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Lagothrix lagotricha
The common woolly monkey is one of the largest South American
primates. This heavy but agile creature is well suited to its
forest habitat and often hangs from its tail to feed.
__ KE_Y __ F_A_CT_S ________________________
Length: Head and body, 1 ft.
Tail, ft.
Weight: Male, 8-22 lb. Female,
11-14 lb.
Sexual maturity: 4-5 years.
Mating: Probably year-round.
Gestation: months.
No. of young: 1 .
Habit: Day-active; sociable.
Diet: Fruit, nuts, leaves, insects.
Call: Very wide range, including
squeaks, whistles, and screams.
Lifespan: 20-25 years in the wild.
The yellow-tailed woolly monkey,
Lagothrix f/avicauda, is found in the
mountains of northern Peru. The 2
species of woolly monkey are re-
lated to the spider monkeys.
Range of the common woolly monkey.
Found in undisturbed rainforests from Venezuela through Co-
lombia to eastern Ecuador, northern Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia.
The common woolly monkey is the most threatened primate
in Colombia and Peru because of continued overhunting. Its
status is unknown in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Destruc-
tion of the rainforest also threatens its survival.
Tail : Long,
bushy, and
(grippi ng) . Bare,
ridged patch of
skin on under-
side of tip im-
proves grip.
Coat: Thick, woolly, and soft.
Color varies from grayish to
brown or black.
Face: Hairless
and darker than
coat; usually
Limbs: Powerful
and muscular.
Long fingers
and toes for
holding onto
Young: Si ngle. It clings to mother's
belly for first 2 weeks; then moves
to her back, where it stays tor
over a year unti l weaned.
US P 6001 12076 PACKET 76
Although attempts have been made to protect the common
woolly monkey, it is still killed for its flesh and caught for
sale as a pet. The clearing of this gentle primate's rainforest
habitat is also threatening its survival. The woolly monkey
appears to be unable to adapt to other types of forest.

In the rainforest, the common
woolly monkey inhabits trees as
high as 110 feet. To cross a big
gap in the trees, it usually drops
down rather than leaping across
the space. If it crosses the forest
floor, it walks on its hind legs
with its tail held straight up.
When not feeding, the woolly
monkey spends a lot of the day
resting and grooming itself or
others. Territories often overlap,
and common woolly monkeys
move freely in and out of social
groups, which consist of 2 to 70
individuals. They also mix with
other monkey species.
The woolly monkey likes to sit
upright on branches and rarely
hides from humans. In times of
danger, it is often the more ner-
vous tamarins nearby that call
out in alarm. Slow to react at
first, the woolly monkey moves
quickly and quietly into the fo-
liage. If threatened by a predator
like the harpy eagle, the mon-
key may throw twigs and nuts.
Males may shake tree branches,
grunting and barking ferociously.
The common woolly monkey
may breed year-round in the
wild. When ready to mate, the
female approaches the male.
After a gestation of seven and
a half months, the female finds
a secluded spot and gives birth
on all fours. She brings the sin-
The common woolly monkey
eats more for its body weight
than any other monkey of a sim-
ilar size. In the wild it consumes
fruit, leaves, nuts, berries, bark,
flowers, and nectar. It occasion-
ally eats caterpillars and grubs,
which provide it with protein.
The woolly monkey frequent-
Left: The female common woolly
monkey is distinguished from the
male by light hairs on her crown.
On a trip taken up the Orino-
co River between 1799 and
1804, the German scientist
Baron von Humboldt became
the first Westerner to describe
the common woolly monkey.
gle young to her chest and licks
it clean. She also bites at the
umbilical cord but often does
not remove it completely until
night. For two weeks, the off-
spring clings to its mother's bel-
ly. Then it travels on her back for
over a year until it is weaned.
Iy feeds in groups, but it does
not appear to quarrel over food.
It also often feeds while swing-
ing in the air, held securely by its
long tail, which it winds around
a branch or tree trunk. After pick-
ing food carefully with its fingers
or toes, the monkey sniffs a mor-
sel before eating it.
Right: The common woolly mon-
key carefully examines each piece
of food before feeding.
For this reason it is also
Humboldt's woolly I
The species name lagotricha
comes from Greek words for
"hare" and "hair" and refers
to the monkey's thick coat.
are the main
enemies of the
common wool-
ly monkey. When
a young monkey
is captured as a
pet, its mother is
often killed.
Humans are the common wool-
ly monkey's deadliest enemy.
The monkey's trusting nature
makes it an easy target. South
American tribes have consid-
ered its flesh a delicacy for cen-
turies and have used its fat as
cooking oil. Until only recent-
ly, thousands of monkeys were
killed every year, and the dried
carcasses sold in markets.
Some South American coun-
Left: Although the female is sexu-
ally mature in four years, the male
takes five or more years.
tries have restrictions on killing
the common woolly monkey.
However, the laws are seldom
enforced, and the monkey is
still hunted for food and to sell
as a pet. The young monkey is
taken from its mother after she
has been shot. She is cut up for
meat, and the young is sold.
Destruction of the common
woolly monkey's rainforest hab-
itat is also a threat to its survival.
The monkey appears to be un-
able to adapt to cleared or bad-
ly damaged rainforest.

Hemitrogus jemlahicus
The Himalayan tahr looks like a cross between a mountain goat and
a sheep. This agile animal moves with ease across rock faces and
na"ow ledges in the steep, rugged te"ain of its habitat.
Length: ft.
Height: 2-4 ft.
Weight: 110-230 lb.
Sexual maturity: 2-3 years, but
the male rarely breeds until at least
4 years old.
Breeding season: October to Jan-
uary in the Himalayas. May to July
in the Southern Hemisphere.
Gestation: About 6 months.
No. of young: 1.
Habit: Lives in small herds; active
by day.
Diet: Grass, shrubs, and leaves.
lifespan: Up to 15 years.
There are 2 other species in the
genus Hemitrogus. They are the
Nilgiri tahr, H. hylocrius, and the
Arabian tahr, H. jayakari.
Original range of the Himalayan tahr.
The Himalayan tahr's natural habitat is a narrow strip of the
southern Himalayas. However, the species has also been in-
troduced to South Africa and New Zealand.
The Himalayan tahr is in no danger of extinction. Its numbers
are controlled in its adopted Southern Hemisphere habitats.
Senses: Hearing and eyesight
are excellent.
Female: About 25 percent smaller than
the male, with a much lighter build. Her
coat is shorter than the male's and is
often duller.
Horns: Backward-
curving and flat-
tened on sides.
Shorter in the
Male: Long coat varies from black to
red-brown. Mature male has a paler,
shaggy mane from the neck and
shoulders to the upper forelegs.






The Himalayan tahr has a rather unusual range. It
is found in the southern Himalayas, which is its native
habitat. But it also lives in New Zealand and South Africa,
having been introduced into both regions in the first half
of the 20th century. Because this animal prefers remote,
mountainous terrain its habitat in all three parts of
its range is inhospitable and inaccessible.

Within Asia the Himalayan tahr
is widespread across its range,
which runs from broad-leaved
forests at an altitude of 8,000
feet to alpine meadows as high
as 14,400 feet. In 1904, a few
animals were shipped to New
Zealand, where they have bred
successfully. In South Africa a
pair of tahrs escaped from a zoo
and bred, but the current popu-
lation is small.
The Himalayan tahr prefers
grassy cliffs with patches of for-
est. It may remain at the same
grazing area for days before it
moves on. An expert climber, it
balances nimbly on ledges.
This animal lives in small herds
of as many as 10 members. In-
dividuals join and leave the herd
throughout the year. Only a
mother and her young form a
close bond. In spring the males
often leave the herd and do not
return until mating time.
Although its horns and thick
skull make it look like a fighter,
the tahr is one of the less ag-
gressive species of mountain
goat. Fighting and territorial
behavior are rare outside the
mating season.
Right: The hooves of the Hima-
layan tahr are adapted for grip-
ping steep, slippery rock surfaces.
The Himalayan tahr feeds pri-
marily on the grass and shrubs
that it finds on cliffs. In forest
areas it also eats oak leaves. To
get at the foliage, it rears up on
its hind legs, and holds down a
low branch with a foreleg.
The Himalayan tahr forages
during the early morning and
late afternoon. When there is
little or no snow, a herd moves
up the slopes at dawn, eating
along the way. The animals
Left: A tahr differs from a goat in
that it lacks a beard but has a shag-
gy mane on the neck and shoulders.
t hen rest on the narrow ledges
and ridge tops until late after-
noon, when they descend to
feed again.
Feeding habits are seasonal.
In winter activity diminishes,
and the feeding period drops
from eight hours a day to as
little as three. By spending a
greater amount of time rest-
ing and less time feeding, the
Himalayan tahr conserves its
energy in the colder weather.
Right: The female Himalayan tahr
is smaller than the male and has
shorter, more delicate horns.
Left: In win-
ter the male
tahr tries to
attract a mate
with a show of
strength. Dur-
ing this display,
the male erects
his thick mane
so that his mus-
cular forequar-
ters look larger
in profile.

Tahrs lived in Europe until
the end of the last Ice Age.
There is a cave painting in
Cognac, France, that ap-
pears to depict a tahr.
When the herd is resti ng,
one tahr watches for leopards
I and other predators. At the
first sign of danger, he emits
a piercing whistle.
In the Himalayas the mating
season, or rut, of the Himalayan
tahr occurs between October
and January. In South Africa and
New Zealand, the rut is from
May to July.
Although males compete for
females, fighting rarely ends in
injury, even when head-to-head
clashes occur. Conflicts are often
resolved when one male chases
his competitor away, or when
the weaker animal backs down.
A male shows interest in a fe-
male by presenting his profile to
her, holding his head high, and
erecting his shaggy mane. This
makes him look larger and may
The Himalayan tahr thrives
in its adopted Southern Hem-
isphere habitat because of the
absence of predators and nat-
ural competitors.
In New Zealand Himalayan
tahrs have altered the vegeta-
tion of their habitat, due to
their great preference for cer-
tain local plant species.
scare off rivals. During court-
ship, the bull moves his head
from side to side, flicks out his
tongue, and grunts. This behav-
ior may continue for five hours
before mating takes place.
Gestation takes about six
months, and the female leaves
the herd a day or two before
giving birth alone. A few min-
utes after birth, the young tahr,
or kid, is on its feet and is usually
walking two hours later. Mother
and kid join the herd after a few
days. The bond between moth-
er and offspring may last up to
two years before the young be-
comes independent.
'" CARD 253 I
Nycticebus coucang
The slow loris lives up to its name as it creeps about in the trees.
This creature always moves at an extremely leisurely pace,
unlike its more nimble relative, the slender loris.
Length: Head and body, 10-15 in.
Tail, 1-2 in.
Weight: Up to 4 ~ lb.
Sexual maturity: 8-12 months.
Gestation: 6Yz months.
No. of young: 1.
Habit: Solitary and night-active.
Diet: Strong-smelling insects, as
well as birds' eggs, lizards, and
small mammals. Also some fruit
and leaves.
Lifespan: About 5 years in the
wild. Up to 20 years in captivity.
Lorises, bush babies, and pottos
are all contained in the family
Lorisidae. The slender loris, Loris
tardigradus, is the only other spe-
cies of loris.
Range of the slow loris.
The slow loris inhabits forests from Bangladesh to Vietnam, Thai-
land, Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, and Java.
The slow loris is thought to have disappeared from much of its
range because of deforestation. Although not officially listed as
endangered, it is covered by the CITES trade agreement, mak-
ing export of the animal illegal.
Coat: Soft, dense, woolly fur that
can be fluffed up to conserve
body heat. Pale yellow or yellow-
ish brown underfur is covered
by long, darker guard hairs
on top, with a darker band ex-
tending from the shoulders
down to the forelegs.
Hands: Index finger is very
small , giving a wide grasp.
Hands and feet have soft
pads to grip branches.
Head: Round with small ,
pointed, moist snout. Large,
~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ I I I I ~ ~ l ~ ~ round, forward-facing eyes let
~ loris detect movements in the dark.
Feet: First toe is
opposable for
gripping branches.
Second toe has a
long claw used
for grooming.
Pear-shaped dark rings around eyes.
Small ears almost completely
hidden in animal's fur.
Body: Rounded and stocky with short,
but very supple, limbs. The very short
tail barely protrudes through the fur.
PRINTED IN U.S.A. US P 6001 12 078 PACKET 78
The slow loris makes its home in the forests of Southeast
Asia. It moves about in the trees with deliberate, slow-motion,
hand-over-hand movements and often hangs upside down.
The slow loris was once thought to be related to the South
American sloths, which move about in a similar way. But
it is actually closely related to Africa 5 bush babies.
The slow loris spends its entire
life above the ground, clinging
to branches in the tree canopy,
where it is hidden among the
foliage. Although it is a relative
of monkeys and apes that jump
and swing through the forest
trees, the slow loris cannot jump
at all. It travels at a snail's pace,
using all four of its limbs. The
canopy branches are so dense
that the slow loris can move by
simply reaching out and grasp-
ing a nearby branch.
During the day the slow loris
sleeps curled up in a ball, cling-
ing to a branch, with its head
and hands buried between its
thighs. This position helps to
preserve its body warmth.
The slow loris awakes at sun-
down and begins a very slow,
elaborate grooming ritual. To
groom itself, the animal uses its
rough tongue, the claw on the
second toe of each hind foot,
and its "tooth comb," which is
formed by its lower teeth.
The slow loris generally detects
prey with its very keen sense of
smell. It frequently feeds on cat-
erpillars and beetles that have
strong odors and are poisonous
to most animals. It also feeds on
birds' eggs, leaves, small lizards
and mammals, and fruit.
Because it moves so slowly, the
slow loris can sneak up on prey
unnoticed. It tracks an animal by
following its scent trail. Keeping
its grip on a branch with at least
one hind foot, it then reaches
out very slowly and quietly and
grabs the victim with its fingers.
Left: The slow loris uses all four
/ifJIbs to hold on securely when
moving around in trees.
Right: Despite its unhurried gait,
the slow loris catches fast-moving
prey /ike grasshoppers.
The slow loris's name means
"bashful cat" in Bengali.
The slow loris's coat is very
dense for a tropical animal. Its
body functions so slowly that
it would not be able to gener-
ate enough heat to maintain a
constant body temperature if
The solitary slow loris occupies a
defined territory, which it marks
by urinating on branches. How-
ever, females frequently share a
home range, which may over-
lap with those of males. As a
result, a male can easily find a
female that is ready to breed.
Six and a half months after
mating, the female gives birth
to one offspring that weighs
Left: The female slow loris rears her
offspring alone, carrying it with her
while she travels.
it did not have very thick fur
to keep it warm.
Most animals' muscles get
tired if kept in one position for
too long. This is not true of the
slow loris because blood flows
freely through its muscles even
when they are absolutely still.
about an ounce and a half. The
young has thick fur and can grip
as well as its parents.
The newborn clings to the fur
on its mother's belly, suckling
from her as she travels. But after
a few weeks, the mother forages
alone, leaving her young grip-
ping a branch securely. In order
to learn to hunt, it soon begins
to accompany her, at first cling-
ing to her back and then follow-
ing her. The young is completely
weaned at six to eight weeks old.


Spermophi/us parryii
The Arctic ground squirrel is a hardy rodent that lives in the
tundra of northern Canada and Alaska. Because of the harsh
climate, it hibernates for seven months of the year.
----------------------------__________________________ -J
Length: 9-14 in.
Weight: 1-3 lb.
Sexual maturity: 1 year.
Mating season: May to June.
Gestation: weeks.
No. of young: 4-8.
Habit: Day-active. Lives in groups.
Hibernates through winter.
Diet: Seeds, leaves, roots, berries,
flowers, and mushrooms.
Call: Chattering alarm.
Lifespan: 6 years.
The 32 species in the genus Spermo-
phi/us include the Columbian ground
squirrel, S. co/umbianus; Franklin's
ground squirrel, S. frank/inii; as well
as the 13-lined ground squirrel,
S. tridecem/ineatus.
Range of the Arctic ground squirrel.
Found from Hudson Bay in Canada across to Alaska and in tun-
dra regions of northeastern Siberia.
Because its natural range is so remote, humans have had little
effect on the Arctic ground squirrel's survival. The animal ap-
pears to be in no immediate danger in its harsh but largely
undisturbed wilderness.
Body: Slender just after emerging
from hibernation. The squirrel gains
weight steadily all summer for the
next winter hibernation.
or reddish
brown with
lighter speckles.
Cheek pouches:
Common to all
Paws: Equippea
with sharp,
stu rdy claws.
Columbian ground squirrel: Found in
western Canada, especially British
Columbia, in slightly milder climates
than the Arctic ground squirrel.
Thirteen-lined ground squirrel: lives
in the United States and central
Canada on prairies, pastures,
and golf courses. Has
13 alternating
light and dark
0160200721 PACKET 72
The Inuits refer to the Arctic ground squirrel as the "siksik"
because of the sound of its chattering call. This animal
is the largest of all the ground squirrels/ and it survives
remarkably well in its treeless/ inhospitable grassy tundra
habitat. Although it is rarely disturbed by humans/ the
Arctic ground squirrel is constantly on the lookout for
grizzly bears/ foxes/ and other hungry predators.
The Arctic ground squirrel lives
in scattered colonies of 5 to 50
members. Each colony is led by
a dominant male. He marks his
territory with scent from glands
in his cheeks and back.
Most of the squirrels' burrows
are set in ridges or raised banks,
above the flood level. There are
two kinds of burrows: the home
den, which is a maze of tunnels
and chambers, and several shal-
low dens for emergency shelter.
The squirrel spends the sum-
mer feeding and resting to build
up its strength for the winter.
Although there is almost con-
tinual daylight, it retires to its
den for eight hours each night.
Grooming is part of its daily rou-
tine and often includes a playful
dust bath. Individuals interact
by pressing nose against nose or
flank against flank. This may lead
to a shoving match that results
in injuries from the animal's sharp
teeth and claws.
Outside its den, if a fox or wolf
approaches, the Arctic ground
squirrel gives an alarm call, then
dives into an emergency tunnel.
Because there is little ground
cover, it protects itself from fly-
ing predators, such as gyrfal-
cons, by sliding with its body
pressed to the ground in a move-
ment called the "tundra glide."
Right: In preparation for winter,
the Arctic ground squirrel gathers
warm bedding material.
The Arctic ground squirrel feeds
mostly on plants, but it has a
reputation for eating just about
anything--even its own kind. Its
main foods are roots, grasses,
seeds, leaves, stems, flowers,
and berries, along with mush-
rooms, rushes, sedges, and wil-
lows. Feeding primarily before
noon, it forages quickly, darting
from plant to plant. From time
Left: Wary of predators, the Arctic
ground squirrel scans the area be-
fore leaving its burrow.
In the harshest parts of Alas-
ka, when the Arctic ground
squirrel wakes from its seven
months of hibernation, the
ground is still frozen and cov-
ered with snow. Because it
has only five months to gain
weight, store food, and rear a
family before winter returns,
it must work up to 17 hours a
to time it sits up to check for
signs of danger.
The Arctic ground squirrel
may stuff its cheeks with seeds
and leaves and carry them back
to the den. It eats them later or
saves them for times when food
is scarce. By the end of August,
the animal needs to have built
up a thick layer of fat so that it
can survive hibernation.
Right: To gather extra food when
foraging, the Arctic ground squirrel
fills its cheeks.
day in rain and bitter winds.
During summer the Arctic
ground squirrel molts (sheds)
twice-once from its rump to
its head and then once from
its head to its rump.
In periods of drought, the
Arctic ground squirrel may
spend the summer in a dor-
mant state.
The long, harsh winters of Can-
ada, Alaska, and Siberia drive
the Arctic ground squirrel into
hibernation from September to
May. Many do not survive the
seven months of hibernation.
The hibernation burrow must
be well insulated with leaves,
grass, and even clumps of cari-
bou fur. The permafrost (perma-
Breeding starts in May, shortly
after the Arctic ground squirrel
emerges from hibernation. Lit-
ters of four to eight blind, hair-
less pups are born in June.
The young have less than five
months before winter sets in.
nently frozen subsoil) prevents
this squirrel from digging a bur-
row much deeper than three
feet. However, it must be deep
enough to escape the attention
of grizzly bears. In early spring
and late fall, when food is scarce,
the bears may clear a bank of
earth to expose the sleeping
squirrels in their chambers.
After six weeks they have grown
thick coats and are weaned. At
the end of summer, they remain
active for a month after all the
adults have begun hibernating.
The extra weeks are needed for
maximum growth. If the young
survive the winter, they are fully
mature by spring.
Death rates are high among
the young. Many are killed by
predators, such as the grizzly
bear and snowy owl. Others are
killed in the burrow by dominant
males. Some do not choose a
good den for hibernation and
die from the cold.
Left: The female is constantly on
the lookout standing tall even
when suckling her young.
'" CARD 255 I
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
'11IIIIIIII Carnivora
Hyaena brunnea
The brown hyena inhabits arid regions in southern Africa. During
the day it hides in crevices or burrows. At night it emerges to
feed on carrion, such as the abandoned kills of big cats.
Height: 2-3 ft. at the shoulder.
Average, 2 ~ ft.
Length: Head and body, 3-4 ft.
Tail, 11-18 in.
Weight: 55-120 lb.
Sexual maturity: 2 ~ years.
Mating: Anytime, with 21 months
between litters.
Gestation: 3 months.
Litter size: 2-5.
Habit: Solitary; night-active.
Diet: Carrion, small mammals,
eggs, fruit, and garbage.
Calls: Squeals, growls, screams.
Lifespan: Up to 25 years.
The other members of the family
Hyaenidae are the striped hyena,
Hyaena hyaena, spotted hyena,
Crocuta crocuta, and aardwolf,
Proteles cristatus.
Range of the brown hyena.
The brown hyena is found in arid regions from Namibia, Bo-
tswana, and southern Zimbabwe south to southern Mozam-
bique and northern South Africa.
The brown hyena can survive in a variety of habitats, but it is
now confined to fairly remote arid areas. Many populations
are threatened because of persecution by farmers.
Muzzle: Shorter than that of the
spotted hyena. Contains powerful
jaws that can crack the bones
and hooves of carcasses.
Coat: Long and coarse. Helps insulate
against cold. The mane may be raised
during hostile confrontations.
Scent glands: Pungent paste secreted
from anal glands is smeared on plants
to mark an individual's territory.
0160200611 PACKET 61
The brown hyena is the least widespread member
of the hyena family. Its population is thinly distributed
across southern Africa, from the coast of Namibia to
Botswana and the Transvaal grasslands. The tawny
mane of this elusive scavenger distinguishes it from its
more common and more aggressive relatives.
The brown hyena must cope
with extreme conditions on the
desert. Its coat of coarse hair
protects it from the cold of the
night. In the heat of the day, it
rests in the shade, conserving
water and avoiding competition
with vultures that feed on car-
rion (dead animal flesh) in the
daytime. Since there is little wa-
t-er on the desert, the hyena ex-
tracts moisture from juicy desert
fruits like the tsama and gems-
bok cucumber.
Even though it is solitary, the
brown hyena is not entirely un-
sociable. A female and her cubs
may share a territory with sever-
al related individuals. These ex-
tended family units are smaller
than other hyena "clans," with
less elaborate meeting ceremo-
nies and sniffing rituals. Postur-
ing and neck biting are used as
methods of communication
among adult brown hyenas.
The brown hyena has a short-
er muzzle than its relative the
spotted hyena. It also has a
much better sense of smell,
which is essential because the
brown hyena relies more on
scent-marking for communica-
tion than its relatives do. Like
its relatives, the brown hyena
marks its territory with a strong-
smelling paste that it secretes
from its anal glands.
A solitary creature, the brown
hyena does not form a strong
pair bond. Females often mate
with a number of the males that
pass through their territory. Af-
ter a three-month gestation, the
female gives birth to two to five
young-called cubs. The cubs
suckle for three months and are
then fed meat by their mother.
The cubs are reared in small
dens dug into the dunes, where
they are safe from enemies. They
stay in the den for at least three
Left: In its arid desert habitat, a
water hole is a rare lUxury for the
brown hyena.
During the Middle Ages, it
was thought that hyenas had
magical powers and called
humans by name.
The brown hyena is an ex-
pert at opening the shells of
ostrich eggs and sucking out
the insides. The spotted hyena
months, and they begin to for-
age at ten months old. At a year
old they are weaned, and they
become fully independent three
months later. The long suckling
period gives the cubs a greater
chance of being able to survive
in their harsh environment.
When sexually mature, the fe-
male may find a new territory or
raise cubs on the ground where
she was reared. Most adult male
brown hyenas leave their clans
and become nomadic.
Right: The brown hyena's thick
coat protects it from low night-
time temperatures.
breaks the eggshells open.
The hyena belongs to the
smallest family of carnivores,
which has only four species.
The hyena has been known
to eat all sorts of garbage-
from discarded rubber tires
to old belts and buckles.
The hyena is well adapted for
scavenging. It has powerful
teeth and jaws that can crack
the bones, hooves, and skulls
of large mammals, and it can
digest the organic matter in
bone. Also, it can cover large
distances to find carrion. It trav-
els over 18 miles each night and
may cover up to 30 miles at a
time when searching for food.
The brown hyena rarely pur-
sues live prey, since its hunting
skills are poor. But it may kill
small mammals such as hares,
rodents, or young antelope.
Left: An expert scavenger, the
brown hyena rarely has to hunt
for its food.
Left: The
brown hyena
gets territorial
by tasting the
pungent paste
that other indi-
viduals have
smeared on
grass stalks
to mark their
In the Kalahari Desert the
brown hyena scavenges wil-
debeest carcasses, which are
often the remains of a lion kill.
The hyena also feeds on car-
casses left behind by leopards
or cheetahs. In the Namib Des-
ert, which is on the coast, it sur-
vives primarily on dead marine
animals, from crabs to the car-
casses of stranded whales. It also
preys on cape fur seals.
The brown hyena must com-
pete with many other scaveng-
ers. Because much of its food is
stored or carried back to its cubs,
it eats almost any refuse. As a re-
sult, it plays a vital role in keep-
ing its habitat clean.
CARD 256
Cephalophus, 5ylvicapra
Duikers are small antelope that live in Africa ~ forests. Rarely
seen in the open, they tunnel through the dense vegetation
at night in search of berries and other fruit.
Height to shoulder: 1-3 ft., de-
pending on the species.
Weight: 10-140 lb., depending
on the species.
Mating: Year-round, with certain
peak periods.
Gestation: 4-7 months, depend-
ing on the species.
No. of young: 1, occasionally 2.
Habit: Solitary or in pairs. Highly
territorial. Range of duikers.
Diet: Mostly plant matter, especial-
ly fruit. Also birds as well as small
lifespan: 19 years in captivity.
Found in the forests of central and southern Africa at altitudes
of 13,000 feet.
There are 17 species of duiker in
2 genera: Cephalophus and 5ylvi-
capra. The latter consists of only
the bush duiker, 5. grimmia.
Most species are quite common, but some are so rarely seen
that their numbers are not known. Five species- including
Jentink's duiker and the banded duiker-are classified as en-
dangered or vulnerable.
Horns: Short,
sharp, and back-
ward pointing.
Usually only
on male in
bush duiker,
but on both
sexes in other
Head: Scent gland on
each cheek and tuft
of hair on forehead.
Large ears.
Legs: Forelegs shorter than hind legs, enabling the animal to
slip easily through dense vegetation with head bowed low.
The rarest species of duiker, it
has only been seen a few times
in the forests of Liberia and the
Ivory Coast.
Also called the giant duiker, it is
the largest species-up to 3 feet
at the shoulder. It raises its yel-
low hairs when excited.
0160200801 PACKET 80
There are 17 different species of duiker, ranging from the size
of a rabbit to that of a small deer. These secretive, nocturnal
animals live in heavily wooded forests that are very difficult
for humans to penetrate. As a result, scientists know little
about how duikers live, and population estimates for
several species have been impossible to obtain.
~ H A B I T S
Duikers live either alone or in
pairs. Both sexes are territorial,
using scent to mark branches,
stalks, and tree stumps. Neigh-
boring males sometimes fight
over territories. The confronta-
tion begins with the opponents
rubbing cheeks in order to press
their scent glands against each
other. The males may then butt
heads with their short, sharp
horns. Eventually one adversary
flees, chased by the other until
far from the disputed area.
The bush, or gray, duiker fa-
vors sparse woods and thickets,
but all other duiker species live
in Africa's large rainforests. With
its small, compact body, a dui-
ker can slip easily through the
dense undergrowth. After tun-
neling a path through vegeta-
tion with its head bowed low,
it uses the path daily, forming
a clear, well-worn route.
Most duikers spend the day
sleeping in undergrowth and
are active at night. But the bush
and black-fronted duikers also
emerge on cloudy days.
Duikers can outrun most ani-
mals but are still threatened by
a number of predators, includ-
ing small cats and the crowned
eagle, which can lift the ante-
lope into the air. Pythons and
leopards are the deadliest en-
emies, easily overpowering a
duiker, which emits a snuffling
whistle as it struggles in vain.
To find mates, male and female
duikers track each other's scent
marks. They then perform a mat-
ing ritual, scent-marking each
other by rubbing their cheeks
together. A bond develops as
the animals get to know each
other's smell. If a second male
duiker approaches once a pair
has formed, the first fights very
fiercely to keep his mate.
After a four- to seven-month
Left: The blue duiker is one of the
smallest species, standing only a
foot tall at the shoulder.
Bakete tribal people in the
Congo will not hunt duikers
because they believe that if
they eat the animal's flesh,
their teeth will fall out.
Duiker is an Afrikaans word
meaning "diver." It refers to
the animal's habit of ducking
period of gestation, the female
gives birth, usually to only one
young. For its first few weeks,
the young is left alone, hidden
in vegetation. The mother re-
turns to suckle her offspring and
mark it with her scent gland so
that it learns her smell.
The young reaches adult size
in six to nine months but stays
in its parents' territory until it is
about two years old.
Right: At one day old, a blue dui-
ker is left alone by its mother, but
she visits often.
into cover when disturbed.
In relation to body size, a
duiker's brain is larger than
that of any other antelope.
The bush duiker is often un-
popular with local people be-
cause it eats their flowers as I
well as their vegetables. --1
Left: All duiker
species have
scent glands
on each cheek,
which they rub
against trees to
mark their terri-
tories. They al-
so use scent to
mark each other
during mating
or a dispute.
Duikers feed by browsing, often
standing on their hind legs to
reach leaves, twigs, and berries.
They eat almost all plant matter,
including bark, young shoots,
buds, and seeds. They also eat a
great deal of fruit-much more
than other antelope. They graze
on grass rarely, however, since it
is not very nutritious.
Duikers also eat insects, frogs,
and snails. The black-fronted dui-
ker eats fish and crabs when it
can catch them. Other species
prey on birds, especially hatch-
lings, and some species even eat
carrion (dead animal flesh).
Left: Like all forest-dwelling duikers,
both male and female bay duikers
have sharp, stumpy horns.
'" CARD 257 I
"' _________________ G_R_O_U_P 1: MAMMALS
~ Primates ~ Cercopithecidae ~ Cercopithecus pogonias
The crowned guenon is an agile monkey that lives in Africa. Its
powerful, muscular hind legs enable it to take flying leaps from
branch to branch among the treetops of its rainforest home.
- - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
Body length: Male, 20-26 in.
Female, 15-18 in.
Tail length: Male, 24-34 in.
Female, 20-27 in.
Weight: Male, 7-1 3 lb. Female,
4-8 lb.
Sexual maturity: Female, 2-3
years. Male, 6-7 years.
Mating season: May to October.
Gestation: About 6 months.
No. of young: 1, very rarely 2.
Habit: Sociable tree dweller.
Active by day.
Diet: Leaves, shoots, fruit, tree
sap, and insects.
Call: Vocal expressions include
screams, barks, and croaks.
Lifespan: 30 years in captivity.
Closely related to Campbell's,
Wolf's, and the mona monkey.
Range of the crowned guenon.
Found in the rainforests of Africa, from southwestern Nigeria
through southern Cameroon to the Congo Basin.
The crowned guenon seems to be in no immediate danger.
However, gradual destruction of its forest habitat is reducing
its population.
Limbs: Muscular hind legs are Fur: Yellowish. Dark stripe running along spine from
Tail: Long, slen- considerably longer than the shoulders to rump broadens toward tail. Fur darkens
der, and furred. forelegs. Useful for leaping toward feet. Feet and hands are black. Male and female
Used for balanc- between branches. have similar coloring.
ing, but not
Head: Rounded.
Black face with
thin, yellowish
fur on short
muzzle. Cheek
pouches for col-
lecting food
when foraging.
Fur on forehead
and crown is
light with three
black bands run-
ning over head
from brow to
nape. The center
band forms the
crest that gives
the crowned
guenon its
0160200721 PACKET 72
Left: The vari-
ous calls of the
crowned gue-
non include a
soft call that it
uses to keep the
troop together
in the thick for-
est, where visi-
bility is poor.
Right: The
crowned gue-
non brings food
to its mouth by
using its hands.
The crowned guenon is a nois}/J expressive monkey that
lives in a close family group. The members communicate
with vocal calls and a variety of facial gestures. This highly
intelligent mammal belongs to a large group of monkeys
that are known as Old World monkeys. These primates
are close relatives of such great apes as chimpanzees.
The crowned guenon lives high
in the tree canopy of its rainfor-
est home, rarely venturing to
the forest floor. It lives in a close
family group, or troop, of 6 to
10 members. The troop con-
sists of one adult male plus one
or two fertile females and their
offspring. Young males often
leave the family and live alone
until they reach sexual maturity.
Then they attract females and
set up their own troops.
At night, the members of the
troop sleep together in the for-
est canopy. The troop's sleeping
place is linked by treetop routes
with its daytime feeding spots.
These routes are aggressively
guarded by the adult male, who
barks to keep intruders away.
During the day, the crowned
guenon is more sociable. It may
associate with other species of
guenon, forming mixed groups
for short periods.
Crowned guenons communi-
cate with screams, barks, and
other contact calls. Individuals
also seem to convey informa-
tion with various gestures such
as shaking the head and raising
the eyebrows.
The crowned guenon uses its
fingers, lips, and teeth to groom
its fur as well as the fur of family
members. All the time that the
monkeys spend on grooming
helps keep them clean and free
of parasites.
The crowned guenon may
warn off enemies by scream-
ing, raising its tail, urinating,
or throwing small branches.
Some West Africans consid-
er monkey flesh a delicacy, so
they hunt the crowned gue-
non for food.
The crowned guenon's main
predator is the crowned eagle,
which often hunts in pairs. One
eagle may approach from the
front in order to distract the
troop, while its mate sneaks
up and attacks from the rear.
Guenons are very closely re-
lated to macaques, baboons,
and mangabeys.
The crowned guenon mates be-
tween May and October. Births
are timed to occur between No-
vember and April, when fruit is
most abundant. Mating takes
place at night high up in the
sleeping place.
About six months after mat-
ing, the female gives birth to a
single young, usually at night.
The newborn clings to its moth-
er's belly, and she holds the off-
spring in place with her hand.
Born with its eyes open, the
young has a light covering of fur
The crowned guenon feeds in
the rainforest on leaves, tender
shoots, fruits, seeds, tree sap,
and certain insects. It uses its
hands to gather food and feed
itself. Because it gets moisture
from its diet, it does not need
to drink regularly.
Crowned guenons also raid
and weighs about 11 ounces.
Suckled by its mother, it grows
quickly and can climb branches
and jump at four weeks old. At
six months, it is weaned and
independent and has grown its
second juvenile coat.
A young female stays with the
troop until she is ready to breed
in two to three years. A young
male may leave the troop after
a few years. He lives alone until
reaching sexual maturity at six
to seven years and then forms
his own troop.
Left: All the
species of gue-
non are tree
dwellers. They
reduce compe-
tition for food
by foraging at
different levels
in the forest.
The crowned
guenon occu-
pies the highest
plantations near the rainforest,
sometimes forming raiding par-
ties made up of several troops,
including other guenon species.
Some of the animals feed while
the others watch for predators.
Containing up to 200 individ-
uals, a raiding party can cause
great damage in a short time.
Saguinus imperator
The emperor tamarin is well known for its specialized feeding
habits. It gathers food from trees and shrubs in strict rotation
so that fresh supplies are always available.
____ __

Length: Head and body, 10 in.
Tail, 14-17 in.
Weight: Average, 1 lb.
Sexual maturity: 15-20 months.
Mating season: May to June.
Gestation: About 5 months.
No. of young: Usually 2, rarely 1 .
Habit: Sociable.
Diet: Fruit, nectar, nuts, insects.
Call: Rapid, loud, shrill cries to an-
nounce territorial borders.
Lifespan: Up to 14 years.
There are 13 species of tamarin.
The emperor tamarin belongs to
a subgroup of 3 species known as
mustached tamarins. The other 2
species are the mustached tamarin
itself, Saguinus mystax, and the
red-bellied tamarin, S. labiatus.
Range of the emperor tamarin.
The emperor tamarin is sparsely distributed over a limited
range in South America, including southeastern Peru, north-
western Bolivia, and western Brazil.
The emperor tamarin is legally protected in Peru, where it is
threatened by widespread destruction of its habitat. Its status
in Bolivia and Brazil is unknown.
Mustache: Off-
white whiskers
grow from the
pink upper and
lower lips.
These whis-
kers are a fea-
ture of all 3
tamarins, but
they are most
on the
Coat: Long, thick, and silky. Dark, smoky gray
flecked with rusty brown. Sil ver-gray underparts.
Black hands, feet , and crown. Rusty red tail.
Claws: Each hand and foot has 5 digits, 4 of
which have claws. The big toe has a nail , as is the
case with most other primates. The claws are a
key feature 01 the squirrel-li ke monkeys, family
Callitrichidae, which includes the marmosets.
PRINTED IN U.S.A. US P 6001 12 069 PACKET 69
With its elaborate mustache and orange tail, the emperor
tamarin is one of the most beautiful American monkeys.
However, widespread destruction of its habitat is a major
threat to this m o n k e ~ and the population is now limited
to a fairly small region of central 50uth America.
The emperor tamarin lives in the
Amazon rainforest as well as in
dry woodlands higher up. The
monkey rises late in the morn-
ing and feeds around midday.
It can climb trees to heights of
100 feet. But it spends many
hours under low, thick vines in
small trees, safe from predatory
birds such as eagles and hawks.
The emperor tamarin usually
lives in a family group that in-
cludes one breeding female,
one dominant adult male, one
or more subordinate males, and
varying numbers of young. Each
family group has a territory that
it protects by regularly patrol-
ling its borders. The family rarely
leaves its territory because it pre-
fers to stay in familiar areas.
During the mating season a
male emperor tamarin calls to
a female by moving his tongue
rapidly and producing a high-
pitched, trilling cry. The female
mates with the dominant male
in her group, but she may also
mate with subordinate males.
After a gestation period of
about five months, the female
gives birth in the earliest part of
the rainy season, between Oc-
tober and November. Usually
Left: The emperor is one of a num-
ber of tamarin species with magnif-
icent white whiskers.
The emperor tamarin gets
its name from its mustache,
which reminded naturalists
in the 19th century of Kaiser
One captive emperor tam-
arin lived for 23 years.
two young are born. Although
twins are common among tam-
arins and marmosets, they are
unusual in other primates.
The mother nurses her young
for a long period. The father and
other group members also help
rear the young. Young females
often become independent of
their parents before males.
Right: The sharing of parental
responsibility is an important fea-
ture of tamarin group life.
Below: The emperor tamarin utters
shrill calls to proclaim the bound-
aries of its territory.
The emperor tamarin feeds on
vine fruits, figs, nuts, flower nec-
tar, and some insects. On rare
occasions, it also eats frogs.
This monkey feeds on plants
that ripen at different times, so
it always has a ready supply of
food even though it occupies a
limited area. It also feeds on one
type of food at a time. In July, af-
ter the rains, it exists on nectar,
pith, and nuts. But in October it
eats more nutritious figs.
Emperor tamarins prefer small,
remote groups of food plants
untouched by larger monkeys.
They visit a few plants at a time,
feed briefly, and then move on.
Left: The emperor tamarin 5 varied
diet includes fruit and nuts. It can
split tough food with its teeth.
They return to the same plant
once every two or three days.
This feeding pattern gives the
plants time to regenerate.
Although highly territorial, the
emperor tamarin often forages
near other monkeys, especially
the slightly smaller saddle-back
tamarin. More agile than the
emperor tamarin, the saddle-
back often reaches a food sup-
ply first, but it is evicted when
emperor tamarins arrive.
In addition to plant matter,
the emperor tamarin eats but-
terfly larvae, ants, and beetles. It
uses stealth to hunt cockroaches,
crickets, and stick insects. Perch-
ing on a high branch, it looks
for signs of movement. It then
pounces and grabs its prey.
'" CARD 259 I
" ' ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~
'1IIIIIIII Carnivora '1IIIIIIII Ursidae '1IIIIIIII Ursus ursin us
The sloth bear is one of the smaller members of the bear family.
Like most bears it relies on several food sources, but it is uniquely
adapted for eating vast quantities of termites and ants.
Height: 2-3 ft . at the shoulder.
Length: 4 ~ - 6 ft.
Weight: Usually 220-275 lb.
Sexual maturity: 3-4 years.
Mating: June in the north; year-
round farther south.
Gestation: 6-7 months.
No. of young: 1-3, usually 2.
Habit: Night-active. Solitary, ex-
cept females with cubs.
Diet: Mainly insects such as ter-
mites and ants. Also fruit, honey,
grains, sugarcane, small animals,
and carrion.
Lifespan: Up to 30 years.
Of the 7 bear species, only the
grizzly, black, and polar bears are
closely related. The other species
are the sloth, sun, spectacled, and
Asian black bears.
Range of the sloth bear.
The sloth bear lives in lowland forests in Nepal, eastern India,
Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.
The sloth bear was once widely hunted. It was also tamed for
use as a performing animal. Today the species suffers from loss
of its habitat. It is believed to be threatened, but its exact sta-
tus is unknown.
Coat: Very shaggy. Dark gray
to black with a horseshoe
marking of creamy fur
on the chest. Pale
gray muzzle.
Gait: Bowlegged and
shambling on the grou!nd, '
possibly because of the' long
foreclaws. Better at climbing trees.
Poor eyesight
and hearing.
Well -developed
nose provides
a keen sense
of smell, vital
for locating
live prey and
other food.
Skull: Elongated, with massive
muscles attaching lower jaw to
cranium (brain case) . Relatively
small eye sockets.
Teeth: Absence of two upper
teeth makes passage of insect
prey easier. Large canines inher-
ited from flesh-eating ancestors.
Broad flat-topped molars reflect
the bear's adaptation to a wider
diet that includes plants.
0160200581 PACKET 58
Tamed sloth bears were once trained to perform
and could be seen dancing in the streets of India.
But with the decline of the species, such performances
have become rare. Considered a dangerous nuisance,
the sloth bear was extensively hunted in the past.
Today this shy creature continues to be threatened
by the loss of its lowland forest habitat.
Most bears forage for food by
day, but the sloth bear hides
until night. Then it emerges to
search for insects and fruit in
the forests of its tropical and
subtropical habitat. Because its
foreclaws are so long, it moves
awkwardly on the ground. But
this agile climber can scramble
up trees and hang upside down
by its claws like a sloth.
Like most other bears, the
sloth bear has unpredictable
moods. But it is rarely aggres-
sive toward humans unless cor-
nered or protecting its cubs. In
such cases, it rears up on its
hind legs and lashes out with
its great curved claws.
The sloth bear is preyed upon
by tigers and leopards. But its
worst enemy is man, who has
devastated the sloth bear pop-
ulation throughout the Indian
Right: Treading on soft paw pads,
the sloth bear prefers to forage
along smooth tracks.
In the northern sections of its
range, the sloth bear mates in
early summer. In the southern
parts, it may mate at any time.
In most bear species the male
takes several mates each season,
fights off any rivals, and is much
larger than the female. In con-
trast, the male sloth bear mates
with just one female, has less
trouble with rivals, and is not
much bigger than the female.
After a seven-month gesta-
tion, the female gives birth to
Left: The sloth bear's chest has a
crescent of pale fur that is similar
to the markings of the Malayan
sun bear.
Right: The bear sniffs out food with
its long, mobile snout.
People in rural India make
wine from the sap of palm
trees. The sap is collected in
containers that are hung in the
trees. The sloth bear raids these
containers and may get drunk
on the fermented contents.
Until recently sloth bears
were taken from the wild and
trained to perform tricks in the
two or three cubs in a safe den.
She carries her cubs on her back
and defends them fiercely if
they are threatened. The cubs
become more independent af-
ter a few weeks, but they stay
with their mother for two or
three years until fully grown.
Right: The sloth bear can push out
its fleshy lips to form a funnel for
sucking up insects.
street. Such performing bears
are rare today.
When alanned, an adult sloth
bear may climb on its mother's
back for security, but she will not
tolerate the burden for long.
When sucking up termites,
the sloth bear makes a snuffling
noise that can be heard 650
feet away.
The sloth bear is adapted for
eating large quantities of in-
sects. It has a very large, mo-
bile snout and fleshy lips that
form a perfect seal around a
hole in a termite mound. This
makes it easier for the bear to
suck up insects with its tongue,
With its poor sight and hearing,
the sloth bear forages mainly by
scent, sniffing out food with its
long, mobile snout. Termites are
its favorite prey, but it also eats
ants and bees as well as their
eggs and larvae.
The sloth bear has special ad-
aptations for breaking into the
nests of ants and termites and
sucking up the insects. It uses
its foreclaws to smash open the
sunbaked earthen nest of a ter-
mite colony. Then it wraps its
which it can curl into a tube.
The bear's lack of two upper
front teeth creates a gap so
insects can easily pass through
on the way down the throat.
The bear can close its nostrils
with flaps to stop prey from
going up its nasal passages. J
lips around the hole, blows the
debris away, and simply sucks
up the termites.
Although it prefers tiny in-
sects, the sloth bear will eat
almost anything that it can
find-even carrion (dead ani -
mal flesh) . It forages in trees
for fruit and flowers as well as
birds' eggs and nestlings. The
bear also eats sugarcane and
honey. It comes into conflict
with farmers because it badly
damages sugarcane fields.
"" CARD 260 I
, , ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
'11IIIIIIII Pan paniscus
The pygmy chimpanzee, or bonobo, lives only in a small, remote
forest area in central Africa. It is somewhat smaller than the
common chimpanzee, as well as lighter and more agile.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
Height: Male, 2-3 ft. Female,
2 ~ ft.
Weight: Male, 100 lb. Female, 70 lb.
Sexual maturity: 11-16 years.
Breeding: Year-round.
Gestation: 8-9 months.
No. of young: 1. Twins are rare.
Habit: Lives in communities of up
to 40 individuals.
Diet: Mainly fruit but also leaves,
shoots, seeds, insects, small mam-
mals, and fish.
Call: Variety of hoots used in differ-
ent situations. High-pitched scream
when attacked.
lifespan: Unknown.
The common chimpanzee, Pan
troglodytes, of west and central
Africa is the only other species
of chimpanzee.
Range of the pygmy chimpanzee.
Found only in Zaire, between the Zaire and Kasai rivers, in hu-
mid forests below altitudes of 5,000 feet.
Threatened mainly by habitat loss, the pygmy chimpanzee is
on the vulnerable list, but exactly how many survive in the wild
is not known. Part of the forest is now protected in Salonga
National Park, which is a World Heritage Site.
Nest: The pygmy chimpanzee sleeps
in a treetop in a nest made of leaves
and branches. It makes a new nest
every night. Most adults sleep alone,
but a young chimp shares its moth-
er's nest until she gives birth again.
The pygmy chimpanzee is
smaller and lighter with
longer limbs, a relatively large
head, and a black face. The
common chimpanzee's face
may be pink, brown, or black.
Coat: Black, long, and coarse. Hair parts
in center of head. Older animals turn gray
and may become bald.
Hands and leet:
Hairle s with
blac kin. The
I g fingers can
hold onto ob-
jects. The big
toe faces side-
ways, like a
thumb, letting
th"e chimpanzee
grasp branches
with its feet.
0160200651 PACKET 65
It is believed that the pygmy chimpanzee evolved as
a smalle" lighter version of the common chimpanzee
in order to take advantage of a different habitat. The
pygmy chimp lives high in the trees, where it feeds
on fruit that its heavier relative cannot reach. But its
specialization makes it very vulnerable to the destruction
of forests-it cannot survive outside this environment.

The pygmy chimpanzee lives
only in the humid forests south
of the Zaire River in central Afri-
ca. Like the common chimpan-
zee, it lives in a large community
that occupies a range of 4 to 20
square miles- an area that may
overlap with the ranges of other
groups. Each community has 15
to 40 members, but the pygmy
chimp spends most of its time
in a smaller group of 6 to 12 in-
dividuals, usually with an equal
number of males and females.
The group members' close
bond is reinforced by groom-
ing. The male rarely leaves the
group in which he was reared,
but the female often moves to
a new community to breed.
The pygmy chimp travels over
the ground on all fours, walking
on the knuckles of its hands. It
spends more time in trees than
the common chimpanzee and
leaps agilely from branch to
branch. If alarmed, it climbs to
the top of a tall tree and hides in
the foliage.
The pygmy chimp spends the
night high in the trees, alone in
a nest of leaves. A young chimp
shares its mother's nest until the
next youngster is born.
The pygmy chimpanzee eats
mainly ripe fruit, which it gath-
ers from the tree canopy in the
morning and late afternoon. At
midday it often descends to for-
age in the shade, gathering fall-
en fruit or young leaves, shoots,
and grasses.
Live prey, especially insects,
accounts for about a tenth of
the pygmy chimp's diet. The
chimp "fishes" for termites or
ants by poking a stick into their
nest. When the stick is covered
Left: The pygmy chimpanzee is
used in research, but there are no
captive-bred populations.
The pygmy chimpanzee can
walk upright along a branch
that is as much as 160 feet
above the ground, rather like
a tightrope walker.
The pygmy chimpanzee may
make and use simple tools to
perform certain tasks. In addi-
tion to using sticks to catch
termites, a pygmy chimp may
with insects the chimp with-
draws it to pick them off. The
pygmy chimp may also hunt
small mammals such as rodents
and young duikers, and it takes
fish and crabs from nearby shal-
low streams and swamps.
The pygmy chimp does not
store food but eats it where it
is found. After feeding heavily
from one source, the chimp
rests an hour or two and then
forages again. It eats for at least
four hours every day.
Right: Although it lives in a small
group, the pygmy chimpanzee for-
ages and feeds alone.

break open a nutshell by plac-
ing it on a platform stone and
smashing it with a rock.
The pygmy chimp drinks
water by soaking it up in a
crude sponge. It chews sever-
al leaves into an absorbent
mass, dips them into the wa-
ter, and then squeezes the liq-
uid directly into its mouth.
The pygmy chimpanzee is pro-
tected in some areas by local
tradition and allowed to visit
fields and villages. But in other
places it is hunted for its meat or
its bones, which are said to pro-
vide strength and are used in
religious ceremonies. The fe-
male is often killed so that trap-
pers can seize her young for sale

The female pygmy chimpanzee
begins to breed at 11 or 12 years
old and can still breed at age 30.
There is no particular breeding
season. A sexually mature fe-
male is receptive every four to
six weeks and may mate with
several males, but she gives birth
only once every five years. This
slow rate of reproduction is one
reason for the declining pygmy
chimp population.
The female usually encourages
the male to mate. He then puts
Left: A long-lasting relationship is
forged between a mother and her
young chimp.
as pets, but the young soon die
as well.
The pygmy chimp suffers most
from loss of its habitat. A quar-
ter of its range is now threat-
ened by large-scale logging.
Prompted by international con-
cern, the Zaire government is
trying to save the pygmy chimp
by setting up protected areas.
one arm around her neck and
the other around her back, and
they mate facing each other.
After a gestation of eight or
nine months, a single young is
born-twins are rare. The new-
born is helpless and, for the first
few days, cannot hold onto its
mother. She carries it with her,
but soon the young chimp can
cling to her underside. After six
months it travels on her back.
By four years old, the young-
ster can walk by its mother's
side. It remains with her until
age six, and even afterward its
ties to the mother are close.