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Human Development

Definition of Terms: Developmental Psychology. -The study of the patterns of growth and change that occurs throughout life. -The branch of psychology that deals with human development and the factors that shape behavior from conception to old age. Development. -A progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience. -It implies a qualitative change. Growth. -A continuous change and additive processes. -It implies a quantitative changes. Maturation. -It refers to the process of change which occurs primarily as a function of aging and time. -It is the unfolding of biologically predetermined patterns of behavior. -It excludes effects of practice and experience. Learning. -A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.

Basic Principles of Growth and Development:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Development involves change. There are individual differences in development. The rate of development is unique to each individual. Development follows an orderly sequence which is predictable. Development is the product of maturation and learning. Early development is more critical than later development.

Dimensions of the Human Person:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Physical The entire biological system of the person. Psychomotor Muscular control for making coordinated movements. Cognitive Intelligence of the person. Emotional Temperament of a person. Social How a person conducts him/herself with other people. Moral Ones awareness of what is right or wrong. Behavioral Outward manifestation of ones personality Spiritual Transcending the physical self.

Stages of Development:

* Prenatal Stage (9 months) Infancy (0 to 2 years old) Early Childhood (2 to 6 years old) Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years old) Adolescence (12 to 18 years old) Early Adulthood (18 to 35 years old) Middle Adulthood (35 to 60 years old) Late Adulthood (60 years old onwards)

Types of Research in Developmental Psychology:

Cross-sectional Research -Comparing people of different ages at the same point in time. Longitudinal Research -Investigating changes in behavior across time. -Individuals are studied at regular intervals over a relatively long period of time.

Sequential Research -It combines cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches by taking a number of different age groups and examine them at several points in time. Twin Studies -Identifying similarities and differences of twins who grew up together or apart.

Developmental Influences: Nature and Nurture

Heredity / Nature / Genetics -The genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring. -Traits that are passed on from parents to offspring through the chromosomes. Environment / Nurture / Upbringing -The totality of circumstances surrounding an organism. -The combination of external physical conditions, social and cultural conditions that affect and influence the growth and development.

Prenatal Development: Conception to Birth

Conception when a males sperm cell penetrates a females egg cell. Chromosomes a rod-like structure in the nucleus of each cell that is actually a very long, coiled DNA molecule and associated proteins that carry the hereditary information (genes) of an organism.

*Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes:

22 pairs of autosomes + 1 pair of sex chromosomes (XY chromosome).

Sex Determination: Females have an XX sex chromosome and Males have an XY sex chromosome.

Stages of Prenatal Development:

Zygote a fertilized ovum. (germinal stage: 0 2 weeks) Embryo a developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs. (embryonic stage: 2 8 weeks) Fetus a developing individual (fetal stage: 8 weeks birth {38 weeks})

Identical Twins are created when a single egg is fertilized by one sperm, then splits into two. Fraternal Twins two egg cells are released and are fertilized by two separate sperms. Genetically they are just like ordinary siblings, and may be of the same sex or of different sexes.

Prenatal Environmental Influences:

-Mothers nutrition the health of the mother and what the mother eats -Mothers illnesses minor diseases for mothers may cause severe consequences to the developing fetus. -Mothers emotional/mental state stress causes chemical changes in the body that also affect the fetus. -Mothers use of drugs, alcohol, and nicotine substances that have ill effects on the body will also have an ill effect on the fetus. *Teratogens - substances or environmental agents that can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus that may produce birth defects.

Examples of Genetic Disorders:

-Phenylketonuria inability to produce an enzyme (phenylalanine hydroxylase), which results to the inability to utilize a particular amino acid (or the inability to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine) needed for normal development. -Sickle-cell Anemia having stiff and curved red blood cells instead of having normal flexible and disc-like shaped red blood cells. -Tay-Sachs Disease absence of the enzyme hexosaminidase-A that breaks down fatty acids particularly in the nervous system. -Down Syndrome the presence of an extra chromosome 21 that causes mental and physical developmental delays

Principles of Physical Development

Cephalocaudal Principle - Development proceeds from the head to the lower parts of the body. (Top-to-Bottom Development) Proximodistal Principle - Development proceeds from the central part of the body to the outer parts. (Inner-to-Outer Development)

Sensory Development
Vision -Can focus their sight to a visual stimulus. -Infants can differentiate facial features. -Infants can distinguish familiar faces from unfamiliar faces. -Infants can perception of depth Hearing -Immediately after birth, infants can hear. -Infants can localize sounds. -Infants can discriminate their mothers voices from unknown women. Touch -Infants can sense touch as early as after birth. -Infants can sense pain. Smell -Newborns can differentiate odors. -They prefer sweet smell. -6-day old infants who were breast-fed show a clear preference for smelling their mothers breast pads over clean one that had never been used. Taste -Newborns can discriminate taste. -Infants prefer sweet tastes over sour or bitter ones.

*Habitutation the decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentation of the same stimulus

Emotional Development
Temperament - characteristic style of approaching and reacting to people and situations. Nine Aspects of Temperament:

1. Activity Level how much a person moves. 2. Rhythmicity or Regularity predictability of biological cycles like hunger, sleep, elimination. 3. Approach or Withdrawal how a person initially responds to a new stimulus, like a new toy, food, or person. 4. Adaptability how easily an initial response is modified in a desired direction. 5. Threshold of Responsiveness how much stimulation is needed to evoke a response. 6. Intensity of Reaction how energetic a person responds. 7. Quality of mood whether a persons behavior is predominantly pleasant, joyful, and friendly; or unpleasant, unhappy, and unfriendly. 8. Distractibility how easily an irrelevant stimulus can alter or interfere with a persons behavior. 9. Attention span and persistence how long a person pursue an activity and continues in the face of obstacles. ----Attachment -The positive emotional bond that develops between child and a particular individual - An active, affectionate, reciprocal relationship between two people. Imprinting - An instinctual form of learning in which, after a single encounter, an animal learns to recognize and follow a particular individual.

Types of Attachment:
Securely Attached: - Child is distressed when mother leaves but greets her happily upon returning - Child is cooperative and free from anger - Child explores their environment more Avoidant: - Child rarely cries when the mother leaves and avoids her upon return Ambivalent: - Child shows anxiety even before the mother leaves and are very upset when mother leaves - Upon return of the mother, the child seeks contact while at the same time kicks or squirms as the mother holds her. Disorganized-Disoriented Attachment: - Child shows inconsistent, contradictory behavior - Child greets mother brightly then turns away; approaches mother without looking

Cognitive Development JEAN PIAGET

-The process by which a persons understanding of the world changes. -The growth in thought processes that enables one to acquire and use knowledge about the world. Cognitive Stage Approximate Age Range Developmental Milestone

Sensorimotor Stage 0 to 2 years Object Permanence Concept of Causality Preoperational Stage 2 to 7 years Symbolic Thinking Concept of Conservation Concrete Operational Stage 7 to 12 years Mastery of concrete operations (conservation, reversibility) Formal Operational Stage 12 years up Ability to think in abstract terms

*Object Permanence the realization that an object or a person continue to exist even when no longer present to the
senses. *Concept of Causality recognition that certain events cause other events. *Concept of Conservation recognition that certain properties of objects do not change despite transformations in the appearance of the object.

Moral Development- LAWRENCE KOHLBERG

Level/Stage Basis for Behavior
LEVEL I Pre-Conventional Morality Stage 1 Punishment Orientation Obeys rules to avoid punishment Stage 2 Reward Orientation Conforms to obtain rewards, to have favors returned LEVEL II Conventional Morality Stage 3 Good-boy/Good-girl Orientation Conforms to avoid disapproval of others Stage 4 Authority Orientation Upholds laws and social rules to avoid censure of authorities of guilt about not doing ones duty LEVEL III Post Conventional Morality Stage 5 Social-contract Orientation Actions are guided by principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain respect of others and self. Stage 6 Ethical principle Orientation Actions guided by self-chosen ethical principles (that usually value justice, dignity, and equality).

Psychosocial Development ERIK ERICKSON

Stage Approximate Age Positive Outcome Negative Outcome Trust vs. Mistrust Birth 1 years Feelings of trust and optimism Fear and concern for others

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1 - 3 years Self-sufficiency Self-doubt, lack of independence Initiative vs. Guilt Early Childhood Purpose, ability to initiate ones own activities Guilt from actions and thought Industry vs. Inferiority Middle Childhood Competence Feeling of inferiority, lack of sense of mastery Identity vs. Confusion Adolescence An integrated image of oneself as a unique person. Inability to identify roles in life Intimacy vs. Isolation Early Adulthood Ability to form close and lasting relationships; to make career commitments Fear of relationships or commitments Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood Concern for family, society, and the future generation Trivialization of ones activities, feeling of uselessness Integrity vs. Despair Late Adulthood A sense of fulfillment and satisfaction with ones life; willingness to face death. Regret over lost opportunities.