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What is a sugar refinery?

A sugar refinery is a factory which refines raw sugar. Many cane sugar mills produce raw sugar, i.e. sugar with more colour and therefore more impurities than the white sugar which is normally consumed in households and used as an ingredient in soft drinks, cookies and so forth.
4th slide The refining process
Sucrose is purified from raw sugar (97.5% sucrose) in a four step process as follows: affination - dissolving off some surface impurities. this process removes the the thin layer of molasses and impurities from raw sugar crystals using centrifugal machines. carbonatation - removing further impurities that precipitate from solution with calcium carbonate. Basically what we are doing here is adding carbon dioxide and lime to the melted sugar to form a precipitate of calcium carbonate. The carbonatation precipitate is removed by pressure filtering the sugar liquor through cloth in a pressure leaf filter, leaving a strawcoloured, crystal clear liquid. IER absorption IER is used here to absorb the colourant in the brown syrup so that a light amber syrup is produced which we call fine syrup. IER that is ion exchange resins that

are widely used in different separation,

purification, and decontamination processes. The most common examples are water softening and water purification. An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is an insoluble matrix normally in the form of small (12 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated

from an organic polymer substrate. The material has highly developed structure of pores on the surface of which are sites with easily trapped and released ions. The trapping of ions takes place only with simultaneous releasing of other ions; thus the process is called ion-exchange. There are multiple different types of ion-exchange resin which are fabricated to selectively prefer one or several different types of ions. Ion-exchange resins are widely used in different separation, purification, and decontamination processes. The most common examples are water softening and water purification. In many cases ion-exchange resins were introduced in such processes as a more flexible alternative to the use of natural or artificial zeolites.

5th slide refining process continued Evaporation and crystallisation the fine syrup is concentrated upto 72% using a double-effect evaporation system. The concentrated syrup is then further evaporated in vacuum under boiling pans. Crystals are produced here. Drying, cooling and screening dried to a moisture content of less than 0.02% and cooled to a temperature of less than 40 degrees Celsius and then screened into fine and medium grain-sized products. Packaging the product is finally packed into packages of various sizes.