Sie sind auf Seite 1von 65

Department of Science and Technology Institutionen fr teknik och naturvetenskap

Linkpings Universitet Linkpings Universitet


SE-601 74 Norrkping, Sweden 601 74 Norrkping
Examensarbete
LITH-ITN-ED-EX--04/004--SE





MIMO channel models




Aida Botonji

2004-01-30











LITH-ITN-ED-EX--04/004--SE





MIMO channel models


Examensarbete utfrt i Elektronikdesign
vid Linkpings Tekniska Hgskola, Campus
Norrkping


Aida Botonji




Handledare: Christian Kark
Examinator: Shaofang Gong

Norrkping 2004-01-30





Rapporttyp
Report category

Examensarbete
B-uppsats
C-uppsats
D-uppsats


_ ________________
Sprk
Language

Svenska/Swedish
Engelska/English


_ ________________
Titel
Title

MIMO channel models

Frfattare
Author

Aida Botonji


Sammanfattning
Abstract

The objective of this diploma work is to investigate a set of Multiple Input Multiple Output
(MIMO) channel models compatible with the emerging IEEE 802.11n standard. This diploma
work validates also advanced, innovative tools and wireless technologies that are necessary to
facilitate wireless applications while maximizing spectral efficiency and throughput.

MIMO channel models can be used to evaluate new Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
proposals based on multiple antenna technologies.

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate means of channel models and their implementation in
different environments such as: Matlab, C++ and Advanced Design Systems (ADS). The
investigation considers also a comparison between the channel models based on theoretical data
and parameter setup to the channel models based on statistical characteristics obtained from
measured data.
Investigation and comparison of a MIMO channel models consider steering channel matrix H,
spatial correlation coefficients, power delay profiles, fading characteristics and Doppler power
spectrum.
ISBN
_____________________________________________________
ISRN LITH-ITN -ED-EX--04/004--SE
_________________________________________________________________
Serietitel och serienummer ISSN
Title of series, numbering ___________________________________
Nyckelord
Keyword

MIMO, channel model, WLAN, spatila correlation, Doppler Spectrum, fading.
Datum


2004-01-30
URL fr elektronisk version

http://www.ep.liu.se/exjobb/itn/2004/ed/004
Avdelning, Institution
Division, Department

Institutionen fr teknik och naturvetenskap

Department of Science and Technology










To my mother Ismeta,
my father Smajil and
my loving boyfriend Almir
who always believed in me.
Preface

This report summarizes the achievements of the Master Thesis work carried out
between September and December 2003 at Acreo AB in Norrkping, Sweden.
The report constitutes the final element of a Master of Science exam in Electronics
Design Engineering at the University of Linkping at Campus Norrkping.

I take this opportunity to thank my coordinator Christian Kark at Acreo AB and my
examiner Shaofang Gong at ITN Linkpings University for useful discussions and
suggestions. Im also thankful to Arash Jafari who took his time to read my rapport
and give me his useful comments.

Special thanks are dedicated to my family, friends and boyfriend who have been a
source of encouragement and inspiration to write this thesis.


Abstract

The objective of this diploma work is to investigate a set of Multiple Input Multiple
Output (MIMO) channel models compatible with the emerging IEEE 802.11n
standard. This diploma work validates also advanced, innovative tools and wireless
technologies that are necessary to facilitate wireless applications while maximizing
spectral efficiency and throughput.

MIMO channel models can be used to evaluate new Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN) proposals based on multiple antenna technologies.

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate means of channel models and their
implementation in different environments such as: Matlab, C++ and Advanced Design
Systems (ADS). The investigation considers also a comparison between the channel
models based on theoretical data and parameter setup to the channel models based on
statistical characteristics obtained from measured data.
Investigation and comparison of a MIMO channel models consider steering channel
matrix H, spatial correlation coefficients, power delay profiles, fading characteristics
and Doppler power spectrum.

Sammanfattning

Mlet med detta examensarbete r att underska Multiple Input Multiple Output
(MIMO) kanalmodeller. Dessa modeller skall vara i verensstmmelse med
kommande IEEE 802.11n standarden. Inom examensarbetet omfattas ocks
avancerade och innovativa verktyg samt trdls teknik. Trdls teknik r ndvndig
fr att frmja trdlsa applikationer samtidigt som man maximerar spektral
effektivitet och genomstrmning.

MIMO kanalmodeller kan anvndas fr att utvrdera kommande Wireless Local Area
Network (WLAN) frslag baserat p multiple antennteknik.

Underskning av MIMO kanal modeller och dess implementering i olika miljer
beskrivs i denna rapport. Implementeringsmiljer som beskrivs hr r bland annat
Matlab 6.5, C++ och Advanced Design Systems (ADS). Underskningen omfattar
ocks jmfrelse mellan teoretiskt uppbyggda kanalmodeller samt uppmtt data fr
kanalmodeller.
Underskning och jmfrelse av MIMO kanalmodeller omfattar kanal matris H,
spatial correlation koefficient, frdrjnings tider, fdande egenskaper och Doppler
kraft.
Table of contents

TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................. 5
1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 7
1.1 PURPOSE ................................................................................................................................. 7
1.2 LIMITATIONS .......................................................................................................................... 8
1.3 ASSUMPTIONS......................................................................................................................... 8
1.4 METHOD ................................................................................................................................. 8
1.5 OUTLINE ................................................................................................................................. 9
2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ......................................................................................... 10
2.1 WLAN AND OFDM.............................................................................................................. 10
2.2 MIMO CHANNEL MODEL CLASSIFICATION......................................................................... 11
3 THEORY, PART I..................................................................................................................... 13
3.1 PHYSICAL MIMO CHANNEL MODEL..................................................................................... 13
3.2 NON-PHYSICAL MIMO CHANNEL MODEL............................................................................ 15
3.3 MIMO MATRIX FORMULATION........................................................................................... 16
3.4 POWER DELAY PROFILE........................................................................................................ 17
3.5 CORRELATION FUNCTIONS AND PAS DISTRIBUTION............................................................ 18
3.6 TAP TIME AND ANGLE DEPENDENCE ................................................................................... 20
3.7 FADING MULTIPATH CHANNELS .......................................................................................... 21
3.8 DOPPLER SPECTRUM ............................................................................................................ 24
3.8.1 Power Delay Spectrum.................................................................................................. 25
3.8.2 Fluorescent Lights......................................................................................................... 25
3.9 MIMO CHANNEL PROPERTIES.............................................................................................. 27
3.9.1 Capacity ........................................................................................................................ 27
3.9.2 Simulation results.......................................................................................................... 28
4 IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS............................................................................................ 31
4.1 BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................................... 31
4.2 TRANSLATION OF MATLAB CODE INTO C++ ........................................................................ 31
4.3 ADS SCHEMATIC WITH MATLAB BLOCK........................................................................... 33
4.4 ADS SCHEMATIC WITH READFILE BLOCK......................................................................... 34
4.5 CHANNEL MODEL IMPLEMENTED IN ADS ............................................................................ 35
5 COMPARISON RESULTS ...................................................................................................... 36
6 THEORY, PART II ................................................................................................................... 38
6.1 SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING SCHEME......................................................................................... 38
6.2 TRANSMITTER....................................................................................................................... 39
6.3 RECEIVER ............................................................................................................................. 40
6.4 ANTENNA SELECTION........................................................................................................... 41
7 CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................................... 42
8 FUTURE WORK....................................................................................................................... 43
9 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 44
10 BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................. 46

2


APPENDIX A PHYSICAL MODELS A-F................................................................................. 47
MODEL A......................................................................................................................................... 47
MODEL B......................................................................................................................................... 48
MODEL C......................................................................................................................................... 49
MODEL D......................................................................................................................................... 50
MODEL E (1/2)................................................................................................................................. 51
MODEL E (2/2)................................................................................................................................. 52
MODEL F (1/2)................................................................................................................................. 53
MODEL F (2/2)................................................................................................................................. 54
APPENDIX B NON-PHYSICAL MODEL................................................................................. 55
ONE-RING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 55
APPENDIX C POWER DISTRIBUTIONS................................................................................ 56
UNIFORM PAS................................................................................................................................. 56
TRUNCATED GAUSSIAN PAS........................................................................................................... 57
TRUNCATED LAPLACIAN PAS......................................................................................................... 58


3


Table of Figures
Figure 1. MIMO channel representation........................................................................... 11
Figure 2. Primitive channel model .................................................................................... 13
Figure 3. Scatter cluster example ...................................................................................... 14
Figure 4. One-ring model .................................................................................................. 15
Figure 5. Model D, Power Delay Profile .......................................................................... 17
Figure 6. Impinging waves from Tx to Rx......................................................................... 18
Figure 7. Laplacian distribution with AS=30 [14] .......................................................... 20
Figure 8. Relationship among the correlation functions and power spectra ..................... 22
Figure 9. Doppler spread/shift........................................................................................... 24
Figure 10. CDF of modelled I/C vs. measured I/C. ............................................................ 26
Figure 11. Channel model C: a) Impulse response, b) PDP................................................ 28
Figure 12. Channel model C: a) CDF, b) Spatial correlation of the firs six taps................ 29
Figure 13. Channel model C: a) Spatial correlation of the six middle taps, b) Spatial
correlation of the last two taps........................................................................................ 29
Figure 14. Channel model C: a) Doppler spectra of the first six taps, b) Doppler spectra of
the middle six taps .......................................................................................................... 30
Figure 15. Channel model C: Doppler spectra of the last two taps..................................... 30
Figure 16. Ptolemy example of C++ code........................................................................... 32
Figure 17. ADS with Matlab block ..................................................................................... 33
Figure 18. ADS with ReadFile block ............................................................................... 34
Figure 19. Channel model in ADS with channel matrix H and power delays .................... 35
Figure 20. Impulse response of covariance channel matrix H for channel model F........... 36
Figure 21. Impulse response and phase of one-ring model ................................................. 37
Figure 22. Spatial multiplexing for 2x2 MIMO system...................................................... 38
Figure 23. MIMO system without knowledge of the channel at the transmitter ................ 39

4



Tables
Terminology............................................................................................................................. 5
Table 1. Channel model parameters .................................................................................... 14
Table 2. Tap modulation of models D and E ...................................................................... 26
Table 3. Spatial correlation coefficients of model F and one-ring model........................... 37

5


Terminology
Terminology

Abbreviation Explanation
AAU Association of American Universities
AC Analog Converter
ADS Advance Design Systems. Simulation tool.
AoA Angle of Arrival
AoD Angle of Departure
AS Azimuth or Angular Spread
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise
BLAST Bell Labs Layered Space-Time architecture
BS Base Station
CDF Cumulative Distribution Function
Coherence
bandwidth
The range of frequencies within which the signal impairments
of the channel dont vary significantly
COST European Co-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical
research
CP Cyclic Prefix
C/N Carrier to Noise Ratio
Diversity gain Improvements in link reliability obtained by transmitting the
same data on independently fading branches
DS Delay Spectrum
Erf Error function
Fading Signal that experiences fluctuations in its amplitude and phase
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
HiperLan/2 High PERformance Local Area Network
HTSG Hattrick TeamSite Guide
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
i.i.d. Independent and identically distributed


6


Interleaving A form of data scrambling that spreads bursts of bit errors
evenly over the received data allowing efficient forward error
correction
ISI Inter Symbol Interference
IST Information Society Technology
I/C Interference to Carrier Ratio
LOS Line of Sight direct path between Tx and Rx without any
reflections, diffraction and local scattering
METRA Multi Element Transmit Receive Antennas
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output
ML Maximum Likelihood
MMSE Minimum Mean-Square Error
MS Mobile Station
NLOS Non Line of Sight reflected rays between Tx and Rx
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. Modulation
scheme which divides the available frequency band into
subcarriers (or tones) of smaller bandwidth and thereby
drastically simplifies equalization.
PAS Power Azimuth Spectrum
PDF Probability Density Function
PDS Power Delay Spectrum
PDP Power Delay Profile
P/S Parallel to Serial conversion
Rx Receiver
SISO Single Input Single Output
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio
STD Standard Deviation
S/P Serial to Parallel conversion
ULA Uniform Linear Arrays
Tx Transmitter
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
WSS Wide Sense Stationary



7


1 Introduction

Wireless channel modelling has always been the subject to active research, due to
continual advancements of wireless technologies. Over the past few decades, there
has been rapid development and deployment of cellular phone networks. Recently,
there has been development of the so-called wireless LAN technology, as specified in
HiperLan/2 for the European standard and IEEE 802.11 for the North American
standard. Many of the future wireless services to be provided by the future generation
mobile communication systems are likely to be used in low- mobility environments
with limited temporal or multipath diversity. This is the reason why most of the
communication research that is going on concentrates on realization of indoor
environments. This thesis follows that path of MIMO indoor realization.
The growing demand of increasing the capacity has pushed researches into
investigation of space domains, beamforming, use of space diversity/ smart
antennas and spectral multiplexing. For this reason conventional techniques with a
single antenna fails to provide sufficient diversity. Instead multiple antennas give
high-data rates and throughputs. Therefore the solution of using multiple antennas at
both transmitter and receiver in indoor environment is growing in radio
communication systems.

The concept of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system is its motivation to
achieve higher throughputs within a given bandwidth thanks to space diversity
schemes. Early theoretical work of a narrowband random MIMO channel was
reported by Telatar [1] and Foschini [2], where they used simple channel model
represented by matrix H with M transmit and N receive antennas.

1.1 Purpose

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate means of MIMO channel models, their
implementation in different environments and a comparison between the channel
models based on theoretical data against measured data.

Investigation of MIMO channel models should be compatible with the emerging
IEEE 802.11n standard. The implementation of the channel models should consider
three different environments, such as: Matlab, C++ and Advanced Design Systems
(ADS). A comparison should consider the channel models based on theoretical data
and parameter setup against the channel models based on the statistical characteristics
obtained from measured data.


8


1.2 Limitations

The emphasis of the thesis lies in MIMO channel model. However, transmission
scheme, detection algorithm and decoding method are shortly presented to get a better
overview of the overall channel and communication systems.

For the sake of simplicity, the channel models consider only the effect of local
scatters. The remote scatters are ignored assuming that the path loss will tend to limit
their contribution to the overall channel. In addition, because of local scatters
introduce multipath differences that are small compared to the transmit-receive range,
the focus is laid on microscopic (Rayleigh) fading only. This thesis is also limited to a
frequency-flat fading channel.

1.3 Assumptions

In this thesis, the classification is made between physically based and non-physically
based models, to easily distinguish between different channel models. Following
assumption is not general, the classification is only valid for this thesis work.
Assumption for the physically based models is that they rely on some physical
parameters and theoretical results. While non-physical models assume a MIMO
channel, which is described via statistical characteristics obtained from the measured
data.
Further, both physical model and non-physical models assume scatter assumption.
Narrowband assumption with both LOS and NLOS component is made for physical
models, while non-physical model assumes wideband NLOS Rayleigh fading channel.
Note this is not the case in general, this is only assumption made here.

1.4 Method

For the investigation of the MIMO channel models, the web research articles using
the Internet was a major source.
For the implementation of the MIMO channel models, three different tools were
considered, simulation tool and programmable language of Matlab 6.5, programmable
language C++ and simulation tool ADS. Programmable language C++ was used in
order to build the blocks in ADS.
For the comparison of the MIMO channel models based on the theoretical data and
measured data, the simulation tool Matlab 6.5 was used.

9


1.5 Outline

This diploma work is dividend into different sections. The included sections are
following:

Section 2 describes the background behind wireless LAN, IEEE standard and channel
classification. Short description of the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing) that is used in IEEE 802.11a, and its impact on the MIMO
communication channel development is included too.

Section 3 summarizes the theoretical work done on channel models during last couple
of years. It includes model parameters needed to achieve reasonable and good
channel. The channel models are divided into physical and non-physical models.
Section 3.9 presents simulated MIMO channel properties using Matlab program
written by Laurent Schumacher [3].

Section 4 contains several possible implementation methods and their
advantages/disadvantages.

Section 5 contains comparison results of measured and theoretical data for the
channel model F and one-ring model.

Section 6 contains second part of theoretical work applicable to steps before and after
channel modelling. That includes transmission scheme, detection algorithm, coding
and decoding method.

10


2 Background information

2.1 WLAN and OFDM

In the early days of wireless networks, there were not any standards. The products
from one vendor would not work with the products from another vendor. 1997 IEEE
802.11 established it self as the accepted standard for wireless LAN. Up till now the
standard have had a chance to evolve from 802.11b to 802.11a and recently 802.11g.
This thesis assumes use of IEEE 802.11a standard since it is accounted for 5 GHz
high-speed transmissions with OFDM modulation. 802.11a is used in indoor and short
outdoor environments, such as office buildings and campus environments. The
transmission range is around 15-150 m indoor and 300 m outdoor. IEEE 802.11a
achieves as high data rates as 54 Mbps.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the modulation scheme used
in IEEE 802.11a. OFDM avoids frequency selective fading by dividing up a wideband
channel into multiple narrowband flat fading parallel sub-channels. A subcarrier is
placed in each sub-channel where each subcarrier may be modulated separately
depending on SNR characteristics. Each subcarrier may be adapted through the time
in order to continually optimize the data-carrying capacity of the channel. This
increases the symbol duration and mitigates inter symbol interference (ISI) caused
due to multipath.

In WLAN systems, the signal energy is scattered and reflected from objects in the
environment, components of the signal arriving at the receiver are spread out over a
longer period of time than is desirable. This causes uneven delays in the signal arrival
time.
MIMO systems are designed in such a way to smooth out the delays and make the
signals to arrive in some form of pattern.
In the environment of the WLAN systems, there is always some interference of the
signals. The challenge of the MIMO systems is then to provide a high-performance,
reliable data link that can operate with restricted receiver power levels, severe channel
fading due to multipath reflections and interfering energy from other devices nearby.
In earlier works of communication systems this achievements have not been possible.
The single input single output (SISO) channels dose not provides such a data transfer
reliability. This is one of the reasons why the use of MIMO systems has increased so
rapidly in the recent years.



11


2.2 MIMO Channel Model Classification

MIMO channel describes the connection between the transmitter (Tx) and receiver
(Rx). In following, only 2 antennas at the Tx and 2 antennas at the Rx are considered,
i.e. 2x2 MIMO system.

Figure 1 illustrates a 2x2 MIMO system with the H channel matrix and the scattering
medium around (the graphical picture of scatters is depicted in Figure 3 of Section
3.1).









M-antennas N-antennas
Scattering medium

Figure 1. MIMO channel representation
where M=N=2 represents number of antennas at Tx and Rx, respectively.

For the above 2x2 MIMO channel, the input-output relationship can be expressed as
) ( ) ( * ) ( ) ( t n t s t H t y + = (1)

where s(t) is the transmitted signal, y(t) is the received signal, n(t) is additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN), H(t) is an N by M channel impulse response matrix and (*)
denotes convolution.

The thesis is restricted to the frequency flat fading channel, and therefore the
corresponding input output relationship simplifies to
n Hs y + = (2)

where H is the narrowband MIMO channel matrix.

The derivation of the H matrix is the emphasis of this thesis. The channel matrix H
fully describes the propagation channel between all transmit and receive antennas.
Before arriving to channel matrix H there has to be some additional properties
included, such as power delay, spatial correlation functions and impact of fading,
explained later on.

The MIMO channel without noise and with representation of the channel matrix H
can be expressed as:

=
=
L
l
l l
H H
1
) ( ) ( (3)
where L is the number of taps (time bins) of the channel model, ) ( H is the MxN
matrix of the channel impulse responses.
n
s

Tx
Processin
g
h
1,1
h
1,2

Rx
Processin
g
y
h
2,2

h
2,1
Channel
H

12


For a 2x2 MIMO system the channel matrix is


MxN
C H ) (
(

=
22 21
12 11
h h
h h
H (4)

MxN
MN
l
l
H ] [ = is a complex matrix which describes the linear transformation
between two considered antenna arrays at delay
l
and
l
MN
is the complex
transmission coefficient from antenna M at the transmitter to antenna N at the
receiver. The complex transmission coefficients are assumed to be zero mean
complex Gaussian and have the same average power
l
p . The coefficients are
independent from one time delay to another. The correlation between different pairs
of the complex transmission coefficients is presented in Section 3.5. For all models,
both physical and non-physical, the correlation coefficients are computed using
mathematical formulas from Appendix C.

The models presented in this diploma work are classified in different ways. But before
explaining model structure, the reader should have some knowledge of different
classifications in the area of channel modeling.
Wideband Models vs. Narrowband Models: the MIMO channel models can be divided
into the wideband models and the narrowband models directly by considering the
bandwidth of the system. The wideband models treat the propagation channel as
frequency selective, which means that different frequency subchannels have different
channel response. On the other hand, the narrowband models assume that the channel
has frequency non-selective fading and therefore the channel has the same response
over the entire system bandwidth.

Field Measurements vs. Scatter Models: to model the MIMO channel, one approach
is to measure the MIMO channel responses through field measurements. Some
important characteristics of the MIMO channel can be obtained by investigating the
recorded data and the MIMO channel model can be modelled to have similar
characteristics. Models based on MIMO channel measurements were reported in [4].
An alternative approach is to postulate a model (usually involving distributed scatters)
that attempts to capture the channel characteristics. Such a model can often illustrate
the essential characteristics of the MIMO channel as long as the constructed scattering
environment is reasonable. It is the environment of scatters that is in detail studied
here.

Non-physical Models vs. Physical Models: the MIMO channel models can be divided
into the non-physical and physical models. The non-physical models describe MIMO
channel via statistical characteristics obtained from the measured data. Another
category is the physical models that are based on parameter setup and theoretical
results. In general, these models choose some crucial physical parameters to describe
the MIMO propagation channels. Some typical parameters include Angel of Arrival
(AoA), Angle of Departure (AoD), carrier frequency, antenna spacing.




13


3 Theory, Part I

In this Section, the summary of literature study is presented. The theory behind the
MIMO channel models is needed to understand MIMO channel properties and Matlab
program [3]. The theory section is also needed to be able to implement MIMO
channel matrix H into ADS (see Section 4) and to be able to compare theoretical
results against measured and collected data (see Section 5).
3.1 Physical MIMO channel model

A primitive physical channel model is illustrated in Figure 2. A major characteristic
of this model is that it does not rely on a geometrical description of the environment
under study. It is described by power profiles, spatial correlation functions and fading
characteristics.



















Figure 2. Primitive channel model

The main input parameters required for the model are the shape of the power delay
spectrum, the fading characteristics and the spatial correlation functions at the
transmitter and receiver ends, explained further down in this section.

In order to capture path correlation, a general abstract scattering model is considered,
based on multi-cluster model. All the scatters are divided into groups, which are
called clusters of scatters. Each of the cluster corresponds to one multipath, see Figure
3. This model represents the physical model D which is further depicted in Figure 5 of
Section 3.4.

FIR filter
(L taps)

Fading characteristics
Spatial correlation
mapping matrix
Steering matrix
Power delay
profile

R
Rx
R
Tx
Radiation
Pattern
Tx
Rx
S/P P/S

14






















Figure 3. Scatter cluster example

In Figure 3, the scatters are represented with arrival times. It can be seen that the
scatters which are closer to Rx have faster arrival time compared to those that are
placed far away. This artefact of motion is further studied in Section 3.8 as Doppler
shift.

There has been a use of A-F models, presented in [5]. These models are representative
for small environments, such as residential homes and small offices, i.e. indoor
environments. Model F represents larger space either indoor or outdoor. Appendix A
lists the tables of all 6 models (A-F) with its model tap delays, corresponding power,
Azimuth Spread (AS), Angle of Arrival/Departure (AoA/AoD).

Table 1 summarizes the channel model parameters.


Model

Environment

LOS/NLOS

K (dB)

RMS delay
spread (ns)

Number
of
clusters
A Flat fading NLOS - 0 1 tap
B Residential LOS/NLOS 10
(first tap
only)
15 2
C Residential/
Small Office
LOS/NLOS 3
(first tap
only)
30 2
D Typical Office NLOS - 50 3
E Large Office NLOS - 100 4
F Large Space/
(Indoors and
Outdoors)
NLOS - 150 6
Table 1. Channel model parameters
LO
Cluster 2
Tx Antennas
Rx Antennas
Cluster 3
Cluster 1
Arrival Times
t

15


3.2 Non-physical MIMO channel model

A statistical model for wireless indoor MIMO channel is conducted at Victoria
University in Melbourne by Jason Gao and Michael Faulkner. The measured data is
characterised and presented as a non-physical model with scatter and wideband
assumptions considering NLOS Rayleigh fading channel.

The non-physical models provide accurate channel characterization for the
environments under study. On the other hand, they give limited insight to the
propagation characteristics of the MIMO channel and depend on the measurement
equipment, e.g. the bandwidth, the configuration and aperture of the arrays, the height
and response of transmit and receive antennas in the measurement.

In order to capture path correlation, a general abstract scattering model is assumed,
based on one-ring model. This model was first employed by [6]. It is an abstract
model, which is non-site-specific and mathematically derivable. Yet, it captures some
of the key aspects of the environment under investigation.



Figure 4. One-ring model

A circular disc (with radius R ) of uniformly distributed scatters S is placed around the
mobile unit. The channel parameter h_{NM } connecting transmit element M and
receive element N is geometrically constraint. The base station (BS) is assumed to be
elevated and therefore not obstructed by local scattering, while the mobile station
(MS) is surrounded by scatters. Figure 4 illustrates this scenario where Tx is antenna
element at the BS, Rx is the antenna element at the MS. D is the distance between the
BS and MS. R is the radius of the ring of scatters, is the AoA at the BS, is the AS
at BS. Denote the effective scatter on the ring by S() and let be the angle between
the scatter and the array at the MS. In the model, it is assumed that S() is uniformly
distributed over all angles and i.i.d. . It is further assumed that each ray is reflected
only once and that all rays reach the receiver array with the same power [6]. For this
reason, the channel coefficients are modelled by a zero mean complex Gaussian
random variable.

The path correlation between elements of transmit and receive antenna arrays is
considered and determined by antenna spacing, angle of departure/arrival
(AoD/AoA). When determining the delay power profile the Saleh-Valenzuelas model
[7] was considered, see Section 3.4. The Doppler effects are not considered. As such,
the model is applicable to situations where during data transmission, the transmission
channels can be assumed stationary in time domain. Appendix B lists one-ring model
BS MS


16


with 6 clusters and data of Azimuth Spread (AS) and Angle of Arrival/Departure
(AoA/AoD) as a uniform distribution over all angles.

Following sections characterize the properties of both physical and non-physical
models. Their mathematical derivation is the same, except that one-ring model does
not include Doppler effect.

3.3 MIMO Matrix Formulation

The MIMO channel matrix H for each tap, at one instance of time, in the A-F delay
profile models can be separated into a fixed (constant, LOS) matrix and a variable
Rayleigh matrix. For the case of the one-ring model there is only a part of the
Rayleigh matrix since LOS component is not included.

For 2 x 2 MIMO system, the channel matrix H [5] is:

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=
v F
H
K
H
K
K
P H
1
1
1

(5)
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
(
(

+
+
(
(
(
(

+
=
22 21
12 11
2
1
2
1
1
1
10
1
10
1
1
22 21
12 11
X X
X X
K
e e
e e
K
K
P
j j
j j




where X
NM
(N-th receiving and M-th transmitting antenna) are correlated zero-mean,
unit variance, complex Gaussian random variables as coefficients of the variable
(Rayleigh) matrix H
v
, exp(j
NM
) are the elements of fixed matrix H
F
, K is the Rician
K-factor, and P is the power of each tap.

To correlate the X
NM
elements of the matrix X [5], the Kronecker product of the
transmit and receive correlation matrices is preformed:

| | | | | | { }| |
iid Rx Tx
H R R X
2 / 1
= (6)

where R
Tx
and R
Rx
are the receive and transmit correlation matrices, respectively, and
H
iid
is a vector (only here, otherwise it is a matrix) of independent zero mean, unit
variance, complex Gaussian random variables, and
| | | |
| | | |
RxMN Rx
TxNM Tx
R
R

=
= (7)

where
TxNM
are the complex correlation coefficients between N-th and M-th
transmitting antennas, and
RxMN
are the complex correlation coefficients between M-
th and N-th receiving antennas. Section 3.5 describes in detail the relationship of
correlation coefficients.

17


3.4 Power Delay profile

When determining the power delay profile (PDP) the Saleh-Valenzuelas model was
used [7]. This model is based on indoor measurement results where it was found that
received signal rays (due to multipath) arrive in clusters.
The mathematical representation of the received signal amplitude
kl
is a Rayleigh-
distributed random variable with a mean-square value that obeys a double exponential
decay law




/ / 2 2
) 0 , 0 (
kl l
e e
T
kl

= (8)

where ) 0 , 0 (
2
represents the average power of the first arrival of the first cluster, T
l
represents the arrival time of the l
th
cluster, and
kl
is the arrival time of the k
th
arrival
within the l
th
cluster, relative to T
l
. The parameters and determine the inter-cluster
signal level rate of decay and the intra-cluster rate of decay, respectively. The rates of
the cluster and ray arrivals can be determined using exponential rate laws


) (
1
1
) | (

=
l l
T T
l l
e T T p (9)


) (
, 1
1
) | (

=
l l
T T
l k kl
e p

(10)

where is the cluster arrival rate and is the ray arrival rate.

Figure 5 shows Model D delay profile with clusters outlined by exponential decay
(straight line on a log-scale)., see Appendix A.





















Figure 5. Model D, Power Delay Profile
Source: V. Erceg, Indoor MIMO WLAN Channel Models, 2003.
-50 0 5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

0
5
1

1

2

2

3

Delay in nanosec.


dB
Cluster 1
Cluster 2
Cluster 3

18


3.5 Correlation functions and PAS distribution

A cross-correlation function between the waves impinging on two antenna elements
mostly depends on the Power Azimuth Spectrum (PAS), the antenna spacing and on
the radiation pattern of the antenna elements. In the following, MIMO channel model
is presented with the uniform linear array (ULA) and with the omni-directional
antenna elements.
The PAS distribution in physical models, consider three types of different
distributions, Uniform [7][8], Gaussian [7][8] and Laplacian [9], see Appendix C.
The non-physical model (one-ring model) is modelled using only Laplacian PAS
distribution.

For these three distributions, the envelope correlation coefficient is computed as a
function of the normalised distance, using the angel of incidence and the Azimuth
Spread (AS) as indexing variables. All three distributions consider multicluster
model. Which makes them valid to use for all models considered here. It is assumed
that the spatial correlation function at the Rx is independent of n. This is reasonable
assumption provided that all antennas at the Tx are closely co-located and have the
same radiation pattern, so they illuminate the same surrounding scatters and therefore
also generate the same PAS at the Rx, i.e. the same spatial correlation function.












Figure 6. Impinging waves from Tx to Rx

Using the notations of [9], with

d
standing for the normalised distance between
elements, where d is the element spacing and the wavelength, and D=2

d
, one can
easily derive the cross-correlation function between the real and imaginary parts of
the complex baseband signals received at two omni-directional antennas separated by
the distance d.

For ULA [7, 8] the complex correlation coefficient at the linear antenna array is
expressed as field
f
(D) and envelope
e
(D):

2
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( D jR D R D D
XY XX f e
+ = = (11)

where / 2 d D = , and R
XX
and R
XY
are the cross-correlation functions between the
real parts (equal to the cross-correlation function between the imaginary parts) and
between the real part and imaginary part, respectively, with

Dr = D sin
D = 2d/

s
s
Rx
Tx

19


d PAS D D
XX
R ) ( ) sin cos( ) ( (12)
and

d PAS D D
XY
R ) ( ) sin sin( ) ( (13)
The correlation properties of the fading, and the values of the symmetrical correlation
matrices R
Tx
and R
Rx
, are completely defined by the PAS and its standard deviation.
For the 2 x 2 MIMO channel, transmit and receive correlation matrices are expressed
as:

(

=
1
* 1
21
12
Tx
Tx
Tx
R


and
(

=
1
* 1
21
12
Rx
Rx
Rx
R


(14)

Further, the spatial correlation properties of a MIMO system uses Kronecker product
of the spatial correlation matrices R
Tx
and R
Rx
to define total correlation


1
) ( ) (
Rx Tx
H
R R H vec H vec R = = (15)

whose elements are correlation coefficients, where (.)
H
is the conjugate transpose and
the vec(.) operator rearranges the 2 x 2 matrix H into a column vector of size 4 x 1.
Such a model has been experimentally validated in [12].

Cluster and tap PAS shape follow Laplacian distribution [9].
The angle of arrival statistics within a cluster were found to closely match the
Laplacian distribution [13, 14, 15]

/ 2
2
1
) (

= e p (16)

where is the standard deviation of the PAS (which corresponds to the numerical
value of AS). The Laplacian distribution is shown in Figure 7 [14] (a typical
simulated distribution within a cluster, with AS = 30
o
).
1
The structure of the Kronecker product depends whether one wants to simulate a downlink
transmission (as presented here) or uplink
Tx Rx
R R R =

20


















Figure 7. Laplacian distribution with AS=30 [14]

The Laplacian function exhibits the sharp peak in the LOS direction and is confined
within [-180, 180].
For the case of the physical models, it was found in [13, 14] that the cluster mean
AoA and AoD have a random uniform distribution over all angles [0, 2]. Due to the
central limit theorem, when the number of scatters becomes large, the channel
coefficient of matrix H is Gaussian distributed.

For the case of the one-ring model, the references [9, 10] show that the AS increases
with decreasing distance between BS and MS, provided that this distance is still much
greater than the radius of the circle within the scatters surrounding the MS are placed,
and that the assumption of scatters distributed around BS holds. Consequently, for a
same element separation distance D, BS elements are less correlated than MS once as
they experience a greater AS [10]. On the other hand, it is shown in [9, 11] that the
height of the MS has also an influence on the AS, as the spreading increases with
decreasing antenna height.


3.6 Tap Time and Angle Dependence

The channel impulse response as a function of time and angle is a separable function,
h, [16, 17]

) ( ) ( ) , ( h t h t h = (17)

where t is time and is an angle.









21


3.7 Fading Multipath Channels

Multipath fading occurs when the transmitted signal reaches the receiver via multiple
paths with different delays and attenuation (or amplification).
Characteristics of a multipath medium is:
Time spread introduced in the signal that is transmitted through the channel, and
Time variations in the structure of the medium.

Multipath fading is broadly divided into two categories: large (or slow) and small (or
fast) scale fading. Large scale fading refers to mean path loss averaged over several
wavelengths, whereas small scale fading refers to dramatic changes in amplitude and
phase when the receiver moves by as little as half a wavelength.

There are several probability distributions that can be considered in attempting to
model the statistical characteristics of the fading channel. When there are a large
number of scatters in the channel that contribute to the signal at the receiver, as is the
case in B-F models and one-ring model, application of the central limit theorem leads
to a Gaussian process model for the channel impulse response. It is assumed that the
process is zero-mean, that gives, the envelope of the channel response at any time
instant has a Rayleigh probability distribution and the phase is uniformly distributed
in the interval (0, 2). That is

2
2
0
2
2
0
0
) (

r
e
r
r p

= for 0
0
r (25)

where r
0
is the magnitude of the multipath signal.
Rayleigh fading is considered a worst-case scenario of fading.

In the frequency domain, the reciprocal of the multipath spread is a measure of the
coherence bandwidth of the channel. It is the range of the frequencies within which
the signal impairments of the channel done not vary significantly, see Figure 8 c). In
other words, if two signals are sent that are more than f
d
apart form each other in
frequency, they will experience different channel conditions. Coherence bandwidth is
denoted as


m
d
T
f
1
(26)

where f
d
denotes coherence bandwidth and T
m
is delay-time of the multipath spread.
When a signal is transmitted through the channel, if f
d
is small in comparison to the
bandwidth of the transmitted signal, the channel is said to be frequency-selective. In
this case, the signal is severely distorted by the channel and wideband signal could see
a large variation in received power over its bandwidth. On the other hand, if f
d
is large
in comparison with the bandwidth of the transmitted signal, the channel is said to be
frequency-nonselective.


22


In the time domain, the time variations are evidenced as a Doppler broadening, further
explained in Section 3.8. A slow changing channel (slow fading) has large coherence
time T
d
or, equivalently, a small Doppler spread, see Figure 8 a). T
d
denotes the time
period over which the channels impulse response is highly correlated.


d
d
B
T
1
(27)
where B
d
is a Doppler spread of the channel.

Slow fading is desired fading since the channel conditions are stable and predictable
during the time that the symbol is transmitted. Counter to the slow fading there is fast
fading where fading conditions are coming and going faster than the symbols are
being transmitted.

The fading characteristics are defined by shaping a Doppler spectrum, correlation
functions and multipath intensity profile. Figure 8 below, illustrates relationship
between Doppler spectrum and its Spaced-time correlation function, Scattering
function of the channel and Multipath intensity profile. Scattering function in Figure 8
b) provides a measure of the average power output of the channel as a function of the
time delay and the Doppler frequency .



Figure 8. Relationship among the correlation functions and power spectra
Source: John G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 2001
Multipath intensity profile Doppler power spectrum
a) b) c)

23



For the physical models A-F following is valid: In order to avoid frequency selective
fading, the transmission rate is set to be less than the coherence bandwidth of the
channel. And in order to reduce the distortion caused by fast fading, it is important to
set the transmission rate to be more than the channel-fading rate.

The simulations results of the fading are only presented for the case of the frequency
non-selective and slow fading, see Section 3.9. In WLAN technology, the OFDM
modulation is used for IEEE 802.11a standard. OFDM avoids frequency selective
fading by breaking the carrier signal into subcarriers with lower bit rates and thereby
longer symbol duration. The simulation results are presented in Section 3.9.

24


3.8 Doppler Spectrum

Assumption in this thesis was made as; both transmitter and receiver are stationary.
Many may think that the impact of Doppler spectrum should not then have any impact
on the channel model. However there are many clusters and their scatter rays in the
channel. Their motion, reflection and diffraction give rise to the time variant nature of
the channel.

The expression of the Doppler spectrum has been derived by Clarke [18]. It is well
known that the Doppler spectrum lies within a [-f
D
, f
D
] bandwidth, where f
D
is the
maximal Doppler shift/spread, defined as

v
f
D
= (18)
where v stands for the velocity of the movement. (f
D
should not be confused with f
d

which is coherence bandwidth of the channel in frequency domain). Time variations
of the channel are evidenced as a Doppler shift of a spectral line. The metric used to
measure the impairment caused by the time variant nature of channel is how rapidly
the channel fades.

The main parameter of the Doppler spectrum is heavily depending on simulation
assumptions. On the other hand, in the physical models the shape of the Doppler
spectrum can be derived knowing the PAS and the radiation pattern of the receiving
antenna [19]. Then the classical U-shaped, see Figure 9 below, Clarkes Doppler
spectrum expression is:


2
1
1 ) (

(

|
|
.
|

\
|

D
f
f
f P (19)

This formula (19) applies to all physical models, A-E, as both communication ends
are surrounded by scatters.



Figure 9. Doppler spread/shift
Source: John G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 2001

The Doppler power spectrum is plotted above in the Figure 9 where
B D m
f f f = (f
D

Doppler spread and f
B
spectral broadening).


25


3.8.1 Power Delay Spectrum

The Power Delay Spectrum (PDS) has been widely studied as part of the time-domain
characterization of wireless radio channels. In accordance with [20], the PDS is
accurately modeled by a one-sided exponential decaying function

=

0
) (
D
t
e
t P

t>0 (20)

where
D
represents the delay spectrum (DS). Values of DS have been proposed for
the different environments [12]. For our models, the interesting value is for the indoor
environments, which value lies between 35-100ns [17].

3.8.2 Fluorescent Lights

Effects of fluorescent lights on signal fading characteristics for indoor channel were
presented in [21]. The presence of fluorescent lamps creates an environment where
reflections are being introduced, thus creating a fast changing electromagnetic
environment. This is an effect that can yield significant variations of received signal
power. This effect is included in physical models D and E by modulating several taps
in order to artificially introduce an AM modulation by

( ) { }
2
0
exp (4 (2 1) )
l m l
l
g t A j l f t
=
= + +

(21)
where

( ) g t The modulating function
l
A Relative harmonic amplitudes
m
f The main AC frequency
l
A series of i.i.d. phase RV's ~ [0, 2 ) U
t Time

The interferer to carrier energy ratio is selected using the following random variable:


2
I
X
C
= (22)

where

2
~ (0.0203,0.0107 ) X G (23)

In equation (23), the first figure is the mean of the Gaussian, and the second is the
variance (the standard deviation squared).
otherwise

26


Figure 10 shows the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the modelled I/C
(interference-to-carrier ration) in green, and the measured experimental results in
blue. This plot shows good agreement with the measured I/C.

Figure 10. CDF of modelled I/C vs. measured I/C.
Source: V. Erceg, Indoor MIMO WLAN Channel Models, 2003

For the models D and E, 3 taps are being modulated by the modulating function ( ) g t
in accordance with the drawn I/C. The time value of each one of these coefficients is
as follows:


'( ) ( )(1 ( )) c t c t g t = + (24)

where

( ) c t Original tap value
'( ) c t Modified tap value
( ) g t The modulating function
Normalization constant


The value of is determined such that the total modulation energy (modulation in
the modulated taps, compared to the entire channel response) matches the drawn
random I/C. The following taps are modulated

Model Cluster Tap numbers
D 2 2,4,6
E 1 3,5,7
Table 2. Tap modulation of models D and E




27


3.9 MIMO channel properties

In this section, MIMO channel properties (explained in Section 3.1-3.8) are
represented using the graphical plots of Matlab program distributed and written by L.
Schumacher (together with AAU-Csys, FUND-INFO, and project IST-2000-30148 I-
METRA) and is publicly available, see [3].
Before illustrating MIMO properties such as channel impulse response, power
profiles, correlation coefficient and Doppler spectra, the capacity equation for MIMO
channels is presented. Note that the simulation results only consider a physically
based channel model C. However, the simulation results of non-physical model are
presented and compared to the applicable physical model in Section 5.

3.9.1 Capacity

The capacity of a channel depends completely on the channel realization, noise, and
transmitted signal power. Capacity equation is [1] [2]:


(

+ = ) det( log
*
2
N
SNR
C
M EP
b/s/Hz (28)

where (*) means transpose-conjugate, H is the MxN channel matrix and I
M
is un
identity matrix. In the case of two transmitter antennas and two receiver antennas the
matrix of channel is 2x2 rank.
Capacity grows linearly with m=min (M,N) [12] rather than logarithmically as was
described by Foschini [2] and Telatar [1].

The capacity gain is highly dependent on the multipath richness in the radio channel,
since a fully correlated MIMO channel only offers one subchannel, while a
completely decorrelated channel offers multiple subchannels, depending on the
antenna configuration. In this thesis the physical models are assumed partially
correlated/decorrelated channels, since that is the case in practice.

It has been demonstrated that increasing the number of antennas in the both ends
results in a rapid increase in theoretical capacity [12].

28


3.9.2 Simulation results

In this section the simulation results of MIMO channel are presented. For the sake of
simplicity, only simulation graphs of the model case C is included. This simulation
results, of Matlab program [3], have been used to verify the implementation results in
Section 4.
There are 5 types of graphs included to illustrate characteristics of the MIMO
channel. The plots represent impulse response of the channel matrix H, Power Delay
profile (PDP) of the H channel matrix, CDF of the taps, spatial correlation functions
for number of paths and Doppler spectra. In the Section 5 this simulated
characteristics are compared to measured data conducted at Victoria University in
Melbourne, Australia. While here the comparison has been done to the literature
references, either the Rayleigh distribution (CDF) or the desired curve (PDP,
correlation and Doppler spectrum).
The following pages present the plots of 2x2 MIMO channel, model C, using the
Matlab program [3]. The carrier frequency used is 5.25 GHz (f
d
= 6 Hz) with one
wavelength (= 6 cm) spacing at the transmitter and half wavelength spacing at the
receiver. 16 384 blocks of 32 samples have been simulated at 0 speed (note:
Stationary Receiver), and a sample has been stored per block. Dashed red
curves/markers correspond to the reference values, whereas the blue curves/markers
are the outcome of the simulation. In the Doppler plot, the green curve represents the
Welch periodogram [22, p. 256].
The match between reference curves and simulation results using Matlab program [3]
is satisfactory. The achieved tap power distribution in Figure 11 b) fit the PDPs
defined as Rayleigh distribution in [23].
In Figure 12, the spatial correlation coefficient of the simulated impulse response
match the mathematical formulas presented in Section 3.5.
In Figure 13 and 14, the red vertical lines are drawn at
d
f . The upper blue line is set
at the maximum of Doppler spectrum, and lower blue line lies 10 dB below. Ideally,
the Doppler spectrum should meet the crossing of the red and blue lines. This would
be the case, if the jitter would be removed from the sampled spectra presented in [24].

















Figure 11. Channel model C: a) Impulse response, b) PDP

a) b)

29

























Figure 12. Channel model C: a) CDF, b) Spatial correlation of the firs six taps



























Figure 13. Channel model C: a) Spatial correlation of the six middle taps, b) Spatial
correlation of the last two taps


a) b)
a) b)

30


























Figure 14. Channel model C: a) Doppler spectra of the first six taps, b) Doppler spectra of the
middle six taps

























Figure 15. Channel model C: Doppler spectra of the last two taps
a) b)

31


4 Implementation results

In this section the implementation results of MIMO channel model are presented.
These results only consider implementation of physical models A-F.

4.1 Background

Seen from Acreos point of view, there are two possible implementation tools: Matlab
6.5 and Advanced Design Systems (ADS). Both have its advantages and
disadvantages.
It is obvious that the easiest method to implement the channel model is to use Matlab
6.5, since the program written by L. Schumacher [3], is for Matlab. However, all other
work done on algorithms, transmission schemes and detection methods here at Acreo
is done in ADS. So, for Acreo it would be best to even have the channel model
implemented in ADS. For this solution there are three alternatives. The first
alternative is to use a Matlab program written by L. Schumacher [3] and translate it
into the C++ programmable language. The second alternative is to implement a
Matlab block which links between Matlab 6.5 and ADS. The third alternative is to use
the Matlab 6.5 that generates channel matrix H and save it as an ASCII file. This
ASCII file can then be read from ADS and used as a covariance channel matrix H.

4.2 Translation of Matlab code into C++

Matlab 6.5 Converter was used to translate the whole Matlab program [3] written by
L. Schumacher, which consisted of approx. 20 files each 1-2 A4 pages long, into C++
code. The translation went without any problems since behind Matlab code lies a C
language. The Matlab converter even linked the files and their functions together. To
be able to use C++ in ADS, the requirement is to build a specific structure of C++ and
use a Make files during the compilation. ADS Ptolemy manual was used and the
structure of C++ got a new appearance, see Figure 16.
After modifying the C++ codes, it was realized that calling the functions and their
parameters is not as smooth as in Matlab. In the Matlab program there is a main
function, which calls other functions together with their multiple parameters of 2-D
and even 3-D matrices. This main function generates the 4-D channel matrix H that is
needed. However, to be able to generate the channel matrix H, the calculations of
fading matrices and spatial correlation needs to be done. The call of these could not
be done successfully in C++. This appeared to be very time consuming, instead some
other alternatives were studied, explained further down.






32





Ptolemy example of C++ code


defstar { // Body of the program
name {example_MIMO}
domain {SDF}
desc { MIMO channel models}
version {Source: Indoor MIMO WLAN channel model,
Date: 2003-09-19}
author {Aida Botonji}
location {MIMO}

inmulti { // Defines multiple inputs
name {Fading_Type}
type {string}
desc {indicats the nature of the Doppler}
}
output { // Defines output
name {H}
type {FLOAT_MATRIX}
desc {4-D matrix}
}
defstate { // Defines Parameters
name {ID}
type {enum}
default {"D"}
desc {IEEE 802.11 case to be simulated}
enumlist {A, B, C, D, E, F}

//////////Initialisation///////////////////////
setup { //Parameter conversion
} // end of setup

code {
//Initialisation of size variables
//Parameters assessment
//Large-scale fading
//Set-up of the iteration process
} //end of code

/////////Main loop//////////////////////////////
go { //Beginning of simulation
//Defines H channel matrix

}//end of go

////////End of simulation//////////////////////

wrapup {

} //end of wrapup


}//end of defstar

Figure 16. Ptolemy example of C++ code

33


4.3 ADS schematic with Matlab block

Following presents schematics from ADS for the second implementation alternative.
The implementation method described here is to link Matlab 6.5 together with ADS
using pre-defined ADS block. This means to have the Matlab program written by L.
Schumacher [3], as it is and use ADS block which links the Matlab 6.5 with the ADS
and generates desired channel matrix H, see Figure 17.
This implementation method had a big disadvantage. That is, the simulation took long
time, 30h. Even the generation of the matrices is not as smooth as in Matlab. In
comparison to Matlab where one could work with as big matrices as wonted, in ADS
this was not possible. ADS is limited to 3-D matrices. This means that generation of
the channel matrix H, which is of size 4-D, has been carried out with errors. The
schematics in Figure 17 generated H matrix without a imaginary part. This of course
does not give a right image of the channel matrix H which is a complex matrix.

Luckily an updated version of ADS is coming after New Years Eve 2003 and
improvements have been made on the simulation speed when using Matlab together
with ADS. Also, a generation of bigger matrices than 3-D is going to be possible. This
schematic was left as it was and some other alternatives were explored, described
further down.
Figure 17 depicts ADS schematic. In the schematic, the Matlab block opens,
internally from ADS, a Matlab program written by L. Schumacher [3], and performs
all calculations using Matlab. Then it generates a desired output, in this case channel
matrix H, to ADS. The complex channel matrix H is stored in a block called
NumericSink. This block can show only data on the screen or it can plot desired
form of graphs, such as linear, Smith-chart, and so on.
Each ADS schematic requires a controller called DF in to order perform
simulations. This block indicates the simulation setup. In reality this schematic
consists of 14 inputs. But here are only 4 input parameters illustrated, for the sake of
simplicity.

Figure 17. ADS with Matlab block

Matlab block
NumericSink
Controller
Input
parameters

34


4.4 ADS schematic with ReadFile block

Figure 18 depicts channel model implemented with delays and matrix H multiplied
together with incoming data, arbitrary bits. Before using this schematic the generation
of matrix H must be done in the Matlab 6.5 using the Matlab program written by L.
Schumacher [3]. The channel matrix H is then stored into the ASCII file. This ASCII
file is read from ADS using a ReadFile block. Channel matrix H is then multiplied
first with arbitrary bits and then with the power delay in order to separate data in time.



Figure 18. ADS with ReadFile block



Arbitrary bits
Delay Channel H
ReadFile

35


4.5 Channel model implemented in ADS

This section presents a channel model implemented in ADS.
Figure 19 illustrates the channel model with the channel matrix H and tap delays. This
model is based on the Jakes model from 1974 [6]. Here is matrix H multiplied with
tap delays explained in Section 3.4. The delay profile determines the frequency non-
selective nature of the channel. Delay profile is taken directly from the table in
Appendix A and varies from model to model. Other parameters such as impact of
fading, tap power, correlation and generation of actual channel matrix H is done by
the Matlab program written by L. Schumacher [3]. When using this model for
simulations in ADS, the user is required to use one of the above two alternatives to
get the channel matrix H for the desired channel model.
This schematic (together with the second alternative of the generation of the channel
matrix H in Section 4.4) was used to confirm if the implementation is successful or
not. The comparison between the graphs that ADS generated and those that Matlab
6.5 generated in Section 3.9.2 were identical. This means that the MIMO channel
implemented in ADS gives satisfactory properties comparing to the theoretical
presentation of MIMO channel in Section 3.1-3.8.

The number of delays depends on number of taps a channel model has. When
multiplication is performed, the channel is summed and used as an input to the
antenna array at the receiver.


Figure 19. Channel model in ADS with channel matrix H and power delays

Delays
Channel H
Arbitrary bits

36


5 Comparison results

In this section the comparison results between the measured data conducted at
Victoria University in Melbourne by Jason Gao and Michael Falukner and theoretical
data generated by the Matlab program written by L. Schumacher [3] are presented.
When investigating and comparing the physical models against one-ring model the
conclusion is drawn that the best suitable model for measured data is a case F model
since model F includes 6 clusters, same as for one-ring model.

The following graphs consider only one-ring model compared against the F model.
The MIMO channel impulse responses are generated using Matlab 6.5. The Fourier
transform is used to transform the simulated impulse responses into the frequency
domain, see Figure 20 and 21.

Figure 20 represents impulse response simulated for case F channel model. The
impulse response is an averaged sum for absolute magnitude of channel matrix H (10
-
3
= 40 dB).
Figure 21 illustrates impulse response for the one-ring model. The graph represents
impulse response that is accounted for hardware-induced errors, such as insertion loss
and leakage in the switches and cabling.

It can be seen that the magnitude for the one-ring model is much lower than for the
model F. This may be due to the interference of people moving around in the
corridors at the time when the data was collected. But also since impulse response for
model F is averaged over time while one-ring model is measured for a certain time
period.


Figure 20. Impulse response of covariance channel matrix H for channel model F
Impulse response of h
11
Impulse response of h
12
Impulse response of h
21
Impulse response of h
22

37




Figure 21. Impulse response and phase of one-ring model

It is known from theoretical study [25] that the lower the spatial correlation within the
indoor environment, the greater the achieved capacity. The spatial power correlation
coefficient for the one-ring is not treated at the BS since antennas separated with 1.5
is decorrelated. Model F assumes partly correlated Tx and Rx antennas because of 0.5
1 antenna separation. Antenna spacing on the order of 0.4 0.6 is adequate for
independent fading [26], see also Section 6.4.

Table 3 represents the spatial correlation coefficients for the channel model F and
one-ring model at the MS antennas. Numbers in brackets are theoretical results for the
channel model F while numbers without brackets are estimated correlation
coefficients for the one-ring model. It can be seen that deviation is marginal.

Cluster |R
12
|
2
|R
21
|
2

1 1.00 (1.00) 1.00 (1.00)
2 0.86 (0.82) 0.55 (0.54)
3 096 (0.97) 0.88 (0.90)
4 0.74 (0.78) 0.39 (0.45)
5 0.87 (0.90) 0.65 (0.69)
6 0.67 (0.68) 0.22 (0.25)
Table 3. Spatial correlation coefficients of model F and one-ring model

The Doppler power spectrum in the one-ring model is not included due to stationary
realization of MS and BS antennas. It follows that the comparison results does not
consider Doppler power spectrum.
The reader should notice that since the data presented here considers different
scenarios, the power correlation coefficients and impulse response vary. The data for
one-ring model is collected for smaller rooms and for a 12m long corridor. Model F
considers much bigger space than the space where one-ring model was measured.
There may be several reasons why the simulated and measured results do not match
perfectly: insufficient amount of statistics, Wide Sense Stationary (WSS) assumption
not 100% fulfilled, This needs further investigations.

38


6 Theory, Part II

This section presents the second part of literature study. It is explained how the
channel H is transmitted and received and how the algorithms for detection should
be developed.

Focus of MIMO systems is to combine the signals at the receiver in such a way that
the quality, bit error rate BER and data rate, is dramatically improved. To achieve
these improvements, both transmitter and receiver must be designed in a special way.
The transmission of the channel H at the transmitter and algorithms for detection and
decoding at the receiver are discussed in this section.

6.1 Spatial multiplexing scheme

The wireless channel constitutes a hostile propagation medium, which suffers from
fading (caused by destructive addition of multipath components) and interference
from other users. Diversity is a powerful technique to combat fading and interference.
Spatial diversity has become very popular in recent years since it can be provided
without loss in spectral efficiency, see section 6.4. Because of its popularity and
spectral efficiency, here is only transmission of spatial multiplexing considered.

Spatial multiplexing transmits independent parallel data streams through multiple
antennas at both transmitter and receiver, see Figure 22.












Figure 22. Spatial multiplexing for 2x2 MIMO system

In a spatial multiplexing system the data stream to be transmitted is demultiplexed
into lower rate streams which are then simultaneously sent from the transmitter
antennas after coding and modulation. As soon as signals leave antennas at the
transmitter they are mixed together in the wireless channel, since they use the same
frequency spectrum. Each receiver antenna observes a superposition of the
transmitted signals. The receiver then separates them into constituent data streams and
remultiplexes them to recover the original data steam. This occurs for 2x2 MIMO
system, as two unknowns are resolved from a linear system of two equations. Clearly,
the separation step determines the computational complexity of the receiver.
In the following, both transmitter and receiver architecture is discussed.


Tx1
Tx 2
Rx1
Rx2
Spatial
Demulti-
plexing
Spatial
Multi-
plexing

39


6.2 Transmitter

There are two alternatives for the transmitting channel. The first alternative is that the
transmitter has partial or full knowledge of the channel and uses this knowledge to
increase diversity gain. The second alternative is that the transmitter has no
knowledge of the channel and uses a coding technique to achieve diversity. In both
categories it is presumed that the receiver has knowledge of the channel in order to
separate data from the multiple spatial channels. This information is obtained by
sending training or pilot symbols to estimate the channel.

For the first alternative, the transmitter has to gain knowledge of the channel. There
are two possibilities, (1) knowledge of the channel at the receiver is turned around and
used at the transmitter (no feedback is necessary) or (2) knowledge of the channel at
the receiver is fed back to the transmitter using a handshaking protocol.

When the transmitter has no knowledge of the channel an algorithm should be
selected accordingly. A transmitter encodes the bits over space and frequency and
transmits these bits over multiple spatial channels. The receiver then separates the
symbols from the channel and decodes the bits, see Figure 23. In the following, it is
assumed that the transmitter has no knowledge of the channel since that is the usual
case.

Transmitter IFFT &
Add CP
802.11a Encoder Space- Modulation Spatial
& puncturing Frequency (BPSK, QPSK Mapping
Interleaver 16&64-QAM)
IFFT &
Add CP

Receiver OFDM-Modulator
FFT &
Remove
CP
Antenna Soft Space- Depuncture
selection V-BLAST decision Frequency &
FFT & Interleaver Decoder(V)
Remove
CP

OFDM-Demodulator

Figure 23. MIMO system without knowledge of the channel at the transmitter
Source: Intel Technology Journal, High-Throughput Wireless LAN Air Interface

Interleaving and coding at the transmitter can be used to reduce the carrier-to-noise
(C/N) ration requirement for accurate detection. Coding provides redundancy by
sending multiple copies of the signal on orthogonal symbol paths. Interleaving
provides robustness to the link by spreading errors out in time, avoiding large
amounts of contiguous data loss that would cut a wireless link.

As illustrated in Figure 23, assuming N subcarriers (or tones) the individual data
streams are passed through OFDM modulator, which performs an IFFT on blocks of
length N followed by a parallel to serial conversion. A cyclic prefix (CP) containing a

40


copy of the parallel to serial converted output of the N-point IFFT is then prepended.
The resulting OFDM symbols are launched simultaneously from the individual
transmitting antennas. The CP is essentially a guard interval which serves to eliminate
interference between OFDM symbols and turns linear convolution into circular
convolution such that the channel is diagonalized by the FFT. In the receiver the
individual signals are passed through OFDM demodulator which first discard the CP
and then perform an N-point FFT. The outputs of the OFDM demodulator are finally
separated and decoded.

Transmitting and receiving diversity are both similar and different in many ways.
While receiving diversity needs merely multiple antennas which fade independently,
and is independent of coding/modulation schemes, transmitting diversity needs
special modulation/coding schemes in order to be effective. Also, receive diversity
provides array gain, whereas transmitting diversity does not provide array gain when
the channel is unknown in the transmitter.

6.3 Receiver

In the following a detection and decoding algorithm at the receiver are presented. The
receiver components are illustrated in the above Figure 23.

Detection algorithm, so called V-BLAST, is most promising one to be used in future
realizations of MIMO systems. V-BLAST does not jointly decode all the transmit
signals, it first decodes the strongest signal then it subtracts this strongest signal
from the received signal, proceed to decode the strongest signal of the remaining
transmit signal, and so on. The optimum detection order in such a nulling and
constellation strategy is from the strongest to the weakest signal. Assuming that the
channel H is known, the main steps of the V-BLAST algorithm can be summarized as
follows:
Nulling: An estimate of the strongest transmit signal is obtained by nulling out
all the weaker transmit signals, say using zero forcing (ZF) criterion. ZF
basically inverts the channel transfer matrix H. Then the transmitted data
symbol vector s is obtained as r H s
1


= .
Slicing: The estimated signal is detected to obtain the data bits.
Cancellation: These data bits are remodulated and the channel is applied to
estimate its vector signal contribution at the receiver. The resulting vector is
then subtracted from the received signal vector and the algorithm returns to
the nulling step until all transmit signals are decoded.

For a more in depth treatment of the V-BLAST algorithm the interested reader is
referred to [27, 28].

The optimum decoding method is maximum likelihood (ML) where the decoder
compares all possible combinations of symbols which could have been transmitted
with what is observed.
The ML decoder yields the best performance in terms of error rate. However, this
decoder also has the highest computational complexity which moreover exhibits
exponential growth in the number of transmit antennas. For 2x2 MIMO system ML
decoder works very well.


41


Received signal is expressed as:
n s H r + = (29)

where s is a codeword expressed in vector form and n is a noise.

Optimum ML decoding rule is:

=
=
M
m
m m
s
s H r s
1
2

min arg (30)


where the minimization is performed over all possible codeword vectors s.
Note that if the size of the scalar constellation used is q (e.g. q=4 for QPSK), the
receiver has to perform an enumeration over a set of size q
M
(M is the number of
transmit antennas). For high order modulation such as 64-QAM this complexity can
become prohibitive even for a small number of transmit antennas. For example, for
64-QAM and M=3 the receiver has to enumerate over 262 144 different vectors on the
symbol rate.

6.4 Antenna selection

Diversity is a common technique to combat small scale fading caused by multipath
effect. Common forms of diversity are time diversity (due to Doppler spread),
frequency diversity (due to delay spread) and spatial (or antenna) diversity. Spatial
diversity involves placing two receive antennas at such a distance from each other that
it is statistically unlikely for both antennas to experience the identical channel
conditions from the transmitter. The objective is that when one antenna is in a deep
fade, the other antenna still has a strong signal.
Since the spatial diversity is used at both the receiver and the transmitter, antennas
should be spaced by more than one coherence distance apart. The coherence distance
is the minimum spatial separation of antennas for independent fading and depends on
the angular spread of the multipaths arriving at (or departing from) an antenna array.
For example, if the multipath signals arrive from all directions in the azimuth, antenna
spacing on the order of 0.4 0.6 is adequate for independent fading [26].

Impact of antenna selection at both transmitter and receiver is also essential in the
sense of correlation function. For increasing antenna spacing, it follows that
correlation function will decrease its spread.

The recommendation in choice of antenna direction is to choose omnidirectional
antennas at both transmitter and receiver.



42


7 Conclusion

This thesis investigates two types of channel models, physically based models and
non-physically based models. Six types (A-F) of physical models for different
scenarios are presented based on physical parameters using Matlab program written
by L. Schumacher [3]. One type of non-physical model, one-ring model, is presented
obtained from measured data conducted at Victoria University by Jason Gao and
Michael Falukner.

Conclusion of implementation of the physically based channel model is that the ADS
tool gives more variations than the Matlab 6.5 does. In ADS the channel can be much
easier integrated into the whole communication chain. Additional properties can be
integrated independently leaving user with the choice to affect or not to affect the
channel model and its characteristics.

Conclusion of the comparison between the physical model F and non-physical model
onering model is: both channels follow Rayleigh distribution very well and the
deviation in spatial correlation coefficients is marginal. The impulse response initiates
that the statistical data has lower magnitude than the case F model of channel matrix
H due to the fact that impulse response for model F is an average value while for one-
ring model it is measured under a certain period of time. The interference of people
walking in corridors/rooms causes also a visible interference in one-ring model.

Looking at the results of Uniform, Gaussian and Laplacian PAS one can notice that
correlation coefficient decreases with increasing angular spread (AS) and with
decreasing angle of incidence of the signals, from broadside to end [29].

The main motivation for using OFDM in a MIMO channel due to the fact that OFDM
modulation turns a frequency-selective MIMO channel into a set of parallel
frequency-flat MIMO channels. This significantly reduces receiver complexity in
wireless broadband systems.

In order to gain full advantage of spatial multiplexing the Signal to Noise Ration
(SNR) should be reasonably good.











43


8 Future work

The simulations of the fading, for the physical models, have been done for the case of
frequency non-selective and slow fading. There should be some simulations for
frequency selective and fast fading also to indicate upper and lower limits,
respectively, for signaling rate to avoid the worst fading effects.
The one-ring model, that was investigated here, postulate a scattering environment
and derive a MIMO channel mode involving scattering parameters. Still, an accurate
description of the cross correlation between pairs of channel coefficients is one of the
important modeling aims and should be further investigated and maybe corrected.
The non-physical MIMO channel model (one-ring model) assumes NLOS scenario.
However, in some circumstances, the LOS exists and therefore the model should even
reflect impact of LOS component.
Until now, no outdoor MIMO channel models have been reported based on the
MIMO channel measurements. The outdoor scenarios are very different from the
indoor scenarios. For instance, in the indoor scenarios, the Doppler shift is small
while the outdoor scenarios may have relatively large Doppler shift.



44


9 References

[1] E. Telatar, Capacity of multiantenna Gaussian channels, AT&T Bell Laboratories,
Tech. Memo., June 1995.
[2] G.J. Foschini and M.J. Gans, On limits of wireless communications in a fading
environment when using multiple antennas, Wireless Pers. Commun., vol. 6, pp. 331-
335, Mar.1998.
[3] L. Schumacher, WLAN MIMO Channel Matlab program, download information:
http://www.info.fundp.ac.be/~lsc/Research/IEEE_80211_HTSG_CMSC/distribution_te
rms.html
[4] H. Blcskei and A. J. Paulraj, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Wireless
Systems, chapter in "The Communications Handbook", 2nd edition, J. Gibson, ed.,
CRC Press, pp. 90.1 - 90.14, 2002.
[5] V. Erceg, Indoor MIMO WLAN Channel Models, IEEE 802.11-03/161r2, September
2003.
[6] W. C. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Communications, New York: Wiley, 1974.
[7] A. A. M. Saleh and R. A. Valenzuela, A statistical model for indoor multipath
propagation, IEEE J. Select. Areas Comm., vol.5, 1987, pp. 128-137.
[8] F. Adachi, M. Feeny, A. Williamson, and J. Parsons, Cross-Correlation between the
Envelopes of 900 MHz Signals Received at a Mobile Radio Station Site, IEEE
Proceedings Pt. F., vol. 133, pp. 506-512, Oct. 1986.
[9] J. Salz and J. Winters, Effect of Fading Correlation on Adaptive Arrays in Digital
Mobile Radio, IEEE Transaxtions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 43, pp. 1049-1057,
Nov. 1994.
[10] K. I. Pedersen, P. E. Mogensen, and B. H. Fleury, Spatial Channel Characteristics in
Outdoor Environments and their Impact on BS Antenna System Performance, in
Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference VTC 1998, Ottawa, Canada,
vol. 2, pp. 719-723, 1998.
[11] U. Martin, Spatio-Temporal Radio Channel Characteristics in Urban Macrocells,
IEEE Proceedings on Radar, Sonar and Navigation, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 42-49, Feb.
1998.
[12] M. Pettersen, P. H. Lehne, J. Noll, O. Rstbakken, E. Antonsen, R. Eckhoff,
Characterization of the Directional Wideband Radio Channel in Urban and Suburban
Areas, IEEE Proc. Vechicular Technology Conference VTC99 Fall, pp. 1454-1459,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 1999.
[13] L. Schumacher, J. P. Kermoal, F. Frederiksen, K. I. Pedersen, A. Algans, and P.
Mogensen, MIMO Channel Characterization, IST-1999-11729 METRA Deliverable
D2, February 2001. Available at http://www.ist-metra.org/deliverables
[14] Q. H. Spencer, et al., Modeling the statistical time and angle of arrival characteristics
of an indoor environment, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, March 2003,
pp. 347-360.
[15] R. J-M. Cramer, R. A. Scholz, and M. Z. Win, Evaluation of an ultra-wide-band
propagation channel, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 50, no. 5, May 2002, pp.
561-570.

[16] Chi-Chin Chong, David I. Laurenson and Stephen McLaughlin, Statistical
Characterization of the 5.2 GHz wideband directional indoor propagation channels

45


with clustering and correlation properties, in prog. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf., vol. 1,
Sept. 2002, pp. 629-633.
[17] A. S. Y. Poon and M. Ho, Indoor multiple antenna channel characterization from 2 to 8
GHz, submitted to ICC 2003 Conference.
[18] G. German, Q. Spencer, L. Swindlerhurst, and R. Valenzuela, Wireless indoor channel
modeling: Statistical agreement of ray tracing simulations and channel sounding
measurements, in proc. IEEE Axoustics, Speech, and Signal Proc. Conf., vol. 4, 2001,
pp. 2501-2504.
[19] R. H. Clarke, A Statistical Theory of Mobile Radio Reception, Bell Labs System
Technical Journal, vol. 47, pp. 957-1000, July- August 1968.
[20] P. Petrus, J. H. Reed, T. S. Rappaport, Effects of Directional Antennas at the Base
Station on the Doppler Spectrum, IEEE Communication Letters, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 40-
42, March 1997.
[21] Commission of the European Communities, Digital Land Mobile Radio
Communications CPST 207 Final Report, ECSC-EEC-EAEC, 1989.
[22] N. Tal, Time variable HT MIMO channel measurements, IEEE 802.11-03/r0, July
2003.
[23] M. Kunt, Traitement numrique des signaux, Presses Polytechniques Romandes, 1984.
[24] L. Schumacher, K. I. Pedersen, and P. E. Mogensen, From antenna spacings to
theoretical capacities guidelines for simulating MIMO systems, in Proc. PIMRC
conf., vol. 2, Sept. 2002, pp. 587-592.
[25] MIMO Rapporteur: 3GPP TSG R1-02-0181, MIMO discussion summary, Jan. 2002.
[26] K. Pedersen, J. B. Andersen, J. P. Kermoal, and P. Mogensen, A stochastic multiple-
input-multiple-output radio channel model for evaluation of space-time coding
algorithms, IEEE Vehicular Tech. Conf. VTC 2000, Sep 2000, vol. 2, pp. 893-897.
[27] H. Blcskei, Principles of MIMO-OFDM Wireless Systems, chapter in CRC Handbook
on Signal Processing for Communications, M. Ibnkahla, Ed., 2003.
[28] G. D. Golden, G. J. Foschini, R.A. Valenzuela, and P. W. Wolniansky, Detection
algorithm and initial laboratory results using the V-BLAST space-time communication
architecture, Electronics Letters, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 14-15, 1999.
[29] G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, R.A. Valenzuela, and P. W. Wolniansky, Simplified
processing for high spectral efficiency wireless communication employing multi-
antenna arrays, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1841-1852, 1999.
[30] J. Fuhl, A. F. Molisch, E. Bonek, Unified Channel Model for Mobile Radio Systems
with Smart Antennas, IEEE Proc. Radar, Sonar and Navigation, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 32-
41, February 1998.







46


10 Bibliography

Agilent Technologies, Agilent Ptolemy Simulation, Agilent Technologies, USA, May 2003.

Agilent Technologies, Users Guide, Agilent Technologies, USA, September 2002.

A. Hemani, Channel Estimation, Phase Tracking and Equalization Algorithm design report,
SocTRix WG3, 2003.

B. Bangerter, E. Jacobsen, M. Ho, A. Stephens, A. Maltsev, A. Rubtsov, and A. Sadri, High-
Throughput Wireless LAN Air Interface, Intel Technology Journal, vol. 07, August 2003.

B. OHara, A. Petrick, IEEE 802.11 Handbook: A Designers Companion, Standards Information
Network IEEE Press, New York, USA, 1999.

D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, D. Shiu, P. J. Smith, and A. Naguib, From Theory to Practice: An Overview of
MIMO Space-Time Coded Wireless Systems, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 21, no. 3,
April 2003.

H. Suzuki, A statistical model for urban radio propagation, IEEE Transaction on Communications,
vol. COM-25, no. 7, pp. 673-680, July 1977.

Jan Skansholm, C++ direct, Studentlitteratur, Sweden, 2000, 2
nd
edition.

John G. Proakis, Digital Communications, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, USA, 2001, 4
th
edition.

J. P. Kermoal, L. Schumacher, P. E. Mogensen, and K. I. Pedersen, Experimental Investigaion of
Correlation Properties of MIMO Radio Channels for Indoor Picocell Scenarios,

Kai Yu and Bjrn Ottersten, Models for MIMO Propagation Channels, A Review, Wiley Journal on
Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, KTH Stockholm, Sweden, IR-S3-SB-0223, 2002.

Q. Li, M. Ho, J. Lung, and D. Cheung, On the tap angular spread and Kronecker structure of the
WLAN channel model, IEEE 802.11-03/584r0, July 2003.

P.J. Smith, M. Shafi, Waterfilling methods for MIMO systems, in Proc. 3
rd
Australian Communication
Theory Workshop, Canberra, Australia, 2002, AusCTW 2002.

The Matlab
TM
curriculum series, The student edition of Matlab
TM
MS-DOS personal computers,
Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 1992.



47

Appendix A Physical models A-F
Model A


Tap
index
1

Excess
delay
[ns]
0

Power
[dB]
0
AoA
AoA
[]
45
AS
(receiver)
AS
[]
40
AoD
AoD
[]
45
AS
(transmitter)
AS
[]
40










48

Model B


Tap
index
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Excess
delay
[ns]
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Cluster 1
Power
[dB]
0 -5.4 -10.8 -16.2 -21.7
AoA
AoA
[]
4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3
AS
(receiver)
AS
[]
14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4
AoD
AoD
[]
225.1 225.1 225.1 225.1 225.1
AS
(transmitter)
AS
[]
14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4
Cluster 2
Power
[dB]
-3.2 -6.3 -9.4 -12.5 -15.6 -18.7 -21.8
AoA
AoA
[]
118.4 118.4 118.4 118.4 118.4 118.4 118.4
AS
AS
[]
25.2 25.2 25.2 25.2 25.2 25.2 25.2
AoD
AoD
[]
106.5 106.5 106.5 106.5 106.5 106.5 106.5
AS
AS
[]
25.4 25.4 25.4 25.4 25.4 25.4 25.4



49

Model C


Tap
index
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Excess
delay
[ns]
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 140 170 200
Cluster 1
Power
[dB]
0 -2.1 -4.3 -6.5 -8.6 -10.8 -13.0 -15.2 -17.3 -19.5
AoA

AoA
[]
290.3 290.3 290.3 290.3 290.3 290.3 290.3 290.3 290.3 290.3
AS
(receiver)
AS
[]
24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6
AoD
AoD
[]
13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5
AS
(transmitter)
AS
[]
24.7 24.7 24.7 24.7 24.7 24.7 24.7 24.7 24.7 24.7
Cluster 2
Power
[dB]
-5.0 -7.2 -9.3 -11.5 -13.7 -15.8 -18.0 -20.2
AoA
AoA
[]
332.3 332.3 332.3 332.3 332.3 332.3 332.3 332.3
AS
AS
[]
22.4 22.4 22.4 22.4 22.4 22.4 22.4 22.4
AoD
AoD
[]
56.4 56.4 56.4 56.4 56.4 56.4 56.4 56.4
AS
AS
[]
22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5




50

Model D


Tap
index
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Excess
delay
[ns]
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 140 170 200 240 290 340 390
Cluster 1
Power
[dB]
0 -0.9 -1.7 -2.6 -3.5 -4.3 -5.2 -6.1 -6.9 -7.8 -9.0 -11.1 -13.7 -16.3 -19.3 -23.2
AoA

AoA
[]
158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9
AS
(receiver)
AS
[]
27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.7
AoD
AoD
[]
332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1 332.1
AS
(transmitter)
AS
[]
27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4 27.4
Cluster 2
Power
[dB]
-6.6 -9.5 -12.1 -14.7 -17.4 -21.9 -25.5
AoA
AoA
[]
320.2 320.2 320.2 320.2 320.2 320.2 320.2
AS
AS
[]
31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4
AoD
AoD
[]
49.3 49.3 49.3 49.3 49.3 49.3 49.3
AS
AS
[]
32.1 32.1 32.1 32.1 32.1 32.1 32.1
Cluster 3
Power
[dB]
-18.8 -23.2 -25.2 -26.7
AoA
AoA
[]
276.1 276.1 276.1 276.1
AS
AS
[]
37.4 37.4 37.4 37.4
AoD
AoD
[]
275.9 275.9 275.9 275.9
AS
AS
[]
36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8

51

Model E (1/2)


Tap
index
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Excess
delay
[ns]
0 10 20 30 50 80 110 140 180 230 280 330 380 430 490 560 640 730
Cluster 1
Power
[dB]
-2.6 -3.0 -3.5 -3.9 -4.5 -5.6 -6.9 -8.2 -9.8 -11.7 -13.9 -16.1 -18.3 -20.5 -22.9
AoA

AoA
[]
163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7 163.7
AS
(receive)
AS
[]
35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8
AoD
AoD
[]
105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6
AS
(transmit)
AS
[]
36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.1
Cluster 2
Power
[dB]
-1.8 -3.2 -4.5 -5.8 -7.1 -9.9 -10.3 -14.3 -14.7 -18.7 -19.9 -22.4
AoA
AoA
[]
251.8 251.8 251.8 251.8 251.8 251.8 251.8 251.8 251.8 251.8 251.8 251.8
AS
AS
[]
41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6
AoD
AoD
[]
293.1 293.1 293.1 293.1 293.1 293.1 293.1 293.1 293.1 293.1 293.1 293.1
AS
AS
[]
42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5


52

Model E (2/2)

Cluster 3
Power
[dB]
-7.9 -9.6 -14.2 -13.8 -18.6 -18.1 -22.8
AoA
AoA
[]
80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0
AS
AS
[]
37.4 37.4 37.4 37.4 37.4 37.4 37.4
AoD
AoD
[]
61.9 61.9 61.9 61.9 61.9 61.9 61.9
AS
AS
[]
38.0 38.0 38.0 38.0 38.0 38.0 38.0
Cluster 4
Power
[dB]
-20.6 -20.5 -20.7 -24.6
AoA
AoA
[]
182.0 182.0 182.0 182.0
AS
AS
[]
40.3 40.3 40.3 40.3
AoD
AoD
[]
275.7 275.7 275.7 275.7
AS
AS
[]
38.7 38.7 38.7 38.7

53

Model F (1/2)


Tap
index
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Excess
delay
[ns]
0 10 20 30 50 80 110 140 180 230 280 330 400 490 600 730 880 1050
Cluster 1
Power
[dB]
-3.3 -3.6 -3.9 -4.2 -4.6 -5.3 -6.2 -7.1 -8.2 -9.5 -11.0 -12.5 -14.3 -16.7 -19.9
AoA
AoA
[]
315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1 315.1
AS
(receive)
AS
[]
48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0
AoD
AoD
[]
56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2
AS
(transmit)
AS
[]
41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6
Cluster 2
Power
[dB]
-1.8 -2.8 -3.5 -4.4 -5.3 -7.4 -7.0 -10.3 -10.4 -13.8 -15.7 -19.9
AoA
AoA
[]
180.4 180.4 180.4 180.4 180.4 180.4 180.4 180.4 180.4 180.4 180.4 180.4
AS
AS
[]
55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0
AoD
AoD
[]
183.7 183.7 183.7 183.7 183.7 183.7 183.7 183.7 183.7 183.7 183.7 183.7
AS
AS
[]
55.2 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.2
Cluster 3
Power
[dB]
-5.7 -6.7 -10.4 -9.6 -14.1 -12.7 -18.5
AoA
AoA
[]
74.7 74.7 74.7 74.7 74.7 74.7 74.7
AS
AS
[]
42.0 42.0 42.0 42.0 42.0 42.0 42.0
AoD
AoD
[]
153.0 153.0 153.0 153.0 153.0 153.0 153.0
AS
AS
[]
47.4 47.4 47.4 47.4 47.4 47.4 47.4


54

Model F (2/2)

Cluster 4
Power
[dB]
-8.8 -13.3 -18.7
AoA
AoA
[]
251.5 251.5 251.5
AS
AS
[]
28.6 28.6 28.6
AoD
AoD
[]
112.5 112.5 112.5
AS
AS
[]
27.2 27.2 27.2
Cluster 5
Power
[dB]
-12.9 -14.2
AoA
AoA
[]
68.5 68.5
AS
AS
[]
30.7 30.7
AoD
AoD
[]
291.0 291.0
AS
AS
[]
33.0 33.0
Cluster 6
Power
[dB]
-16.3 -21.2
AoA
AoA
[]
246.2 246.2
AS
AS
[]
38.2 38.2
AoD
AoD
[]
62.3 62.3
AS
AS
[]
38.0 38.0



55

Appendix B Non-physical model
One-ring model


Tap
index
n
Cluster 1
AoA
AoA
[]
44.89
AS
(receive)
AS
[]
0.82
AoD
AoD
[]
346.07
AS
(transmit)
AS
[]
26.42
Cluster 2
AoA
AoA
[]
61.14
AS
AS
[]
39.63
AoD
AoD
[]
289.25
AS
AS
[]
16.81
Cluster 3
AoA
AoA
[]
48.17
AS
AS
[]
9.13
AoD
AoD
[]
294.77
AS
AS
[]
15.01













Tap
index
n
Cluster 4
AoA
AoA
[]
45.51
AS
AS
[]
31.82
AoD
AoD
[]
314.90
AS
AS
[]
38.06
Cluster 5
AoA
AoA
[]
30.65
AS
AS
[]
14.22
AoD
AoD
[]
305.93
AS
AS
[]
0.21
Cluster 6
AoA
AoA
[]
27.15
AS
AS
[]
33.39
AoD
AoD
[]
302.40
AS
AS
[]
1.08

56


Appendix C Power distributions
Uniform PAS

Uniform PAS model is defined as:

=
)
`

+

=
c
N
k k k
k k
k U U
Q PAS
1 , 0
, 0
,
)] ( [
)] ( [
) (



where () is the step function and N
c
is the number of clusters.

The first step is to normalise the PAS such that it can be regarded as a probability distribution.
The constants Q
U,k
are derived such that PAS
U
() fulfils the requirements of a probability
distribution function:


=
+

= =
c
k mk
mk
N
k
k U U
d Q d PAS
1
,
0
0
1 ) (




where stands for the half-domain definition of the PAS (domain assumed symmetric).
Derivation of probability distribution leads then to

=
=
c
N
k
k k U
Q
1
,
1 2
The cross-correlation function for real-real and imaginary-imaginary parts are derived in the
same way:

] [ ] [ ) ( ) ( y y E x x E D R D R
YY XX
= = =

The cross-correlation function between the real-real part is:
) 2 sin( ) 2 cos(
2
) (
4 ) ( ) ( ) sin cos( ) (
1
, 0
2
1
, 0 , k
m
k
m
N
k
k U U XX
m m
m
D J
Q D J d PAS D D R
c

+ = =


= =


where J
m
is the Bessel function of the first kind and m
th
order.

The cross-correlation function between real-imaginary part is:

] [ ] [ ) ( ) ( x y E y x E D R D R
YX XY
= = =
] ) 1 2 sin[( ] ) 1 2 sin[(
1 2
) (
4 ) ( ) sin sin( ) (
0
, 0
) 1 2 (
1
, , k
m
k
m
N
k
k U U XY
m m
m
D J
Q d PAS D D R
c

+
+
= =


=
+
=


From these resolutions, both field
f
(D) and envelope
e
(D) correlation coefficient are defined
as:
2
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( D jR D R D D
XY XX f e
+ = =







57


Truncated Gaussian PAS

Truncated Gaussian PAS model is defined as:

)
`

+

=
c
k G
N
k k k
k k
k G
k G
G
e
Q
PAS
1 , 0
, 0
2
) (
,
,
)] ( [
)] ( [
2
) (
,
2
2
0






The normalisation constant Q
G,k
are derived such that
1
2
,
,
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
c
N
m k
k G
k G
erf Q




Using above definition of Truncated Gaussian PAS and normalisation condition the cross-
correlation functions are easily derived:

(
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|


|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =


= =
2
2
2
2
) 2 exp( ) 2 cos( ) ( ) ( ) (
,
,
,
,
2
,
2
1
, 0 2
1
, 0 ,
k G
k G
k
k G
k G
k
k G
m
k m
N
k
k G G XX
jm erf
jm erf
m m D J Q D J D R
c




(
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+


|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ =


=
+
=
)
2
1
( 2
2
)
2
1
( 2
2
)
2
1
( 2 exp ] ) 1 2 sin[( ) ( ) (
,
,
,
,
2
,
2
1
, 0 ) 1 2 (
1
, ,
m j erf
m j erf
m m D J Q D R
k G
k G
k
k G
k G
k
k G
m
k m
N
k
k G G XY
c























58


Truncated Laplacian PAS

Truncated Laplacian PAS model is defined as:

)
`

+

=
c
k L
N
k k k
k k
k
k L
k L
L
e
Q
PAS
1 , 0
, 0
, 2
,
,
)] ( [
)] ( [
2
) (
,
2
0






The normalisation condition is given by
1
2
exp 1
,
,
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
c
N
m k k L
k
k L
Q




The cross-correlation function is then given by:
(
(
(
(
(


|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =


= =
) 2 cos(
2
) 2 sin( 2
2
exp
2
) 2 cos(
) 2 (
2
) (
2
4 ) ( ) (
,
, ,
1
, 0
2
2
,
2
1
,
,
0 ,
k
k L
k
k L
k
k L
m
k
k L
m
N
k
k L
k L
L XX
m m m
m
m
D J
Q
D J D R
c


| |
| | | |
(
(
(
(
(

+ + + +
|
|
.
|

\
|


+
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=


=
+
=
k
k L
k
k L
k
k L
m
k
k L
m
N
k
k L
k L
L XY
m m m
m
m
D J Q
D R
c

) 1 2 ( cos
2
) 1 2 ( sin ) 1 2 (
2
exp
2
) 1 2 ( sin
) 1 2 (
2
) (
2
4 ) (
,
, ,
0
, 0
2
2
,
) 1 2 (
1
,
,
,