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D.4 Geography of Energy 177. Sarina Kalia, Wind Energy Potentials in Rajasthan, The Indian Geographical Journal 83(2), 2008: 131-148. Introduction / Objectives: The paper advocates that the wind is one of natures most abundant resources. It is renewable, non polluting, universally available and free. It is a stream of moving air molecules circulated by the Suns unequal heating of the earths surface. Wind power installation is the latest mantra in Rajasthans endeavour to improve the power generation scenario. The present paper deals with the estimation of basic parameters of wind resource assessment such as mean wind speed and energy resource, winds, speed frequency and power density at different heights in Rajasthan. Data Base & Methodology: The wind resource assessment of Rajasthan in 32 stations of 12 districts have been selected. On the basis of data obtained from the Metrological Department and data given by mast stations wind speed and density have been evaluated. A total analysis of wind power potential in Rajasthan has also been done and four categories (High potential, Medium potential, Low potential and Very low potential) have been derived. Findings: The paper indicates that at present under 132 KV system 100% of the generated wind power flows. But such wind power farms which are connected to 33KV systems are not equipped to carry the power and there is a need to improve the grid to carry more power. The State Govt. is making efforts to improve the grid system to enable it to carry for more load than is being carried presently. The results indicate that the wind generation of Rajasthan has declined from 2001 to 2005. However the wind power installed capacity (MW) of Rajasthan shows increase between 2001 and 2004 but decline after 2004.

178. Alagh, Yoginder K. Energy Sector in India, IASSI Quarterly, 26(4) 2008: 5-31. The paper has examined the sustainability of Indias high growth from the angle of energy sector. Since the dawn of economic history it is observed that energy is an important infrastructure for attaining growth. Every year the growth forecasts nests in energy projections. But the growth of energy sector itself is an area of concern. The energy in India largely relies on coal. Coal on the other hand is of high sulphur and ash content and poor calorific value. Not only

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this, the country cannot even burn this bad coal as there is a limit on its use because the burning of coal is a serious environmental issue. A way out is to use better technology for burning coal. IGCC is one such technology. But it is in an experimental stage and its technoeconomic feasibility study needs to be done. The oil and natural gas is also limited. The country has only 1 percent world reserve and that too in offshore regions. The heavy import of these fuels is unsustainable from the trade viewpoint. Therefore, alternatives need to be exploited. Thorium based nuclear power is one such option. This source becomes all the more important as wind power, photovoltaic and biomass can meet around 5 percent of the estimated demand. Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor, Fast Breeder Reactor and Pressurised Fast Breeder Reactor are set up in this regard. In India nuclear power is a viable option after meeting initial costs. The author found that though energy and growth are directly linked, the period after reforms (since 1991) showed dismal growth of capacity and generation of electricity. But the growth of the economy was achieved. This happened due to proper running of generation units, improvement in load factor, energy efficiency in power consuming centres and increase in capacity of non utilities captive power sector. As industries were also brought out of quantitative control they functioned through scale economies and higher capacity use. There was huge energy saving in single product continuous process industries like cement, paper, steel, aluminium, petrochemicals and fertilizers. Even latest data shows the continuing energy efficiency in these industries. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) was not encouraging in the energy sector in the beginning of the reform period and it dried up between 1999 and 2005. The efforts are again made to increase FDI through mega power projects and transmission projects with private or Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode. Ultra Mega Power Projects are important cornerstone of the current policy. In these projects government undertakes land acquisition and clearance before handing to developer through a transparent tariff competitive bidding process. But capacity addition has taken longer time than planned as land acquisition, environmental clearance, Research and Development, fuel, water involve long time. Reforms in transmission are also not achieved as only 2 States Delhi and Orissa have privatized distribution. Energy regulation is not proper as they are manned by administrators who lack in commercial and enterprise expertise. The Electricity act, 2003

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is found to be complete and in consonance with the global practice. The author emphasized that urgent focus should be on energy efficiency and improving distribution. The energy distribution should be decentralized. Local agents should be brought in energy trade systems. The mixture of public and private can be most successful in this regard.