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BAUER - GINGRICH ARNDT, A Greek-English Lexicon Of The New Testament

(Hom.+; inscr., pap., LXX, En., Ep. Arist., Philo, Joseph., Test. 12 Patr.; loanw. in rabb.) relative adv. of the
relative pron. . It is used
I. as a comparative particle, indicating the manner in which someth. proceeds as, like1. corresponding to
=so, in such a way , he will be saved, (but only) in such a way as (a man,
in an attempt to save himself, must go) through the fire (and therefore suffers fr. burns) 1 Cor 3:15.
Eph 5:33; cf. vs. 28. 1 Th 5:2. The word
can also be omitted make it as secure as you know how=as you can Mt 27:65.
(in such a way) as he himself does not know=he himself does not know how, without his
knowing (just) how Mk 4:27. (in such a way) as is fitting Col 3:18. Cf. 4:4; Eph 6:20; Tit 1:5.
2. special usesa. in ellipses I used to speak as a child (is accustomed to speak) 1 Cor
13:11a; cf. b, c; Mk 10:15; Eph 6:6a; Phil 2:22; Col 3:22. walk as children of the
light (must walk) Eph 5:8; cf. 6:6b. as (it is ones duty to walk) in the daylight Ro 13:13. The
Israelites went through the Red Sea as (one travels) over dry land Hb 11:29.
he speaks not as one would of a plurality (cf. I 1b), but as of a single thing Gal
3:16.Ro 15:15; 1 Pt 5:3. Also referring back to : I run as (a man) with a
fixed goal 1 Cor 9:26a. Cf. ibid. b; Js 2:12.
b. and the words that go w. it can be the subj. or obj., of a clause: let it be done (=it
will be done) for you as you wish Mt 15:28. Cf. 8:13; Lk 14:22 t.r. (cf. , Ode of Solomon 11:21).
The predicate belonging to such a subj. is to be supplied in () Mt 26:39a.
he did as (=that which) the angel commanded him (to do) Mt 1:24. Cf. 26:19;
28:15.Practically equivalent to , which is a v.l. for it Mk 14:72 (JNBirdsall, NovT 2, 58, 272-5).
c. each one as or according to what Ro 12:3; 1 Cor 3:5; 7:17a, b; Rv 22:12.
d. in indirect questions (X., Cyr. 1, 5, 11 )
they told how he had made himself known to them when they broke bread
together Lk 24:35. Cf. Mk 12:26 t.r.; Lk 8:47; 23:55; Ac 10:38; 20:20; Ro 11:2; 2 Cor 7:15.
. as a conjunction denoting comparison, as. This as can have a so expressly corresponding to it or not, as the
case may be; further, both sides of the comparison can be expressed in complete clauses, or one or even both may be
abbreviated.
1. is correlative w. =so. . . . (so, in such a way). .. as:
J 7:46. . . . Ac 8:32 (Is 53:7); 23:11; Ro 5:15 (
, , both halves to be completed), 18. ,
as you are comrades in suffering, so (shall you be) in comfort as well 2 Cor 1:7. Cf. 7:14;
11:3 t.r.. . . as. . . so (Plut., Mor. 39E) Mt 6:10; Ac 7:51; 2 Cor 13:2; Gal 1:9; Phil 1:20.
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2. The clause beginning w. can easily be understood and supplied in many cases; when this occurs, the noun
upon which the comparison depends can often stand alone, and in these cases acts as a particle denoting
comparison. the righteous will shine out as the sun (shines) Mt 13:43.
as (one goes out) against a robber, (so) you have gone out to arrest me 26:55.
as serpents (are) 10:16b. Cf. Lk 12:27; 21:35; 22:31; J 15:6; 2 Ti 2:17; 1 Pt 5:8.
3. Semitic infl. is felt in the manner in which , combined w. a subst., takes the place of a subst. or an adj.
a. a substantive. as subj. (cf. Da 7:13 . Cf. 10:16, 18) ()
before the throne there was something like a sea of glass Rv 4:6. Cf. 8:8; 9:7a.
from one man they have come into being as the sand, i.e. countless descendants Hb
11:12. . as obj. they were singing, as it were, a new song Rv 14:3 t.r.
I heard what sounded like a shout 19:1, 6a, b, c; cf. 6:1.
b. an adjective, pred. (mostly , ) if you do not become child-like
Mt 18:3. they are similar to angels 22:30. 1 Pt 1:24. Cf. Mk 6:34; 12:25;
Lk 22:26a, b; Ro 9:27 (Is 10:22); 29a (Is 1:9a); 1 Cor 4:13; 7:7f, 29-31; 9:20f; 2 Pt 3:8a, b (Ps 89:4); Rv 6:12a, b al.
Sim. also treat me like one of you day laborers Lk 15:19.The adj. or
adjectival expr. for which this form stands may be used as an attribute faith like a
mustard seed=faith no greater than a tiny mustard seed Mt 17:20; Lk 17:6. Mk
6:15. Cf. Ac 3:22; 7:37 (both Dt 18:15); 10:11; 11:5. a lamb that appeared to have been
slaughtered Rv 5:6.In expressions like 9:8a the second can be omitted as
self-evident (Ps 54:7 v.l.): 4:1; cf. 1:10; 9:8b; 13:2a; 14:2c; 16:3.
4. Other noteworthy usesa. as can introduce an example Lk 9:54 t.r. Cf. 1 Pt 3:6;
or, in the combination , a scripture quotation Mk 1:2 t.r.; 7:6; Lk 3:4; Ac 13:33. Cf. Ro 9:25; or even an
authoritative human opinion Ac 17:28; 22:5; 25:10; or any other decisive reason Mt 5:48; 6:12 ( ).
b. introduces short clauses: as his custom was Mk 10:1. Cf. Hs 5, 1, 2. as I think 1
Pt 5:12. as was supposed Lk 3:23 (Diog. L. 3, 2 [about Platos origin]).
as he was Mk 4:36.
c. The expr. Mk 4:26 is gravely irregular fr.
a grammatical viewpoint; it is likely that (=, which is read by the t.r.) once stood before and was lost
inadvertently. Cf. the comm., e.g. EKlostermann, Hdb. z. NT4 50 ad loc.; Jlicher, Gleichn. 539; Bl-D. 380, 4; Mlt.
185 w. notes; Rdm.2 154; Rob. 928; 968.
III. introduces the characteristic quality of a pers., thing, or action, etc., referred to in the context.

1. an actual qualitya. as ; why am I still being condemned as a sinner?


Ro 3:7. 1 Cor 3:10. as new-born children (which you really are, if
you put away all wickedness) 1 Pt 2:2. 4:15a; cf. b, 16.1:14; 1 Cor 7:25; 2 Cor
6:4; Eph 5:1; Col 3:12; 1 Th 2:4, 7a.In the oblique cases, genitive: with
the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish 1 Pt 1:19. glory
as of an only-begotten son, coming from the Father J 1:14.Cf. Hb 12:27. Dative (Stephan. Byz. s.v.
: ): 1 Cor 3:1a; cf. b, c; 10:15; 2 Cor 6:13; Hb
12:5; 1 Pt 2:13f; 3:7a, b; 2 Pt 1:19. Accusative: Ro 1:21; 1 Cor 4:14; 8:7; Tit 1:7; Phlm 16;
Hb 6:19; 11:9; 1 Pt 2:11.This is prob. also the place for , whatever you
have to do, do it as work for the Lord Col 3:23. Cf. Eph 5:22. if anyone preaches, (let
him do so) as if (he were proclaiming the) words of God 1 Pt 4:11a; cf. ibid. b; 2 Cor 2:17b, c; Eph 6:5, 7.
b. w. the ptc. gives the reason for an action as one who, because (X., Cyr. 7, 5, 13
; Appian, Liby. 56 244 =as being
hostile; Polyaenus 2, 1, 1; 3, 10, 3 =just as if he had; Jos., Ant. 1, 251; Dit., Syll.3, 1168, 35); Paul says: I
appealed to the Emperor not that I had any charge to bring against
my (own) people Ac 28:19 (Zen.-P. 59044, 23 [257 BC] =not as if it were my purpose to remain
there). foll. by the gen. abs. because his divine
power has granted us everything 2 Pt 1:3.Only in isolated instances does show causal force when used w. a
finite verb for (PLeid. 16, 1, 20; Lucian, Dial. Mort. 17, 2, end, Vit. Auct. 25; Aesop, Fab. 109 P.=148 H.:
=because; Tetrast. Iamb. 1, 6, 3; Nicetas Eugen. 6, 131 H. Cf. Herodas 10, 3: =because
[with the copula is to be supplied]) Mt 6:12 ( as Mk 7:37B; Test. Dan 3:1; the parallel Lk 11:4 has ). So,
more oft., (q.v. 3).
c. Almost pleonastic is the use of before the predicate acc. or nom. w. certain verbs
Mt 21:26. Cf. Lk 16:1. foll. by acc. look upon someone as 1 Cor 4:1; 2 Cor 10:2
(for this pass. s. also 3 below). Cf. 2 Th 3:15a, b; Phil 2:7; Js 2:9.
2. a quality that exists only in someones imagination or is based solely on someones statement (Jos., Bell. 3,
346) , . . . you have brought this
man before me as one who (as you claim) is misleading the people, and now. . . Lk 23:14.
; why do you boast, as though you (as you think) had not received? 1 Cor 4:7. Cf. Ac 3:12; 23:15, 20;
27:30. as though I were not coming (acc. to their mistaken idea) 1 Cor 4:18.
3. a quality wrongly claimed, in any case objectively false a letter (falsely) alleged to be
from us 2 Th 2:2a (Diod. S. 33, 5, 5 they sent a letter which
purported to come from the emissaries; Diog. L. 10:3 falsified ).
2 Cor 10:2 (s. also 1c above). Cf. 11:17; 13:7. Israel wishes to become righteous
not through faith but through deeds (the latter way being objectively wrong) Ro
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9:32 (Rdm.2 26f).


IV. Other uses of 1. as a temporal conjunction (Bl-D. 455, 2; 3 w. app.; Harnack, SAB 08, 392).
a. w. the aor. when, after (Hom., Hdt.+; pap. [POxy. 1489, 4 al.]; LXX; Jos., Bell. 1, 445b)
Lk 1:23. J 2:9.Lk 1:41, 44; 2:15, 39; 4:25; 5:4; 7:12; 15:25; 19:5; 22:66;
23:26; J 4:1, 40; 6:12, 16; 7:10; 11:6, 20, 29, 32f; 18:6; 19:33; 21:9; Ac 5:24; 10:7, 25; 13:29; 14:5; 16:10, 15;
17:13; 18:5; 19:21; 21:1, 12; 22:25; 27:1, 27; 28:4.
b. w. pres. or impf. while, when, as long as (Menand., fgm. 538, 2 K. ; Cyrill. Scyth. [VI AD] ed.
ESchwartz 39 p. 143, 1; 207, 22 =as long as I live) while you are
going with your opponent Lk 12:58. , while he was talking, while
he was opening the scriptures to us 24:32.J 2:23; 8:7; 12:35f (as long as); Ac 1:10; 7:23; 9:23; 10:17; 13:25;
19:9; 21:27; 25:14; Gal 6:10 (as long as); 2 Cl 8:1; 9:7; IRo 2:2; ISm 9:1 (all four as long as). w. impf., and in
the next clause the aor. ind. w. the same subject (Diod. S. 15, 45, 4 . . . , =when, or as
soon as they noticed. . . , they put together [a fleet]; Dit., Syll.3 1169, 58 , =while he was sleeping
[in the temple], or when he went to sleep, he saw [a dream or vision]) Mt 28:9 t.r.; J 20:11; Ac 8:36; 16:4;
22:11.Since (Soph., Oed. R. 115; Thu. 4, 90, 3) Mk 9:21.
c. or w. the subjunctive of the time of an event in the future when, as soon as.
. (Hyperid. 2, 43, 4; Herodas 5, 50; Lucian, Cronosolon 11; PHib. 59, 1 [c. 245 BC] ; UPZ
71, 18 [152 BC]; PTebt. 26, 2. Cf. Witkowski2 87; Gen 12:12; Josh 2:14; Is 8:21; Da 3:15 Theod.) Ro 15:24; 1 Cor
11:34; Phil 2:23.. (PFay. 111, 16 [95/6 AD] ) 1 Cl 12:5f; Hv 3, 8, 9; 3, 13, 2.
2. as a consecutive conj., denoting result= so that (trag., Hdt.+, though nearly always w. the inf.; so also
POxy. 1040, 11; PFlor. 370, 10; Wsd 5:12; Jos., Ant. 12, 229.W. the indic. X., Cyr. 5, 4, 11
; Philostrat., Vi. Apoll. 8, 7 p. 324, 25f; Jos., Bell. 3, 343)Hb 3:11; 4:3 (both Ps 94:11).
3. as a final particle, denoting purposea. w. subjunctive (Hom.+; Sib. Or. 3, 130; Synes., Hymni 3, 44
[NTerzaghi 39]) in order that I might finish Ac 20:24 (cf. Mlt. 249).
b. w. inf. (X.; Arrian [very oft.: ABoehner, De Arriani dicendi genere, Diss. Erlangen 1885 p. 56]; PGenve 28, 12
[II AD], ZPE 8, 71, 177: letter of MAurelius 57, cf. 44-6; 3 Macc 1:2; Joseph.) Lk 9:52 v.l. Ac 20:24
v.l. Hb 7:9 (s. _________).
c. used w. prepositions that denote a direction, to indicate the direction intended (class. [Khner-G. I 472 note 1];
Polyb. 1, 29, 1; LRadermacher, Philol. 60, 01, 495f) Ac 17:14 t.r.
4. after verbs of knowing, saying (even introducing direct discourse: Maximus Tyr. 5:4f), hearing, etc.= that (X.,
An. 1, 3, 5; Menand., Per. 137, Sam. 245; Aeneas Tact. 402; 1342; PTebt. 10, 6 [119 BC]; 1 Km 13:11; Ep. Arist.;

Philo, Op. M. 9; Jos., Ant. 7, 39; 9, 162; 15, 249 al.ORiemann, Revue de Philol. new series 6, 1882, 73-5;
HKallenberg, RhM n.s. 68, 13, 465-76; Bl-D. 396 w. app.) Mk 12:26 v.l. (for ); Lk 6:4 (w.
as v.l.). Lk 24:6 (D ); cf. 22:61 (=Lat. quomodo, as in ms. c of the Old Itala; cf. Plautus, Poen. 3, 1,
54-6). (Jos., Ant. 7, 372)Ac 10:28; 20:18b v.l. (for ). (Mitt. d. dt. arch. Inst. Ath., Abt. 37,
12, 183 [=Kl. T. 110, 81, 10] [131/2 AD]) 1 Th 2:11a. Ro 1:9; Phil 1:8; 1 Th 2:10. s.
1d.
5. w. numerals about, approximately, nearly (Hdt., Thu. et al.; PAmh. 72, 12; PTebt. 381, 4 [VBSchuman,
Classical Weekly 28, 34/35, 95f-pap.]; Jos., Ant. 6, 95; Ruth 1:4; 1 Km l4:2) Mk 5:13. Cf.8:9; Lk
1:56; 8:42; J 1:39; 4:6; 6:10, 19; 19:14, 39; 21:8; Ac 4:4; 5:7, 36; 13:18, 20; Rv 8:1.
6. in exclamations how! (X., Cyr. 1, 3, 2 , ! Himerius, Or. 54 [=Or. 15], 1
=how pleasant. . . ! Ps 8:2; 72:1) Ro 10:15
(cf. Is 52:7). Cf. 11:33.
7. w. the superlative (a literary usage; cf. Bl-D. 244, 1; cf. Rob. 669) as quickly as possible Ac
17:15 (s. 3).WSthlin, Symbolon, 58, 99-104. Cf. also , , , , , .
M-M.__