads me to the point, to play better chords it is necessary to understand the role of the chord. In most songs the chord progression provides the backdrop for all else. I can hear the bass players moaning. I feel chords can make or break a good bass line as well as a good melody line. The chords can be a synopsis of the entire tune when carefully voiced.

The Basics
Chords are made up of intervals. In tertiary (the most common) harmony major and minor thirds are the building blocks. Also see chapter on Quartal Harmony Major third is 2 notes that are 2 whole steps (4 half steps) apart. Example C to E Minor 3rd is 2 notes that are 1 steps (3 steps) apart Example C to Eb

Stacking these building blocks yields four chord types: Major = Major 3rd + Minor 3rd C E G = C major Minor= Minor 3rd + Major 3rd C Eb G = C minor Augmented= Major 3rd + Major 3rd C E G# = C augmented Diminished= Minor 3rd + Minor 3rd C Eb Gb = C diminished

Use the piano keyboard to visualize this before going to the guitar

The major chord forms that are common are as follows.


The diagrams are not meant to be all inclusive. Many variations are derived from these basics. The method of presentation I use here is to assume all the chords to be moveable if you exclude the open strings. This can be accomplished by finger picking/plucking only the notes that are being held or stroking only the fingered strings. This chart represents many more chords than what is shown. The C# form could be used at each fret covering the entire scale ending with another C# at the 13th fret. The D# could be used in the same way. The F form may be played as a full barre chord

It may be moved along the neck to create all possible major chords.

An example of the choices available for one chord: C major


1st fret 3rd fret 8th fret

10th fret

12th fret

Study the chapter on Moveable chords to gain a fuller working knowledge of chord forms.

How many chords are there?


Generally it is thought that a PHD in rocket science is necessary to understand chords and how to put them together on the guitar. It might help but is not necessary. Chords have a telescopic nature that makes things a bit easier. By that I mean a chord with a large number after it; as in G13, is a G7 and a G9 as well.

This means that when confronted with a G9 chord you could play a G7 and it would probably work. Your ear is the final judge, If it sounds right, it is right. Because there are qualities such as major or minor you need to be familiar with all major and minor forms as well as the other pivotal qualities. I use that term to define the fundamental quality that you should express in the chord and not ignore. Two such qualities are Major or Minor and Major 7 or Dominant 7.

Chord Possibilities
All chords fall into a few categories. The two greater categories are extended chords or altered chords. Extensions are generally built from scale tones. The exceptions are the minor and the dominant 7. There are ways of accommodating these chords without introducing altered tones. This involves using different scale forms as the source of the notes in the chord. The most common approach is to use a major scale and spell out the chord with reference to it. In general the possibilities include triads with major or minor 3rd and natural, sharped or flatted 5ths.Some possibilities dont work well because they start sounding like another chord with a simpler name. An example is Cmi#5. The notes in this chord are C,Eb, and G# (Ab) which is an Ab major triad. I have put a * in front of these and uncommonly used or ambiguous possibilities

Triads
Major=1,3,5 Augmented=1,3,#5 *Dim 5=1,3,b5 Minor 1,b3,5 Diminished 1,b3,b5 *Mi#5=1,b3,#5

Sevenths
6 types of triads plus 2 types of 7ths and a 6th Major7=1,3,5,7 Maj7Augmented=1,3,#5,7 Maj7th b 5 (Lydian major)=1,3,b5,7 Dominant 7=1,3,5,b7 7Augmented=1,3,#5,b7 7th b 5=1,3,b5,b7

Dim 7=1b3b5,6 this is the common dim7 chord The diminished 7th is a double flatted 7 (6th) Minor 7= 1,b3,5,b7 Half Dim7= 1,b3,b5,b7 *Mi7#5=1,b3,#5,b7 Minor (maj)7= 1,b3,5,7 *Minor (maj7) b5= 1,b3,b5,7 *Mi7#5=1,b3,#5,b7

The remaining possibilities


The ninths (natural, sharp and flatted), elevenths (natural and augmented) and thirteenths (natural and flatted) can be added to all of the previous. You can see the number of possible chords growing out of hand. What is important is to be in control of good sounding functional chords. I have found that putting chord types in categories helps a great deal. The general approach is to decide if a chord is either a build, tension or release chord. (This idea is covered in detail in the Functional Harmony chapter.) Here are the general categories; The build or II chord is usually a minor 7th chord. The tension or V chord is usually a dominant 7 chord. The release or I chord is usually a major 7 chord. Table of chord types. Roman numerals relate to scale degrees. In the key of G the roots are; II= Am V=D7 I= G major Build II (minor) Tension V (dominant 7th) Release I (Major 7) Maj7 7th Mi7 6th Mi 9 Extended; Mi11 9th Maj9 th Mi13 Ma 13 11 Mi7-5 Lydian major (ma7-5) 13th Altered; # or b5 # or b 9 #11 b13 These are by no means all possibilities, only chords that share a common root. In other chapters ( Blues and Modal Harmonic Devices) you will find alternate chords arrived at by devices such as two/five substitutions or tritone substitutions that result in chords having new root names and possibly what seems to be a crossed quality. A favorite example of this principal is when ending a song in D minor (last chord being D minor) I like to use a G13 as the final chord. A good general approach is to try to play what the music is asking for until you find a better choice, staying within the general quality category. In other words, the music might be asking for a G13b9 which you might not know so using a G7b9 would be a workable solution. The b9 is the alteration so you might need to use a b9 instead of ignoring it and playing what you fell is close, such as a 9th. This is a case of when close is not good enough, in fact close is the worst solution. It would be better to avoid any 9th. Not knowing the correct form is a poor excuse but we all have played substitutes based on ease of playing or fluency. Learn the correct form and then make your choice.

Blues and Variations


The twelve bar blues form is probably the most universal progression you can learn. It is played all over the world taking on styles other than the Blues. I am addressing the form as opposed to the style. The form is generally 12 measures long and uses the I, IV and V chords (1, 4, & 5). The form can be played in any style or genre.

Index (used when file is viewed as a PDF) Blues and Variations The chords in each key are as follows: Key of C Key of G First Variation Extended and Altered Movin Along Tritone Substitution Side-Slipping West Coast Blues Minor Blues Comin Home, Baby More Variations in Key of G More Variations in Roman Numeral Notation

The basic progression is as follows: I I I I IV

IV

This is probably more basic than most players would play, but it serves as a good template to start from because all the variations will have some relationship to this series.

Just for a refresher, the chords in each key are as follows:


Key C C#/Db D D#/Eb E F F#/Gb G G#/Ab A A#/Bb B I chord C C#/Db D C#/Db E F F#/Gb G G#/Ab A A#/Bb B IV chord F F#/Gb G G#/Ab A Bb B C C#/Db D D#/Eb E V chord G G#/Ab A A#/Bb B C C#/Db D D#/Eb E F F#

The following variations are just a few of the possibilities based on concepts such as tritone substitutions, two/five substitution, side slip, extensions and alterations.

Simple 12 Bar Blues

Key of C

Key of G

First Variation

Key of C

Extended and Altered


In the context of improvised music it is common to extend and alter chords. What was a major chord can be played as a 7th, 9th, 11th, or 13th. These are all dominant 7 chords having a flat 7. This produces an edgier sound than extensions built upon a major 7th. The 5ths and 9ths may be altered to create an even greater sense of tension. Not all choices work in all occasions, let your ear be the judge.

Most jazz players start with the level of complexity of the above example. To push the envelope further involves several other techniques such as II/V substitute, side slip, tritone, and chord superimposing. Next is an example of the II/ V substitution.

Playing a II/ V relationship instead of one chord is a familiar device. In the following example the original key is Eb, so be thinking of blues in Eb. This type of substitution treats the I chord (Eb) as if it were a V (Eb7) and puts the appropriate two chord in front of it. Original Extended II/V sub Tonal center-scale to use while improvising Eb Eb7, Eb9, Eb13 etc Bm7/Eb9 Ab Emphasis on Bb and Eb Ab Ab7, Ab9, Ab13 etc Ebmi7/Ab13 Db Emphasis on Eb and Ab Bb Bb7, Bb9, Bb13, etc Fmi7/Bb13 Eb Emphasis on F and Bb This progression is used by Wes Montgomery in his tune Movin Along

Tritone Substitution
This technique involves treating each chord of the blues progression as a Dominant 7th chord and inserting another Dominant 7th chord a Tritone (three whole steps) higher or lower than the original. The tritone is the mid point of the octave so it doesnt matter if you go up or down because you arrive at the same note. The tritone substitutions are as follows: Original Tritone Chord substitution C7 Gb7 C#7/Db7 G7 D7 Ab7 D#7/Eb7 A7 E7 Bb7 F7 B7 F#7/Gb7 C7 G7 Db7 G#7/Ab7 D7 A7 Eb7 A#7/Bb7 E7 B7 F7 Another way of referring this substitution is to use a Dominant 7th chord rooted on the Flat 5 of the original chord. Here is an example of tritone substitution in the key of C.

Side-Slipping
Side slipping is somewhat related to Tritone substituting, it is a chord a half step away from the destination chord. The standard chords in the blues may be approached by a half step above or below. C E F Db C B C Gb F E F B C Db C F# G Gb F Db C B C I dont advise playing aside slip at every change as it is shown above. Use it when it feels right.

West Coast Blues


This variation has roots in tunes like Charlie Parkers Blues for Alice, Toots Thielmans Bluesette and Wes Montgomerys West Coast Blues. It represents a Bebop approach to the blues, a lot of II/V changes and chromatic movements.

Minor Blues Comin Home, Baby


This was a popular jam tune written by the flautist Herbie Mann. This variation is similar to the blues in a major key version except the 9th and 10th measures have a substitute movement for the V and IV chord.

More Variations in Key of G

More Variations in Roman Numeral Notation


Link to the chords in each key

All Blues
This tune attributed to Miles Davis is a standard among jazzers, one that you must know.This version was inspired by Kenny Burrell with a sparse harmony maintained as the melody is added as an upper voice. I have found some accompaniment variations to work well using devices such as sideslip harmony and tritones. Because of the workhorse nature of this tune, you will be looking for variations in playing accompaniment because you will be certain to play 30 choruses as the sax player works out.

The basic chords are: (in 6/8) G7 C7 D7 G7 C7 D7 G7 G7 G7 G7 G7 G7

Eb7

Following is a simple variation

G13 C13 D7#9

Ab13 Db13 Eb7#9

G13 C13 D7#9

Ab13 Gb13 D7

G13 G13 G13

Ab13 Ab13 Ab13

G13 G13 G13

Db13 E13 Ab13

Moveable Chords
A system of making one chord form do the work of many. Moveable chords are the one great advantage that guitarists have over piano players (other than a guitar is a whole lot easier to move). A moveable chord usually has no open strings that are played and the chord form can be moved along the neck to create new chords. An F chord that is played at the first fret can be moved to the second fret to create an F# chord. The trick is to understand where the chords should be played. When a chord is required you can think of it as having two names. An F chord is (F + major) An F7 chord is (F + seventh) An F minor is (F + minor) The first name is the locator, it tells you what fret to play the chord and the major or minor or seventh tells you what type of chord form to play.

For example this is C7

Moving it up the fret board one fret makes it C#7

Moving one more fret makes it a D7 This shows that the form is C7 at the first fret, C#7 at the second, and D7 at the third. The form or the way that you grip the chord remains the same (all are 7th chords) and the location on the neck changes the letter name of the chord. Knowing the pattern of the changing names as you move up the neck is the heart of the system.

This pattern movement works with scale and arpeggio forms as well. When you learn a chord, scale ,or arpeggio, make sure you move it along the neck one fret at a time and know what the name is as it moves.

That pattern is a CHROMATIC SCALE . A keyboard demonstrates the chromatic scale very well. Moving from a white key to the very next black key to the right would be moving up the chromatic scale

The dual names are confusing but necessary to understand that C# and Db are the same. Also confusing but vital to remember that between B & C and E & F there are no sharps or flats. The way in which this translate to the guitar is the name of the chord you start with (like the C7 in the previous example) moves through the chromatic scale as you move up one fret at a time.

Here is how it works:

1st fret 2
nd

This chord is C7 at the first fret C7 C#7/Db7 D7 D#7/Eb7 E7 F7 F#7/Gb7 G7 G#7/Ab7 A7 A#7/Bb7 B7

3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

C#7 and Db7 are the same chord (two names with the same sound=ENHARMONIC)

NO # or

between E and F

The same is true for a chord like F minor This chord starts as Fm at the first fret so: 1st fret Fm 2
nd

F#m/Gbm Gm G#m/Abm Am A#m/Bbm Bm Cm C#m/Dbm Dm D#m/Ebm Em

3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

F#m and Gbm are the same chord (two names with the same sound=ENHARMONIC)

NO # or

between Band C

Good luck, John www.guitarjazz.info

Chord, Scale, Arpeggio Connections


The following chord/scale/arpeggio diagrams move in a chromatic fashion along the neck. It is a good idea to determine where the roots are for each pattern. The root is the letter name of the pattern. This will give you a chord/ scale/ arpeggio relationship that is in an easy to play and in close proximity. The downside of this approach is that each chord change is viewed as an individual with little regard given to the chord that came before and the chord that follows. This study is good to develop a basic relationship to individual chord sounds especially in songs that have long periods of one tonal center or chord sound. The most powerful and useful sound is the dominant (7th) sound.

These sounds create tension and can sustain interest over a longer period of time that a plain major sound can. The arpeggio sound can sustain interest if the chords are varied such as D minor and G7 being used instead of just G7. The use of these chord/scale /arpeggio connections will be expanded in other lessons, in the meantime, learn these patterns.

Also used as a IV chord and often as a simplified V chord

Also used as a simple II chord or a VI chord

Coltranes Harmony
The masterwork Giant Steps by John Coltrane was a landmark in harmonic approaches used in jazz compositions and soloing. It is generally rumored that Coltrane studied a book by Nicolas Slonimsky, Thesaurus of Scales and Patterns (Macmillan Publishers). Included in the studies of the book are patterns and harmonies that are created by dividing the octave or octaves into equal parts. One such exercise Slonimsky calls a Quadritone Progression which is the equal division of two octaves into three parts. This also can be viewed as two ascending major thirds.

See the chapter entitled "Slonimsky Scales and Patterns Adapted for Guitar"

Here it is in the key that Giants Steps is in;

Another view is in descending major thirds

It seems Coltrane took these pitches as tonal centers and proceeded the I chords with V7 or II/V7. Here is an analysis of Giant Steps

This is not the first tune to use this device. Many songs used third movements for brief periods of time usually just a few measures. The bridge of Have You Met Miss Jones is an exception as having an 8 measures of key centers moving in thirds.

Using the Idea


Starting with something familiar such as a two, five, one progression is best.

Here is the usual way this idea is applied, moving through descending major third tonal centers using the V and I chord of each tonal center

Major 3rd

Major 3rd

Major 3rd

Coltrane Chromatic
Using major scale fragments, 1-2-3-4-5 on each of the tonal centers suggested by the Quadritone Progression (two ascending major thirds) yields an interesting result. Here it is starting on A
Two major thirds ascending A to F

What makes this interesting is that if you were to collect the notes played in the 3 scale fragments ant put them in alphabetical (chromatic) order you end up with a chromatic scale. The sequence produced in this technique is one of increasing tension as you move from the first to last note (A to Ab). The last A was added to give a sense of resolution. Each fragment adds to the tension of the chord if you are playing over an A7. A B C# D E F G A Bb C Db Eb F Gb Ab A rd th th rd th Root 9 3 Sus4 5 #5 7 Root Flat9 Sharp9 3 Flat5 #5 13 Maj7 Root

This sequence requires that the chord context be fairly complex in order for it to work. The context of the music has a powerful effect on the correctness of this sound. In other words, use this when the chords are right, i.e., altered dominants and the genre is appropriate for this sound. Dont use it when playing music that doesnt take kindly to harmonic exploration.

Convert to Minor
An approach to improvising over various chord types
This technique enables the guitarist to use a few familiar arpeggio patterns to cover the three basic conditions that exist harmonically, i.e., Major as a Tonic or I chord, Minor 7 as a Supertonic or II chord, and the Dominant7 or V chord. One approach is to use a form of an arpeggio that has enough of the chord sound and some of the extensions that could be used over the chord. The arpeggio that we start with is an E minor 11.

Another way of looking at this arpeggio is that it is made up of 3 triads.

This arpeggio will work against each of the triads with the extra notes acting as extensions.
Notes in arpeggio G Triad and Extensions E minor triad and Extensions D major triad and Extensions G G root G Minor 3rd G 11th B B 3rd B 5th B 6th or 13th D D 5th D dom7th D Root E E 6th or 13th E Root E 9th F# F# maj7 F# 9th F# 3rd A A 9th A 11th A 5th

The resulting chord sounds that are implied by the arpeggio: G Maj13, Emi11, and D 6/9 (add11)
These are the arpeggios that come to mind first because it started with G and triads were formed.

Other chords could be considered by making roots of the notes that havent been used as roots, i.e., the B,F#, and A. B as the G B D F# A E rd th th Root #5 Root Mi 3 Dom7th Sus 4 or 5 11th D E F# as the G B F# A Dom 7th Root b9 Sus 4th or #5 Root Mi3rd 11th A as the G B D E F# A th th th th Root Dom7th 9 Sus4 5 6 or 13 Root

This results in these chords: Bm11#5, F#mi11#5b9, and A13 sus4 (no 3rd)

Not all of the 6 possibilities are my first choices. Because of the dissonant nature of some of these sounds I tend to use them more selectively and other choices become habit. The following three examples are the most commonly used. The Minor11 Arpeggio/Chord combination for G Major is:

The Minor11 Arpeggio/Chord Combination for E minor is:

The Minor11 Arpeggio/Chord Combination for Dominant A7:

The previous examples used one pattern which resulted in the 3 chord types each with a different root. An alternate view is to find the patterns that are appropriate for the 3 chord types using the same root.

The following chords are rooted on A.


Pattern used over a I chord

Pattern used over a II chord

Pattern used over a V chord

Another pattern
The minor root is D 5th string, 5th fret. This is the same structure as the first pattern.

Pattern used over a I chord

Pattern used over a II chord

Pattern over a V Chord

Functional Harmony for the Jazz Guitarist


John Riemer

Functional harmony is an approach to understanding and improvising over complex chords and complex chord progressions. The most basic functions of chords revolve around the tendency to resolution. Chords convey the feeling of movement by their varying qualities of tension and release. Some chords do it to a greater degree, traditional the Five chord (Vthe chord that is built upon the fifth degree of the scale) conveys a greater need to resolve. Jazz harmony utilizes chord extensions and alterations to create a greater need to for movement towards resolution.

Presented in following material are these topics: o Cadences o The Cycle of Fifths o Harmonized scale o Tonal Gravity o Determining tonal centers o Playing across the barline o Reduction o Appendix of functional scales ,chords, and arpeggios

After becoming familiar with these terms and concepts you will be able to analyze complex chord progressions and convey in your improvising a sense of the chord progression using a minimal number of notes.

Cadence
The Amen cadence is a good place to start in this work. The Amen cadence as shown below conveys a feeling of finality. It moves in one direction, playing it in reverse just doesnt give the feeling of being at rest. This is sometimes referred to as tonal gravity.

Cadence in the wrong direction.

Cycle of Fifths
The tendency to resolution can be expanded in the cycle of fifths. This cycle has the same properties as an Amen Cadence but continuing the movement. After moving from G to C , assume the C as the tension, make it a C7 and then move to F. The same feeling of resolution should be felt. The feeling of resolution is in a clockwise direction, i.e., the 5th moving to the tonic chord. The diagram shows the relationships of the chords that tend to resolve in a clockwise direction.

The direction of resolution is clockwise.

The Harmonized Scale


The harmonized scale is generated by taking each note of the scale (the major scale in this case) and using it as the root of a chord built up using thirds.

The 3 qualities that are most often expressed are the:


Subdominant (Quality*) dominant tonic or or or build chord tension release II or IV V I

These chords appear as the II, V and I chord in the harmonized scale

II

*The II is usually called the submediant or supertonicI am using the term Subdominant to imply the function or quality of the chord.

Tonal Gravity and Forward motion


The tonal gravity principle can be compared to flying a glider airplane .Think of tension as altitude above the tonicgreater tension=greater altitude which creates a more dramatic effect of gravity. The altitude is reduced with forward motion towards a release target This gives the music a direction or forward motion. The build (II) chord is the approach to the peak . Dominant (V) is the peak. Tonic (I) is the landing.

The idea is to get altitude (tension) above the tonic (release)!

Form Analysis and Tonal Centers


Using the standard Autumn Leaves the tonal centers are determined by the appearance of dominant 7th chords. When scanning through the tune for the first time you should look for the Dominant 7th chords first.

Determining a tonal center


The key is determined by the dominant 7th as the fifth of the key (Chord is D7 the tonal center is G) The chords on either side of the dominant 7th chords are checked to see if they occur in the key. The key continues until a new dominant sets up a new key.

Analysis of first phrase

Key of G

Key of E minor

Turnback to Aminor

This will give you a scale that works, throughout the period that the tonal center is G the G major scale could be used. This works but lacks clarity and definition. More clarity comes from basing your ideas on the arpeggios or roots of the chords and appropriate intervals. Unfortunately this creates clutter so a balance should be sought that defines the chords but is not so busy as to sound like you are practicing arpeggios.

Rise and Fall of Tension


The most important aspect to keep in mind is the rise and fall of tension. This is what functional harmony is locked into. In this phrase the rise and fall of tension could be diagramed

Transitions or PLAYING ACROSS THE BARLINE


When playing the minimal amount of notes the barline represents the threshold for the change of chord or change of tonal center. Playing notes that are characteristic of the change is powerful means to creating a solo which holds the listeners interest. When playing Am to D7 a typical link is the 7th of the Am moving to the 3rd of the D7 This is the source of the harmony:

This is what could be played:

So far this is not doing anything to address the rise and fall of tension as mentioned in the previous section.

Tension is produced by adding: Extensions or notes that are not in the chord but are in the scale from which the chord is developed9ths, 11ths, and 13ths are extensions Alterations i.e.,# or b 5, # or b9, #11 , and b 13 Rhythmic tension (busyness) Tonal tensionsqueak, squawks, growls etc

Increased tension
Using the first change as an example Am7 to D7

1. Example root to 9th

2. Flat 5 to flat 5

3. 11th to b9

At this point you are on the D7 moving towards resolution to G.


You would set this up in a similar fashion with the exception that you would be dealing with an already tensioned chord (D7) moving to a release on the tonic. Your choices for the D7 might be more centered on altered tones moving to chord tones of the G. This is true because the D7 to G has a stronger pull than the Am to D7. Following is an explanation of why this is the case. It matters very little what the exact notes are so long as you are guided by the principal that:

Tension resolves to release! One way only

Reduction to the two basic functions


The function of a two / five change can reduced to its simplest: II/V change (Am7/D7.A,C,E,G/D,F#,A,C) = Extended D7 (D9/11D,F#,A,C,E,G) This is an important point; when you are faced with complex or simple chords you will treat them the same as a function of a dominant V (5) sound. Reducing all chord functions to their most basic qualities leaves you with these two, i.e.

Dominant or Tension V Dominant D7 Am C F#m7-5 or or

Tonic Release I Tonic G Bm Em

At the risk of oversimplification all chords in a tonal center (the harmonized scale) can be put into one of two columns.

Some of the chords under the Dominant column are used to suspend a resolution, to make the song have and urgency to move on. These chords have names that I feel are somewhat antiquated so I lump them into there functional quality, i.e., subdominant or build quality Putting the chords back into a somewhat more complex array of II, V, I some interesting possibilities arise. Some chords act as subdominant and dominant

Sub Dominant Am C F#m7-5 Em Bm

Dominant D7 Am C F#m7-5

Tonic G Bm Em

Experiment with the different combinations of subdominant to dominant to tonic qualities Dont take these descriptions as literal, C is not a dominant chord in the key of G but it can function as one. (Have your bass player play a D bass while you play C)

So What do I do?!
After learning your chords, scales, and arpeggios things usually dont just fall into place as a good solo. Much trial and error needs to occur so your hands and ears are on the same page.

1. I feel the strongest first step is to listen to a lot of jazz guitar. 2. Work on tunes that you have a recorded version by a good player. 3. Recognize the form.. (Tonal centers and shifts) 4. Recognize the Function of each chord 5. Identify the chords that can absorb the tension producing tones. (V) Decide what
these notes will be

6. Play 2 notes across the barline the marks the tension/release point.. This example
is for rhythm reference only, you choose the pitches.

Expand the pickup or build phrase, keep the target the same.

As you expand the pickup the result sounds smoother and more continuous. The thinking remains the same.

Build to Tension to Release

The most critical point being the transition from tension to release!

Closing thoughts
1. Dont hunt and peck. Play what you are sure ofPractice at home! 2. Play with good sound/tone. Play at performance volume 3. Make phrases flow naturally; even when playing scales and exercises. 4. Mentally sing the exercises, scales, patterns as you play them. 5. If an exercise is hard, slow it down. Then gradually increase the tempo. 6. Listen to every note you play. 7. Match your minds ideas. 8. Be patient. You're not the first to make mistakes. 9. . Use jazz articulations on exercises and scale/chord practice. 10. Improvise some every day. That's the REAL YOU. Play what you hear in your head. 11. Make a habit of practicing in all twelve keys. 12. Memorize everything you can. Know what it is you are trying to play. 13. If we all waited until we were perfect musicians before we played an instrument, there would be no music in the world. . 14. Play on the best instrument you can afford and study with the finest teachers available who will give you guidance in jazz and traditional music.

Some jazz guitarists to listen to:


Charlie Christian, Django Reinhardt, Wes Montgomery, Kenny Burrell, Barney Kessel, Herb Ellis, Joe Pass, Jim Hall, Tal Farlow, Attila Zoller, Pat Martino, Mick Goodrick, Larry Coryell, John McLaughlin, Grant Green, George Benson, Jerry Hahn, Jimmy Raney, Doug Raney, Emily Remler, Earl Klugh, Peter Bernstein, Steve Erquiaga, Peter Leich, Vic Juris, Joshua Breakstone, Chris Flory, Joe Cohn, Scott Henderson, Dave Cliff, Howard Alden, Pat Metheny, Dave Stryker, John Scofield, Bill Frisell, Charlie Hunter, Mike Stern

Thanks to:
Hal Galper (piano) Jerry Coker (sax) Wes Montgomery Jim Hall Joe Pass John Scofield John Abercrombie Larry Coryell Stew Pearse Jamey Aebersold (Sax)

Contact John Riemer at: Website www.jazzguitartheory.com Email riemer@peoplepc.com Phone 269 599 4945

Two, Five, One Combinations: Chord-Scale-Arpeggio

Tonal Center=G

Tonal Center=A

Tonal Center=C

Tonal Center=D

Gateway approach to resolution


A single pattern to many resolutions This approach is one I deduced from watching and listening to many different players such as Wes Montgomery, Kenny Burrell, Joe Pass. They all had identifying licks that they would superimpose and vary over many different harmonic situations. It is best to start with a sequence that for the lack of a better name, I refer to as the Three chord Arpeggio.

Here is a diagram of the above mentioned Three Chord Arpeggio.

It can be used directly for the chords listed but each note is right next to a resolution note. This is the move I made to seek the resolutions. Play each note in the pattern as a possible note expressing a II chord sound and then moving either a half step up or down consider the new note as one that represents a V chord.

Getting this under control will take focused effort.


Review the pattern:

These are all of your start notes; you can start just about anywhere as you develop this idea, but for now use the example below.

You will notice that the first 4 notes are from the pattern but the fifth note was added. This is the resolution note. The first 4 notes imply a Bmi7 chord, as a II chord this should be followed by a V chord,i.e. an E7. The added G# is the third of the E7. See I told you this was going to be easy. Another example:

In this example think Em7/A7 (II/V in the key of D)

The opening arpeggio is an Em9; the resolution note C# implies an A7. This pattern implies portions of many chords and tonal scenarios. Assuming each note to be a potential root is a logical approach. The chord that is finally realized is determined by the target note and your imagination.

There are no bad notes, only bad resolutions!

Modal Harmonic Devices


Modal tunes present a problem for some improvisers because of the lack of chords to play over. Some players might not find this a problem, they would proceed to hammer, tap, pull, bend and flail the pentatonic forms up and down until the tune was over. I am addressing the player who is seeking harmonic variations within the context of a modal tune. A tune that presents such a problem is Milestones by Miles Davis. Below is the lead sheet, familiarize yourself with the tune before going to the harmonic study.

Modal Harmonic Devices (Milestones)


Review the harmonized scale and then play the example using the chords suggested by the harmonized scale. The harmonized scale is any scale in which each note of the scale serves as the root of a chord. The chords are created by stacking thirds on each root. Only notes of the scale are used. An easy way to view this is to think of every other note of the scale as the notes used in the chord. In the example C scale; The notes are CDEFGAB The notes in the chord rooted on C would be C E G B

The chords produced in this way in the key of C are: Cmaj7 Dm7 Em7 Fmaj7 G7 Am7 Bm7-5 Cmaj7

The harmonized scale determines the chords that are found naturally in a key/tonal center. The significant chord is root on the 5th degree of the scale (G7). It is the only dominant chord in the tonal center. When you encounter a dominant chord you can be relatively sure of the tonal center. The G7 points to the tonal center of C. Putting this in the key of F yields these chord forms on the first 4 notes of the scale.

Revise the voicing of Gm7,Am7, and Bbmaj7 and you have the opening melody statement

Here is the entire series

If the Bb, C7 and Dm7 are played with the first string muted you will have the same melodic line (F ,G, &A)

This is played over the Gm7 as it is in the original harmony.

Additionally this could be streamlined as Bb, C, Dm

When really pressed for speed I might use these fingerings.

These forms also provide a good arpeggio reference when improvising single note lines. Treating the I chord as one of the chords of the series suggested by the harmonized scale is just one of the ways of embellishing a modal harmonic situation.

Another approach uses the functional harmony approach of treating the Gm (I chord) as if it were the II chord of a II/V progression. The Gm still functions as a I chord but we play the II/V devices we have worked out

This idea implies that whatever was done over a II/V can be done over a I chord.
Tritone Substitution

Imitative

Quartal

Harmonized Scale_ Parallel key (C)

Extended Harmonized Scale_ Parallel key (C) Distant harmony

Modes of Diatonic Scales for the Guitar


by John Riemer

Table of contents Scales are the building blocks

The modes and their displacements Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian Modes and their chords Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian

Scales are the building blocks of all music and understanding them is vital to become the best musician possible.

Major Scale Stucture


Major scales are the basis from which all scales are formed or referenced to. The scale is a 7 note (diatonic) scale with half steps between the 3rd and 4th note as well as half steps between the 7th and 8th notes. This is a C Major scale

Notice the half steps between the 3rd & 4th and 7th & 8th degrees of the scale. This is the Ionian mode or major scale. Its quality is tonic, that is, resolved. Music needs a feeling of movement or anticipation which this scale doesnt provide when played as seen above. All Ionian scales are built with this interval sequence: Whole Whole Half Whole Whole Whole Half

This is an G Major (Ionian) scale

This is an F major (Ionian) scale

This is the basic framework from which we derive understanding of all scales. The deal here is that each note is separated by a whole step (2 frets) except for the half steps (1 fret) between: E & F and B & C. The rule for a major scale is half steps between 3&4 and 7&8. Another view is:

Whole

Whole

Half

Whole

Whole

Whole

Half

Ionian
This sequence of whole/half steps is the formula for the Major scale. The major scale is also called the Ionian mode. This name is a reference to modes, or methods of playing this group of notes in a different order. "C" major scale played with emphasis on C and generally played in scale order is what the term Ionian will help you understand. Ionian mode is the major scale played with C as the point of origin. It can be visualized as:

Emphasis is on red Cs.

The Dorian mode looks like this,

It can be converted to this kind of emphasis, E F G A D

This shifts the sound quality to minor because within the first 3 notes you hear a minor third (D-F) the basic interval of the D minor chord

Phrygian Mode
Same idea, move over one note and add one note.

Lydian Mode

Mixolydian Mode

Aeolian Mode

Locrian Mode

Following is an overview of the modes and suitable chords in "C".

The modes yield chords i.e. every other note of the scale modes creates a chord

Ionian=C to C or 1 to 8

Dorian= D to D or 2 to 9

Phrygian =E to E or 3 to 10

Lydian=F to F or 4 to 11

Mixolydian=G to G or 5 to 12

Aeolian=A to A or 6 to 13

Locrian=B to B or 7 to 14

Moveable Chords
A system of making one chord form do the work of many. Covers major & minor triads,7th,9th,11th, and13th extensions Moveable chords are the one great advantage that guitarists have over piano players (other than a guitar is a whole lot easier to move). A moveable chord usually has no open strings that are played and the chord form can be moved along the neck to create new chords. An F chord that is played at the first fret can be moved to the second fret to create an F# chord. The trick is to understand where the chords should be played. When a chord is required you can think of it as having two names. An F chord is (F + major) An F7 chord is (F + seventh) An F minor is (F + minor) The first name is the locator, it tells you what fret to play the chord and the major or minor or seventh tells you what type of chord form to play.

For example this is C7

Moving it up the fret board one fret makes it C#7

Moving one more fret makes it a D7

This shows that the form is C7 at the first fret, C#7 at the second, and D7 at the third. The form or the way that you grip the chord remains the same (all are 7th chords) and the location on the neck changes the letter name of the chord. Knowing the pattern of the changing names as you move up the neck is the heart of the system.

That pattern is the CHROMATIC SCALE


. A keyboard demonstrates the chromatic scale very well. Moving from a white key to the very next black key to the right would be moving up the chromatic scale

The dual names are confusing but necessary to understand that C# and Db are the same. Also confusing but vital to remember is that between B & C and E & F there are no sharps or flats.

The way in which this translate to the guitar is the name of the chord you start with (like the C7 in the previous example) moves through the chromatic scale as you move up one fret at a time.

This chord is C7 at the first fret

It moves up the neck in this way: 1st fret 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th C7 C#7/Db7 D7 D#7/Eb7 E7 NO # or F7 F#7/Gb7 G7 G#7/Ab7 A7 A#7/Bb7 B7 between E and F C#7 and Db7 is the same chord (Two names with the same

The same is true for a chord like F minor

This chord starts as Fm at the first fret so: 1st fret 2


nd

Fm F#m/Gbm Gm G#m/Abm Am A#m/Bbm Bm Cm C#m/Dbm Dm D#m/Ebm Em NO # or between Band C F#m and Gbm are the same chord (two names with the same sound=ENHARMONIC)

3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

Major and Minor forms


There are four types of triads: major, minor, augmented, and diminished. Each of these can be derived from a major scale. If we use a C scale as an example: C D E F G A B C

The triads are:


Major
1 C 3 E 5 G

Minor
1 C b3 Eb 5 G

Augmented
1 C 3 E #5 G#

Diminished
1 C b3 Eb b5 Gb

The most commonly used triads are major and minor


(The augmented and diminished will be addressed elsewhere.)

The Major Chords


F major, root is on the sixth string D major -Root is on 2nd string

C major- root on 5th string

The Minor chords

Root on 6th

Root on 5th

Root on 2nd

Extended Chords: Major7, minor 7 and 7th chords


Major, minor 7th, and 7th chords are the three most commonly used chord types in jazz and blues. They are used in the II, V, I progression that so many songs are built upon. In the example below notice the minor 7th followed by a 7th chord used throughout the song. This is typical of many jazz standards so working out your choices of these chords makes good sense.

Following is a chart of three ways to play each chord type: Major, Minor 7, and (Dominant) 7th.

Major 7th, Minor 7th and (Dominant) 7th Chords


Major7
Major 7 is made from the 1,3,5, and 7 of the scale. Root 1 3 F F A C C E D D F# 5 C G A 7 E B C#

Minor7
Minor7 can be developed from the major scale by using the formula: 1,b3, 5, b7 Root 1 b3 5 b7 F F Ab C Eb C C Eb G Bb D D F A C

7th (Dominant 7)
The 7th (or more correctly calleddominant 7th) uses the formula of 1,3,5,b7 Root 1 3 5 b7 F F A C Eb C C E G Bb D D F# A C

Major 9th, Minor 9th and (Dominant) 9th Chords


Major 9 is made from the 1,3,5,7, and 9 of the scale
Root F C D 1 F C D 3 A E F# 5 C G A 7 E B C# 9 G D E

Minor 9 is made from the 1,b3,5,b7, and 9 of the scale


Root F C D 1 F C D b3 Ab Eb F 5 C G A b7 Eb Bb C 9 G D E

(Dominant) 9th is made from the 1,3,5,b7, and 9 of the scale


Root F C D 1 F C D 3 A E F# 5 C G A b7 Eb Bb C 9 G D E

Major 11th, Minor 11th and (Dominant) 11th Chords


Major 11 is made from the 1,3,5,7, 9 and 11 of the scale
Root F C D 1 F C D 3 A E F# 5 C G A 7 E B C# 9 G D E 11 Bb F G

Minor 11 is made from the 1,b3,5,b7,9 and 11 of the scale


Root F C D 1 F C D b3 Ab Eb F 5 C G A b7 Eb Bb C 9 G D E 11 Bb F G

(Dominant) 11th is made from the 1,3,5,b7,9 and 11 of the scale


Root F C D 1 F C D 3 A E F# 5 C G A b7 Eb Bb C 9 G D E 11 Bb F G

Major 13th, Minor 13th and (Dominant) 13th Chords


Major 13 is made from the 1,3,5,7, 9,11, and 13 of the scale
Root F C D 1 F C D 3 A E F# 5 C G A 7 E B C# 9 G D E 11 Bb F G

13 D A B

Minor 13 is made from the 1,b3,5,b7,9,11, and 13 of the scale


Root F C D 1 F C D 3 A E F# 5 C G A 7 E B C# 9 G D E 11 Bb F G

13 D A B

(Dominant) 13th is made from the 1,3,5,b7,9,11,and 13 of scale


Root F C D 1 F C D 3 A E F# 5 C G A 7 E B C# 9 G D E 11 Bb F G

13 D A B

Scales: Intervals, modes and compass.


Learning scales and their application is a process that takes many years and much of that time is spent unlearning bad habits such as playing out of time , having no chord progression in mind, and practicing with no dynamics, etc. The usual process is to learn the fingerings, play from root to root, and try to develop speed. The speed will develop but the musicality of what you practice is not happening. Understanding intervals and modes helps a great deal. You are able to express a chord sound with greater accuracy. An exercise I suggest my students play involves the concept of compass. The original definition of the word relates to the range of notes or sounds of which any voice or instrument is capable. I use a slightly different meaning that relates to the notes that will be used from a scale that will span over two octaves or more. The are the notes that I choose as a limit of range rather than the range of the instrument In the series below, the scale is a C major. Compass can be designated by interval numbers. A 2-5 compass would be playing the scale from the 2nd degree to the 5th degree, one way only. Not in reverse. 1 C 2 D 3 E 4 F 5 G 6 A 7 B 8 C 2 D 3 E 4 F 5 G 6 A 7 B 8 C

2- 5 Compass

This could be played descending as well; 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C D E F G A B C

2 D

3 E

4 F

5 G

6 A

7 B

8 C

2- 5 Compass

This line (2-5 compass) would work well with a Dm7/G7 chord change (II/V change) Following are a few exercises using the scale compass that is implied by the chords used. These examples use the chords derived from the scale (tonal center). Scale compass can include non-chordal tones or altered tones. An example of an altered scale compass would be over Dm/G7-9 with the Ab as the altered tone (b9) 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 flat9 7 of G7 C D E F G A B C D E F G Ab B C

2- 5 Compass (b9 of G is the target)

Pentatonic Scale Management


Pentatonics are a much played but often overlooked scale in the scope of advanced harmony. Over the vast majority of my 45 plus years of playing the guitar I failed to truly investigate and understand the full potential of the pentatonic scale form. It is generally understood to be a five note scale and the most common form is what I will be referring to as the Ab6/Fm7 form. This is the scale we all have learned perhaps as Fm at the first fret

This scale is made up of the notes: F Ab Bb C Eb This scale can be moved along the neck establishing new roots at each fret

Placing the form at the 5th fret yields an A minor pentatonic

ACDEG

The Major inversion (C D E G A) is a mode of the pentatonic that yields a clearly defined major sound C69 would be the chord that is spelled by the scale. The structure is either 2 half steps or 3 half steps between the notes

There are 5 inversions (modes) of this arrangement

These inversions of the pentatonic form much of what is played today. These can be thought of as anhemitonic scales because they have no half steps. (Anhemitonic Pentatonics it is no wonder you dont often here these terms used!)

The arrangement of whole steps (2 half steps) and minor thirds (3 half steps can be arranged in only 2 ways. The first and most common arrangement is shown above and the other arrangement is shown below.

I will refer to this as the Dominant form as the first inversion yields a C9th chord (dominant 7).It also has another very useful chord rooted on the 3rd (E). This could be heard as an Em7-5 or half diminished chord. The C promotes an ambiguous sound but seems to work, so we will not argue the point that it really is a #5. It seems to work because of the whole tone series formed by the Bb-C-D-E. There is strength in series such as this that goes beyond technical explanations. If it sounds right, it is right!

In review, 2 forms of the pentatonic scales which use no half steps and minor 3rds and whole steps exclusively are constructed as follows: C D E G A C6/Am7 Major/mi7 C D E G Bb C9/Em7-5 Dom7/mi7-5

All of the preceding scales used whole steps and minor thirds.
These are considered anhemitonic or scales with no half steps. There is yet another way to create a pentatonic without single half step intervals. The naming of these sounds is a little more difficult and is more outside. Scale Possible Function Notes chord C D E F# Ab C9#5#11 D E F# Ab C D7b5 E F# Ab C D E9#5 F# Ab C D E F alt Ab C D E F# A7.

All of these functions may be considered altered as they produce sounds that have a #5 or a b5 or both. Following are the fingerings for this scale structure.

The more advanced player will recognize that this concept provide a pretty vanilla approach.
The missing element is the half steps necessary for the altered chords. When half steps are added to the mix, the labeling of all the modes and accessing them gets out of hand.

Most music (jazz) uses 3 chords repeatedly

II

These in the key of G could be Am7_D9_G6. The Am7 could be coverd with this ( 6th/mi7th)scale form at the 5th fret or this at the 2nd fret*

for D9 use the dominant/m7-5 form

at the 4th fret

or

at the 2nd fret

The G6 Use the (6th/mi7) form at the 4th fret or at the 2nd fret

*Please note the the fret indicated relates to the lowest fret that is indicated in the diagram. In this example the 2nd finger would start the pattern on the 6th string on the 3rd fret.

This is not the best way to approach improvising over chords in all situations because of the choppy quality that is created when approaching each chord as a separate scale. It is a good starting point, though because it provides a clear, well defined sound using simple scale forms.

The three forms of pentatonics with all of the modes, presents hundeds different possible scales. Add the at least 4 or 5 possible ways to add accidentals and the possible scales to manage number increases. I leave it to the math geeks to figure it outtoo much for me!! My approach is to modify the well worn pathway that I have developed in the dominant form to create the alterations. A flat 9 sound can be generated by this pattern. Play up to and emphasize the red asterisk note

b9th 9th The altered tone works best when applied later in the phrase, in other words , I would play the alteration at the conclusion of the phrase and play a natural 9 at the beginning of the phrase.

The suggested study is to find where all the extensions are in the scale,i.e., the 9th, 11th, and 13th. Then work on the altered 5ths and 9ths,i.e.,#5,b5,#9,b9.This approach forces better understanding of your instrument as well as a sound in which your scales evolve or morph from chord to chord in a smooth manner. Here are the locations of the alterations over the G dominant pentatonic

Diagram is at the 2nd fret

The preceding is meant to serve a guide for using pentatonic scales when improvising.
It is a starting point for more complete understanding of scale/chord relationships.

Over many years of teaching I have had many students ask about the best scale to use. My answer would usually be something like All of them! My intention was to stimulate thinking outside the box that guitarists generally are confined within. Pentatonics serve as a good launching point because the notes are secure and define a chord sound with a minimum of avoid notes. Knowledge of what makes up the chord should be a priority, then the scale choice could be one which provides the least conflict and maintaining a close proximity to the alterations. Have fun! John Riemer 2006

Quartal Harmony
Many players such as Bill Evans, McCoy Tyner used quartal harmony as a basis for their creations but the first to catch my ear was Eddie Harris. As a fellow Chicagoan, I had the privilege to hear him often and on occasion to sit in with him. He was not only a great saxophonist but he could play piano and trumpet (with a sax mouthpiece), often at the same time. His tune Freedom Jazz Dance exhibited quartal melody to a high degree. Following is the opening statement;

This study deals with the harmonic side of quartal harmony. Essentially the approach uses chords built of fourths to harmonize common scales. The scales that will be approached are; Major (Ionian Mode) Minor ( melodic) There are two approaches to this harmony; Using strict parallel fourths, disregarding the tonal center. Parallel 4ths be C-F-B-E Because of the natural augmented fourth that occurs in many scales a correction to some intervals is made to keep the harmony within the key augmented fourths to harmonize the scales. This results in a chord that is more in agreement with the tonal centers. Corrected 4ths would yield C-F-Bb-Eb The basic premise is to chose a note in the scale (usually on the 5th or 4th ) string and stack either 4th or augmented 4th intervals.

Major scales
The fourth interval derives its name from the fact that it is the fourth scale degree away from the chosen first note.C to F, D to G, E to A, etc. After examining these intervals you will notice not all are equal. Some are 5 half steps and some (F to B) are 6 half steps. The 6 half step interval is an augmented fourth C D E F G A B

Strict parallel fourths


Notes in red are not in the scale. C D E F G A B F G A Bb Eb C D F G Notes in blue are the corrected Interval (augmented 4th ).

Corrected fourths
C D E F G A B F G A B C D E B C D E F G A E F G A B C D

Bb Eb Ab C D E F G A Bb C D

Melodic Minor Scale in Corrected 4ths


To make this work a different view of the 4th needs to be applied. We accepted the augmented in the major scale because that interval occurred in the major scale and it created a good sounding chord set. Looking at the melodic minor scale we have problem with the E natural in conflict with the scale. I like to think of it as a flatted 4th. I present this in spite of the fact that it is a major 3rd (from B to Eb). This helps me in the process of building these chords because the intervals are now either a 4th, aug 4th, or flatted 4th. Less processing means quicker processing. C D Eb F G A B F G A B C D Eb B C D Eb F G A Eb F G A B C D

Justification for this can be derived from the inverting or revoicing of the 4th sequence. In the 4ths sequences of the major scale, revoicing will yield major 3rd intervals.

Major 10th or 3rd In the melodic minor scale: Dim. or flatted 4th

B Aug. or Sharp 4th

Eb

If you examine the sequence of 4ths over a long period all intervals are justified, (Playing through the entire sequence yields a chromatic scale).

Melodic Minor C

Melodic Minor F

Why only 4 strings?


Learning the chords in these two keys will take you through most of the chord forms. Rooting on the 4th and 5th strings yields the cleanest sounding forms. Rooting on the 6th string leads to some ambiguous forms that are muddy sounding and tend to be redundant. When carrying out the 4th cycle far enough, you start creating chords that we already know as tertiary harmony chords. This example is C major rooting on G.

Usually the 4 string variety will give a more distinctly quartal sound and greater sonic clarity, especially when using an overdriven amp.

Musical Instrument Tunings


This chart is arranged from bass to treble, from left to right, with string/course #1 being the highest one.

1 1 1 1 4 3 2 1 10 Bajo Sexto, 10-string Bajo Sexto, 12-string Balalaika Bandola Bandola (2) Bandurria (2) Bandurria (3) Bandurria (also Banduria) Banjo Guitar Banjo Mandolin Banjo, 5String Banjo, 5String (2) Banjo, 6String Banjo, Irish Tenor Banjo, Jazz Tenor Banjo,

6 Aa Ee AA Aa DD

5 Dd Dd GG ee GG GG

3 Gg Cc Gg Cc E E CC FF aa dd

2 Ff Ff A Bb gg

F#F# BB AA AA DD DD

F#F A#A CC # # CC FF BbB b

G#G C#C F#F # # # BB EE E A D GG G G E A C D D G C C G B

AA E EE D D E E A D

DD AA G G G D G G B B B A D B

Plectrum Banjo, Plectrum (2) Banjo, Tenor Banjuke Baritone Baritone (2) Bass Guitar, 5String Bass Guitar, 6String Bass Guitar, 8String Bass Guitar, Acoustic Bass Guitar, Electric Bass Guitar, Piccolo Bouzouki, 3-string Bouzouki, 4-string Bouzouki, 4-string (2) Bouzouki, Greek Bouzouki, Irish (Octave Mandolin) Cavaquhino Cello C G Cc B B E D D C G G G G G C D C B D E F# E E A A B A

EE

AA DD

GG

A D F D

D A A A

G D D D DD EE or DD D A

Ff AA

GG D C

DD AA G G B D

Charango Charango (Chile) Charango 3/4 Cittern Cittern (5Course) Cuatro Cuatro de Puerto Rico Cumbus Cytole Dobro Dobro (2) Double Bass Dulcimer Dulcimer (Ionian) Dulcimer (Myxolydian ) Fiddle Gitarra, Portuguese Guitar, "Terz" Guitar, 10String (Modern) Guitar, 10String (Romantic) Guitar, 12String Guitar, 4String Guitar, 5D G G A B b b b C E D G D

G E D

C A G G

E E B D G D A D G G G A C D

A C E A B F# D G B B B D C D

E G B E D B G C E D D G C A

D A

B E B G

E A D D D E G

D G A C B F D E

A A A

D E B or D G

Bb D

A B C D E EE

A AA

D DD D

G G G G G

B BB B B

E EE E E

String Guitar, 7String Guitar, 7String Electric Guitar, 8String Guitar, Acoustic Guitar, Alto Guitar, Classical Guitar, Drop D Guitar, Electric Guitar, Flamenco Guitar, Harp Guitar, Resophonic Guitar, Tenor Guitar, Tenor (2) Guitar, Tenor (3) Guitarron Guitarrone Guittern Hawaiian Joura Laouta Laud Liuqin, 3GG CC C E A E D A A A D E A or B E B or C D E E B E D E E C A# B C # D G A D G B E

A A F# A A A A D# B

D D D D D D D F D C G D G D D E

G G A G G G G

B B E B B B B

E E B E E E E G# D A E E A E E E D A AA D

F# G G G D G C G G A D G B D A B E B B C# A D

F#F # BB EE D G

String Liuqin, 4String Lute Lute (2) Mandobass Mandocello Mandola Mandolin Mandolin, Octave (Irish Bouzouki) Mandora Opharion Oud (Arabic) Oud (Turkish 2) Oud (Turkish) Pandurina Pipa Requinto Requinto (2) Ronroco Ruan, Alto Ruan, Alto (2) Ruan, Bass Ruan, Bass (2) Ruan, Bass (3) Saz Saz (2) Saz (3) A A D D G G D F# A C G B D D F G E# B A C D G F G E C C G D A A G G D G D D D D A D G A G A A E

C# E

G G F A E E G A G G C G A B C C

D D A D A A D D C B E D D F G G C D C

A G D G D D G E E E A A A C D C G G F

E D G C G G D A A A E E D G A G C C C

Saz, 7String Sitar Symphonie Symphonie (2) Tambura Theorbo Tiple, N. American Tiple, S. American Turkish Fiddle Turkish Fiddle (2) Ukulele, Baritone Ukulele, Soprano Ukulele, Soprano (2) Ukulele, Tenor Ukulele, Tenor (2) Vihuela de Mano Vihuela de Mexico Vihuelita Viola Violin Violin, Bass Walaycho

G g c c

d G

d C

A G G G

a C C D g D F# A D E B F# E E C D B D A D G

a F G G d G B D A B E B A A A G E G A E G D

G F G A B C D E F G C F A C

g A D E G A

D A G G A G C A C F D F C G E B E

G D C C E A G G D A B

Bb D

THREE NOTES PER STRING SCALE SYSTEM


By John Riemer www.guitarjazz.info

This scale system is one which some of the west coast players such as Lee Ritenour, Howard Roberts, and Larry Carlton used to great effect. The approach enhances speed because the fingering for the major scale based modes uses only 3 combinations of fingering. The grouping of 3 notes per string also enables hammer on and pull off triplets in all modes. The combinations in the F Ionian scale (F tonal center) look like this:

The 1-stretch-2-4 combination

The 1-2-4 combination

The 1-3-4 combination

Practice these combinations and then move to the following.

All of the notes in the F scale can be played on the 6th string as follows:

Each one of these notes could serve as the starting point to play the scale. This would color the sound somewhat because the starting and ending notes would shift your focus to a modal sound i.e., starting on G would sound like the Dorian mode. I have arranged the scale patterns by using the modal names. A quick review; Ionian is the major sound. Starts and ends on F. This puts the focus on F and the major sound because of the major third found in the first three notes. F to A is a major third so we tend to hear the scale as a major scale

F to A is two whole steps = Major Third

F Tonal Center The three note per string fingering for the major or Ionian mode is;

This could be thought of as the Ionian mode because it starts on the low F. It is not specifically one mode but for the sake of organization I will refer to this as the Ionian mode.

The chord that would be in easy access from this scale would be an F major7

The following starts on G, the 2nd degree of the scale, so it will be called the Dorian mode.

Be sure to learn the names of the notes in each of these scale forms because by targeting (ending on) certain notes you are able to imply the various modes. The Dorian mode is the II sound in a II-V-I progression. By staring on G and ending on C you can imply a IIV progression using any of the forms of the F scale.

The chords that would work well in association would be a Gminor7 at the 3rd fret.

Next is the Phrygian mode or emphasis on the third degree (A) of the F major scale.

The chords that would work well in association would be an Aminor7 at the 5th fret.

The next scale form starts on the 4th of the scale, Lydian.

The appropriate chord would be Bb major 7

Or a Bb Lydian chord (maj7-5)

This starts on the 5th of the scale, Mixolydian or dominant.


This mode is one of the more frequently used modes because it is a sound that implies motion or unrest especially when played ending on C. This mode also serves as a gateway to altered chords by adding chromatic tone. A simple example is to start on G and play to A and then add Ab. The resulting sound is a G7-9 chord, 1-2 5-b7-b9. This is the Ab to add to create the G7-9 sound. Use 1st finger

The first choice chord might be this form of C7

The altered chord C7b9

The Aeolian mode starts on the 6th of the scale

This sound is sometimes used as a I (one) chord or tonic. It is referred to as the relative minor.

Locrian mode starts on the 7th degree

This mode has a unique sound that is best satisfied with the specific chord. An Emi7 could be used but the Locrian chord or Eminor 7 b5 is the correct chord. It takes some time to get used to the sound; it tends to want to resolve to the relative minor or D minor.

It is usually use as a II chord. Example Em7-5 to A7-9 to

Dminor7

C Tonal Center
I will continue in naming these modes by the lowest note located on the 6th string. This is only for the sake of reference. The true nature of a mode is brought out by what notes are emphasized rather than what note you start on.

Here is the C major scale starting on low F Lydian Mode

The chord choices for F Lydian are

or the Maj Lydian chord F maj7-5

Next root on 6th string is G Mixolydian

G7 chord is a choice to work with this mode

A minor as the Aeolian mode is the C scale played with emphasis on A.

Ami7 chord

Locrian start on 7th degree of scale (B)

The appropriate chord Bm7-5

Ionian Mode starts on C 8th fret of 6th string

The Cmaj7 at the 8th fret

The Dorian Mode start on D 10th fret, 6th string

Here is the chord

The C tonal center-Phrygian mode-Start on E-12th fret, 6th string

Emi7-5 chord

The preceding has covered 2 tonal centers (F and C) and 7 modes for each tonal center. Each pattern (mode) actually contains all the modes. Do the math; each pattern contains 7 modes, 7 different patterns in 2 Tonal centers 7x7x2=98 things to keep organized. If you move through all possible keys, i.e. move the F tonal center through all keys (12) and the C tonal center through all keys (12) the number of things to keep organized is 588. Learning everything is a daunting task. As you go through all of the possibilities a few will stick with you as functional and natural. I feel nobody learns everything and is processing all of this as they play. I have learned scale chord relationships as a particular sound. Learning the names and location of the significant notes, the ones that are roots and scale tones of the chord sound is a more productive approach. That is the next step, arpeggio studies. www.guitarjazz.info

Tonal Pivot

John Riemer 2006

This is an interval oriented technique that uses your third finger on the root of the tonal center and you become aware of the critical intervals within close reach and develop a lick/chord relationship. The focus of the idea is to have a starting point that is common to all chord types with any combination of extension or alteration. The physical placement of your fingers will be the same in all situations and no movement or shift from the initial position is necessary. This will help you develop an awareness of all intervals in relationship to your pivot note. Following are examples of 2 chord situations using the same starting note.

Pivot tone

A first step is to become familiar with a pivot tone and the surrounding intervals The possibilities are (in a system based on thirds i.e. tertiary harmony):
Major triad-Root -3rd-5th Minor triad-Root-flat3rd- 5th Augmented-Root- 3rd-sharp 5th Diminished-Root- flat 3rd Flat 5th

Major 7th Dominant 7th

#9th 9th b9th

#11th 11th

13th b13th

Triadic Superimpositions
Sounds like something a physicist might discuss. For the guitarist it is a great improvisational tool. It simply means placing one triad over another.

In this example the C and D major triads for an implied Lydian major. It is implied because the major 7th (B) doesnt appear. It will work for a situation calling for a dominant chord but it wont define the dominant sound (Bb) very well so I tend to use this sound as a tonic sound. This is a simple way to develop complex sounds. It works especially well when playing single notes.

Not all the notes need to be in agreement with the chordwe are after an implied sound here. Sorry, you nitpickers will have to deal with it!!

Possibilities
The possibilities are generated by the four possible triads; Major, Minor, Augmented, and Diminished. Lets work with the major arpeggios and see where that takes us. Here is the major arpeggio form in C. This is by no means all the possibilities. Any combination of C, E, and G would be a valid arpeggio. The example is presenting the first arpeggios that should be learned.

First exploration uses a stepwise motion (C & D major)

Next is a step downward (C & Bb)

Music washes away from the soul the dust of every-day life.
Auerbach

I am what I am because I was industrious; whoever is equally sedulous will be equally successful.
J. Sebastian Bach

The barriers are not erected that can say to aspiring talents and industry Thus far and no farther.
Beethoven

Everyday we spend without learning something is a day lost


Beethoven

Music should strike fire from the heart of man, and bring tears from the eyes of woman.
Beethoven

Master your instrument, master the music, and then forget all that bullshit and just play.
Charlie Parker

He who would do a great thing well must first have done the simplest thing perfectly.
Cady

Music is well said to be the speech of angels; in fact, nothing among the utterances allowed to man is felt to be so divine. It brings us near to the infinite
Thomas Carlyle

Its taken me all my life to learn what not to play.


Dizzy Gillespie

You should no more play without phrasing than speak without inflection and grammatical pauses.
Charles Landon

Music is the stimulant to mental exertion.


Disraeli

He who joyfully marches to music in rank and file has already earned my contempt. He has been given a large brain by mistake, since for him the spinal cord would fully suffice.
Albert Einstein

A rule drawn up in 1653 in Germany by Emperor Ferdinand the 3rd

No man shall dare to perform on dishonorable instruments, such as hurdy-gurdies, bagpipes, and triangles, which beggars use for collecting alms, so that the noble art of music is brought into contempt by them.

Genius at first is little more than a great capacity for receiving discipline.
George Eliot

There is no feeling, except the extremes of fear and grief that does not find relief in music
George Eliot (1819-80),

Music in the best sense does not require novelty


Goethe

One must not only learn to count while playing, but make the playing fit the counting
Maelzel

Music is a discipline, and a mistress of order and good manners.


Martin Luther

Of all the fine arts music is that which has most influence on the passions, and which the legislator ought the most to encourage.
Napoleon Bonaparte

Sacrifice all the trivialities of social life to thy art


The Odyssey

Music resembles chess: the queen (melody) has the most power, but the king (harmony) turns the scale.
Robert Schumann

The principal requisites for a musician, a fine ear and a swift power of comprehension, come like all things, from above.
Robert Schumann

The study of the history of music, and the hearing of masterworks of different epochs, will cure one of vanity and self-adulation.
Robert Schumann

He is a good musician who understands the music without the score, and the score without the music.
Robert Schumann

Without enthusiasm one will never accomplish anything in art.


Robert Schumann

If all were determined to play the first violin we should never have a complete orchestra. Therefore respect every musician in his proper place.
Robert Schumann

Is it not strange that sheep's guts should hale souls out of men's bodies?
William Shakespeare

A good composer does not imitate; he steals.


Igor Stravinsk
y

You are the music while


the music lasts.
T. S. Eliot

Remember, Information is not knowledge; knowledge is not wisdom; wisdom is not truth; truth is not beauty; beauty is not love; love is not music; music is the best.
Frank Zappa

Take Five-Paul Desmond


A jazz standard, Take Five has a freshness that is still appealing to many players. It presents challenges for guitarist both rhythmically and harmonically. Six flats is usually not play frequently by most guitarists. Thinking in the Eb minor pentatonic mode is okay for improvising up to a point but it doesnt work well for the chromatically embellished melody. I put the opening melody statement in the 8th position because it minimizes movement and puts you on strings that speak well. One of my favorite versions of this tune is done by George Benson with a fellow Chicagoan on rhythm guitar, Phil Upchurch. For me, Phils rhythm is what makes this tune come to life.

Following is an excerpt of what Phil might have been playing.

Sky Dive
Freddie Hubbard This tune written by the trumpet great, Freddie Hubbard, is not the standard fair for most guitarists but I find it a great vehicle for using pentatonics. Freddie is a great writer as well as trumpet player. His use of pentatonics is a great study to help get the guitarist out of the usual pentatonic ruts. Following is an analysis in major pentatonic scales in relationship to some of the accompaniment chords. Chord Gmi9 Ab maj7 Bbm7/Eb9 Ami7/Cmaj7 Cmi7/F7 Bb major Abmajor Db Major Major Pentatonic Pentatonic Pentatonic Pentatonic Scale Following is a review of pentatonic fingerings. C Major Pentatonic Eb Major Pentatonic

These are shown in F minor also referred to as Ab major

Satin Doll
Duke Ellington

Dukes timeless classic is a great tune to start out on because of the easy to groove melody, the clearly stated tonal centers and it lays well on the guitar. The structure is textbook A A B A. Each section is a six measure statement with a two measure turnaround. Here is the first 4 measure phrase:

Tonal centers for improv: C major emphasis C major emphasis D major emphasis D major emphasis on D (Dorian) on D (Dorian) on E (Dorian) on E (Dorian) thThis is generally how tonal centers are determined; the Dominant 7 (G7) is the 5th of the tonal center. G7 is the 5th of C, use C scale for source of scales, emphasize D to generate the Dorian mode.

The analysis of the tune is as follows;


A section Chords Dm/G7 Tonal C Centers B section Chords Gm/C7 Tonal F Centers Dm/G7 Em/A7 Em/A7 Am/D7 Abm/Db7 C C

Gb

Gm/C7

Fmaj7

Fmaj7

Am/D7

Am/D7

G7+5

Round Midnight
Thelonious Sphere Monks moody ballad makes a great vehicle for the jazz guitarist. Plenty of two five changes, opportunities to play melodic octaves, well developed themes in verse, chorus, bridge and coda. It is a great tune to showcase your talent. Included in this version is the introduction as well as the coda. The form; Intro A A B A Coda (8 measures) (8 measures) (8 measures) (8 measures) (8 measures) (8 measures)

The chord melody I have written was influenced by many sources while trying to keep it simple. One of my favorite renditions is by Kenny Burrell on the album named Round Midnight. He goes right to the head with no intro but does play the coda. Wes Montgomery on the Wes Montgomery Trio album adds his own intro and coda. He displays his dynamic approach to soloing by starting with single notes, moves to octaves, and rounds out the solo with a beautiful chord solo. These are only two of the many versions of this tune that bear close listening as you develop your own interpretation.

Nuages
This is my favorite among Djangos creations. It has a relaxed floating mood that I find appealing in todays speed oriented lifestyle. Sitting at a slow moving rivers edge with a good guitar and a bottle of wine. I digress Djangos tune has an interesting II V substitution. I try to think of the Db9 as a II chord and the Gm7-5 as a V. It is the II chord but the Db9 is acting as a hyper II chord. I use Gb as the tonal center moving to F when improvising over this tune. Here is a 32 measure breakdown of the tonal centers. Major scale tonal centers in parenthesis.

Db9 Hyper II (F) Em7-5 II Relative minor (Dm) Db9 Hyper II (F) Bbm7 II (Ab)

Gm7-5 II (F) A7 V (Dm)

Fmaj7 I (F) Dm I (Dm)

Fmaj7 I (F) Dm I (Dm)

Db9 Hyper II (F) G7 Gb7 Secondary dominants (C & Db) Gb9 Hyper II (Bb) Db9 Hyper II (F)

Gm7-5 II (F) G7 Secondary dominants (C ) F7-9 V (Bb) Gm7-5 or C7-9 II or V (F)

Fmaj7 I (F) C9 Db9 V (F &Gb)


Gb is a tension producing device

Fmaj7 I (F) C9 V (C)

Gm7-5 II (F) Eb7 V (Ab)

Fmaj7 I (F) F maj7 I (F) False cadence

Fmaj7 I (F) F maj7 I (F)

Bbmaj7 I (Bb) Fmaj7 I (F)

Fmaj7 IV (Bb) Fmaj7 I (F)

Norwegian Wood
A Beatles classic; now a jazz standard
Herbie Hancocks Album entitled The New Standard had revisited this Beatles tune and brought new life to it. This arrangement evolves through a few versions as inspired by Herbies rendition. The harmonies are dark compared to what the Beatles had in mind. Especially appealing is the use of the Lydian chord, major7 with a flatted fifth.

Another effective device is the false resolution to the A major

This arrangement is not a literal interpretation; it has a few devices that I favor as well. Have fun! http:\\ www.JazzGuitarTheory.com

Visit www.jazzguitartheory.com for publications on jazz guitar theory!

Killer Joe by Benny Golson


This tune is often played minus the bridge by some players; it is easy to cover the A section but it takes a little digging in to get the bridge right. I was inspired to revisit this tune after watching a Tom Hanks movie entitled Terminal. The Hanks character was on a mission to obtain the autograph of Benny Golson. The final scene has Benny Golson playing this tune, a worthwhile wading through a pretty entertaining movie to see Benny playing his tune. The bridge has a melody made up of alternate half and whole steps. This scale is now referred to as the 1+2 scale. Another reference is Diminished scale if you use the whole step first and call it by the first note. This is the scale with reference to C. It also could be called by any note that is followed by a half step. Go to www.jazzguitartheory.com for more info.

Impressions

John Coltrane

This tune is a good example of the modal approach that was spearheaded by Miles Davis and John Coltrane. The difficulty for the guitarist is generally playing accompaniment. Many players coming from the rock school of blowing pentatonic licks over the changes have no difficulty when playing over this tune though it might be humdrum for the listener. I feel the real skill in playing over modal changes is to make implied shifts in the harmony. In other words, make it sound like there are many changes. When playing chord accompaniment this is especially effective. Some of the devices that may be used are; Chord extensions Chord alterations Two/Five substitute Tritone substitution Sequences implied by super arpeggio

The following page addresses some of the typical alterations that might be used.

Chord Substitutions in Modal Songs

Songs in the modal style such as Impressions, So What, and Milestones present a problem in playing accompaniment. The sparse harmonic structure leaves you searching for things to fill the time. Extended chords, the harmonized scale, and chord series can provide some of the foundation for a fuller accompaniment.

The extended chord series is simply adding the scale tones above the chord root as in this series; Dm, Dm7, Dm9, Dm11, Dm13. The harmonized scale series is founded on the major scale serving as roots to chords. The chords are stacks of thirds that are unaltered scale tones. The simple way to view this is as a scale with thirds stacked on each note (Every other note of the scale is a series of thirds) G A B C D E F G E F G A B C D E C D E F G A B C This process forms these chords. C major D minor Eminor F major

G major

A minor

Bminor(b5) C major

This part of the order is a good start for substitution chords.

A chord series is any sequence of chords played in regular intervals such as fourths. Playing a series is a powerful tool for substitution work. The above harmonized scale substitution combined with a series of fourths makes an interesting substitution over a one chord scenario. Original chord progression is; Dm Dm Dm Dm Dm Dm Dm Dm Substitution is; Dm7 Em7 Fmaj7 Bbmaj7 Ebmaj7 Abmaj7 Dbmaj7 Dmi7

Green Dolphin Street


It would be safe to say that most jazz artists have played this tune more than once. It is a jazz standard that has stood the test of time. Frequently the A section is played in a Latin rhythm and the B and C sections are played in swing. I have included a study using pentatonic scales against the chord changes as well as chord melody and alternate (pedal tone changes) for the A section.

This version uses accompaniment chords that have a pedal tone "C" in the bass for the first 8 measures

Goodbye Pork Pie Hat by Charles Mingus


Perhaps the most often played composition of Mingus; Goodbye Pork Pie Hat is a great workout as a chord melody for guitar. This tribute to Lester Young is basically a blues with the melody statement using the minor pentatonic scale. Originally written in Eb, it is presented here in Ab allowing better voicing for guitar. Below are the changes that are used for soloing .

Tabbed version in first position on following page

Giant Steps
This masterwork by John Coltrane is an especially difficult tune for most guitarists because of the unusual movements through its tonal centers. The phrasing presents an additional challenge. Understanding the big picture of the tune will enable you to approach many other tunes and incorporate some of the devices used in this tune. It is generally rumored that Coltrane studied a book by Nicolas Slonimsky, Thesaurus of Scales and Patterns (Macmillan Publishers). Included in the studies of the book are patterns and harmonies that are created by dividing the octave or octaves into equal parts. One such exercise Slonimsky calls a Quadritone Progression which is the equal division of two octaves into three parts.

Here it is in the key that Giants Steps is in;

It seems Coltrane took these pitches as tonal centers and proceeded the I chords with V7 or II/V7. Following is an analysis of the tonal centers.

Georgia on My Mind
Hoagy Carmichael wrote it, everybody from Ray Charles to Willie Nelson has sung it; it is a standard that works well on guitar. This version is a medium difficulty chord melody. The chords above the melody line are voiced to blend well in a combo situation. The chord melody can be freely interpreted by play the upper note of any chord you find you need to omit. Improvising over the changes is conventional, i.e.; determine the tonal center by locating dominant 7th chords; these chords are the 5th of the tonal center (the scale you use). Emphasizing the 3rds of the dominant 7th chords will help bring out some of the more subtle harmony shifts.Visit www.JazzGuitarTheory .com for more.

Example; 1st four measures


F maj7 Tonal center=F Emphasis F-A-C-E Em7-5 A7-9 Tonal center=Dm Emphasis on C# Dm7 Tonal Center C Dorian mode Emphasis on D-F-A-C G7 Tonal Center C Emphasis =B

Four on Six by Wes Montgomery


This is a tabbed lead sheet version of one of Wes great tunes found on The Incredible Jazz Guitar of Wes Montgomery Listen to it before playing to get a feel of where the chords are placed. I saw Wes play this tune on several occasions and to the best of my recollection I believe he played it where I have it in the tablature. This tuned evolved throughout his career and this is based on an early version. Go to www.jazzguitartheory.com

Chitlins Con Carne


This is one of Kenny Burrells understated blues heads that every guitarist should learn. Stevie Ray Vaughn paid homage to Kenny by covering this tune in a virtually note for note rendition. It is basically a 12 bar blues using an interesting combination of C7#9 to F7 voicings in two registers.

Cherokee
This tune is usually played at breakneck speed or faster. The half and whole note melody seems to bring out the tendency to play it fast. I am presenting it here as a moderate tempo chord melody. The tonal centers move in a challenging fashion Here is the A section in tonal center notation. Bb Bb Bb Bb Eb F Eb F Eb Bb Eb C Db Bb Db F Whole tone

The B section B G B G B G B G A F A F A Bb

Bb

This tune is a good vehicle to practice streaming scales against the shifting tonal centers. That is to say play scales with no regard to modes, accents, syncopation, etc, just run even eighth note scales from the root as written on the following example.

Scale streaming

Blue in Green
Attributed to Miles Davis and Bill Evans Blue in Green represents a harmonic challenge for most guitarists. For me it is 10 of the most harmonically thought provoking measures you might play. The rendition on Kind of Blue should stimulate your thinking about slow tempos. Visit www.JazzGuitarTheory.com for study aids.

A possible analysis of first phrase is:

Bb = IV of Key (F)

A7=III dominant

Dm=VI

Cm =II of next tonal center

This is what might be assumed on first glance. It doesnt help much when trying to develop tension and release cycles.

Analysis continues:

Following is another view that prepares the rise and fall of tension a little better

Bb=alt II of Dm

A7-V of Dm

Dm=I of tonal center(D minor)

Cm = acts asII of Dm tonal center

Bb=alt II of Dm

A7-V of Dm

Dm=I of tonal center(D minor)

E7 Backcycle of Am (pseudo II)

Am acting as V of Dm

Dm =I

Autumn Leaves
This tune is considered by many as an overplayed standard. It can be! I choose to look at it as a test for all of my guitar students as it has all of the elements that should be known and under control. The structure is pretty straight forward; A-A-B-C. The tonal centers shift between G major and the relative minor, E minor in which the D of the G major scale is replaced with D# as the leading tone to Eminor. Click here to listen

Analysis
A section
Chords Am7 2 chord of G major D7 5 chord of G major Gmaj7 1 chord of G major Cmaj7 4 chord of G major F#m7 2 chord of E minor
D# replaces D

B7 5 chord of E minor
D# replaces D

Em 1 chord of E minor
D# replaces D

E7 5 of A minor Emphasis on G#

Analysis

2nd A section
Chords Am7 2 chord of G major D7 5 chord of G major Gmaj7 1 chord of G major Cmaj7 4 chord of G major F#m7 2 chord of E minor
D# replaces D

B7 5 chord of E minor
D# replaces D

Em 1 chord of E minor
D# replaces D

Em

Analysis

Em

B section Chords F#m7 B7 Em Em Am7 D7 G maj7 G maj7 Analysis 2 chord 5 chord 1 chord 1 chord 2 chord 5 chord 1 chord 1 chord of of of of of G of G of G of G Eminor Eminor Eminor Eminor A section Chords F#m7 B7 Analysis 2 chord 5 chord of of Eminor Eminor

Em/A7 2/5 of D major

Dm7/G7 Cmaj7 2/5 of 1 of C C major

B9 5 of Em

Em 1 of Em

Em 1 of Em

All the Things You Are


The classic by Hammerstein and Kern always provides a challenge to the guitar player by virtue of its many tonal centers and great melody. To bring these elements together requires some fingerboard gymnastics and planning. Improvising over the melody is easier when you have a good grasp of what the tonal centers are and the use of transitions from tonal center to tonal center. In this phrase the tonal centers are determined by the dominant 7th chords. They point to the tonal center

Tonal center=Ab The Eb7 is the 5th of Ab

Tonal Center is C Determined by the G7

I have found it works better to start the new tonal center (C) at the 5th measure, treating the Db maj 7 as a substitute 2 chord (Dm7) in the key of C. The tension created by playing the C tonal center over the Db maj7 is an interesting transition. In the final analysis the tonal centers each occupy 4 measures as shown below.

Ab

Following pages are lead sheet, analysis,and chord melody. Good luck!

All the Things You Are: Analysis Tonal Centers


First 8 measure phrase
Chord Changes
Chord relationship (mode) of Tonal centers Use these scales

Fm7 6 of Ab Aeolian

Bbm7 2 of Ab Dorian

Eb7 5 of Ab Mixolydian

Abmaj7 1 of Ab Ionian

Dbmaj7 4 of Ab Lydian or Alternate Dorian 2 of C

G7 5 of C Mixolydian

Cmaj7 1 of C Ionian

Cmaj7 I of C Ionian

Second 8 measure phrase


Chord Changes
Chord relationship (mode) of Tonal centers Use these scales

Cm7 6 of Eb Aeolian

Fm7 2 of Eb Dorian

Bb7 5 of Eb Mixolydian

Eb maj7 1 of Eb Ionian

Ab maj7 4 of EbLydian or Alternate Dorian 2 of G

D7 5 of G Mixolydian

G maj7 1 of G Ionian

G maj7 I of G Ionian

Third 8 measure phrase


Chord Changes
Chord relationship (mode) of Tonal centers Use these scales

Am7 2 of G Dorian

D7 5 of G Mixolydian

G maj7 1 of G Ionian

G maj7 1 of G Ionian

F# m7 2 of E Dorian

B7 5 of E Mixolydian

E maj7 1 of E Ionian

C7#5
5 of relative minor: F minor (Ab is parent key) Ab played from C to C

Fourth 8 measure phrase


Chord Changes Chord relationship (mode) of Tonal centers Use these scales

Fm7 6 of Ab Aeolian

Bbm7 2 of Ab Dorian

Eb7 5 of Ab Mixolydian

Abmaj7 1 of Ab Ionian

Db maj7 4 of AbLydian or Alternate Dorian 2 of C

Dbm7 2 of B Dorian Or alt 2 of Ab

Ab maj7 1 of Ab Ionian

E7#9 5 of A

Last 4 measures (This is what makes this tune different-extra 4 measures)


Chord Changes
Chord relationship (mode) of Tonal centers Use these scales

Bbm7 2 of Ab Dorian

Eb7 5 of Ab Mixolydian

Ab maj7 1 of Ab Ionian

Ab maj7 1 of Ab Ionian

All Blues
This tune attributed to Miles Davis is a standard among jazzers, one that you must know.This version was inspired by Kenny Burrell with a sparse harmony maintained as the melody is added as an upper voice. I have found some accompaniment variations to work well using devices such as sideslip harmony and tritones. Because of the workhorse nature of this tune, you will be looking for variations in playing accompaniment because you will be certain to play 30 choruses as the sax player works out.

The basic chords are: (in 6/8) G7 C7 D7 G7 C7 D7 G7 G7 G7 G7 G7 G7

Eb7

Following is a simple variation

G13 C13 D7#9

Ab13 Db13 Eb7#9

G13 C13 D7#9

Ab13 Gb13 D7

G13 G13 G13

Ab13 Ab13 Ab13

G13 G13 G13

Db13 E13 Ab13

West Coast Blues


This is one of Wes greatest tunes that is a must for all jazz guitarist. The form is a blues and when played in 6/8 falls into the 12 measure format. The substitutions are similar to what Charlie Parker used in Blues for Alice and Jean Thielmans Bluesette pays homage to these substitution formulae.Visit www.JazzGuitarTheory.com for more. Here is the more common variations as found in Bluesette.

This to help establish the relationship between so called west coast blues as in Bluesette and Wes tune West Coast Blues.

Wes uses a beautiful intro and outro that reminds me of John Coltranes harmonic sense.

Please notice the Solo changes. These are the chords that really make this tune fun to play over. The head has fewer changes and lines up more with conventional changes.

BONUS
This section contains earlier versions of works that are contained in the main section of this publication. There are worksheets and various articles that you might find useful. Enjoy! John Riemer

Functional Harmony for the Jazz Guitarist


By John Riemer

An approach to playing jazz guitar using a minimum of harmonic devices to cover a great number of harmonic situations.

Topics include: Basic moveable chord forms Scale structure and modes Harmonic forward motion Rhythmic forward motion Form and structure as used in jazz tunes Gateway approach to resolution Chord form groupings Chord melody arrangements of some jazz standards Web support www.guitarjazz.info

The following pages summarize my approach to jazz harmony


and the guitar. I grew up in Chicago listening and watching greats such as Kenny Burrell, Wes Montgomery, Joe Pass, Grant Green, George Benson, Phil Upchurch, and Larry Coryell. They all played great but were not always sharing concepts or techniques. They each had a system of thought and technique worked out that would convey their musical soul. I was especially impressed by Wes Montgomery because of his economy of motion and the reoccurrence of chord forms that projected a new slant on the harmony. Joe Pass as well had a system of chords that he used repeatedly but it never sounded worn out. I came to realize that these players were superimposing their familiar, well practiced chord forms over various harmonic situations and depending on the the rest of the band was doing, having a fresh sound develop. An example would be if the band is playing the dominant chord, lets use G7 as the example; you could play a Dmi9 arpeggio and have a pretty sound. If the band was on the four chord (Fmaj7) the same arpeggio would have a different effect but still agreeable. The key to making this work was good resolution, knowing which note to end on to satisfy the prevailing harmony. An E minor 9 arpeggio would work in a somewhat out fashion over the one chord (C maj7). So two simple arpeggios would satisfy the One, Four (or Two), Five chord situations. The following material is not meant to be a self guided study nor is it an authoritative treatment of the subject. It is what I learned in the various gigging venues and the advice and tips I was given on the bandstand. I present it a functional but it can supplement other studies or I can help guide you through it via email. john@finefrets.com The general order of study is: Scale Structures Understand Forward Motion (harmonic and rhythmic) Modes Determine Tonal Centers Analyze Tune Run scales through tonal centers Play target notes of each chord change Gateway to each chord Supplemental materials will be posted at www.guitarjazz.info

Chord Theory as applied to Jazz Guitar Functional Harmony


Part 1-Tonal Centers by John Riemer

Chord theory takes on special adaptations as applied to playing jazz guitar. The role of the guitar puts it in the midstream of tonalities so a bass could be assumed, there fore omitted. The general approach that I take is one of functional harmony, i.e., if a chord sounds appropriate I will use it. In the jazz players arena If it sounds right it is right! This is assuming that you have good judgment and perception. Listening to good music is the key. Without listening to good examples of the music you are trying to play, you might as well try to reinvent the wheel.

Tonal Centers
When playing any piece of music you should know the underlying structure and chord movements involved. Knowing the key you are in is the start. Does this mean learning key signatures.YES! Other concepts to studyHarmonized scale and the cycle of 5ths

Next, understand tonal centers. They are the temporary shifts to a scale outside of the key the song is in. Tonal centers are pointed to by dominant 7th chords. In the following example, all the chords can be found in only tonal center. The harmonized scale provides the standard from which we work. In the C harmonized scale we have these chords which are rooted and built upon each note of the scale; Cmaj7 Dmi7 Emi7 Fmaj7 G7 Ami7 Bmi7-5 I II III IV V VI VII In the following progression Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 Fmaj7 II V I IV The Dm7 doesnt point to the tonal center (key) because Dm can be found in the harmonized scale of C, Bb, and F. The Cmaj7 doesnt point to the center because Cmaj7 can be found in the key (tonal center) of C and G. F maj7 doesnt do it either, it can be found in C and F tonal centers. 7 is the only chord found in one keyC. All the other chords are found in C as well, so the entire phrase has the C scale as its tonal center. Knowing the Tonal Center enables you to play one scale over several chords streamlining your technique and thought process. A more horizontal approach is the result. Instead of looking at each measure as a separate snapshot of a scale or arpeggio you will think in a

way that connects measures and playing across bar lines will be more evident in your playing. The jazz standard by Miles Davis , Tune up, is in the key of D and moves through several tonal centers. The breakdown of the tune is: (see next page) II -V I- IV in D II-V- I-IV in C II- V- I-IV in Bb II-V in D turnaround Study the tune until recognizing tonal centers is clear.

Chord Theory as applied to Jazz Guitar


Part2 Developing II / V combinations
As you play through Tune up you will see that it general descends and you can play II / V changes that are the same chord forms moved through the various tonal centers. Not all songs will present such a clear path. For the moment easy song forms will suffice. Work on II/V changes descending through the keys by whole steps using these chord forms.

Put these at the 10th fret for Dm7/G7-9. Move down in whole steps. T

Next try these forms. Put them at the 10th fret (as diagramed for Am9/D13-9)

Run through this sequence: Am/D7 Dm/G7 Gm/C7 Cm/F7 Fm/Bb7 Bbm/Eb7 Ebm/Ab7 Abm/Db7 Dbm/Gb7 Gbm/B7 Bm/E7 Em/A7 Please be aware that the chord names are not literal. When the music requests an Am/D7; an Am7/D7-9 can be played as well as Am9/D13-9. The approach is to use a chord combination that functions as a II/V.

Chord Theory as Applied to Jazz Guitar


The harmonized scale
The harmonized scale is any scale in which each note of the scale serves as the root of a chord. The chords are created by stacking thirds on each root. Only notes of the scale are used. An easy way to view this is to think of every other note of the scale as the notes used in the chord. In the example C scale; The notes are C D E F G A B The notes in the chord rooted on C would be B G E C This is C maj7

The entire scale harmonized in the same fashion. B C D E F G A D C D E F G A B C D E F G Cmaj7 Dm7 Em7 Fmaj7 G7

G E C A Am7

A F D B Bm7-5

C G E C Cmaj7

The harmonized scale determines the chords that are found naturally in a key/tonal center. The significant chord is root on the 5th degree of the scale (G7). It is the only dominant chord in the tonal center. When you encounter a dominant chord you can be relatively sure of the tonal center. The G7 points to the tonal center of C. (See cycle of 5ths)

Chord Theory as applied to Jazz Guitar


Cycle of 5ths
The cycle of 5ths is founded on the tendency of resolution. In the Amen cadenceG7 resolving to C, ou find the basic tendency that drives the cycle. Carrying out this tendency further yields this sequence G C F Bb Eb Ab Db Gb B E A D

E The tendency for resolution is in a clockwise order.

Bb

Gb

Eb

Db

Ab

Chord Theory as applied to Jazz Guitar


Adding II/V changes where they dont exist.
The heart of functional harmony is viewing a chord or group of chords as a function of the Build-Tension-Release or Harmonic Forward Motion principal. In this view a II chord is the Build Chord. The V chord is the Tension Chord, and the I chord is the Release Chord. The build section has a floating quality, the tension section is leading, wanting resolution , and the release section provides the resolution.

Tensi on
Build

Release

This moves in one directionBuild- Tension- ReleaseForward If you lose sight of this and interrupt the flow it will sound like you are wandering.

Keeping this in mind you will be able to substitute a II/V combination for a V chord. Study the blues progression. It is an exception to the rule. Each chord can be played as a dominant 7 or V type chord even though only the D7 in this example is the only true V chord. Each chord is then pushed into a slightly higher level of tension. This is good, that is what the Blues are all about. Once you are at ease with this idea, try substituting a II/V where each chord is. For example: where there is G7-play dm7/G7. For C7, play gm7/C7 and for D7use am7/D7.

Sub Dm7/G7

Sub Gm7/C7

Sub Am7/D7

Notice the half steps between the 3rd & 4th and 7th & 8th degrees of the scale. This is the Ionian mode or major scale. Its quality is tonic, that is, resolved. Music needs a feeling of movement or anticipation which this scale doesnt provide when played as seen above. The sound of tension or anticipation can be created with this scale by playing from G to G, the Mixolydian mode. The appropriate chord would be G7 or an extension or substitute for theG7.

G Mixolydian
G Root A 2 9
nd

B 3
rd

C 4
th

D 5
th

E 6
th

F 7th

G Octave

th

11

th

13

th

Mixol ydian is the major (Ionia n mode) playe

d from the fifth degree of the major scale.

The next step is to play with some rhythmic forward motion. An easy way to start this is to play towards a target. The target being beat one, the usual heavy beat of the measure. Start on the and of one.

Do the same with the Ionian mode and move throughout all the keys. Know the names of all notes as you play them. Know the relationship each note has with the root you are playing over. In the Ionian mode you would have these relationships

Am/D7 Dm/G7 Gm/C7 Fm/Bb7 Bbm/Eb7 Ebm/Ab7 Dbm/Gb7 Gbm/B7 Bm/E7 Repeat the the sequence using these forms .

Cm/F7 Abm/Db7 Em/A7

Variations:

Work with these until you are proficient.

Next step Add I and IV chords where they dont exist.

Be able to play the Build Tension-Release modes as in the following example in all keys before moving on.

Also used as a IV chord and often as a simplified V chord

Also used as a simple II chord or a VI chord

Major Scale Stucture


Major scales are the basis from which all scales are formed or referenced to. The scale is a 7 note (diatonic) scale with half steps between the 3rd and 4th note as well as half steps between the 7th and 8th notes. This is a C Major scale

Notice the half steps between the 3rd & 4th and 7th & 8th degrees of the scale. This is the Ionian mode or major scale. Its quality is tonic, that is, resolved. Music needs a feeling of movement or anticipation which this scale doesnt provide when played as seen above. All Ionian scales are built with this interval sequence: Whole Whole Half Whole Whole Whole Half

This is an G Major (Ionian) scale

This is an F major (Ionian) scale

Modes of diatonic and pentatonic scales


Scales are the building blocks of all music and understanding them is vital to becoming the best musician possible. Scales are founded on the structure of a C major scale

This is the basic framework from which we derive understanding of all scales. The deal here is that each note is separated by a whole step (2 frets) except for the half steps (1 fret) between: E & F and B & C. The rule for a major scale is half steps between 3&4 and 7&8. Another view is :

Whole

Whole

Half

Whole

Whole

Whole

Half

This sequence of whole/half steps is the formula for the Major scale. The major scale is also called the Ionian mode. This name is a reference to modes, or methods of playing this group of notes in a different order. A C major scale played with emphasis on C and generally played in scale order is what the term Ionian will help you understand. Ionian mode is the major scale played with C as the point of origin. It can be visualized as:

Emphasis is on red Cs.

The Dorian mode looks like this,

It can be converted to this kind of emphasis, E F G A D

This shifts the sound quality to minor because within the first 3 notes you hear a minor third (D-F) the basic interval of the D minor chord

Phyrgian Mode
Same idea, move over one note and add one note.

Lydian Mode

Mixolydian Mode

Aeolian Mode

Locrian Mode

Following is an overview of the modes.

The modes yield chords i.e. every other note of the scale modes creates a chord

Ionian=C to C or 1 to 8

Dorian= D to D or 2 to 9

Phyrgian=E to E or 3 to 10

Lydian=F to F or 4 to 11

Mixolydian=G to G or 5 to 12

Aeolian=A to A or 6 to 13

Locrian=B to B or 7 to 14

Moveable Chords
A system of making one chord form do the work of many. Moveable chords are the one great advantage that guitarists have over piano players (other than a guitar is a whole lot easier to move). A moveable chord usually has no open strings that are played and the chord form can be moved along the neck to create new chords. An F chord that is played at the first fret can be moved to the second fret to create an F# chord. The trick is to understand where the chords should be played. When a chord is required you can think of it as having two names. An F chord is (F + major) An F7 chord is (F + seventh) An F minor is (F + minor) The first name is the locator, it tells you what fret to play the chord and the major or minor or seventh tells you what type of chord form to play.

For example this is C7

Moving it up the fret board one fret makes it C#7

Moving one more fret makes it a D7 This shows that the form is C7 at the first fret, C#7 at the second, and D7 at the third. The form or the way that you grip the chord remains the same (all are 7th chords) and the location on the neck changes the letter name of the chord. Knowing the pattern of the changing names as you move up the neck is the heart of the system.

That pattern is a CHROMATIC SCALE . A keyboard demonstrates the chromatic scale very well. Moving from a white key to the very next black key to the right would be moving up the chromatic scale

The dual names are confusing but necessary to understand that C# and Db are the same. Also confusing but vital to remember that between B & C and E & F there are no sharps or flats.

The way in which this translate to the guitar is the name of the chord you start with (like the C7 in the previous example) moves through the chromatic scale as you move up one fret at a time.

Here is how it works:

1st fret 2
nd

This chord is C7 at the first fret C7 C#7/Db7 D7 D#7/Eb7 E7 F7 F#7/Gb7 G7 G#7/Ab7 A7 A#7/Bb7 B7 NO # or between E and F C#7 and Db7 are the same chord (two names with the same sound=ENHARMONIC)

3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

The same is true for a chord like F minor This chord starts as Fm at the first fret so: 1st fret Fm 2
nd

F#m/Gbm Gm G#m/Abm Am A#m/Bbm Bm Cm C#m/Dbm Dm D#m/Ebm Em

F#m and Gbm are the same chord (two names with the same sound=ENHARMONIC)

3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

NO # or

between Band C

Good luck, John www.guitarjazz.info

Scale Morphing
This is a principle in which one scale evolves into another or notes are added to create a hybrid scale (one in which there are no conventional names). The passage of time in a song marks the rise and fall of tension. As an improviser you need to be in control of the tension/release cycle. In typical II/V/I the V chord is the point where the greatest harmonic tension (wrong notes) may be applied. The generally accepted approach is to play the Dorian mode against the II chord, the Mixolydian mode against the V chord and the Ionian mode against the I chord. This works fine as far as right notes are concerned. Because the same scale is being used throughout, a sameness of sound prevails. The II chord is the build chord, the V chord is tension, and the I chord is the release or resolve chord. II V I I The rise of tension can be viewed a line contour Tension

Build

Release

A technique to satisfy the rise and fall of tension is scale morphing, the scale changes as you move through time, i.e., notes that induce greater tension, are played at the appropriate time. In terms of scale modes it might be viewed as follows. Altered notes b5,#5,b9,#9

Dorian

Ionian

Extended and altered tones


The scale tones create the basic triad and its extensions. Chords such as maj7, major 9, etc. are chords generated by the tones found in the scale. The altered tones are what create harmonic tension. These include chords such as 7th#5, 9th-5, 13th-9, etc. The common factor is altered, flatted or sharped, scale tones. This scale is a G dominant scale with added notes in the upper octave. I refer to this as an Evolving Scale

Tones used in triad and extended chords

Tones used in altered chords

This morphed scale developed from experience by ear, and a similarity of fingering on the first five strings suggested by some of the chords that I was trying to get a sound for.

The placement of the altered tones in the phrase is critical in making this work. Following is an example.

Evolving Scale as used


against II,V, I change
Tension notes b5,#5,b9,#9 Scale morphed to include altered tones

Build Dorian

Release Ionian

Morphed Blues scales


The blues scale is a type of morphed scale that has become commonplace. It has its origin as a pentatonic scale.

In this example the G blues will be combined with the E blues.

Combined they look like this.

Published by:

The Caboogie Publishing Company