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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

Structural safety and serviceability evaluations of prestressed concrete hybrid

bridge girders with corrugated or steel truss web members

Kwang-Hoe Jung

a,b

, Jong-Won Yi

b

, Jang-Ho Jay Kim

a,

a

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, 120-794, South Korea

b

Institute of Construction Technology, Hyundai Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., 102-4, Mabuk-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyounggi-do 446-716, South Korea

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 26 August 2009

Received in revised form

25 August 2010

Accepted 26 August 2010

Available online 28 September 2010

Keywords:

Hybrid girder

Corrugated steel web

Steel truss web

Flexural capacity

Structural safety

Shear capacity

Serviceability

a b s t r a c t

Prestressed concrete box girders have been regarded as the most favorable medium span (3050 m)

concrete girder type in many countries, but they have a crucial limitation compared to steel girders in

that a single span length cannot be extended over 50 m due to its relatively heavy self-weight. As a

result of this restriction, the majority of medium span girder bridges constructed in Korea have been

steel box girder types. In the 20th century, numerous attempts have been made to improve the structural

efficiencies of prestressed concrete box girders using concretesteel hybrid subcomponents to reduce

the weight of the superstructure. However, the behaviors of hybrid bridge girders with various steel

web types and connection joints have caused safety and serviceability problems. Therefore, in order to

fully understand the behaviors of steel web girders and the effects of steel web connection joints, a static

loading test was conducted on five prestressed concrete hybrid girders with steel web members. Result

comparisons for structural safety and serviceability were also performed. The five girder specimens were

two hybrid girders with corrugated steel webs and three hybrid girders with steel truss webs. The study

results showed that the serviceability issues such as cracking load and deflection and the safety issues

such as stiffness and ultimate load capacity can be improved by modifying the steel web members and

connection joints of concrete slabs and tendons. The study results are discussed in detail.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In the 20th century, prestressed box girder bridges with steel

truss webs such as the Kinogawa Bridge, the Sarutagawa Bridge,

the Tomoegawa Bridge, and the Shitsumi Ohashi Bridge, as well

as ones with corrugated steel webs, have been constructed in

Japan [13]. There have been multiple attempts in Korea to

replace the concrete webs of prestressed concrete box girders

with steel web members. Fig. 1 shows Ilsun Bridge, the first

prestressed concrete hybrid girder bridge with corrugated steel

webs constructed in Korea, which is the worlds longest (total

length of 801 m) and widest (21.2 m with a tri-cellular section)

bridge using steel webs [4,5]. The bridge has a total of 14 spans

(50 m, ten at 60 m, 50 m, two at 50.5 m) with 12 spans having been

erected using an incremental launching method and the remaining

two spans using a full staging method. Fig. 2 shows the Shinchun

Bridge currently being constructed in Korea, a prestressed concrete

hybrid girder bridge with steel truss web members. This bridge

Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 2 2123 5802, +82 2 2123 2798; fax: +82 2 364

1001, +82 2 364 5300.

E-mail addresses: jkh@hdec.co.kr (K.-H. Jung), jwonyi@hdec.co.kr (J.-W. Yi),

jjhkim@yonsei.ac.kr (J.-H.J. Kim).

design was chosen due to its low superstructure height (3.2 m),

long single span length (80 m), and attractive appearance that can

be merged into its surrounding environment. It has a total of five

spans (two at 60 m, three at 80 m) that will be erected using

temporary bents and cranes in order to fully utilize its light weight

advantage.

These two bridges have a similar structural concept in that they

replaced traditional concrete web with steel web, transforming

the bridge into a hybrid type. Due to the drastic transformation of

concrete girder concepts in these bridges, research on these bridge

types was necessary and has been performed [612]. In order to

implement this new bridge type in real world construction, HICT

(Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology) has undertaken a

mega research project to verify and improve PSC hybrid girders

using steel webs. This paper describes the research results on the

safety and serviceability issues concerning the behaviors of hybrid

girders according to the steel web type and connection method.

2. Static loading test setup

2.1. Test specimens

In this study, in order to compare the flexural behavior of

each hybrid girder according to steel web type and connection

0141-0296/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.08.029

K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878 3867

Notations

The following symbols are used in this paper:

A

p

Area of the prestressing tendons

A

s

Area of the tensile reinforcements

A

s

Area of the compressed reinforcements

A

tr

Area of the truss members

a Depth of the equivalent compressive region

b Width of the compressive region

d Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the

centroid of the tensile reinforcement

d

centroid of the compressive reinforcement

d

o

Diameter of the hole in the perfobond

d

p

Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the

centroid of the tendons

d

s

Diameter of the stud

d

tr

Diameter of the truss member

d

1

Distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the

upper slab

d

2

Distance from the neutral axis to the center of the

lower slab

f

ca

Allowable axial compressive stress of the truss

member

f

ck

Compressive strength of the concrete

f

ps

Stress of the prestressing tendon

f

pu

Ultimate tensile strength of the prestressing ten-

dons

f

y

Yield strength of the reinforcements

f

tr_max

Maximum local stress at the connection joint

H

s

Height of the stud

I

tr

Second moment of inertia of the truss member

M

tr

Maximum moment of the truss members

M

u

Ultimate moment

M

1

Bending moment at the upper slab

M

2

Bending moment at the lower slab

N

ua

Allowable ultimate strength for the tensile force

N

1

Axial force at the upper slab

N

2

Axial force at the lower slab

n Number of studs or perfobonds

P

tr

Maximum axial force of the truss members

Q

a

Allowable shear strength of a stud or perfobond per

one unit

Q

u

Ultimate shear strength per hole in the perfobond

t

o

Thickness of the perfobond

V

H

Horizontal shear force

V

ua

Allowable ultimate strength of the shear force

1

Coefficient determined by the concrete strength

Ratio of the tensile and compressive reinforcements

p

Ratio of the prestressing tendons

p

Coefficient determinedby prestressing tendontypes

d

Design shear stress of the corrugated steel web

cr,G

Critical global design buckling stress

cr,I

Critical interactive design buckling stress

cr,L

Critical local design buckling stress

= 0.85 Strength reduction factor for the flexural member

o

Diameter of the cross reinforcement in perfobond

M

n

Nominal moment of the cross section

N

n

Design strength for tensile force

V

n

Design strength for shear force

Fig. 1. Ilsun Bridge.

Fig. 2. Shinchun Bridge.

method, static loading tests were performed on five prestressed

concrete hybrid girders with various steel webs. These five hybrid

girders were composed of two hybrid girders with corrugated

steel webs (FHC, PHC) and three hybrid girders with steel truss

webs (FHT, GHT, EHT), as shown in Table 1. As shown in Fig. 3(a),

FHC was a conventional connection type with a connection

system that had shear studs welded onto the flange plate in the

longitudinal direction, while PHC had perfobond shear connectors

instead of shear studs, as shown in Fig. 3(b). FHT had the same

connection system as FHC, but its web consisted of steel pipes

instead of corrugated steel webs, as shown in Fig. 3(c). GHT

had a connection unit with a gusset plate and shear studs,

which were welded onto the base plate as shown in Fig. 3(d).

Experimental study results on flexural and shear capacities of

GHT have been published recently [13,14]. EHT had embedded

connection systems composed of connection plates and a steel

rod without a longitudinal flange plate, as shown in Fig. 3(e). As

expected in EHT, the axial forces of the truss members are directly

transferred to the concrete slabs without any shear connecters

of studs or perfobonds. This hinge connection greatly facilitated

construction implementations in which no welding procedures

were required and truss angle adjustment was possible. Through

the experiments, the EHT construction process and structural

performance were verified. The detailed comparison of load

transfer mechanisms and design concepts for the three connection

systems are explained in Sections 3.4 and 4.1.2.

3868 K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878

Table 1

Test specimens.

Web structure Index Connection type Specimens

Corrugated steel

FHC Flange plate +studs

PHC Flange plate +perfobonds

Truss members

FHT Flange plate +studs

GHT Gusset plate +studs

EHT Hinge connection +steel rod

HC: Hybrid girder with corrugated steel web.

HT: Hybrid girder with truss web members.

F: Flange plate with studs. P: Flange plate with perfobonds.

G: Gusset plate with studs. E: Embedded type connection.

Table 2

Dimensions of the specimens (Units: mm).

Girder

Length 6350

Height 1300

Width 500

Concrete slab Height 250

Corrugated steel web

Horizontal panel 200

Inclined panel 186

Inclined angle 53.7

Thickness 6

Steel truss web

Diameter 165

Thickness 9

2.2. Dimensions and properties

All specimens were constructed with the same dimensions.

Table 2 presents the main dimensions of the specimens, and Fig. 4

presents the cross sections of the hybrid girders with corrugated

steel and steel truss webs. The lengths, heights, and widths of

the hybrid girders were 6350 mm, 1300 mm, and 500 mm,

respectively. Also, the heights of the upper slabandlower slabwere

both 250 mm. In the case of the corrugated steel web, the lengths

of the horizontal and inclined panels were 200 mm and 186 mm,

respectively, with an inclined angle of 53.7, and the thickness of

the corrugated steel web was 6 mm. In the case of the steel truss

web, the diameter and thickness of the circular truss section were

165 mm and 9 mm, respectively.

Table 3 presents the material properties of all specimens. The

concrete was mixed using OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) and

coarse aggregate with a maximum size of 19 mm and an expected

Table 3

Material properties of the specimens.

Material Type Strength (MPa)

Concrete OPC Design compressive strength: 40

Steel truss pipe SM490 Allowable tensile strength: 190

Corrugated steel SS400 Allowable tensile strength: 140

Reinforcement SD40 Ultimate tensile strength: 400

Tendon SWPC7B, 15.2 mm

Ultimate tensile strength: 1900

Yield tensile strength: 1600

28 day compressive strength of 40 MPa. All of the steel used to

manufacture the corrugatedsteel webandconnectionsystems was

SS400, which has an allowable tensile strength of 140 MPa and a

manufacturer specified minimum yield strength of 240 MPa. The

steel truss webs were manufactured using SM490, which has an

allowable tensile strengthof 190 MPa anda manufacturer specified

minimumyield strengthof 320 MPa. All of the reinforcements used

were SD40, with a manufacturer specified minimumyield strength

of 400 MPa. Each specimen has two SWPC7B-type prestressing

tendons in the lower slab. The ultimate strength and diameter of

the SWPC7B tendon were 1900 MPa and 15.2 mm, respectively.

2.3. Loading system

Fig. 5 shows the loading system for the three-point bending

test used in this study. A 2500 kN hydraulic actuator was used

for loading, where the design ultimate load for all specimens

calculated fromthe flexural design was approximately 917 kN. The

length of the actuator and the heights of all of the specimens were

about 2.7 m and 1.3 m, respectively, where sufficient clearance

K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878 3869

(a) Flange plate type hybrid girder with corrugated steel web (FHC). (b) Flange plate and perfobond type hybrid girder with corrugated steel web

(PHC).

(c) Flange plate type hybrid girder with truss web members (FHT). (d) Gusset type hybrid girder with truss web members (GHT).

(e) Embedded type hybrid girder with truss web members (EHT).

Fig. 3. Test specimens (Units: mm).

(a) Corrugated steel web. (b) Steel truss web.

Fig. 4. Cross sections of the hybrid girders (Units: mm).

under the specimen was provided to install data acquisition

devices such as LVDT and support bases, making the total height of

the loading frame greater than4.5 m. Inthis test setup, long loading

frames with lengths greater than 4.5 m were needed. Therefore,

it was essential that these frames should have sufficiently high

stiffness to ensure safety during testing. In this test, two pulling

3870 K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878

Fig. 5. Loading test system and measurement points (Units: mm).

actuators and four guide columns were used in the loading system

to ensure sufficient loading capacity and frame safety. As shown in

Fig. 5, two actuators were fixed to a loading frame and connected

by a cross beam. When the pulling forces of the actuators were

initiated, the load was applied to the specimen by way of this

cross beam. The maximum pulling capacity of each actuator was

approximately 1600 kN, equivalent to a total loading capacity of

approximately 3200 kN.

3. Design of the hybrid girder

3.1. Basic design concept

The hybrid girder was composed of upper and lower concrete

slabs and steel web members. A basic design concept of hybrid

girders allows upper andlower concrete slabs toresist only flexural

stress and the steel web to resist only shear stress. Also, another

important designconcept was that the connectionsystembetween

the concrete slabs and steel members did not yield until the

concrete slabs and steel members failed. Therefore, the design

procedure of the hybrid girder could be divided into three parts

consisting of flexural design, shear design, and connection design.

3.2. Flexural design

Since the flexural design of the hybrid girder is related to the

designs of the upper and lower concrete slabs, the dimensions

of the concrete slabs and the reinforcement sizes including the

prestressing tendons should be determined based on the required

flexural capacity of the girder. The ultimate moment M

u

can be

obtained through frame analysis; however, in the case of the steel

truss web, an additional calculation using the following equation

is needed after frame analysis in order to calculate the ultimate

moment, as shown in Fig. 6:

M

u

= M

1

+M

2

+N

1

d

1

+N

2

d

2

(1)

where M

1

and M

2

are the bending moments at the upper and

lower slabs, N

1

and N

2

are the axial forces at the upper and lower

centroid of upper slab

centroid of lower slab

centroid of beam

M

1

d

1

d

2

M

u

N

1

M

2

N

2

Fig. 6. Ultimate moment of a hybrid girder with truss web members.

slabs, and d

1

and d

2

are the distances from the neutral axis to

the centroids of the axial forces at the upper and lower slabs,

respectively.

The nominal moment of the cross section of a hybrid girder

M

n

can be calculated using the following equation, which

is commonly used to calculate the nominal moment for a

conventional prestressed concrete section.

M

n

=

_

A

p

f

ps

_

d

p

a

2

_

+A

s

f

y

_

d

a

2

_

+A

s

f

y

(d d

)

_

(2)

where = 0.85 is the strength reduction factor; A

s

and A

s

are the

areas of the tensile and compressive reinforcements, respectively;

A

p

is the area of the tendons; d and d

the extreme compression fiber to the centroids of the tensile and

compressive reinforcements, respectively; d

p

is the distance from

the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tendons; and

f

y

is the yield strength of the reinforcements. The stress of the

prestressing tendon f

ps

is given by:

f

ps

= f

pu

_

1

p

1

_

p

_

f

pu

f

ck

_

+

d

d

p

_

_

f

y

f

ck

_

_

f

y

f

ck

____

(3)

where and

reinforcements, respectively;

p

is the ratio of the tendons; f

pu

is

K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878 3871

Table 4

p

and

1

.

Index Condition Value

p

f

py

/f

pu

0.90 0.28

f

py

/f

pu

0.85 0.40

f

py

/f

pu

0.80 0.55

1

f

ck

< 28 MPa 0.85

f

ck

28 MPa 0.850.007(f

ck

28)

the ultimate tensile strength of the tendons; f

ck

is the compressive

strength of the concrete;

p

and

1

are the values determined

using Table 4, which is based on the concrete structure design

specification in Korea [15].

The depth of equivalent compressive region a is given by:

a =

A

p

f

ps

+A

s

f

y

A

s

f

y

0.85f

ck

b

(4)

where b is the width of the compressive region.

Finally, it is required that the nominal moment of the cross

section of the hybrid girder M

n

must always be larger than

the ultimate moment M

u

. According to this procedure, the

nominal flexural strength of each specimen was calculated to be

approximately 1375 kN m, and the expected ultimate load in the

three-point bending test was approximately 917 kN.

3.3. Shear design

Since the shear design of the hybrid girder is related to the

steel members of the web, the dimensions and thicknesses of the

steel tube members should be designed to have sufficient strength

such that the shear mode of failure is eliminated. In the case of

the corrugated steel web, the local buckling mode, global buckling

mode, and interactive buckling mode should be determined. The

design shear stress of the corrugated steel web

d

was obtained

by taking the minimum value of the critical interactive design

buckling stress

cr,I

, critical global design buckling stress

cr,G

, and

critical local design buckling stress

cr,L

,

d

= min(

cr,I

,

cr,G

,

cr,L

). (5)

Table 5 presents the design shear stress of the corrugated steel web

used in this study. Each value is calculated using the equations

proposed by JSCE [16], Abbas et al. [17], EI-Metwally [18], and Yi

et al. [19]. As shown in Table 5, it is clear that the design shear

stress of the corrugated steel web

d

is always greater than the

maximumshear stress in a real corrugated web section , which is

calculated using a design load of 917 kN, showing that the member

is sufficiently safe with regard to the shear stress.

In the case of the steel truss web, the maximum local stresses

concentrated at the ends of the truss members should be smaller

than the allowable compressive stress of the truss members. In

the truss member, the maximum axial forces and local moments

always occur at the joints, since the real joints of truss members

and concrete slabs are not hinged. As such, the maximum local

stress f

tr_max

can be given by the following equation:

f

tr_max

=

P

tr

A

tr

+

M

tr

I

tr

_

d

tr

2

_

(6)

where P

tr

and M

tr

are the maximum axial force and the moment

of the truss members, respectively; and d

tr

, A

tr

and I

tr

are the

diameter, area, and second moment of inertia of the truss member,

respectively. Finally, it should be required that the maximumlocal

stress f

tr_max

is always smaller thanthe allowable axial compressive

stress f

ca

proposed by the design specification. The same frame

model containing a fixed connection condition has been used

in the design procedure of hybrid truss beams regardless of the

connection type. Since it is difficult to numerically define the

strength of a joint, the basic design assumption of the strength

of the connection system must be greater than the strengths

of both the concrete slabs and the truss members. From the

analysis results of the frame model with a fixed connection

condition, the maximum axial force and bending moment of the

truss members were determined. When the expected ultimate

load of 917 kN was applied to the specimen, the maximum

axial force and bending moment of the truss members were

416.7 kN and 9.17 kN m, respectively. Therefore, the maximum

local stress of the truss members can be calculated as 150.7 MPa,

which is smaller than the allowable axial compressive stress of

190 MPa.

3.4. Connection design

The connection designs of the concrete slabs and steel webs

can be modified according to the connection system. However, the

fundamental design requirements of the connection system are

that it must not yield before the failures of the concrete slabs and

truss members and must be able to continuously resist applied

horizontal shear forces at the connection joint. In particular, in the

case of the steel truss, the tensile forces at the connection parts

must be maintained since the joints of the truss members always

have to resist tensile and compressive forces as well as horizontal

shear forces.

FHC and FHT have a connection system in which the studs are

welded onto the flange plate, but PHC has a connection system in

which perfobonds are welded onto the flange plate. In these two

connection systems, since the studs or perfobonds on the flange

plate are the only member parts resisting the horizontal shear

forces, the number of studs or perfobonds n can be calculated using

the following equation:

n

V

H

Q

a

(7)

where V

H

is the horizontal shear force and Q

a

is the allowable

shear strength of the stud or perfobond per one unit. The allowable

shear strength of the stud can be easily determined by applying

Eq. (8), required by the concrete structure design specification in

Korea [15].

Q

a

= 9.5d

2

s

_

f

ck

, if H

s

/d

s

5.5 (8a)

Q

a

= 1.74d

s

H

s

_

f

ck

, if H

s

/d

s

< 5.5 (8b)

where d

s

and H

s

are the diameter and height of the stud,

respectively. As shown in Fig. 7(a), the horizontal shear design

force per one stud is about 29 kN when d

s

is 22 mm and H

s

is

150 mm.

The ultimate shear strength per hole of perfobond has been

proposed by several researchers. In this study, Eqs. (9a) and (9b),

which were used in the design of perfobond shear strength for the

Tanigawa Bridge [20], are selected. Depending on whether or not

the perfobond has cross reinforcements, Eqs. (9a) or (9b) can be

applied, respectively.

Q

u

= 3.38d

2

o

(t

o

/d

o

)

1/2

f

ck

39.0 10

3

(9a)

Q

u

= 1.45

_

(d

2

o

2

o

)f

ck

+

2

o

f

y

_

26.1 10

3

(9b)

where Q

u

is the ultimate shear strength per hole of the perfobond,

t

o

is the thickness of the perfobond, d

o

and

o

are the diameters of

the holes in the perfobond and cross reinforcements, respectively,

and f

y

and f

ck

are the yield strength of the reinforcements and the

compressive strength of the concrete, respectively. As shown in

Fig. 7(b), the horizontal shear force capacity per one perfobond is

3872 K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878

Table 5

Design bucking stress of the corrugated steel web.

Index Local buckling stress (

cr,L

) (MPa) Global buckling stress (

cr,G

) (MPa) Interactive buckling

stress (

cr,G

)

Design buckling

stress (

d

)

Max. shear

stress ()

Safety

(

d

/)

Elastic Inelastic Elastic Inelastic

JSCE 95.5 95.3 8436 104.6 80.0 10.4 7.69

Abbas 954.9 80.0 7795 80.0 56.6 56.6 10.4 5.44

EI-Metwally 954.8 8426 79.8 79.7 10.4 7.66

Yi et al. 91.2 60.7 763.3 81.5 60.7 10.4 5.83

Fig. 7. Connection details (Units: mm).

about 621 kN when d

o

and t

o

are 50 mm and 8 mm, respectively,

and

o

is 13 mm.

GHT has a connection system in which studs are welded to a

discontinuous base plate which is connected to a vertical gusset

plate. This setup causes the local moment at the joint to occur

at the base plate, as shown in Fig. 8(b). Based on this design, the

failure mode of GHT is a tensile failure mode similar to that of a

concrete spalling failure in the anchor system due to the tensile

force. Similarly, the local moment can occur at the joint in FHT;

however, since FHT has a continuous flange plate resisting this

local moment, as shown in Fig. 8(a), the joint can sufficiently resist

the local moment. However, if the local moment does not occur at

the joint in EHT, the horizontal shear force is directly transferred to

the truss members in the concrete slab, as shown in Fig. 8(c). In the

designof GHT, the following force requirement equationoriginated

from the anchor design concept of the concrete structure design

specification in Korea [15], in which a tensile failure as well as a

shear failure is checked.

_

N

ua

N

n

_

2

+

_

V

ua

V

n

_

2

1.0 (10)

where N

ua

and V

ua

are the allowable ultimate strengths for the

tension and shear forces, and N

n

and V

n

are the design strengths

for the tension and shear forces, respectively.

If the local moment does occur at the joint of EHT, a hinge

connection system composed of connection plates and a steel rod

as shown in Fig. 7(c), then the connection plates and steel rods

are designed to prevent yielding until the ultimate and serviceable

states are reached as required by this study.

Table 6

Yielding and ultimate loads (Units: kN).

Index FHC PHC FHT GHT EHT

Yielding load 932.0 863.0 924.5 595.9 794.2

Ultimate load 1206.0 1054.0 1089.2 883.7 1060.9

4. Structural safety

4.1. Flexural capacity

Many experimental studies on the flexural behavior of steel

concrete composite beams have beenperformedby Larbi et al. [21],

Bouazaoui et al. [22], Zhang and Fu [23], and Kim and Jeong [24].

In this study, to verify the flexural capacity of the hybrid girders,

the tested specimens yielding loads and the ultimate load were

compared as shown in Table 6. The ultimate loads of all specimens

except for GHT were larger than the design ultimate load of

917 kN. The structural safety requirement for each specimen can

be defined as the actual ultimate load that must be greater than the

design ultimate load. Fromthe structural safety point of view, GHT

had insufficient flexural capacity, whereas the other specimens

had sufficient flexural capacities. In particular, in the longitudinal

flange plates of FHC and FHT, their yielding loads were even greater

than the design ultimate load of 917 kN. This enhanced safety

capacity shows that the longitudinal flange plate plays a vital role

in significantly improving the member flexural capacity.

4.1.1. Behaviors of FHC and PHC

In order to look more deeply into the flexural behavior of each

specimen, the loaddisplacement relationships obtained from the

experiment were analyzed. Fig. 9 presents the loaddisplacement

K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878 3873

(a) FHT. (b) GHT.

(c) EHT.

Fig. 8. Load transfer mechanisms at the connection joint (FHT, GHT, EHT).

Fig. 9. Loaddisplacement relationships in FHC and PHC.

relationships of two hybrid girders with corrugated steel webs. The

initial stiffnesses of the two hybrid girders with corrugated steel

webs (FHC, PHC) were almost the same in the linear elastic region

(from 0 to about 800 kN). The figure also shows that the ultimate

strength of FHC was higher than that of PHC, and the behaviors of

the two specimens after the yielding state were different, based on

the connection system.

The actual level of a composite action in a steelconcrete

composite structure is generally categorized into either a perfect

composite action, a partial composite action, or a non-composite

action. A perfect composite action is one in which an interface

between the steel and concrete surfaces is fully fixed and no slip is

to occur at the interface until its ultimate state is reached. A non-

composite action has no friction between the steel and concrete,

resulting in a large slip at the interface. A partial composite action

is one in which a minute slip occurs at the interface between the

steel and concrete surfaces, where an ultimate strength of a partial

composite structure can be slightly less than that of a perfect

composite structure [2527]. Consequently, in order to guarantee

a perfect composite action in the specimen, the shear connectors

should be able to resist the total horizontal shear force of 7980 kN,

which is equivalent to installing over 275 studs (29 kN/ea) or 13

perfobonds (62l kN/ea).

FHC has 276 studs, each with a horizontal shear design force

of about 29 kN. This means that the total resisting shear force

is about 8004 kN. However, PHC has 36 perfobonds, each with

a horizontal shear force capacity of about 621 kN, so the total

resisting shear force capacity for PHC is about 22,370 kN. This

value for PHC is approximately 2.8 times greater than that of

FHC. The results show that FHC has a sufficient number of shear

studs, thereby illustrating a perfect composite behavior and an

approximately 14% greater ultimate load compared to that of PHC.

Fig. 10 shows that the concrete between the perfobonds in the PHC

spalled after the yielding state was reached. This failure behavior is

due to the fact that PHC had discontinuously arranged perfobonds,

as shown in Fig. 3(b). If the studs are continuously arranged in

the longitudinal direction, as was the case in FHC, the failure

behavior would have been prevented. From these test results, it

can be concluded that the arrangement and the number of shear

connectors are extremely important parameters that affect the

flexural behaviors of hybrid girders. Fig. 11 presents the measured

reinforcement strains in the upper and lower slabs. The results

clearly indicate that the reinforcement strain is similar to the

loaddisplacement curve shown in Fig. 9, but the strain increment

of the tensile reinforcement in the lower slab is greater than that

of the compressive reinforcements in the upper slab.

3874 K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878

Fig. 10. Concrete spalling at the yielding state in PHC.

Fig. 11. Measured strains of the compressive and tensile rebars in FHC and PHC.

Fig. 12. Loaddisplacement relationships in EHT, FHT, and GHT.

4.1.2. Behaviors of FHT, GHT and EHT

Fig. 12 presents the loaddisplacement relationships of three

hybrid girders with steel truss webs. The initial stiffnesses of

the three hybrid girders with a steel truss web (FHT, GHT, EHT)

were similar in the linear elastic region, but their behaviors were

different in the nonlinear inelastic region. The figure also shows

that the yield and ultimate strengths of FHT are higher than those

of GHT and EHT, and that the yield and ultimate strengths of EHT

are higher than those of GHT. Also, the behaviors after yielding are

different according to the connection system. Fromthese results, it

is safe to conclude that GHT has the lowest flexural capacity among

the three types of hybrid girders with a steel truss web. FHT has

276 studs in continuous regular spacing, which gives a horizontal

Fig. 13. Measured strains of the compressive and tensile rebars in FHT, GHT, and

EHT.

shear design force per one stud of about 29 kN and a total resisting

shear force of about 8004 kN. However, GHT has 80 studs in a

discontinuous regular spacing, which gives a total resisting shear

force of about 2320 kN. Therefore, it can be expected that FHT has

a sufficient number of shear studs to impart a perfect composite

behavior, while GHT does not have sufficient studs to result in a

partial composite behavior, where its yield and ultimate strengths

are less than the design strength.

As shown in Fig. 8, FHT and GHT have a longitudinal flange plate

and a base plate attached with studs, respectively. So axial forces

of the truss members are indirectly transferred to the concrete

slabs by way of longitudinal steel plates and stud shear connectors.

Therefore, the centroid of the cross section does not coincide

with the middle point of the concrete slab height, causing an

eccentricity to occur between the centroid of the slab and the cross

point of the two truss axes. This eccentricity inevitably generates

a local bending moment at the connection joint. However, EHT

has an embedded hinge connection system where truss members

are connected to each other in the concrete slab without any

longitudinal steel plates and stud shear connectors. Therefore, the

axial force of the truss members is directly transferred to the

concrete slab. Since the centroid of the cross section coincides

with the middle point of the concrete slab height, no eccentricity

between the centroid of a concrete slab and the cross point of

the two truss axes occurs and no local bending moment occurs at

the connection joint. Consequently, it can be concluded that the

EHT tested in this study can be a useful connection system for

hybrid truss girders, providing sufficient structural safety without

requiring any shear connectors or welding during construction.

From these results, it can be clearly concluded that hybrid girders

could have different initial stiffnesses according to the connection

system used, despite having the same web members.

Fig. 13 presents the measured reinforcement strains in

the upper and lower slabs. The results clearly indicate that

the behavior of the reinforcement strain is similar to the

loaddisplacement curve showninFig. 12, but the strainincrement

of the tensile reinforcement in the lower slab is greater than that of

the compressive reinforcements in the upper slab. Fig. 14 presents

the strains in the cross section of each hybrid girder (FHT, GHT,

EHT) according to a load increment of 200 kN. Fig. 15 presents

the strains in the cross section of the three hybrid girders (FHT,

GHT, EHT) at the critical loading points of 200, 400, and 800 kN. As

shown in Fig. 13, the reinforcement of FHT in the upper slab did

not reach the yield state at the load of 1000 kN, but those of GHT

and EHT in the upper slab reached the yield state at loads of 800 kN

and 1000 kN, respectively. The reinforcements of FHT and EHT in

the lower slab reached yield states at loads of 400 kN and 600 kN,

respectively. However, the reinforcements in GHT in the upper

slab reached yield state at a load greater than 400 kN. The results

K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878 3875

(a) FHT. (b) GHT.

(c) EHT.

Fig. 14. Strain variation in the cross section.

indicate that FHT and EHT show more stable strain increments

in the cross section compared to that of GHT. It can be clearly

concluded that a longitudinal member such as the flange plate in

FHT or a direct connection system such as the hinge connection in

EHT canbe used to obtainsufficient flexural capacity and structural

safety in hybrid girders with steel truss members.

4.1.3. Comparison of FHC and FHT

Fig. 16 presents the loaddisplacement relationships of hybrid

girders with corrugated steel web and steel truss web members.

Both FHC and FHT have the same connection system composed of

a flange plate and shear studs in the longitudinal direction, but FHC

has corrugated steel webs and FHT has steel truss webs. As shown

in Fig. 16, the initial stiffness of FHC is higher than that of FHT in

the linear elastic region, and the yield and ultimate strengths of

FHC are also higher than those of FHT in the nonlinear region.

Fig. 16 also presents the 3-D nonlinear analysis results of the

two types of hybridgirders using botha perfectly plastic model and

a tri-linear plastic model for prestressing tendons. This nonlinear

analysis was performed using the commercial FEM program

DIANA. The concrete was modeled by a solid element (HX24L),

and the steel members such as corrugated steel tubes or truss

members were modeled by a shell element (Q8MEM), as shown

in Fig. 17. The prestressing tendon was modeled as an embedded

bar element, and the DruckerPrager and the von-Mises plasticity

models were applied to the concrete and steel, respectively. The

smeared crack model was also applied to the concrete solid

elements. From the analysis, it was found that the stiffness of the

analysis results was higher than that of the experimental results.

The difference between the analytical and experimental results

was due to the partial composite behaviors of the connection

systems in the real specimens, while the analyses assumed that

they had perfect composite behaviors. Fig. 18 also presents the

measured reinforcement strains in the upper and lower slabs. The

results clearly indicate that the behavior of reinforcement strain is

similar to the loaddisplacement curve shown in Fig. 16, but the

strain increment of the tensile reinforcement in the lower slab is

larger than that of the compressive reinforcements in the upper

slab. From the test results, it can be inferred that FHC has a higher

flexural capacity than FHT, despite having the same connection

system. This capacity difference is due to FHC having a typical

regular cross section, while FHT has an opened irregular cross

section in the longitudinal direction. This inference is discussed

below in terms of the shear capacity.

4.2. Shear capacity

As shown in Fig. 16, FHC had a higher flexural capacity than that

of FHT despite having the same connection system. The difference

inthe capacity was due toFHChaving a typical regular cross section

while FHT has an open irregular cross section in the longitudinal

direction. This result trendmay also be relatedto the shear capacity

of each specimen. However, it is difficult to directly compare the

shear capacities of hybrid girders with corrugated steel webs (FHC,

PHC) to those of steel truss webs (FHT, GHT, EHT), since they

have different load transmission paths. The applied load transfers

directly to the support through the corrugated steel web in HC

girders, but the applied load transfers indirectly to the support by

way of truss members in HT girders.

Fig. 19 presents the principal strains of the corrugated steel

web (FHC, PHC). The maximum principal strain was less than

approximately 600 micro strains (equivalent to 120 MPa) and

remained in the linear elastic state as shown in Fig. 18 because the

design buckling stress of the corrugated steel web in this study was

3876 K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878

(a) 200 kN. (b) 400 kN.

(c) 800 kN.

Fig. 15. Comparison of strain variations in the cross sections of FHT, GHT, and EHT.

Fig. 16. Loaddisplacement relationships in FHC and FHT.

highly conservative and had a higher safety factor (more than 5.44

times), as shown in Table 5. Fig. 20 presents the maximum strains

of the steel truss members (FHT, GHT, EHT). Since the maximum

local stress of truss members used in the design was 150.7 MPa

and the allowable axial compressive stress was 190 MPa, the

safety factor for truss buckling was 1.26. Also, the maximumstrain

of a truss was less than about 1500 micro strains without local

buckling. In this study, each hybrid girder was designed such that

it had sufficient shear capacity until flexural failure occurred. From

the test results, the failure modes of all specimens showed typical

flexural failure modes regardless of web type. Also, the maximum

strain of the steel webs remained in the linear elastic region until

all specimens reached their ultimate states. Consequently, it can

be concluded that the structural safeties of the shear capacities for

two types of hybrid girders are guaranteed, and that the design of

the corrugated steel web is more conservative than is that of the

steel truss web.

Table 7

Cracking load of EHT, FHT, and GHT (Units: kN).

Location FHT GHT EHT

Upper slab

Top 1026.9 789.1 840.4

Bottom 1086.2 713.6 591.7

Lower slab

Top 634.2 335.3 333.9

Bottom 145.2 234.4 291.7

5. Serviceability

5.1. Cracking loads

In order to determine the cracking loads and crack patterns

for all specimens, the cracks formed on all concrete surfaces were

visually checked at every 10 kN load increment during the loading

test. Table 7 presents the cracking loads of the hybrid girders with

steel truss webs (EHT, GHT, FHT) according to member location,

and Table 8 shows the crack patterns. Below 200 kN, there were

no cracks in EHT or GHT. The first cracks formed in the bottom

of the lower slab at loads of 291.7 kN and 234.4 kN in EHT and

GHT, respectively. In the case of FHT, the first cracks occurred in

the bottom of the lower slab at 145.2 kN, but the cracks at the

other locations such as the upper slab and the top of the lower slab

occurred at an applied load greater than those of EHT and FHT.

5.2. Prestressing efficiency

Each specimen had the same prestressing force of approxi-

mately 432 kN (60% of the ultimate tensile strength of the pre-

stressing tendon) applied using hydraulic jacks. In order to apply

the same prestressing force to each specimen, the prestressing

K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878 3877

Table 8

Cracking mechanism of EHT, FHT, and GHT.

Load (kN) FHT GHT EHT

200

400

800

(a) HC girder. (b) HT girder.

Fig. 17. 3D modeling of FHC and FHT.

Fig. 18. Measured strains of the compressive and tensile rebars in FHC and FHT.

force was directly measured using load cells and the elongation

lengths of the tendons were checked. Also, the specimen longitu-

dinal strain variations were measured throughout the prestressing

procedure to determine the prestressing efficiency for each spec-

imen. Fig. 21 presents the strain variations in the reinforcements

in the longitudinal direction when the same prestressing force was

appliedtothe lower slabof the hybridgirders withsteel truss webs.

The longitudinal strains of EHT and GHT were higher than that of

FHT, which indicated that EHT and GHT had higher prestressing

efficiencies than FHT, since the flange plates of both EHT and GHT

did not resist axial prestressing forces. Finally, from the fact that

the first cracking of FHT occurred at a lower applied load, it can be

deduced that FHT had a lower prestressing efficiency than those of

EHT and GHT.

6. Conclusions

This paper has focused on verifying the structural safety of

hybrid girders with steel webs and evaluating the behaviors of

hybrid girders according to web type and connection system.

(1) The structural safeties of the flexural capacities of two types

of hybrid girders are governed by the connection systems as

well as the web structures. From the test results, the stiffness,

ultimate strength, and behavior of each type of hybrid girder

Fig. 19. Measured principal strains of the corrugated steel webs in FHC and PHC.

Fig. 20. Measured strains of both the maximum compressive and tensile truss

members in FHT, GHT, and EHT.

can be very different in the linear elastic region as well as in

the nonlinear region depending on the connection system.

(2) The structural safeties of the shear capacities for the two types

of hybrid girders were guaranteed, since the failure modes

of all specimens presented the typical flexural failure mode

regardless of web type. The maximum strain of the steel

webs remained in the linear elastic region until all specimens

reached the ultimate state.

3878 K.-H. Jung et al. / Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38663878

Fig. 21. Prestressing efficiencies of FHT, GHT, and EHT.

(3) BothFHCandPHChave a sufficient number of shear connectors

to allowfor perfect composite behavior; however, the ultimate

strength of FHC is approximately 14% higher than that of PHC.

The study results can be attributed to FHC having continuously

arranged studs in the longitudinal direction as opposed to

PHC, which has discontinuously arranged perfobonds. This

indicates that the arrangement pattern and the number of

shear connectors are important parameters that affect the

flexural behaviors of hybrid girders.

(4) EHT is an embedded-type connection system with no local

moment at the connection joint since there is no eccentricity

between the centroid of the concrete slab and the cross points

of the two truss axes. FHT and GHT have shear studs and a steel

plate as force transfer elements and always produce a local

moment at the connection joint since eccentricity between the

centroid of a composite slab and the cross points of two truss

axes always occurs.

(5) The EHT used in this study can be a useful connection system

for hybrid truss girders since it provides sufficient structural

safety without requiring any shear connectors or welding

procedures during construction.

(6) The stiffnesses of hybrid girders with corrugated steel webs

(FHC) are higher than those of hybrid girders with steel truss

webs (FHT) due to FHC having a typical regular cross section,

while FHT has an open irregular cross section. This result is

related to the shear capacities of hybrid girders.

(7) The longitudinal flange plates of hybrid girders with steel webs

can play a vital role in resisting the prestressing forces, thereby

enhancing the flexural capacity but decreasing the cracking

load in the lower slab.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a grant (05 construction core C14)

from the Construction Core Technology Program of the Ministry

of Construction & Transportation of the Korean Government. The

authors wish to express their gratitude for the financial support.

The opinions, findings, and conclusions of the paper are solely from

the authors anddo not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

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