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33 Ansichten90 SeitenUMTS Transmit Diversity

Jan 31, 2013

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UMTS Transmit Diversity

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33 Ansichten90 SeitenUMTS Transmit Diversity

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 90

for UMTS FDD

ausgefuhrt am

Institut fur Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik

der Technischen Universitat Wien

von

Johannes Platz

Betreuer:

Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Baumgartner

O.Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Ernst Bonek

Zusammenfassung

Der Bedarf an neuen Mobilkommunkationssystemen ergibt sich in erster Linie durch den

enormen Zuwachs an Teilnehmern. Zusatzlich werden diese Systeme eine Vielzahl neuer

Dienste einschlielich drahtlosem Internet Zugang, hochdatenratiger mobiler Datendienste und anderer Multimedia-Anwendungen ermoglichen. Der Teilnehmerzuwachs sowie

die erwahnten Dienste begrunden den Bedarf an erhohter Systemkapazitat zukunftige

Mobilkommunkationssysteme.

Diese Diplomarbeit beschaftigt sich mit Sendediversitatsmethoden die zur Kapazitatserhohung in der Abwartsstrecke eingesetzt werden. Das Prinzip der Sendediversitat besteht darin, dass die gleiche Information von zwei Antennen an der Basisstation zum

Teilnehmer gesendet wird. Falls die Signale der beiden Sendeantennen unabhangig voneinander gestort werden, wird Diversitat am Empfanger erzielt. Ist dies der Fall, so kann

das Verhaltnis zwischen Nutzsignal und Rauschen inklusive Storungen anderer Basisstationen verbessert werden. Das fuhrt wiederum dazu, dass fur die gleiche Signalqualitat

am Empfanger, weniger Sendeleistung erforderlich ist.

Meine Untersuchungen konzentrieren sich auf zwei im UMTS Standard spezizierte Diversitatsmethoden, welche zusatzlich die Ruckmeldung der Information uber den Zustand

des Mobilfunkkanals vom Mobilgerat an die Basisstation vorsehen. In der Basisstation

wird dieses Wissen verwendet, um so zu senden, dass sich die Signale beider Sendeantennen am Mobilgerat konstruktiv uberlagern. Zur Untersuchung der Leistungsfahigkeit der

beiden Methoden, wurde ein Simulations-Tool entwickelt, welches auf den Spezikationen

des europaischen UMTS Standards basiert. Es wird die Anwendung der Sendediversitatstechniken in verschiedenen Szenarien untersucht und ihre Leistungsfahigkeit verglichen.

Die Simulationsergebnisse zeigen eine starke Abhangigkeit der Leistung beider Diversitatsmethoden von der Geschwindigkeit des Mobilgerates sowie von Ruckmeldefehlern.

Mode 1 erzielt fur hohere Geschwindigkeiten bessere Ergebnisse als Mode 2, hingegen

liefert Mode 2 fur geringe Geschwindigkeiten hoheren Gewinn. Mithilfe der Simulationsergebnisse wurde der Schnittpunkt bei einer Geschwindigkeit von v = 21 km/h ermittelt.

Der Ein
u der Ruckmeldefehler kann mit 0.2 dB pro 1% Ruckmeldefehler fur beide Modi angegeben werden. Des weiteren wurde die Anwendung der Diversitatstechniken in

Umgebungen mit verschiedener Anzahl von Ausbreitungspfaden sowie unterschiedlicher

Korrelation zwischen den Funkkanalen untersucht.

II

Abstract

The requirements for the next generation of mobile communication systems are primarily

driven by the explosive growth of worldwide mobile communication subscribers. Additionally, 3G systems will allow various of new services including wireless Internet access,

high-speed mobile data services and other multimedia applications. The expected growth

of subscribers and the provided services indicate the need for increased system capacity

of the future mobile communication systems.

This thesis deals with Transmit Diversity techniques used for capacity enhancement in the

downlink. The principle of Transmit Diversity is to send the same information with two

antennas at the base station. If the signals from the dierent antennas fade independently,

diversity at the receiver is achieved. Therefore, the ratio between the desired signal and

the noise plus interference form other base stations can be enhanced. This means that

there is less transmission power required to meet the same signal quality as in the single

antenna case.

The investigations within the scope of this work focus on two close loop Transmit Diversity concepts specied in the UMTS standard. They additionally provide a feedback of

the downlink channel state information from the hand-set to the base station. This information is used for the downlink transmission to achieve coherently combined signals at

the mobile's receive antenna. The performance of these methods is compared by means of

link level simulations. The implemented simulation tool is based on the European UMTS

specications. I consider the application of the closed loop Transmit Diversity techniques

in dierent scenarios. Their performance is evaluated by the calculation of the Bit Error

Rate (BER) at the receiver dependent on the ratio between the received energy per bit

and the power spectral density of the received noise plus interference from other base

stations, Eb =N .

My simulation results show a strong dependency of both closed loop Transmit Diversity

modes on the velocity of the mobile station and the number of errors during the feedback

of the channel state information. Closed loop mode 1 performs better for higher velocities

while mode 2 shows a higher gain for low speeds. I found the crossing between mode 1 and

2 at a speed of v = 21 km/h. The investigations of the in
uence of feedback errors showed

a reduction in performance of 0.2 dB per 1% feedback error for both modes. Furthermore,

I considered the application of the closed loop modes in dierent multipath environments

and for correlated fading channels.

0

III

Acknowledgment

Prof. Ernst Bonek inspired me to enhance my knowledge in the interesting eld of mobile

communications. I would like to express my appreciation for his help and that he enabled

me to write my diploma thesis at The Institute of Communications and Radio-Frequency

Engineering.

Thomas Baumgartner, thank you for your encouragement and for all the time-consuming

discussions we had. They contributed enormously to the quality of my work. Thank you

for your eort while proof-reading my thesis.

Special thanks to Thomas Neubauer who had raised the issue of my work, Werner

Weichselberger for helpful suggestions, Klaus Kopsa for providing me with a framework

of simulation tools and Katharina Saminger for creative support in the English language

and for the erasing of innumerably many commas.

A big Thank You to my parents who enabled my studies. Together with my sister Petra

they have helped me whenever they could.

Susi, I thank you for your patience and understanding especially in the nal countdown

of my thesis.

IV

Contents

1 Introduction

2 UMTS Overview

2.2 Radio Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.1 Multiple Access . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3 Physical Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.1 Physical Channels . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.2 Downlink Spreading and Modulation

3 Downlink Capacity

3.1.1 Wave Propagation . . .

3.1.2 Interference . . . . . . .

3.1.3 Code Orthogonality . . .

3.2 Capacity Improvement . . . . .

3.2.1 Downlink Power Control

3.2.2 Diversity Combining . .

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3

6

7

8

8

11

15

15

15

19

20

21

22

22

27

4.2 Closed Loop Transmit Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

V

VI

CONTENTS

4.2.3 Closed Loop Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2.4 Closed Loop Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3 Concepts with more than two Transmit Antennas . . . . . . . .

4.3.1 Nokia's Proposal for more Tx Antennas . . . . . . . . .

4.3.2 Eigenbeamformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 Simulation Environment

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . .

5.2 Description of the Simulator .

5.2.1 General System Model

5.2.2 Signal Model . . . . .

5.2.3 Transmitter . . . . . .

5.2.4 Channel Model . . . .

5.2.5 Receiver . . . . . . . .

5.3 Simulation Parameters . . . .

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6 Simulation Results

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

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Multipath Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fast Changing Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Correlated Propagation Channels . . . . . . . . . .

6.4.1 Generation of Correlated Channels . . . . .

6.4.2 Simulation Results for Correlated Channels

6.5 Feedback Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5.1 Mode 1 and Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.5.2 Mode 1 with Antenna Verication . . . . . .

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31

34

37

39

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53

54

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59

61

62

63

66

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68

70

73

B Abbreviations

75

List of Figures

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

Protocol architecture around the physical layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Time, frequency, and code allocation in WCDMA FDD . . . . . . . . . . .

Downlink DPCH frame structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CPICH symbol sequences for antenna 1 and 2 in case of Transmit Diversity

Uplink DPCCH frame structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Downlink spreading and modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Code tree for OVSF channelization codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Generation of Gold sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

6

7

8

10

11

11

12

13

3.2 Log-normal distribution of the local mean amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

3.3 Block Diagram of a CDMA Rake receiver with MRC . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

Format of feedback signalling message (FSM) . . . . . .

Time relation between feedback signalling and weighting

Constellation rotation at UE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Possible values of w for closed loop mode 1 . . . . . . .

Possible values of w for closed loop mode 2 . . . . . . .

General structure of the eigenbeamformer at the UE . . .

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41

5.2 Classical Doppler Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

VII

VIII

LIST OF FIGURES

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9

6.10

6.11

6.12

6.13

6.14

Maximum Transmit Diversity gain in a multipath fading channel .

Mode 1 in dierent multipath environments . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mode 2 in dierent multipath environments . . . . . . . . . . . .

Required Eb=N in dierent multipath environments . . . . . . . .

Mode 1 for dierent velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mode 2 for dierent velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Required SNR for dierent velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mode 1 in correlated fading channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mode 2 in correlated fading channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Required Eb=N for dierent channel correlations . . . . . . . . .

Mode 1 and 2 with feedback (FB) errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Required Eb=N for dierent feedback error probabilities . . . . .

Required Eb=N of mode 1 with Antenna Verication (AV) . . . .

0

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54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

63

64

65

66

67

69

A.1 Block Error Rate (BLER) versus Bit Error Rate (BER) . . . . . . . . . . . 74

List of Tables

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

Mapping between FSM and phase adjustment i at UTRAN . . .

Mapping between phase subeld and phase of w . . . . . . . . .

Mapping between amplitude subeld and squared amplitudes of w

Progressive renement at UE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Closed loop mode 2 initialization at UTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

.....

.....

.....

and w

.....

.....

2

30

36

37

37

38

39

5.2 Variable Simulation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

Transmit Diversity gain for dierent mobile station velocities . .

Transmit Diversity gain for dierent correlated channels . . . .

Transmit Diversity gain for dierent feedback error probabilities

Gain of mode 1 with AV over mode 1 without AV . . . . . . . .

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58

61

64

67

69

A.1 Parameters for the simulation of the relation between BLER and BER . . 73

IX

Chapter 1

Introduction

The world's rst third-generation mobile communication system has already launched in

Japan and Europe is brie
y before the operational start-up. In contrast to the operating

second generation systems, the new generation of mobile communication systems provides

more
exible communication capabilities. They allow users new ways to communicate, to

access information, to conduct business, to learn and to be entertained. Mobile communication systems are now focussing on data transmission. Additionally to the conventional

person-to-person communication which is characterized as symmetric trac, third generation (3G) systems enable services like information download applications with a high

degree of asymmetric trac characteristics. In order to realize these services, 3G systems

have to provide higher data rates together with high spectral eciency.

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems) is one of the major 3G systems.

The European standard for UMTS is based on an advanced GSM core network. It makes

use of a Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology for the air interface with two

dierent duplex schemes: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex

(TDD). After the start-up phase the goal of UMTS is to oer data rates up to 144 kbit/s

in a high-speed moving environment, 384 kbit/s in a low-speed moving environment, and

2 Mbit/s for static applications.

Considering the rapid growth of mobile subscribers in recent years together with the requirements for high data rate services the overall system capacity becomes one of the

most important factors in the design of 3G systems. Therefore techniques are required

which increase the capacity for both the transmission from the base station to the mobile

station as well as the transmission from the mobile station to the base station. Several techniques which provide good performance can be implemented at the base station

where computational power and space requirements are no limiting factors. This is quite

dierent for mobile terminals which should be as small as possible by size and by weight.

Furthermore, the power supply of mobile terminals should be sustained as long as possible. Due to these reasons it is dicult to adopt methods applied at the base station for

the mobile terminals. The goal is to transfer the complexity from the mobiles to the base

1

CHAPTER 1.

INTRODUCTION

station. This is realized by Transmit Diversity concepts, the topic of this thesis. In the

sequel the structure of this work is presented by a short description of each chapter.

main parts of the UMTS system architecture are summarized in the beginning.

Furthermore, I present the structure of the radio interface and the multiple access

method used in UMTS. The main part of this chapter is dedicated to the physical

layer of the radio interface protocol since the implementation of the simulation environment for this thesis is based on it. It is shown how data and control information

are combined and how they are transmitted over the air interface.

Chapter 3 | Downlink Capacity: Eects in
uencing the achievable capacity in the

downlink and how they could be combat are covered in this chapter. In the rst

part I describe general problems occurring during the transmission over the radio

propagation channel. This is followed by diculties concerning the UMTS downlink.

The second part of this chapter shows factors the system capacity depends on and

covers solutions for its increase.

Chapter 4 | Transmit Diversity: This chapter explains the idea of Transmit Diversity and the reasons why it is interesting for implementation in next generation

mobile communication systems. A description of dierent Transmit Diversity techniques is given followed by a detailed discussion of the closed loop concepts specied

in the UMTS standard. At the end of this chapter two methods for the use of more

than two transmission antennas are summarized.

Chapter 5 | Simulation Environment: A detailed description of the simulation environment and what is done during the run of the simulation procedure is provided

here. I introduce the structure of the simulation model and the underlying assumptions. Furthermore, I explain how the dierent parts of the model are implemented

and specify the parameters used in the simulations.

Chapter 6 | Simulation Results: In this chapter I present the results of my thesis.

First, the ideal case for Transmit Diversity is considered to nd the maximum

achievable gain. This is followed by the application of the proposed closed loop

Transmit Diversity concepts in dierent situations. I studied the performance in

certain scenarios covering multipath environments, user velocity, correlated fading

channels and errors in the feedback of the channel state information.

Chapter 7 | Summary and Conclusions: I nish my work with a summary of the

main results together with conclusions concerning the application of closed loop

Transmit Diversity.

Chapter 2

UMTS Overview

The Universal Mobile Telecommunications system (UMTS) is a part of the IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telephony 2000) framework dened by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). It is currently standardized by the Third Generation Partnership

Project (3GPP) a collaboration of standardization bodies from Europe, Japan, Korea,

the USA and China together with organizations called Market Representation Partners .

The 3GPP standardization procedure is organized in releases which consist of complete

sets of specications. This thesis refers to the 3GPP Release 1999 which is the basis for

following sections.

The structure of this chapter is organized as follows: The UMTS architecture with its

main elements and interfaces is summarized in the rst section. I continue with a more

precisely description of the radio interface, since my work concentrates on concepts to

overcome signal degradation during propagation. The radio interface is composed of

three layers. Layer 1, the physical layer, includes spreading, modulation, user data and

signalling transmission. The main procedures and parts of the physical layer which aect

my simulation environment are presented in detail in the third section.

1

2.1

System Architecture

Figure 2.1 shows the UMTS system architecture described in [1, 2]. Functionally it consists

of three blocks: The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) that handles all

radio-related functions, the Core Network (CN), which is responsible for switching and

routing connections to external networks, and the User Equipment (UE). Each of these

blocks consists of a number of network elements linked by open interfaces:

The UE is a device allowing users access to network services over the radio interface. It

can be divided into:

1 www.3gpp.org

CHAPTER 2.

UMTS OVERVIEW

GMSC

Iub

Iu

MSC

circuit

switched

RNC

Node B

HLR

Node B

Iur

VLR

packet

switched

Uu

RNC

GGSN

Core Network

Node B

UE

SGSN

External Networks

UTRAN

UE

UTRAN

Node B

RNC

Uu/Iu/Iur/Iub

.....

.....

.....

.....

.....

User Equipment

UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

UMTS Base Station

Radio Network

Interfaces

MSC

VLR

HLR

SGSN

GGSN

GMSC

.....

.....

.....

.....

.....

.....

Visitor Location Register

Home Location Register

Serving GPRS Support Node

Gateway GSN

Gateway MSC

The Mobile Equipment (ME) which is the terminal used for radio communica-

The UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) which is a smart card that

holds the subscribers identity and performs a number of security functions.

The UTRAN includes two distinct elements:

The Node B logically corresponds to a GSM Base Station. It performs the

air interface processing, i.e. channel coding and interleaving, rate adaption,

spreading, etc. at the Physical Layer.

The Radio Network Controller (RNC) owns and controls the radio resources

of the Node Bs to which it is connected. The RNC is the service access point

for all the services that the UTRAN provides to the core network.

The UMTS CN covers following main elements:

The Home Location Register (HLR) is a database located at the user's home

network for user identication and storage of user data related to features

and services. It contains the master copy of the user's service prole which

CHAPTER 2.

UMTS OVERVIEW

UE location.

The Mobile Switching Center/Visitor Location Register is the switch (MSC)

and the database (VLR) that serves the UE in its current location for Circuit

Switched (CS) services. The MSC function is used to switch the CS transactions and the VLR function holds a copy of the visiting user's service prole,

as well as more precise information on the UE's location within the serving

system. The part of the network that is accessed via the MSC is often referred

to as the CS domain.

The Gateway MSC (GMSC) connects the circuit switched domain of UMTS

with external circuit switched networks, e.g. Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN).

The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) functionality is similar to that of

MSC but is used for Packet Switched (PS) services. The part of the network

that is accessed via the SGSN is often referred to as the PS domain.

The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) functionality is close to that of

GMSC but is in relation to PS services. It is the connection of the UMTS

PLMN to PS networks, e.g. Internet.

Interfaces: The UMTS standards are structured in such a way that internal functionality

of the network's elements is not specied in detail. Instead, the interfaces between

the network elements have been dened. The following main open interfaces are

specied:

The Cu interface is the electrical interface between the USIM smart card and

the ME. The interface follows a standard format for smart cards.

The Uu interface is the radio interface through which the UE accesses the xed

part of the system.

The Iu interface connects the UTRAN to the CN and divides the system into

radio-specic parts (UTRAN) on the one side and switching, routing and service control on the other side (CN). It can have two dierent instances which

are Iu CS for connecting UTRAN to the CS domain and Iu PS for connecting

UTRAN to the PS domain.

The Iur interface allows soft handover between RNCs from dierent manufacturers. Soft handover between two RNCs means that the mobile is served by

two base stations which are connected to two dierent RNCs.

The Iub interface connects the Node Bs with the RNCs.

2

2 General

handover denotes typically a situation where a mobile communicates with two base stations

simultaneously. This takes place in the overlapping coverage areas of two sectors belonging to dierent

base stations.

3 Soft

CHAPTER 2.

2.2

UMTS OVERVIEW

Radio Interface

The UE communicates with the network via the radio interface. The specication of

the radio interface covers the three lowest layers of the OSI reference model, denoted as

physical layer (Layer 1, L1), data link layer (Layer 2, L2, and network layer (Layer 3,

L3), see Figure 2.2. The physical layer is directly connected to the Medium Access

Control (MAC) sublayer of Layer 2 and the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Layer of

Layer 3. The physical layer oers services to the MAC layer via transport channels.

They are characterized by how the information is transferred over the radio interface.

The MAC layer oers services to the Radio Link Control (RLC) sublayer (not shown in

the gure) of Layer 2 by means of logical channels. Logical channels are characterized

by the type of information that is transmitted. The RRC layer oers services to higher

layers. The control interfaces between the RRC layer and all lower layers are used to

congure characteristics of the lower layer protocol entities, including parameters for the

physical, transport and logical channels. Additionally the control links are used by the

RRC layer to command measurements to the lower layers and by the lower layers to report

measurement results to the RRC.

The physical layer provides data transport services to higher layers. To do this, several

functions are necessary. The main functions of the physical layer are user data transmission, mapping of transport channels to physical channels, spreading and despreading,

modulation and demodulation, synchronization, power control and transmit diversity procedures, and handover measurements.

4

Control

L3

Logical Channels

L2

Medium Access Control

Transport Channels

L1

Physical Layer

4 OSI

stands for Open Systems Interconnection, a reference model for the communication between two

end systems.

CHAPTER 2.

UMTS OVERVIEW

The multiple access method of UMTS is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

specied for two modes of operation by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

The Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) mode utilizes Wideband CDMA (WCDMA). All

users share the same frequency band and are allocated to the same time slots. The

separation of the users is done by applying codes. Uplink (UL) and downlink (DL)

transmissions use dierent frequency bands separated by the duplex distance. The Time

Division Duplex (TDD) mode works with a combined Time Division-CDMA (TD-CDMA)

scheme that adds a CDMA component to a TDMA system. As in FDD mode, the

frequency band is the same for all users, but now the user separation takes place in time

as well as in code domain. UL and DL transmissions are carried over the same radio

frequency but at dierent time slots. This thesis concentrates on the FDD mode, hence

WCDMA FDD and its characteristics are handled in the following.

5

Power

Time

~5

Frequency

10ms

Figure 2.3 depicts the bandwidth allocation in WCDMA FDD. The user data is spread

over a bandwidth of approximately 5 MHz. In the time domain there is a frame structure,

where each frame has a duration of 10 ms. For WCDMA FDD each user is transmitting

and receiving in all frames. The users are distinguished by dierent codes indicated by

dierent colors Figure 2.3. During one frame the bit rate of one user is kept constant but

it can be changed from frame to frame. The bit rate in WCDMA FDD is determined

through the chip rate of 3.84 Mchips/s and the used spreading factor.

5 Time

CHAPTER 2.

2.3

UMTS OVERVIEW

Physical Layer

Physical channels of the 3GPP specications are dened by a specic carrier frequency,

scrambling code, channelization code and, in the UL, by a relative phase (I/Q). The time

durations are dened in multiples of chips. Two denitions are commonly used:

Radio frame: A radio frame | or for short, a frame | is a time interval of 10 ms

Slot: A slot is a time interval of Ts = 0:667 ms duration corresponding to 2560 chips.

It consists of elds containing a certain number of bits.

Physical channels are divided into dedicated and common physical channels. The dierence is that dedicated channels are assigned to a specic UE, whereas common channels

can be utilized by all users within a cell. Some of the physical channels are presented in

the following according to the 3GPP specications [3].

The DPCH carries both, user data and control information, in a time-multiplexed manner.

The downlink DPCH can be interpreted as a time multiplex of a Dedicated Physical Data

Channel (DPCCH) and a Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) as shown in

Figure 2.4.

DPDCH

DPCCH

DPDCH

DPCCH

Data1

TPC TFCI

Data2

Pilot

Slot 0 Slot 1

Slot i

Slot 14

The DPDCH consists of two elds (Data1, Data2) for the transmission of the transport

channels of Layer 2. The DPCCH part of a DPCH slot has three elds, which are used

CHAPTER 2.

UMTS OVERVIEW

for Transmission Power Control (TPC), Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI)

and pilot bits. The TPC bits carry the power control command for the uplink power

control. With the TFCI bits the receiver is informed how the transport channels, which

are mapped to the current transmitted downlink DPDCH, are combined. This eld is

optional and can be omitted, e.g. for xed-rate services. The transmission of a TFCI eld

is determined by the UTRAN. The pilot bits are used for the channel estimation in the

receiver.

The actually used elds and the exact number of bits per eld is given by the slot format,

which is signalled by higher layers. The possible spreading factors in the downlink range

from 4 to 512, according to SF = 512=2k. The parameter k determines the total number

of bits per downlink DPCH slot, computed by 10 2k , with k 2 [0::7]. Therefore, channel

bit rates of 15 kbit/s up to 960 kbit/s are achievable in the downlink with a single code.

Higher bit rates are possible with multicode transmission where several DPCH with the

same spreading factor are transmitted in parallel. The used simulation environment oers

eight dierent slot formats. Each of them corresponds to one spreading factor.

The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) does not carry any information of higher layers,

but transmits a pre-dened symbol sequence at a xed rate of 30 kbit/s using a spreading

factor of 256. The CPICH is a phase reference for nearly all types of physical downlink

channels and it is used to determine the active set for a given UE. Therefore, the handover

procedure is based on the Ec=No measurement performed from CPICH, where Ec=No is

the received energy per pilot chip divided by the power density within the relevant channel

bandwidth. Furthermore, the CPICH is used for channel estimation at the UE. This could

be either to assist the estimations performed with the dedicated pilot bits of the DPCH,

or channel estimations, necessary for decoding common physical channels. There are

two dierent types of CPICH, the Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) and the

Secondary Common Pilot Channel (S-CPICH). The main dierences are in their usage

and in the codes applied to them.

6

Primary Common Pilot Channel: There is only one P-CPICH per cell. It is broadcast

over the entire cell and used by the UE for handover measurements and cell selection/reselection. The channelization code for the P-CPICH is xed to Cch; ; , i.e.

the spreading factor is always 256 and the code number is zero. The P-CPICH is

always transmitted with the cell-specic primary scrambling code.

Secondary Common Pilot Channel: There may be zero, one or several S-CPICH per cell.

It is not necessary transmitted over the entire cell. The S-CPICH may be available

256 0

6 The

active set for a given UE covers the cells (more precisely, the UTRAN access points) involved

in the soft handover with this UE. The cells may be sectors of the same Node B (softer handover) or

separate Node Bs (soft handover).

CHAPTER 2.

10

UMTS OVERVIEW

only in a part of the cell. The spreading factor is the same as for the P-CPICH

but the code number is arbitrary, hence each channelization code with spreading

factor of 256 can be used. And for scrambling, either the primary or a secondary

scrambling code can be used.

If transmission diversity methods are used on any downlink channel, the CPICH is transmitted from both antennas using the same channelization and scrambling code. As shown

in Figure 2.5, each antenna transmits a dierent symbol sequence, where A = 1+ j . Thus

the UE is able to separately estimate both channels. If transmission diversity is not

applied, the symbol sequence of antenna 1 is broadcasted.

Antenna 1

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

Antenna 2

-A -A A A -A -A A A -A A -A -A A A -A -A A A -A -A A A -A

Slot 14

Slot 0

Frame i

Slot 1

Frame i+1

Frame Boundary

Figure 2.5: CPICH symbol sequences for antenna 1 and 2 in case of Transmit Diversity,

with A = 1 + j

As in the downlink, the uplink DPCCH carries the control information generated at the

physical layer. It is transmitted at a constant bit rate using a spreading factor of 256. The

frame structure is presented in Figure 2.6. The DPCCH consists of four dierent elds.

The function of the Pilot, TFCI, and TPC eld is equivalent to the downlink DPCH (see

page 8).

For this thesis, the fourth DPCCH eld, the Feedback Indication (FBI) eld is signicant.

In general it is used to support techniques requiring feedback from the UE to the UTRAN.

It is again divided into two parts, the S and D eld, with the total eld size of NF BI bits.

Closed loop mode transmit diversity utilizes the D eld, whereas Site Selection Diversity

Transmission (SSDT) uses the S eld for transmitting the feedback command to the

UTRAN. Depending on the slot format, the number of FBI bits in the S eld is zero, one

or two bits, but the D eld consists of maximum one bit.

7

7 Site

downlink power control procedure, where the UE selects one cell out of its active set to be the primary

cell. The primary cell ID is signalled from the UE to the UTRAN via the FBI S eld, and the downlink

transmissions of the DPDCHs from non-primary cells are switched o to reduce interference caused by

multiple transmissions in a soft handover state.

CHAPTER 2.

11

UMTS OVERVIEW

D

NFBI

DPCCH

Pilot

TFCI

FBI

TPC

Slot 0 Slot 1

Slot i

Slot 14

2.3.2 Downlink Spreading and Modulation

Spreading and modulation of downlink signals are shown in Figure 2.7. The downlink

physical channel is rst split up into two symbol sequences by a serial-to-parallel conversion of each pair of two consecutive symbols. The even and odd numbered symbols are

mapped to an I and Q branch respectively.

cos( t)

I

S dl,n

DPCH

S/P

I+jQ

C ch,SF,m

Q

Re

Pulseshaping

Im

Pulseshaping

Split

real &

imag.

parts

sin( t)

j

The following spreading process consists of two operations, channelization and scrambling. The channelization operation converts each data symbol into a number of chips,

by multiplying the symbol sequence with a real valued channelization code Cch;SF;k. The

number of chips per data symbol is determined by the spreading factor. This results in a

bandwidth expansion of the signal. The second part of the spreading procedure is used

to separate dierent Node Bs from each other by scrambling the chip sequence with a

CHAPTER 2.

12

UMTS OVERVIEW

complex valued scrambling code Sdl;n. The complex valued signals are Quadrature Phase

Shift Keying (QPSK) modulated. The pulse shaping method applied to the transmitted

symbols is root-raised cosine ltering with a roll-o factor of = 0:22 [4].

Channelization codes

The channelization codes for the up- and downlink are Orthogonal Variable Spreading

Factor (OVSF) codes. They preserve the orthogonality between the dierent physical

channels in the uplink of one UE or separate the downlink connections of one Node B to

dierent UEs within one sector. OVSF codes are completely orthogonal for zero delay

between the code sequences, as it is in downlink without multipath. The OVSF codes

can be dened with the code tree in Figure 2.8.

Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)

Cch,2,0 =(1,1)

Cch,4,1 =(1,1,-1,-1)

Cch,1,0 =(1)

Cch,4,2 =(1,-1,1,-1)

Cch,2,1 =(1,-1)

Cch,4,3 =(1,-1,-1,1)

SF=1

SF=2

SF=8

SF=4

In this tree, the channelization codes are uniquely described as Cch;SF;k, where SF = 2n

denotes the spreading factor of the code (n is a positive integer) and k the code number

with 0 k SF 1. Each level in the code tree denes codes of length SF with a

spreading factor of SF . Starting from Cch; ; = 1, the channelization codes are generated

recursively according to the following equation:

11

CSF

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

Cch;SF;0

Cch;SF;1

Cch;SF;2

Cch;SF;3

...

Cch;SF;SF

Cch;SF;SF

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

2 5

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

Cch;SF=2;0 Cch;SF=2;0

Cch;SF=2;0 C ch;SF=2;0

Cch;SF=2;1 Cch;SF=2;1

Cch;SF=2;1 C ch;SF=2;1

...

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

2 1 5

Cch;SF=2;SF=2 1 Cch;SF=2;SF=

Cch;SF=2;SF=2 1 C ch;SF=2;SF=2

(2.1)

CHAPTER 2.

13

UMTS OVERVIEW

where CSF denotes a set of SF channelization codes (of length SF ) and C ch;SF;k is the

binary complement of Cch;SF;k. All codes within a set CSF are orthogonal. Furthermore,

any two codes of dierent spreading factors are also orthogonal except for the case that

one of these codes is a so called \mother code" of the other. Mother codes of the code

Cch;SF;k are all codes which lie an the path from Cch;SF;k to the top of the code tree. For

example consider Cch; ; in Figure 2.8. The code Cch; ; as well as Cch; ; lie on the path

to the top and therefore they are mother codes of Cch; ; . This code generation method

is based on that proposed in [5].

43

21

10

43

Scrambling codes

In order to reduce the interference, experienced by communication links in neighboring

cells, every Node B uses a complex valued long scrambling code. The nth complex scrambling code sequence is constructed by combining two real valued Gold codes

Sdl;n = c + jc ;

(2.2)

where n denotes the scrambling code number and c and c are Gold codes. The Gold

codes are generated by a position wise modulo 2 sum of two binary m-sequences of equal

length, as shown in Figure 2.9 according to [6].

1

clock

LFSR1

g 1 (x)

m-sequence1

ci

Gold-sequence

LFSR2

g 2 (x)

m-sequence2

M-sequences are pseudo random sequences generated with Linear Feedback Shift Registers

(LFSR). For the implementation of the downlink scrambling codes, two 18-stage shift

registers with the following generator polynomials are used:

g (x) = 1 + x + x

(2.3)

g (x) = 1 + x + x + x + x

(2.4)

The Gold codes for the in-phase component c of Equation 2.2 are obtained by using the

generator polynomial

g (x) = g (x) g (x);

(2.5)

where denotes the modulo 2 sum. The quadrature Gold codes c are shifted versions

of the in-phase codes, with a shift of 131072 chips. Before c and c are inserted into

7

18

10

18

CHAPTER 2.

14

UMTS OVERVIEW

Equation 2.2, the binary sequence elements are transformed to antipodal elements (\0"

is mapped to \+1" and \1" is mapped to \-1").

The total number of downlink scrambling codes is 2 1 = 262143. The rst 8192 codes

are divided into 512 sets each consisting of one primary scrambling code and 15 secondary

scrambling codes. The remaining codes, called alternative scrambling codes, may be used

for compressed frames.

Each cell is allocated exactly one primary scrambling code. Some physical channels must

always be transmitted with the primary scrambling codes. These are common channels

that need to be heard in the whole cell and/or prior to the initial registration, e.g. the primary CPICH. The other channels may be transmitted with either the primary scrambling

code or a secondary scrambling code from the set associated with the primary scrambling

code. More information on scrambling codes can be found in [4].

18

Chapter 3

Downlink Capacity

This chapter provides an overview about eects that in
uence the capacity of the UMTS

downlink. General problems of wireless communication due to wave propagation phenomenons as well as CDMA system aspects and special problems in the downlink direction will be discussed. The second part of this chapter describes methods to overcome

the mentioned diculties and to improve the system performance in the downlink.

3.1

Wave Propagation over the mobile radio channel has the most signicant in
uence on a

mobile communication system's performance. The problem is that it is not possible to

exactly describe all eects occurring during transmission over the channel. Therefore,

statistical methods are used to characterize the channel behavior. They do not exactly

predict the receive power level in a certain area, but give a probability for a certain channel

state. There are three main propagation phenomenons, i.e. small-scale fading, large-scale

fading and path loss.

Fading

Small-scale Fading: Signals transmitted over the radio channel experience a lot of re-

ections and scattering, which leads to multipath propagation. This means that

several replicas of one signal, arrive at dierent times at the receiver. The dierent

arrival times arise due to the dierent lengths of the propagation paths. Therefore, the multipath components arriving at the receiver have dierent phase values.

15

CHAPTER 3.

16

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

interference and hence to uctuations of the received power level.

In general, the signal drops caused by destructive interference, are called small-scale

fading as the signal level changes over distances less than a wavelength.

The modelling of the small-scale fading is shown in [7] and is resumed in the following. The superposition of a large number of real-valued signals without a dominant

one | hence signal amplitudes are nearly at the same level | results in a normal

distribution according to the central limit theorem . Considering the superposition

of complex-valued signals, we get a normally distributed real and a normally distributed imaginary part of the resulting sum. As a consequence the resulting signal's

phase is equally distributed in [0; 2], with

1

pdf ( ) = :

(3.1)

2

Finally, the amplitude r follows a Rayleigh distribution with the Probability Density

Function (PDF)

r

r

(3.2)

pdfr (r) = exp

2 :

The Rayleigh distribution depends only on the parameter , which is the average

received power.

A second important statistic for small-scale fading arises, if one dominant path

occurs. This could be interpreted as a Line Of Sight (LOS) scenario in addition to

the previous Non Line Of Sight (NLOS) situation. The amplitude is then determined

by a Rice distribution

1

r 2 + A2

22

r

pdfr (r) = 2 exp

I

rA

;

2

(3.3)

where I is the modied Bessel function of the rst kind and order zero, A is the

amplitude of the dominant component and is the average power of the Rayleigh

distributed components. The power ratio K of the dominant path and the Rayleigh

distributed components

K = A =(2 )

(3.4)

is denoted as the \Rician factor". For a vanishing dominant path, the Rice distribution changes to the Rayleigh distribution. The stronger the dominant path, the

lower the probability of deep fades, and for a very strong LOS component, the Rice

distribution changes to a Gaussian distribution with mean A.

0

1 The central limit theorem states that the distribution of the sum of a large number of independent,

identically distributed variables will be approximately normal, regardless of the underlying distribution.

CHAPTER 3.

17

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

In the case of one dominating path the phase is no longer equally distributed.

Moreover the PDF is given by

1

pdf ( ) =

exp

2

A2

2 2

1+

A cos( )

A2 cos( )2

exp

2

2 2

A cos( )

p

1 + erf

2

: (3.5)

For a strong LOS component the phase is nearly equal to the phase of the dominant

path. If the LOS component is negligible, the phase distribution in 3.5 reduces to

an equally distribution within [0; 2].

Figure 3.1 shows the distribution functions for NLOS and LOS scenarios. There

are two graphs for the LOS case with dierent power ratios between the dominant

path and the Rayleigh distributed components, indicated by the Rician factor K .

The NLOS situation corresponds to Rayleigh distribution which is equal to a Rice

distribution with K = 0.

0.7

Rayleigh (K=0)

Rice (K=1)

Rice (K=5)

NLOS

0.6

0.5

0.4

pdfr(r)

LOS

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

Figure 3.1: Amplitude distribution functions for NLOS and LOS situations

Large-scale Fading: By averaging the received power over some wavelengths the eect

of small-scale fading can be removed. The resulting distribution of the eld strength

shows variations over a larger scale, i.e. some tens of the wavelength. The main

reason for the large-scale variations is shadowing of multipath components caused

by obstacles like buildings, trees or mountains.

CHAPTER 3.

18

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

of the local mean amplitude a of a received signal over time or space according to

[7],

(10 log (a ) A) ;

pdfa (a) = p

exp

(3.6)

2A

2 A a

with A and A measured in dB. A log-normal distribution for a random variable a

is obtained, if the logarithm of a, A = 20 log (a), is normally distributed,

20

ln 10

2!

10

10

1 exp (A A) ;

(3.7)

pdfA(A) = p

2A

2 A

where A and A are the mean value and the standard deviation of A respectively. In

Figure 3.2, two log-normal distributions of the local mean amplitude a are plotted.

The parameters are chosen according to [7], where a typical range for A is given

between 4 and 8 dB. The value for A depends on the path loss between transmitter

and receiver. For the given examples, A = 1:4 dB was chosen.

!

0.9

A=4, A=1.4

=8, =1.4

0.8

0.7

0.6

pdfa(a)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

CHAPTER 3.

19

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

Path Loss

Path loss eects describe the monotonic signal decrease caused by growing distance between transmitter and receiver. This could easily be shown with the free space propagation

of an electromagnetic wave, described by \Friis's" equation as shown in [7],

4d

!2

(3.8)

Equation 3.8 shows the dependence of the received power Pr on the distance d if the

transmitter as well as the receiver are placed in free space. The used symbols , Pt, Gt

and Gr denote the wavelength, the transmitted power and the antenna gains of the transmitting and receiving antenna respectively. The last term of Equation 3.8 | (4d=)

| is usually denoted as free space loss. Furthermore, Equation 3.8 is valid, if the \far

eld" condition is fullled. This means that the distance between the transmitting and

receiving antenna has to be at least in the order of the Rayleigh distance dR,

2L ;

d > dR =

(3.9)

with the largest antenna dimension L.

For realistic scenarios, Equation 3.8 must be extended, in order to take the propagation

over dierent kinds of obstacles with dierent electric and dielectric characteristics into

account. Smooth surfaces produce re
ections, while rough surfaces cause scattering of

the impinging waves. Other eects like diraction around corners and edges of buildings or refraction within them are taken into account. There exist several empirical or

semi-deterministic path loss models, describing dierent propagation environments, e.g.

Okumura-Hata, COST-Walsch-Ikegami. More about path loss models can be found in

[7, 8].

The superposition of all the mentioned eects which occur during the propagation of

the transmitted signals over the mobile radio channel lead to
uctuations of the received

power levels and therefore to a variation of the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the detected bits.

Pr (d) = Pt Gt Gr

3.1.2 Interference

Interference is the main limiting factor in the performance of CDMA and plays therefore an

important role in planing, setting-up and operating CDMA based mobile communication

systems. The sources of interference include mobile users in the same cell, in neighboring

cells and other base stations in the surrounding. Unlike thermal noise which can be

overcome by increasing the SNR, interference cannot be combated by higher transmission

power. The problem is that the increased transmission power causes more interference to

other users in the system. In general, interference has more in
uence on the performance

in a CDMA system and hence it is an interference limited system. In the downlink the

interference can be divided into:

CHAPTER 3.

20

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

Inter-cell interference is the sum of the powers received from all base stations except

the serving one. The inter-cell interference at the mobile station j can be calculated

according to

Iinter;j =

k=1

(3.10)

Pk ;

where K is the total number of base stations not in connection with the mobile

station j . The power received from the kth base station is given by Pk .

Intra-cell interference is the total power received from the serving base station except

the desired signals of the considered user. For the mobile station j the intra-cell

interference is given by

Iintra;j =

"

i=1

Pi + Pc

(3.11)

where is the orthogonality factor, N the number of users within the same cell as

mobile station j , Pi is the power received at mobile station j but transmitted for the

ith user and Pc is the sum of all common channel powers. The orthogonality factor

= [0::1] depends on the multipath environment. Even if the base station serves

only one user, interference due to loss of orthogonality denoted by is produced.

3.1.3 Code Orthogonality

In the UMTS downlink, OVSF codes are used to separate dierent physical data or control

channels, as described in Section 2.3.2. All OVSF codes for one spreading factor are

perfectly orthogonal , as long as they are synchronous. Mathematically the orthogonality

of two dierent code sequences cm and cn can be shown with the cross-correlation function

2

cm ;cn ( ) =

(3.12)

according to [6], where T is the length of the code sequences. The orthogonality is given

if the cross-correlation function at = 0 is zero c ;c (0) = 0.

The problem is that in reality the orthogonality is reduced due to the delay between

dierent multipath components at the mobile station. One mobile receives all signals

transmitted from the base station to the users within a cell. The signals are perfectly

m n

2 Any

two codes of dierent spreading factors are also orthogonal except for the case that one of these

codes is a mother code of the other one. See Section 2.3.2 for details on OVSF codes.

CHAPTER 3.

21

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

receives the superposition of time-shifted versions of the original signals. The codes of

these temporally shifted signals are no longer orthogonal which leads to interference.

The larger the distance between the base station and a mobile, the larger the timeshifts between the arriving multipath components and therefore the larger the produced

interference. The interference generated due to the mentioned eect, is called intra-cell

interference, because only signals of one base station interfere with each other.

But multipath propagation implicates even a strong advantage. If the signals of the

dierent multipaths fade independent and if their delay is large enough, their superposition

could improve the signal quality dramatically. This leads to multipath diversity which

can be used with a Rake receiver discussed in Section 3.2.2.

3.2

Capacity Improvement

As already mentioned, CDMA systems are interference limited. Capacity in the sense

of the number of users served by a specic CDMA system is not a xed single value

but depends on how much degradation of the signal quality is accepted by the network

operator. The quality of a single link can be described by the ratio of the desired signal

power to the total received power of noise and interference. A more important parameter

for the description of the link quality is the bit Energy to Noise ratio Eb =N which is

obtained from the mentioned power ratio by considering the information bit rate Rj for

a user j and the total bandwidth W resulting in

0

Eb W

Pj

=

:

N0 j Rj Itotal Pj

(3.13)

The ratio W=Rj is referred to as the processing gain and Pj denotes the received signal

power at the mobile j . The total received wideband power is represented by Itotal which

includes the noise power | thermal as well as man-made noise | the overall interference

and the desired signal. Equation 3.13 shows that with increasing interference the link

quality degrades. If the link quality falls under a required Eb=N value a reliable operation

can not be guaranteed anymore.

A simple way to reduce the interference is to replace the single omni-directional antenna

at the base station by several directional antennas. This is called sectorization and one

cell is typically divided into three 120 sectors or six 60 sectors. The higher the gain of

the sector antennas the lower the output-power of the base station amplier. For a xed

total power this means that more users can be served. Furthermore, the power is radiated

only within a specied sector and hence more directed to the desired user. This reduces

the interference radiated to other users in neighboring cells and improves their Signal to

Interference Ratio (SIR) which leads again to a reduction of the total transmission power.

0

CHAPTER 3.

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

22

Another way of increasing the capacity is to use additional carrier frequencies over which

the provided trac can be distributed. But this is usually not possible since each operator

owns only a certain frequency range. In the following sections other methods for increasing

the downlink capacity are presented.

3.2.1 Downlink Power Control

Power control in the uplink is one of the most important requirements of a CDMA based

system due to the near-far eect . In contrast, power control in the downlink has a different meaning. One user receives all signals transmitted from the base, i.e. the desired

signal as well as the signals transmitted to all other users within the same cell. Each

signal undergoes the same degradation therefore the near-far eect does not exist. Downlink power control becomes important when taking the interference from other cells into

account. The interference from dierent base stations fades independently and therefore

signal degradation takes place at any level of the desired signal. This gets particularly

a serious problem near the cell boundaries where it could happen that several downlink

signals of dierent base stations are received at nearly the same power level as the signal

of the serving base station.

Downlink power control is a form of power allocation at the base station according to the

needs of the considered user in a given cell. Therefore the mobile measures the received

Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) of its own data channel power received from the serving

base station to the total received wideband power including thermal noise. This is done

by acquiring the strongest pilot | the pilot of the serving base station | and measuring

its energy as well as measuring the total energy received from all base stations in the

surrounding. These measurements are compared to a target SIR. If the measured SIR is

lower than the target SIR, the mobile will command the base station to increase its power.

For the case of a higher measured SIR compared to the target SIR, the base station will

be ordered to decrease the power. If the power control cycle is fast enough, i.e. if the

radio channel changes slower than the adjustment of the power is performed, downlink

power control can combat large and small-scale fading.

3

One of the most important methods for mitigating the problems caused by fading is

diversity combining. There are several dierent ways to achieve diversity in a mobile

3 The

near-far eect in CDMA systems describes the situation where a single overpowered mobile

could block an entire cell. Consider a situation where one mobile is near the base station and another

one transmits from the cell boundary with an additional path loss of say 60dB. Both mobiles transmit

with equal power. The power dierence of the received signals at the base station will be too high and

the signal from the far-o user will not be detected. The function of uplink power control is to control

the transmission of each user to receive equal power levels at the based station.

CHAPTER 3.

23

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

communication system. The basic principle is to transmit the same information over

statistically independent channels and hence to obtain independent copies of the received

signal. These signal replicas are combined in order to increase the average received power.

It is clear that in general the dierent channels are not statistically independent. But, the

lower the correlation between two channels, the lower the probability that both channels

are in a fading dip at the same time. This would reduce the BER, because most of the

transmission errors appear in fading dips. Hence, the employment of diversity combining may avoid signal degradation due to fading and can improve the performance of a

communication process signicantly.

As mentioned above, there exist many dierent ways to provide diversity. They can be

classied into:

Space Diversity: Several spatially separated antennas at the receiver are

used to obtain multiple uncorrelated replicas of the transmitted signal.

Time Diversity: Uncorrelated signals are produced, by retransmitting the

same signal multiple times. Decorrelation is achieved, if the delay between two transmissions is larger than the channel coherence time .

Frequency Diversity: Transmitting with dierent frequencies provides diversity, if the frequency separation is large enough. This is fullled for

frequencies with a distance more than the coherence bandwidth of the

channel .

Angle or Pattern Diversity: Using antennas with dierent radiation patterns for reception is a possibility to get dierent faded signals. The

reason of this is that various antenna patterns receive signals from different directions.

Polarization Diversity: Vertical and horizontal polarized waves show different propagation behavior, because of polarization dependent re
ection

coecients. Therefore, antennas with dierent polarization yield diversity.

4

Antenna Diversity

Antenna diversity can either be derived form space or polarization diversity. There are

two types of antenna diversity:

Receive Diversity: So far, only space diversity by spatially separated receive

antennas at the base station has been employed. This is typically called

Receive Diversity.

4 The

channel coherence time is the reciprocal of the Doppler shift. It provides information about the

duration over which the channel characteristics do not change signicantly.

5 The coherence bandwidth is the maximum frequency dierence for which signals are strongly correlated.

CHAPTER 3.

24

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

Transmit Diversity: The development of high data rate systems, which re-

connection, has pushed the interests of using more transmit antennas.

Denoted with Transmit Diversity, several transmit antennas at the base

station are used to achieve diversity. More details about existing Transit

Diversity concepts and especially closed loop Transmit Diversity is given

in Chapter 4

well as at the receiver, are investigated. These systems are called Multiple Input Multiple

Output (MIMO) systems.

The essential thing for providing diversity is the correlation between the transmission

channels. Therefore, it is necessary to dene a parameter, which gives information about

the amount of correlation. This is typically done with the correlation coecient. Mathematically, the correlation coecient of two random variables x and y is dened according

to [7]

E fx y g E fxg E fy g

;

(3.14)

=

(E fx g E fxg ) (E fy g E fyg )

where E fg denotes the expectation operator. Equation 3.14 shows the covariance of x

and y normalized to the product of the standard deviations of x and y, hence jj 1. For

statistically independent signals, with E fx yg = E fxg E fyg, the correlation coecient

is zero.

q

of one signal at dierent times. If the delay between two arriving signals is greater than

one chip duration, the receiver can resolve them. This gives a minimum delay spacing

between two distinguishable multipath components for an UMTS receiver | at a chip

rate of R=3.84 Mchips/s | of 1=R = 0:26 s. Therefore, the higher the chip rate or

system bandwidth, the more paths are resolvable. For those paths, with nearly equal

propagation delays, a distinction is not possible, hence fading is produced. Assuming

the transmission of the signal s(t) over a channel described by the time variant channel

impulse response

N

h(t; ) = ai (t) ej t ( i );

(3.15)

X

i=1

i( )

where N is the number of resolvable paths, ai (t) denotes the amplitude distortion, i(t)

the phase distortion and i the delay of the ith path. For further considerations, we

concentrate on one realization of the channel at a specic time, therefore we neglect the

time dependency of h(t; ).

CHAPTER 3.

25

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

Because of the independent fading in the transmission paths, the signal copies experience

dierent amplitude and phase distortions. The received signal can be represented by

r(t) = (h s)(t) + n(t) =

i=1

(3.16)

where s is the transmitted signal and n(t) represents the thermal noise and interference.

The Rake receiver, consists of several so called \ngers". Figure 3.3 depicts the block

diagram of a Rake receiver. The received signal is fed to each Rake nger and to the

FingerK

Finger2

Finger1

r(t)

~

r1(t)

Correlator

c(t- i )

Code

generator

Pilot

~

rMRC (t)

^h*( )

1 1

c(t- 1)

Timing

^h*( )

i i

Conjugate

Channel

estimation

^h( )

channel estimation block, in which the channel impulse response is estimated with known

pilot symbols. This estimation is used for the temporal alignment of each nger, which is

controlled by the Timing block. This means that each nger is allocated to one resolvable

path. The number of Rake ngers is limited, therefore the strongest paths are selected

for further processing.

Each nger performs a correlation of the received signal with the time shifted spreading

code c(t i ). The delay shift i is determined by the Timing block. After the despreading

by the correlators, the signals of the Rake ngers are combined according to a specic

strategy, i.e. Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) or Equal Gain Combining (EGC). For

MRC, the despread signal in each nger

r~i (t) = ai ej s~(t i ) + n~ i (t)

(3.17)

i

CHAPTER 3.

26

DOWNLINK CAPACITY

is weighted proportional to its own SNR. This is done by multiplication with the complex

conjugate of the channel estimate h^ i (i). MRC is optimal in that sense that it maximizes

the SNR of the received signal. For ideal channel estimation, when h^ i (i) = hi (i), with

hi (i ) = ai ej , the variations due to the fast fading are compensated. The dierent arrival

times are equalized in each nger and at the output of the Rake we get the coherent sum

i

r~(t)MRC =

i=1

a2i

s~(t) + n0 (t);

(3.18)

where K is the number of Rake ngers, s(~t) is the despread version of the transmitted

signal s(t) and n0 (t) is the total noise.

As opposed to MRC, EGC compensates only the phase distortion. The output signal is

given by

K

r~(t)EGC =

ai s~(t) + n0 (t);

(3.19)

X

i=1

Chapter 4

Downlink Transmit Diversity

One possibility to improve the capacity in the downlink (DL) is Transmit Diversity. The

downlink capacity of third generation mobile communication systems is a crucial factor

as the expected data services are of extremely asymmetric trac distribution. Consider a

typical internet browsing session where a user requests webpages. Those short demands

only require low bandwidth. However, the download of the requested information, e.g.

text, images, or video-streams, however, needs much more bandwidth which has to be

raised in DL direction. There are several techniques used at the network side for capacity

improvement in the uplink (UL), e.g. Receive Diversity or Multi User Detection, and

therefore the DL capacity can be the bottleneck [9].

Transmit Diversity is an articial form of multipath diversity. The dierence is that

multipath diversity reduces the orthogonality of the DL codes, while Transmit Diversity

keeps the DL codes orthogonal in
at fading channels. Downlink Transmit Diversity

improves DL capacity to an extent which depends on the degree of multipath diversity

in the considered environment. The less multipath diversity is available, the larger is the

DL capacity gain by using Transmit Diversity.

In particular, the target of applying Transmit Diversity is to maximize the SNR at the

UE receiver or to reduce the transmit power of the Node B. Hence less interference is

produced as interference is directly determined by the transmission power, and capacity

increases. This could also be achieved by using the well known and approved UL reception

techniques like Receive Antenna Diversity in the downlink. But the problem in DL is

that these methods are less attractive due to limited space, calculation power and power

consumption constraints. The application of UL techniques in DL direction leads generally

to an increase in UE complexity and costs. This is the reason why solutions, which

impose only marginal increase in UE implementation complexity, are preferred and why

transmission diversity concepts are being studied.

27

CHAPTER 4.

4.1

28

common principle is to use two or more transmit antennas at the network side to achieve

diversity gain. For simplicity we assume for the following description that transmission

takes place with two antennas. These antennas could either be separated in space or make

use of polarization diversity to provide low correlation between the propagation channels.

In general, for all methods encoding, interleaving and spreading is identical to those used

in the single antenna case. If both antennas transmit simultaneous the power is equally

distributed to both antennas. Table 4.1 summarizes the presented schemes.

Time Switched Transmit Diversity: This is a very simple method that is also known

as antenna hopping [10]. The Node B switches the signal between the transmit

antennas by using a predened antenna switching pattern.

Selective Transmit Diversity: Data is transmitted only from one - the \best" - antenna [10]. The selection of the transmission antenna is indicated by a feedback channel

from the UE to the Node B. To nd the \best" antenna the UE has to estimate

the channels seen by the transmitting antennas and to determine the channel which

delivers the most power. Therefore, each antenna has to transmit a separate pilot

channel. It is worth to mention that this concept could easily be changed to the

Time Switched solution for practical implementations, if feedback is not possible.

Space Time Transmit Diversity: This method was proposed by Alamouti in [11] and

employs space time block coding to maintain orthogonality between the antennas.

At a given symbol period two signals s and s are simultaneously transmitted from

antenna 1 and antenna 2 respectively. During the next symbol period T the signal

( s ) is transmitted from antenna 1 and signal s is transmitted from antenna 2,

where stands for the complex conjugate operation. The signals are transmitted

using the same spreading code and with the assumption of a stationary channel

during the transmission of two consecutive symbols, h(t) = h(t + 1). After the

estimation of both channels a combiner at the receiving UEs builds up two signals

with the two estimated channel impulse responses h and h and the two consecutive

received symbols r(t) and r(t + T ):

s~ = h r + h r

s~ = h r h r

(4.1)

The combined signals s~ and s~ are sent to a decision device which produces an

estimate of the sent signal.

Orthogonal Transmit Diversity: The symbols of the transmit signal are distributed

to all antennas and transmitted simultaneously. In particular, M symbols are transmitted in parallel from M antennas. The orthogonality is maintained between the

1

1 1

2 2

2 1

1 2

CHAPTER 4.

29

output streams by using dierent orthogonal spreading codes. The symbol rate at

each antenna is reduced by a factor of 1/M, therefore the code length can be increased by a factor of M. The received signal at the UE is despreaded in parallel

with the M codes.

Phase Sweeping Transmit Diversity: In [12] a Transmit Diversity technique is described as something that converts a frequency nonselective channel intentionally

into a frequency selective channel. The idea is the avoiding of long deep fades experienced at low mobile speeds. The signal is transmitted simultaneously from two

antennas. A time varying phase modulation function is applied to the second antenna's signal. Similar techniques applying suitable time varying phase osets to

the transmit antennas are analyzed in [13, 14].

Delay Diversity: This concept is listed for the sake of completeness as it is not applicable in CDMA systems. According to [15] a narrowband signal is transmitted

by multiple antennas with a delay between each antenna. This creates frequencyselective fading, which is equalized at the receiver to provide diversity gain. The

delay between the transmitted signals is such that the signals are uncorrelated.

The received signal is sampled at the symbol rate and the transmitted symbols

are determined by maximum likelihood sequence estimation. In [16, 17] the delay

implementation between the antennas is realized with FIR lters.

Linear lters or \precoders" that transmit non-orthogonal signals from dierent antennas are not desirable in CDMA DL. They produce an increase of the interference

which degrades the system performance.

DL Transmit Diversity concepts of the 3GPP specications (see[3]) are divided into open

and closed loop modes. The open loop mode applies space-time block coding and is

based on the Space Time Transmit Diversity scheme. The close loop mode comprises two

submodes, which both utilize feedback signalling based on DL channel estimations. As

this thesis concentrates on the closed loop modes, I give a detailed description of both

submodes in the following section.

space

low (switching)

no additional

very simple

Advantages

easy to combine with

feedback schemes

space

Selective

low (switching) channel estima- simple scheme

+

tion for each tx performs better

antenna

than Time Switched

selection

feedback genera- method

tion

space

Space

low

channel estima- simple

Time

+

(simple encoding tion for each tx combining gain

antenna

combination scheme)

combining

Orthogonal code

splitting

parallel decoding

parallel spreading

space

Phase

low

no additional

no UE redesign

Sweeping

+

(phase sweeping)

no combining scheme

(signal combining

combination

through propagation)

space

Delay

FIR or precoder additional Rake

ngers

+

combination

Scheme

Time

Switched

additional Rake

ngers

non-orthogonal

destructively

rx complexity

decoding delay of

one symbol duration

no combining gain

feedback delay

to other schemes

Disadvantages

CHAPTER 4.

DOWNLINK TRANSMIT DIVERSITY

30

CHAPTER 4.

4.2

31

4.2.1 Introduction

In closed loop Transmit Diversity the Node B transmits the user data with two antennas.

The same data signals are sent to both antenna branches and weighted with antennaspecic transmit-weights, which are based on the feedback from the UE. The target is to

nd transmit-weights that maximize the SNR at the UE.

More detailed, on each antenna branch a separate pilot channel is added to the data

channel. The pilot sequences are known at the UE and used for separate estimation of

both channels. To maximize the received power at the UE, the appropriate weights for

the transmit antennas at the Node B are calculated. The loop is closed by signalling the

transmit-weight to the Node B over the feedback channel.

The resulting gain can be divided into two parts: coherent combining gain and gain

against small-scale fading. The coherent combining gain is achieved because the UE

controls the downlink transmission in a way that the signals of the transmit antennas

combine coherent while the interference combines non-coherent.

Gain against small-scale fading is achieved if the small-scale fading is poorly correlated

between the channels seen from the two transmit antennas. To get low correlated channels,

space or polarization diversity antennas are used. The usage of space diversity antennas

requires that the antennas are suciently far apart from each other in order to reduce

the correlation. Additionally, they have to be suciently close to each other so that the

propagation delays between each antenna and a given UE are approximately identical.

This is important in order to maintain DL orthogonality in a single-path channel. In [10]

an antenna spacing of 10-20 is recommended. The advantage of polarization diversity

is that the diversity branches do not need separation and can be located in one physical

antenna housing. Typically two antennas at the Node B are used for UL Receive Diversity,

by using them to apply DL Transmit Diversity, no extra antennas are needed.

4.2.2 UTRA FDD Closed Loop Transmit Diversity Procedure

Two approaches of closed loop Transmit Diversity are specied in 3GPP [18] standard

and used in the simulation environment. In the following I give a general description of

the DL Transmit Diversity procedure. A detailed description of closed loop mode 1 and

2 can be found in Section 4.2.3 and 4.2.4.

The general transmitter structure to support closed loop mode transmit diversity for

DPCH transmission is shown in Figure 4.1. The data channel DPDCH and the control

channel DPCCH are time multiplexed to one channel, the DPCH. Channel coding, interleaving and spreading are done as in non-diversity mode. The spread complex valued

CHAPTER 4.

32

Antenna 1

w1

CPICH 1

Tx

spread/scramble

DPCCH

DPCH

Time

MUX

DPDCH

Antenna 2

Tx

CPICH 2

w2

Rx

w1

w2

Rx

Weight Generation

from Uplink DPCCH

signal is fed to both antenna branches and weighted with antenna specic weighting factors w and w . In general, these weighting factors are complex values. The weighting

factors | actually the corresponding phase adjustment in closed loop mode 1 and the

phase as well as the amplitude adjustment in closed loop mode 2 | are calculated at the

UE as follows:

1

Weight calculation

and h are both column vectors denoting the estimated channel impulse responses for the

paths from antennas 1 and 2, respectively. With the channel matrix the UE calculates

the power at the receiver according to

1

= wH HH Hw;

(4.2)

where w = ( w w )T denote the transmit-weight vector containing the transmitweights and with the assumption of non-soft handover operation. The search for the

P

CHAPTER 4.

33

searches for the weighting vector w that maximizes the receive power

Pmax = arg max

(wH HH Hw):

(4.3)

w

These weights are signalled to the UTRAN.

Feedback signalling

The UE maps the calculated transmit-weights to a feedback command word called feedback signalling message (FSM) and sends it to the UTRAN access point. The FSM bits

are transmitted in the portion of the feedback information (FBI) eld of the UL DPCCH

slots. More precisely, the FBI D eld is used which is assigned to closed loop mode

Transmit Diversity (see [3]). Each FSM has Nw = Npo + Nph bits, its format is shown in

Figure 4.2. One FSM consists of two subelds which carry the information for the power

Nw

FSM ph

FSM po

N ph

N po

(FSMpo) and phase (FSMph) settings respectively. The transmission order of the FSM

bits is from Most Signicant Bit (MSB) to Least Signicant Bit (LSB), i.e. the MSB is

sent rst.

Once the FSM is received at the UTRAN, the following timing is used. The adjustments

are made by the UTRAN access point at the beginning of the DL DPCCH pilot eld. The

DL slot in which the adjustment is done is signalled by higher layers. Two possibilities

exist:

1. When a feedback command is transmitted in UL slot i, which is transmitted in a

chip oset limited to 1024148 chips compared to the received DL slot j , then the

adjustment is done at the beginning of the pilot eld of the DL slot (j + 1) mod 15

(see Figure 4.3a).

2. When a feedback command is transmitted in UL slot i, which is transmitted in a

chip oset limited to 1024148 chips compared to the received DL slot j , then the

adjustment is done at the beginning of the pilot eld of the DL slot (j + 2) mod 15

(see Figure 4.3b).

UE

DL slot(j)

weighting

UL slot(i)

FSM(i)

UTRAN

UE

DL slot(j)

UL slot(i)

FSM(i)

w(i)

DL slot(j+1)

DL slot(j+1)

1024148 chips

UTRAN

w(i)

34

1024148 chips

CHAPTER 4.

UL slot(i+1)

weighting

DL slot(j+2)

(a)

(b)

4.2.3 Closed Loop Mode 1

The UE controls the phase adjustment of the downlink signal transmitted from antenna

2 - called diversity antenna - according to the signal transmitted from antenna 1 - the

reference antenna. For this purpose the UE calculates the optimum phase adjustment for

every slot as mentioned in Section 4.2.2, resulting in

ej =

hH h

jhH h j

2

(4.4)

for closed loop mode 1. After power maximization the UE quantizes the optimum phase

adjustment in combination with a constellation rotation into Q having two possible

values:

Q =

; if 2 < r (i)

0; otherwise

3

2

(4.5)

where i is the UL slot number and r (i) indicates the constellation rotation which depends

on the slot number. As shown in Figure 4.4, for even numbered slots r (i) = 0 and the

boundary between the two possible values

of Q is the y-axis. For odd numbered slots

the boundary is rotated by r (i) = and is now identical to the x-axis. In the case of

Q = 0 the FSM is set to \0", if Q = the FSM is set to \1". This feedback command

is transmitted to the UTRAN by using only the FSMph subeld of the feedback signalling

message for closed loop mode 1.

The quantization together with the constellation rotation leads to four dierent values for

the phase setting in closed loop mode 1, even though the feedback command consists of one

bit. Taking the constellation rotation into account when interpreting the received feedback

command at the network side and averaging the resulting phases over two consecutive

slots yields the transmit-weight for the diversity antenna branch. Both antennas send

2

CHAPTER 4.

35

Im{w2 }

Im{w2 }

Q= 0

w2

Q= 0

w2

Re{w2 }

Q=

Re{w2 }

Q=

r = 0

r = /2

Slot#: i = 0,2,4,6,8,10,12,14

Slot#: i = 1,3,5,7,9,11,13

with equal power, and only the phase of the reference antenna is adjusted. Figure 4.5

shows the possible weight values for w and the resulting weight vector is given by

2

w=

w1

w2

p12

p12 ej2

(4.6)

Im{w2 }

10

00

Re{w2 }

11

01

p loop mode 1 with associated feedback bit

states; jw j and jw j are always set to 1= 2

2

The UTRAN receives the feedback information over the UL radio frame. Because of

the constellation rotation at the UE the mapping of the FSM to the phase adjustment

i depends on the slot number of the UL frame. The UTRAN interprets the received

commands according to Table 4.2.

CHAPTER 4.

36

UL slot i

FSM=\0" FSM=\1"

0,2,4,6,8,10,12,14 i = 0

i =

1,3,5,7,9,11,13

i =

i =

Table 4.2: Mapping between FSM and phase adjustment i at UTRAN

2

Averaging

The weight is calculated by sliding window averaging the feedback commands over 2

consecutive slots according to Equation 4.7,

n

cos i i

w =i n

2 +j

where i is the phase adjustment from UL slot i.

P

sin i

2 ;

(4.7)

Initialization

For the transmission of the rst slot in the rst DL frame, the UTRAN possesses no FSM

from the UE. Therefore the initial weight w = (1 + j ) is applied. After the reception of

the rst FSM, the UTRAN calculates the weight for the second slot of the DL transmission

by using Equation 4.8,

2

+ sin

+ cos

sin

cos

w =

+j

2

2

is the phase adjustment received from UL slot 0.

2

where

1

2

(4.8)

The sliding window averaging operation is slightly modied at the frame borders. This

aects the weight calculation after the reception of the FSM of UL slot 0. The new weight

calculation is now based on the phase adjustment of slot 0 from the actual UL frame j

and on the phase adjustment of slot 13 from the previous UL frame j 1, as shown in

Equation 4.9,

sin

j + sin j

cos

j + cos j

w =

+j

;

(4.9)

2

2

where j and j are the phase adjustment from slot 13 of UL frame j 1 and the phase

adjustment from slot 0 of the actual UL frame j , respectively.

2

13

13

13

CHAPTER 4.

37

Closed loop mode 2 also uses two antennas for Transmit Diversity at the UTRAN. It

oers the adjustment of the phase as well as the amplitude. At the diversity antenna

eight dierent values are possible for phase adjustment. For the setting of the amplitude

two values for both antennas are provided. This gives a total of 16 dierent feedback

commands (FSMs) which require a command length of four bits FSM=f b b b b g.

From the MSB three bits (b ; b ; b ) are used for phase representation, building the FSMph

subeld of the FSM. The LSB (b ) is needed for amplitude feedback within the FSMpo

subeld. The format of the feedback signalling message is presented in Figure 4.2 of

Section 4.2.2.

Because of the limited FBI eld size only one bit of the FSM per UL slot can be signalled

to the UTRAN. It would take at least four times a slot duration, giving a feedback delay

of 2.67 ms, before the new FSM determination can be performed. To shorten the feedback

delay without reducing the number of possible FSM values, progressive renement of the

FSM is used at the UE as well as the UTRAN.

The procedure at the UE used in my simulation environment is implemented according

to [18] and is described in the following. For every slot the UE estimates the receive power

for a certain number of dierent weight vectors according to Section 4.2.2. The weight

vector, which gives maximum receive power, determines the FSM by means of Table 4.3

and Table 4.4.

FSMph b b b

000

0 0 1

011

010

1 1 0 0

111

101

100

Table 4.3: Mapping between phase subeld, FSMph, of the feedback command and the

phase, , of w

FSMpo b Pant Pant

0 0.2 0.8

1 0.8 0.2

Table 4.4: Mapping between amplitude subeld, FSMpo, of the feedback command and

the squared amplitude values, Pant and Pant , of w and w

The renement of the FSMs within one frame is done according to Table 4.5. In slot 4i

(with i = 0; 1; 2; 3), the rst bit, b , of the selected FSM is sent to the UTRAN and stored

3

3 2 1

3

4

2

4

2

3

4

CHAPTER 4.

38

at the UE. In the following slot, b of slot 4i is used for the new FSM determination,

which is indicated in Table 4.5 by the bold type. Hence, the new FSM is selected out of

eight possibilities. After this, b is sent to the UTRAN. In slot 4i + 3, b and b are xed

and in slot 4i + 2, b , b and b are xed at the values selected in the previous slots.

Slot# # of FSMs

selected FSM

send bit

4i

16

b (4i)b (4i)b (4i)b (4i)

b (4i)

4i+1

8

b3(4i)b (4i + 1)b (4i + 1)b (4i + 1) b (4i + 1)

4i+2

4

b3(4i)b2(4i + 1)b (4i + 2)b (4i + 2) b (4i + 2)

4i+3

2

b3(4i)b2(4i + 1)b1(4i + 2)b (4i + 3) b (4i + 3)

Table 4.5: Progressive renement at UE

The more FSM bits of one feedback command are transmitted, the less the possibilities

for the selection of the new FSMs. However, the feedback commands are being updated

every slot time.

At the network side a FSM update procedure is utilized For practical implementation also.

Every slot time the UTRAN constructs the FSM from the four most recently received bits

and maps it to a weight vector (phase and amplitudes according Table 4.3 and Table 4.4).

This is done by maintaining a register of length four, which contains the FSM of the

previous slot. The new received FSM bit is written on a register position according to its

command word signicance, the MSB b is written on the rst position, b on the second

and so on. The updated FSM determines the new weighting vector,

pP

w

:

(4.10)

w = w = pPant

j

ant e

3

1

0

The possible weight values for w are given in Figure 4.6. At the beginning of the transmission and at the end of each frame special procedures have to be considered, which are

described in the following.

2

Initialization

following initialization procedure is specied: The power in both antennas is set to 0.5.

The phase setting depends on the number and the value of received FSMph bits. For the

transmission of the rst slot a phase value of is used. The phase adjustment of the

following two slots is selected according to Table 4.6. For the transmission of all further

slots, Table 4.3 and Table 4.4 are used.

At the UE, there are no special initialization requirements. It calculates and transmits

the FSM at the beginning of a transmission in the same way as presented above.

CHAPTER 4.

39

Im{w2 }

101

100

111

110

000

001

Re{w2 }

010

011

Figure 4.6: Possible values of w for closed loop mode 2 with associated feedback

p bit

(b b b ) pstates; the inner constellation corresponds to b = 1 with jw j = p0:8 and

jw j = p 0:2 and the outer constellation corresponds to b = 0 with jw j = 0:2 and

jw j = 0:8

FSMph b b b

---

0--

1-- 0

0 0 -

011 1 - 0

10Table 4.6: Closed loop mode 2 initialization at UTRAN

2

3 2 1

3 2 1

The FSM must be fully contained within one frame. This has the following consequence

for the FSM updating procedure at the UE. The FSM bits b {b , corresponding to the

three last slots of the a frame, are signalled to the UTRAN as described above. In the

following slot | the rst slot of the new frame | b instead of b is transmitted and a

new FSM command is started. Therefore, the power adjustment of the last FSM will not

be updated at the UTRAN at the end of a frame.

3

4.3

The extension of the 3GPP closed loop modes to more than two transmission antennas is

strongly discussed in the working groups of the UMTS standardization body. According to

[19] the use of more transmission antennas provides signicant performance improvements.

As the number of transmission antennas increases the mean received power raises and

CHAPTER 4.

40

additionally the signal variations decrease. This leads directly to an increase in system

performance. However, several problems occur if the number of transmission antennas is

extend:

Orthogonal CPICHs for channel identication at the UE: The UE has to estimate the channels between each transmission antenna and the antenna at the UE.

Therefore it is necessary that each antenna at the Node B transmits a specic pilot

sequence which are orthogonal among each other. This is described in Section 2.3.1

for the two antenna case. For backward compatibility the specied pilot channels

CPICH1 and CPICH2 with their symbol patterns and channelization code Cch; ;

must not be changed. For the use of four antennas two additional orthogonal pilot

sequences are needed. In [20] it is proposed to take the same pilot symbol patterns as for CPICH1 and CPICH2 but spread with a dierent code, i.e. Cch; ; .

By spreading with other channelization codes a further extension of the number of

antennas is possible.

Fast changing radio channel and xed feedback rate: The specied channel structure of UL DPCCH (see [3]) provides only one bit per slot for feedback signalling,

which results in a feedback rate of 1500 bit/s. But the larger the number of transmission antennas, the more information has to be fed back. For a system with M

transmission antennas and N bits per weighting vector, M times N bits have to be

signalled back to the UTRAN. By using one antenna as phase reference the number

of feedback bits can slightly be reduced to (M 1)N . For slow varying radio channels good performance can be achieved even with a large number of feedback bits.

But for faster changing situations the feedback takes too long. Therefore methods

are desired to reduce the feedback information and to provide ecient representations of the weighting vectors. In the following sections two solutions which try to

solve this problem for four transmit antennas are presented.

256 0

256 2

The concept proposed by Nokia has no specic title. In [21] it is denoted with the

abbreviation R2F2 or R2F4 where R2 stands for two rotated constellations as they are

used for 3GPP close loop mode 1 (see Figure 4.4) and F2/F4 means ltering over 2 or 4

consecutive feedback commands per antenna respectively. Nokia's concept is an extension

of the 3GPP closed loop mode 1 where the number of transmission antennas of the Node B

is increased from two to four. It uses the same weight constellations as well as feedback

method as mode 1. Therefore one antenna element is the reference element and the phase

of the remaining antennas is adjusted with respect to it. Per UL slot the weight of only

one antenna is signalled back to keep the feedback rate of 1500 bit/s as mentioned before.

Thus the feedback rate per antenna element is reduced by a factor of 1/3. This means

that in the R2F4 case | the ltering is also adopted from mode 1 | one antenna weight

depends on feedback information sent nine slots in the past.

CHAPTER 4.

41

Simulation results of both cases R2F2/F4 show a performance gain over the two antenna

modes only for low mobile speeds. For increasing velocity the gain of the R2F4 case

decreases very fast and for velocities beyond 60 km/h the performance is worse than that

of mode 1 for two antennas.

4.3.2 Eigenbeamformer

The eigenbeamformer concept was proposed by Siemens in cooperation with the Munich

University of Technology [22, 23]. Beside the short-term channel properties it also considers the long-term channel properties. The short-term properties are determined by

short-term
uctuations in the radio channel caused by Doppler shifts, e.g. due to moving

UEs. Long-term channel properties depend on the dierent UE positions and therefore

comprise spatial correlation between antenna elements and dominant temporal taps. The

principal function of the eigenbeamformer is to calculate the eigenvectors with the largest

eigenvalues | called eigenbeams | of the long-term spatial covariance matrix, that give

the largest average receive power at the UE. The feedback consists of two procedures: the

long-term feedback where the dominant eigenbeams are sent back to the Node B and the

short-term feedback which is used to select one of the known eigenbeams at the Node B.

Figure 4.7 shows the general structure of the eigenbeamformer at the UE according to

[24].

Channel

Estimation on

CPICH 1-4

Calculation of

Eigenbeams

Eigenbeam

Selection

Long-term

Feedback

Multiplex to

DPCCH

v1 , ..., v Nbeam

Short-term

Feedback

For the calculation of the eigenvectors the UE has to estimate the channel impulse responses between the M transmission antennas and the UE. These estimates are used to

calculate the short-term spatial covariance matrix

Rst =

n=1

hnhHn ;

(4.11)

CHAPTER 4.

42

where N denotes the number of temporal taps depending on the maximum delay spread

and the column vector hn = (hn ; :::; hnM )T consists of the channel coecients of the nth

temporal tap. The calculation of the long-term spatial covariance matrix uses a forgetting

factor , which is needed to consider the slow change of the long-term channel properties

Rlt(i) = Rlt(i 1) + (1 )Rst(i):

(4.12)

The update of Rlt(i) is performed once per frame or for larger time intervals which is

denoted by the time index i. Finally the eigenvalue decomposition is carried out

RltV = V;

(4.13)

where V = [ v v : : : vM ] contains the eigenvectors and the diagonal matrix the

corresponding eigenvalues.

1

Long-term Feedback

During the long-term feedback Nbeam eigenvectors with the largest eigenvalues out of the

set of M eigenbeams in V are selected and transmitted to the Node B.

Short-term Feedback

The received power at the UE is estimated for each dominant eigenbeam by

Pm = vmH RTst vm =

vmT hn

n=1

(4.14)

where m characterizes the eigenbeam. The eigenbeam which gives the maximum power

is selected and an index to this choice is signalled to the Node B during the short-term

feedback.

The eigenbeamformer concept shows good performance even for higher velocities and it

seems to be an interesting candidate for extension of the closed loop Transmit Diversity

modes in the new release of the 3GPP specications.

Chapter 5

Simulation Environment

The simulation environment used for this thesis was written in Matlab. The simulations

are performed at link level and are based on the UMTS FDD specications. In this chapter

the operations and procedures that are executed during the run of the simulation program

are presented. First, a short introduction of radio network simulation is given, followed

by an more detailed overview of the main parts of the designed simulation programm.

5.1

Introduction

Radio network simulations used for evaluation of the radio network performance are usually divided into two dierent parts { the link and the system level simulations. Even

though a single simulation solution is preferred, the splitting into two simulation parts is

necessary as the complexity of such a single simulator would be too high. On the link

level typically one communication link between a UE and a Node B is modelled at a time

resolution of typically one to four samples per chip. For the simulation of UMTS links

this results in a time resolution of e.g. 0.26 s for one sample per chip at a chip rate of

3.84 Mchips/s. In contrast, at system level the time resolution depends on the shortest

temporal variations of the interference situation. The control algorithm of UMTS with the

highest operation rate is fast power control working at a frequency of 1500 Hz. Therefore,

the time resolution is typically in the range of one power control period, i.e. 0.667 ms.

Link level simulations are used for accurate receiver performance analysis. For this purpose receiver models are used which deliver Bit or Block Error Rates (BERs or BLERs)

taking into account channel estimation, detection and decoding procedures. The output

parameters are for example Eb =N values at certain BERs, or multipath channel models

including antenna diversity. These parameters can then be used for system level simulations, which model the whole system with many UEs and Node Bs. In general the

0

1E

b denotes the energy per received bit and N0 is the power spectral density of the noise plus interference from other base stations.

43

CHAPTER 5.

44

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

applied models are trac models for call generation or mobility models for the simulation

of moving users. More details on system level simulations can be found in [25, 26, 27].

5.2

The general system model is shown in Figure 5.1. At the beginning of a simulation run

one DPCH frame consisting of control and data bits is generated. For further considerations a single user scenario is assumed. The bit sequence of this user is spread and

scrambled to a complex valued chip sequence, which is processed slot by slot. In case of

Transmit Diversity one DPCH slot is reproduced for each transmission antenna branch

and multiplied with the respective transmit weight. Furthermore, a separate common

pilot channel per antenna branch is added to the weighted DPCH chip sequence, before

the sequence at each antenna branch enters the channel model.

Cch,SF,m S dl,n

DPCH

Generation

CPICH 1,2

Channel1

noise

Weighting

Channel2

CPICH 1,2

Channel

Estimation

dedicated

Pilot 1,2

Rake

Feedback

Generation

Feedback

Through the channel the signal experiences a number of variations in amplitude and phase

because of dierent eects like multipath propagation, small-scale fading or Doppler shifts.

The two transmit signals pass through their channel realizations and are superposed after

the channel model is left. Before the signals enter the receiver noise is added. At the

receiver block a feedback command is generated for each slot, which is signalled to the

transmitter. After the reception of 15 slots, i.e. one frame, the despreading and detection

is performed, and the BER (Bit Error Rate) is calculated.

5.2.2 Signal Model

In the following, I present the used discrete time signal model. The underlying time

resolution is 0.26 s, which is equal to one chip duration. Consider the transmission

CHAPTER 5.

45

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

of one QPSK modulated symbol A at one chip interval, over a channel with N paths.

Therefore, the received signal at the mobile can be represented by

r(t) =

i=1

[Aw c(t

1

(5.1)

where w and w are the antenna weights, c(t) is a combination of the spreading and

scrambling code, and hence complex valued, h ;i and h ;i are the complex valued channel

coecients, and n(t) is the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The despreading is

performed by a Rake receiver, as described in Section 3.2.2. At the output of the ith Rake

nger, we get

T

ri = r(t)c (t i )dt = (w h ;i + w h ;i ) A + ni :

(5.2)

1

Using MRC in case of ideal channel knowledge, the coherent sum of all Rake ngers is

given by

N

N

rMRC = ri (w h ;i + w h ;i ) = kw h ;i + w h ;i k A + n0 :

(5.3)

i

i

The output of the Rake is used in the decision device, to form the Maximum Likelihood

(ML) estimate of the transmitted symbol. These symbol estimates are used for further

processing, e.g. calculation of the BER.

X

=1

=1

5.2.3 Transmitter

Data Generation

At the transmitter, which represents the UTRAN, the data streams are generated according to some parameters. With the choice of the spreading factor one of the eight

possible slot formats, which determines the number of bits of the dierent DPCH elds

(see Section 2.3.1 for the description of the DPCH and [3] for details on the slot formats)

is selected. In the UMTS specications more than eight slot formats are listed, but in the

simulatior only one slot format per spreading factor is implemented.

The data elds, Data1 and Data2, and the control elds, T P C and T F CI , of the DPCH

are lled with a random antipodal bit sequence bi 2 f 1; 1g, where \ 1" and \1" are

equally distributed. The bit pattern for the P ilot eld is taken from the UMTS specications [3] and represents also an antipodal symbol sequence. During the spreading

operation each bit of the DPCH sequence is multiplied with SF code chips, taken from

one channelization code of the codetree in Figure 2.8, with SF equal to the spreading

factor. The scrambling procedure is nothing else than an element-wise multiplication of

the signal with the primary scrambling code.

For the simulation of the specied closed loop modes of Transmit Diversity all symbols

of the DPCH are duplicated for the second transmit antenna. If closed loop mode 1 is

CHAPTER 5.

46

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

selected the dedicated pilot bit patterns used between the transmit antennas are dierent.

This allows the UE to verify the applied transmit weight and to detect and correct errors

of the feedback loop from the UE to the UTRAN. This is only provided for closed loop

mode 1, whereas for closed loop mode 2 exactly the same DPCH is transmitted from both

antennas.

Weighting

The weighting operation consist of three steps. The rst one refers to the generation of the

transmit-weights. For this purpose the amplitude and phase settings for both antennas

are calculated according to the selected mode and the recently received FBI bits. The

amplitude adjustment refers to the total transmit power, i.e. the sum of the power from

both antennas which is always equal to the total transmit power of the single antenna

case. In the second step one slot of the spread and scrambled DPCH is multiplied by the

transmit-weights, resulting in two chip sequences, one for each antenna branch. During

the last step the pilot insertion takes place. At each antenna branch a separate CPICH

is added to the weighted signals. Both CPICHs are spread and scrambled with the same

codes, but carry dierent symbol sequences, as mentioned in Section 2.3.1.

5.2.4 Channel Model

For the modelling of the downlink channel between the Node B and the UE a standard

wideband channel model is implemented. By means of this model, the signal variations

due to propagation eects are simulated. The explanation of wideband modelling is based

on the descriptions in [7] and [28].

Wideband Modelling

Wideband (i.e. frequency-selective) channel modelling is usually based on the time-variant

channel impulse response. For a frequency-selective channel the channel impulse response

shows several distinct components at certain delays that can be related to certain propagation lengths, whereas for narrowband channels there is only one single path. Thus, it

is quite common in channel modelling to treat each of the paths in a wideband channel

impulse response like a narrowband channel. The time-variant channel impulse response

h(t; ) can be expressed as a sum of N weighted delta functions:

h(t; ) =

i=1

i );

(5.4)

where i is the path index, N is the number of dierent paths, i is the delay of the ith

path, ai(t) and i(t) are the time-dependent amplitude and phase of the respective path i.

CHAPTER 5.

47

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

In general, the path delay may also be time-variant, i.e. i ! i (t). Treating each path as

a narrowband Rayleigh channel, leads to Rayleigh distributed amplitude values ai(t) and

uniformly distributed phase values i(t). The frequency selective fading model described

by 5.4 can be implemented for simulation purposes by a tapped delay-line with taps

at each i and randomly varying complex valued tap-weights determined by a Rayleigh

distribution with related random phase values.

For frequency-selective channels the power is spread over a certain range of delay times

(time-dispersion). The distribution of power vs. delay time is described by the Power

Delay Prole (PDP). From the PDP values for the power of taps in a wideband model

and thus the parameters for the distribution functions, can be determined. The most

common assumption for the shape of the PDP is an exponentially decaying function

P ( ) = e ;

0:

(5.5)

This PDP is dependent on the access delay 2 [0 : : : max ] which is compared to the delay

of the rst impinging path, where max is the maximum access delay or also known as

multipath spread. The decay of the exponential PDP is determined by the RMS delay

spread S , which is generally dened as the square root of the second central moment of

the PDP normalized to the total power:

S

S

v

u

u R

u

u

u

u

R

t

1

P ( ) 2 d

1

1

P ( )d

1

Tm2 ;

(5.6)

where Tm is the mean delay, i.e. the rst order moment of the normalized PDP,

1

P ( )d

1

:

1

R

P ( )d

1

Tm =

(5.7)

The RMS delay spread thus is a measure for the \width" of the PDP, and hence for the

time-dispersiveness of the channel.

The correlation between the random amplitude and phase values over time for each tap

can be described by appropriate correlation functions. However, it is more common to

describe the correlation by the related power density spectra in the frequency domain,

i.e. by Doppler spectra. If multipath components of approximately the same amplitudes

arrive uniformly distributed from all directions, for a moving transmitter or receiver, this

results in the so-called \Classical Spectrum" or \Jakes Spectrum"

1

(5.8)

PB ( ) =

max 1

r

2

max

CHAPTER 5.

48

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

for

v

= f0 cos ;

(5.9)

c

is dependent on the angle of incidence , the velocity v, the carrier frequency f0 and the

velocity of light c. For cos = 1, the maximum Doppler shift max occurs. The Jakes

Spectrum for a sine wave is plotted in Figure 5.2, where the x-axis is normalized to max .

The frequency range where the power spectrum is non-zero, is called the Doppler spread.

Describing the correlation over time by Doppler spectra means for the model's implementation that the amplitude and phase values are generated as statistically independent

random variables, which are thus uncorrelated and have a constant Doppler spectrum.

Then the correlation can be induced by simply using a lter whose transfer function has

the shape of the desired Doppler spectrum.

2.5

PB()

1.5

0.5

0

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

max

The number of taps N in the tapped delay-line is usually xed, and the delay for each tap

is determined by the reciprocal of the channel bandwidth B , i.e. = i i = 1=B ,

which is the path resolution. This will result in several tap weights with zero values for

the cases when there is no path in the channel impulse response.

1

Summing up, the implementation of the channel model covers a N -path tapped delay-line

with four taps at xed positions according to the multipath fading propagation conditions

in [29] annex B, case 3. All tap weights have Rayleigh distributed amplitudes and equally

distributes phase values with classical Doppler spectrum. Figure 5.3 depicts the tapped

delay-line channel model with delay spacings of one chip duration Tc = 0:26 s, the total

number of L delays, which is related to the maximum access delay max = LTc, and the tap

CHAPTER 5.

s(t)

h 0(t)

49

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

Tc

Tc

h 1 (t)

h 2 (t)

Tc

h L-1 (t)

h L(t)

r(t)

weights hi (t) with i 2 [1::L]. According to [30], a Rayleigh distributed random variable

z can be generated by two random variables x and y , which are normally distributed

statistically independent, both with mean zero and equal variance. The variable z is then

given by

z = x +y :

(5.10)

Details about the Doppler ltering can be found in [31]. The mean power of the taps is

taken from an exponential PDP with a delay spread of S = 187:5 ns and a maximum access delay of max = 10Tc. At the end of the channel model the signal power is normalized

to 1, which is necessary for the adjustment of the additive noise.

q

Assume two transmit antennas at the base station, the mobile observes the superposition

of two channels, on the one hand the channel between antenna 1 and the mobile and on

the other hand the channel between antenna 2 and the mobile. Both channels consist

of the same number of paths, denoted by N . It is assumed that both antennas see the

same scatterer-clusters and hence, the multipath components of both channels arrive at

the same delay times i , where i is the path index with i 2 [1::N ]. This means that the

ith path of channel 1 has approximately the same length as the ith path of channel 2 and

that they arrive simultaneously at the mobile. This assumption could be made due to

the fact that an antenna spacing of 10-20 would not cause noticeable dierences in the

propagation delay between the signals transmitted from antenna 1 and 2.

Furthermore, the second channel is also a Rayleigh fading channel with the same mean

power and exponential PDP like channel 1. The important dierence of the channels, is

the behavior of the fast fading. With the previous mentioned antenna distance the fading

in both channels is statistically independent and therefore the Rayleigh coecients for

channel 2 are generated independently of channel 1.

CHAPTER 5.

50

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

Before the transmitted signal enters the receiver, the interference introduced through

communication links of other users in neighboring cells and through the thermal noise

are taken into account. This interference is modelled by Additive White Gaussian Noise

(AWGN). Since the transmitted signal is complex valued, the noise generation produces

also complex sequences with mean zero and variance one. This is done for each transmitted

slot. To achieve a certain value of the bit Energy to Noise ratio Eb=N the mean noise

power has to be adjusted according to the mean signal power and the used spreading

factor. Therefore, the noise variance is calculated by,

0

= SF

;

(5.11)

10

where SF is the spreading factor, P is the mean power of the signal and (Eb=N )dB is the

desired value of the Eb=N ratio in decibel. The spreading factor and the desired Eb =N

values are congured before the beginning of the simulation. Due to the normalization

of the mean signal power at the end of the channel model, P is set to one for the noise

power calculation.

N2

10

5.2.5 Receiver

The implementation of the receiver can be divided into three main blocks: Channel Estimation and Weight Calculation, Rake Reception and Demodualtion.

Estimates of the channel impulse response are needed for the compensation of the amplitude and phase distortion introduced by the channel. Furthermore the application of

Transmit Diversity modes with two transmit antennas requires the separate identication

of two channels. Therefore, the channel estimation is performed with the CPICHs transmitted from both antennas. The channel estimates are produced by a correlation of the

received signal with the CPICHs, generated at the mobile station.

The estimates of the channel impulse response for channel 1 and 2 are used for the

combining in the Rake receiver and for determining the transmit weights.

The antenna weights for mode 1 and 2 are calculated and fed back as described in Sections 4.2.3 and 4.2.4. For both modes the calculated weights for downlink slot j are applied

at the following slot j + 1, according to the timing shown in Figure 4.3a.

CHAPTER 5.

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

51

Rake Reception

The despreading is performed by a Rake receiver, which is explained in Section 3.2.2.

First of all the delay adjustment of the codes has to be done. This means that according

to the number of Rake ngers, the delays of the strongest taps of the estimated channel

impulse response are needed. As mentioned in the previous section one channel estimation

is performed for each slot. These estimates are averaged over 15 slots, i.e. one radio frame,

to improve the reliability of the delay estimation. Finally the delays of L taps with the

highest amplitude are selected, if L Rake ngers are used.

In each Rake nger the descrambling and despreading is performed with the delay adjusted

codes. Descrambling is just a multiplication of the received signal with the complex

conjugate of the base station dependent scrambling code. Despreading is nothing else

than a multiplication of the OVSF code (channelization code) with the descrambled signal,

followed by the integration over the products of one symbol.

The despreaded signals of the single Rake ngers are maximum ratio combined, as explained in Section 3.2.2. Additionally, the antenna weights have to be taken into account

before combining. The resulting coherent sum is a sequence of QPSK symbols, which are

demodulated in the next block.

The combined symbols at the output of the Rake receiver are nally fed into the QPSK

demodulator, which provides a real valued symbol sequence. The decision device is a

simple ML detector, which produces an estimate of the transmitted binary bit sequence,

by checking the signs of each symbol in the I and Q domain.

5.3

Simulation Parameters

In the framework of this thesis the communication link between a base station and one

user based on the UMTS specications is simulated. The parameters, which are constant

for all simulations are summarized in Table 5.1.

The parameters in Table 5.1 are adjusted according to the 3GPP specications for WCDMA

FDD described in Chapter 2. They include e.g. the downlink carrier frequency which

should lie in the range of 2110-2170 MHz specied for WCDMA FDD. The chip duration

is the inverse of the chip rate. Furthermore all simulations are performed for a single user.

The delay spread is selected according to the ITU vehicular A channel model [29] annex

B, case 3.

Parameters concerning the transmitter, the channel model and the receiver, which are

changed according to the simulated scenario or system conguration are presented in Table 5.2. They are used to select the desired mode of the closed loop Transmit Diversity

CHAPTER 5.

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT

52

Parameter

Name

Value

Carrier frequency

f

2120 MHz

Chip rate

chip rate 3.84 Mchips/s

Chip duration

t chip

0.26 s

Radio frame duration

t frame

10 ms

Number of chips per slot

slot length

2560 chips

Number of slots per radio frame frame slots 15 slots

Number of simulation runs

sim rounds

1000

Number of users

num ms

1

Delay Spread

DS

187.5 ns

Table 5.1: Fixed simulation parameters

concept or to simulate the single transmission antenna system. Furthermore, the number

of multipath components can be selected which is typically adjusted to 4 according to the

ITU vehicular A channel model. With the correlation coecient the statistical dependency of the two separate propagation channel can be dened. The user velocity is used for

the calculation of the Doppler spectrum and with the feedback error probability, errors

during the feedback of the transmission weights are taken into account.

Parameter

Name

Typical Value

Transmitter:

Closed loop mode

T xDiv mode

1 or 2

Number of Tx antennas at base station num ant

1 or 2

Spreading factor

data sf

64

Channel model:

Number of multipaths

num points

4

Correlation between channels

corr coef

0

Receiver:

User velocity

v

3 km/h

Number of Rake ngers

num fingers

4

Feedback error probability

perr

0%

Table 5.2: Variable Simulation Parameters

Chapter 6

Simulation Results

In this chapter I present the results achieved with the previous described simulation

environment for dierent scenarios. The implemented channel model is based on the

propagation channel properties recommended in [29] Annex B which relate to the ITU

vehicular A channel model. The main simulation parameters are summarized in the

Tables 5.1 and 5.2 of Section 5.3. If one of these parameters is changed it will be noted

in the respective section. Furthermore, the graphs of the required Eb =N in a certain

simulation scenario relate to the Eb =N ratios achieved with the respective transmission

method at a BER of 10%. This value of the BER corresponds to a Block Error Rate

(BLER) of 1% determined by my supervisor Thomas Baumgartner by means of link level

simulations with RadioLab3G a commercial available UMTS link level simulator. The

simulation results of the relationship between the BER and the BLER are given in A.

The structure of this chapter is organized in the following way: In the rst section I search

for the maximum gain achievable with Transmit Diversity by assuming ideal conditions.

This is followed by an examination of the Transmit Diversity gain in multipath environments. Section 6.3 deals with the in
uence of the mobile velocity on the performance of

both closed loop modes. The relation of correlation between the two propagation channels seen by the transmission antennas and the Transmit Diversity gain is presented in

Section 6.4. At the end I show the degradation of performance, when errors occur during

the transmission of the feedback commands.

0

1E

b and N0 denote the received energy per bit and the power spectral density of the received noise

plus the interference from other base stations

2 RadioLab3G is used by The Institute of Communications and Radio-Frequency Engineering under

license from RadioScape. The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily

re
ect the views within RadioScape.

53

CHAPTER 6.

6.1

54

SIMULATION RESULTS

First of all the maximum gain which could be achieved by applying closed loop Transmit

Diversity at the base station is of interest. Therefore, we assume the transmission over

two nearly perfect decorrelated propagation channels. The receiver has ideal knowledge

of these channels which is used for the demodulation of the received signals and for the

generation of the feedback weights. Furthermore, the phase of the feedback weight w for

antenna 2 with respect to w does not underlie any quantization. Hence, it is assumed

that there is enough feedback capacity in the uplink channel for the transmission of the

feedback weights to the base station. The delay of the feedback should not in
uence the

performance and therefore the propagation channel should not change too fast. This is

obtained for low mobile speeds, hence I use v = 3 km/h. The maximum gain through

Transmit Diversity can only be achieved, if there is no multipath diversity caused by the

propagation channel available to the receiver. Thus, the propagation channel model used

is a
at fading channel.

2

10

ideal cond.

1 ant

1

10

BER

10

10

10

10

10

Eb/N0 (dB)

15

20

The simulation results of this ideal case together with the single antenna reference is

shown in Figure 6.1. The BER curve for the ideal case lies below the single antenna case.

This means that the use of ideal Transmit Diversity requires a lower Eb =N ratio than the

single antenna transmission to meet the same specic BER value. The required Eb =N

for a BER of 10 of the ideal curve is 0.85 dB. Compared to that of the single antenna

0

CHAPTER 6.

55

SIMULATION RESULTS

case, this results in a maximum Transmit Diversity gain of 4.68 dB. Figure 6.1 shows that

the use of ideal Transmit Diversity decreases faster with a rising Eb =N than the single

antenna curve. This is clear due to the fact that the single antenna transmission in a
at

fading channel obtains no diversity.

In Figure 6.2 the simulation is performed in a four taps multipath environment. In

this gure again the BER curves for the ideal case and the single antenna are plotted.

Furthermore, closed loop mode 1 and 2 are also presented. The required Eb=N for a BER

of 10 of the ideal case is now 0.79 dB which means that the performance is a little bit

improved compared to the
at fading case. However, the Transmit Diversity gain of the

ideal case is decreases to 3.51 dB. This is because the single antenna case performs better

due to the multipath diversity available now.

Figure 6.2 presents also the performance of the two closed loop Transmit Diversity modes.

The BER curves of the closed loop modes lie between the single antenna and the ideal

case as expected. The provided Eb=N values for a BER of 10 are 3.04 dB and 2.75 dB

for mode 1 and 2 respectively. The achieved Transmit Diversity gain of mode 1 is 1.26 dB

and that of mode 2 is 1.55 dB. It can be seen that mode 2 converges to the ideal curve for

large values of Eb =N . The reason is that mode 2 oers more phase constellations which

result in a smaller quantization error of the transmit weight.

0

10

ideal cond.

mode1

mode2

1 ant

10

BER

10

10

10

10

10

Eb/N0 (dB)

15

20

CHAPTER 6.

6.2

56

SIMULATION RESULTS

Multipath Environment

In this section the in
uence of the propagation environment on the performance of the

closed loop Transmit Diversity modes is examined. The simulations are performed for

radio channels that oer a dierent amount of multipath diversity. This is adjusted with

the number of multipath components arriving at the mobile station. Furthermore, it is

assumed that the rake receiver is able to detect all multipath components and adjusts its

rake ngers to the correct arrival times of the multipath components. With one exception:

The number of rake ngers for the simulation of the nine taps channel is adjusted to ve

to reduce the complexity of the receiver and because more than ve ngers would not

provide a reasonable performance gain.

mode1: 1 user, SF 64, 1000 frames, 3km/h

10

flat

2 taps

4 taps

6 taps

9 taps

10

BER

10

10

10

10

10

E /N (dB)

b

15

20

The simulation results for mode 1 and 2 are presented in Figure 6.3 and 6.4 respectively.

The BER curves of both modes show similar behavior. The most interesting results are

at low Eb =N . The higher the degree of multipath diversity the worse the performance.

This is due to the low quality of the channel estimation because of the relatively high

amount of noise. The longer a delay of a signal the weaker its power at the receiver due to

the exponential PDP . The more weak multipath components the more in uence due to

noise is obtained. For higher values of Eb=N the eect of noise vanishes and the provided

0

3 Power

CHAPTER 6.

57

SIMULATION RESULTS

multipath diversity can be used. Therefore, the curves for multiple taps result in lower

BER values.

The slope of the graphs depends on the degree of available diversity. In the
at fading case

diversity is only provided due to the transmission over the two propagation channels with

uncorrelated Rayleigh fading. For more multipath taps multipath diversity is obtained

additionally and therefore this curves decrease faster.

mode2: 1 user, SF 64, 1000 frames, 3km/h

10

flat

2 taps

4 taps

6 taps

9 taps

10

BER

10

10

10

10

10

E /N (dB)

b

15

20

The comparison between mode 1 and 2 as well as the single antenna transmission is

given in Figure 6.5 which shows the required Eb =N ratio over the number of multipath

components. The Eb =N values for mode 1 and 2 at BER=10 increase even though

there is more diversity available as there is multipath diversity additionally provided by

the propagation channels. The reason of the decrease of the performance of mode 1 and 2

with more multipath taps is an optimization problem. In the at fading case two signals

arrive at the mobile. The phase between the signals is adjusted with the transmit weight

w for coherent combining, see Equation 4.2. In case of two taps, two signals arrive |

from antenna 1 and 2 respectively | in two dierent taps. For coherent combining the

signals in both taps have to be adjusted. However, we have only one transmit weight and

therefore coherent combining of all taps cannot be achieved.

The reason why a higher Eb =N value is required at six taps than at nine taps is that

the nine taps case uses only ve rake ngers as opposed to the six taps case that uses six

ngers. Therefore, the six nger receiver catches more noise which in uences the detection

0

CHAPTER 6.

58

SIMULATION RESULTS

6

5

4

3

2

mode1

mode2

1 ant

1

0

0

4

6

delay taps

10

0

of the received bits. The single antenna case improves from the
at fading case to the two

taps case by 1.35 dB due to the multipath diversity. This is the reason for the decrease

of the Transmit Diversity gain of mode 1 and 2 between the
at fading and the two taps

cases listed in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1 provides the achieved Transmit Diversity gain over the single antenna case

dependent on the multipath environment. The highest gain is obtained in the
at fading

case with 3.21 dB and 3.59 dB for mode 1 and 2 respectively. In case of more multipath

taps these values decrease by about 1 dB in both cases. Furthermore, at a speed of

3 km/h the gain of mode 2 is always 0.3 dB higher than that of mode 1. Summing up,

mode 2 performs slightly better for all multipath scenarios than mode 1. However, the

performance dierence between mode 1 and 2 is independent of the additional multipath

diversity. The Transmit Diversity gain of both modes decreases with increasing multipath

diversity.

BER Closed Loop

Delay Taps

Flat Fading 2 Taps 4 Taps 6 Taps 9 Taps

10

Mode 1

3.21

1.81 1.26 1.08 1.15

Mode 2

3.59

2.10 1.55 1.42 1.48

Table 6.1: Transmit Diversity gain in dierent multipath environments (values in dB)

1

CHAPTER 6.

6.3

59

SIMULATION RESULTS

So far, we considered only scenarios with slow varying propagation channels. But what

happens to the performance of the closed loop modes if the channel states change more

rapidly over time? As described earlier in Section 5.2.4, the temporal changes of the

channel coecients are caused due to the Doppler eect which depends on the mobile

speed. Therefore, I performed simulations for dierent velocities of the mobile.

mode1: 1 user, SF 64, 1000 frames, 4 taps, 4 fingers

10

v=3km/h

v=10km/h

v=30km/h

v=50km/h

v=70km/h

v=100km/h

v=120km/h

BER

10

10

10

10

10

E /N (dB)

b

15

20

Figure 6.6 and Figure 6.7 present the corresponding BER curves for close loop mode 1

and mode 2 respectively. As expected, the performance decreases for higher speeds which

is indicated through the dierent slopes of the graphs. The graphs for higher velocities

show relatively high BER values even for high Eb =N ratios. This is caused due to the

fast changes of the propagation channel. Even if the quality of the channel estimation is

high the mobile is not able to track the transmit weights due to the feedback delay.

The comparison of mode 1 and 2 is given in Figure 6.8. Mode 2 outperforms mode 1

for low mobile speeds as it provides eight phase values and additionally the amplitude

adjustment as opposed to mode 1 which oers only four phase values and no amplitude

setting. Therefore, mode 1 suers from more quantization errors.

However, as it can be seen in Figure 6.8 mode 2 works better only until a velocity of

about 21 km/h. For velocities higher than 21 km/h mode 1 outperforms mode 2 because

0

CHAPTER 6.

60

SIMULATION RESULTS

10

v=3km/h

v=10km/h

v=30km/h

v=50km/h

v=70km/h

v=100km/h

v=120km/h

BER

10

10

10

10

10

Eb/N0 (dB)

15

20

the feedback of the whole mode 2 FBI message takes too long compared to the channel

variations. Remember that the FBI message of closed loop mode 2 consists of four bits

distributed over four consecutive uplink slots as described in Section 4.2.4. A mode 1 FBI

message consists of one bit. The feedback delay together with an averaging operation

over two consecutive FBI bits results in two slots and therefore the update of the mode 1

transmit weights is performed faster. This gives a lower BER as compared to mode 2 for

higher velocities of the mobile.

The single antenna case is also plotted in Figure 6.8. The crossings of the curves for

mode 1 and 2 with the graph for the single antenna case are at dierent values of the

mobile velocity due to the dierent feedback delay. Mode 2 gains only up to v = 55 km/h.

Mode 1 provides a gain for a somewhat higher velocities | the crossing is at v = 75 km/h.

The application of the closed loop modes for higher speeds makes no sense as they perform

worse than the single antenna transmission. However, there is a second crossing between

mode 1 and mode 2 at v about 90 km/h. The reason for this overlap might be that

mode 2 adjusts even the amplitude additionally to the phase adjustment. The antennas

are always weighted with dierent amplitudes and therefore the mean of the rayleigh

distributed amplitudes of the rayleigh faded signals at the mobile is dierent, too. For

mode 1 the amplitudes of the transmit weights are always equal which results in equal

4

4 Feedback

Information

CHAPTER 6.

61

SIMULATION RESULTS

5

4.5

3.5

2.5

0

mode1

mode2

1 ant

20

40

60

v (km/h)

80

100

120

means of the received signal amplitudes. Therefore, the probability that two amplitudes

are nearly equal is higher for mode 1. The phase dierence between the signal form

antenna 1 and 2 are random since the feedback is wrong for high velocities anyway. The

probability for strongly destructive interference of the two transmit signals at the receiver

is therefore higher for mode 1 which leads to the second crossing between mode 1 and

mode 2.

BER Closed Loop

v (km/h)

3 10 30 50 70 100 120

10

Mode 1 1.26 1.16 0.9 0.46 0.09 -0.4 -0.56

Mode 2 1.55 1.43 0.68 0.08 -0.23 -0.27 -0.23

Table 6.2: Transmit Diversity gain for dierent mobile station velocities (values in dB)

1

6.4

For the simulation with two channels which show a statistical dependance the following

changes have to be made. First of all I want to clarify what is meant with the term

channel correlation and show how it is adjusted for the simulations. In the second part

of this section the simulation results for correlated propagation channels are presented.

CHAPTER 6.

62

SIMULATION RESULTS

a certain delay i , one multipath component of channel 1 and one of channel 2 arrive

simultaneously at the mobile. The correlation gives the statistical dependency between

the propagation path of channel 1 and that of channel 2. Strictly speaking, correlation

used here stands for the path correlation between two paths of dierent channels.

Keeping this in mind the desired correlation can be adjusted in the following way.

Consider a matrix

X = xx ;

(6.1)

consisting of two row vectors, x and x , which cover the realizations for one tap weight

of the respective channel. It is assumed, that x and x are statistically independent with

zero correlation x ;x = 0. With the transformation,

Y = T X;

(6.2)

!

1

2

where Y =

y1

y2

T=

(6.3)

Therefore, we have to calculate the correlation coecient y ;y according to Equation 3.14,

where

y = x + x

(6.4)

y = x + x

is used. With the assumptions that x and x are zero mean with equal variance and

negligible correlation,

E fx g = E fx g = 0 ! E fy g = E fy g = 0

E fx g = E fx g = 1 ! E fy g = E fy g = +

E fx x g = E fx x g = 0

(6.5)

the correlation coecient is given by,

2 :

y ;y =

(6.6)

+

1

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

2

5 also

CHAPTER 6.

63

SIMULATION RESULTS

By setting y ;y = and choosing, e.g. = , Equation 6.6 can be solved for . With

the determined matrix T the new tap weight realizations y and y can be generated

according to Equation 6.2.

This is a very simple method to adjust a desired correlation coecients with low complexity because of the mentioned assumptions. However, due to the limited number of

realizations for the random variables the assumptions in Equation 6.5 are only fullled

approximately. Therefore, the calculated correlation coecient does not exactly match

the desired one. Yet, this is not essential for the interpretations and conclusions, which

are drawn from the simulation results.

1

In Figure 6.9 and 6.10 the simulation results for closed loop mode 1 and 2 are presented.

Both modes show the same eect. For higher values of the correlation coecient the

performance decreases. The reason is that the higher the correlations between the propagation channels the lower the provided diversity and therefore the lower the reliability of

the detection of the received bits.

mode1: 1 user, SF 64, 1000 frames, 3km/h, 4 taps, 4 fingers

10

=0.2

=0.5

=0.7

=0.9

=1

1 ant

10

BER

10

10

10

10

10

Eb/N0 (dB)

15

20

However, according to Table 6.3 for fully correlated channels with = 1 mode 1 provides

a gain of 0.72 dB and mode 2 0.86 dB. In this case there is no diversity provided by the

CHAPTER 6.

64

SIMULATION RESULTS

10

=0.2

=0.5

=0.7

=0.9

=1

1 ant

10

BER

10

10

10

10

10

E /N (dB)

b

15

20

transmission with two antennas. The resulting gain is achieved through the beamforming

gain which is described in more detail below.

BER Closed Loop

0.2 0.5 0.7 0.9 1

10

Mode 1 1.26 0.99 0.81 0.7 0.72

Mode 2 1.55 1.36 1.16 0.92 0.86

Table 6.3: Transmit Diversity gain for dierent correlated channels (values in dB)

Theoretically the graphs for = 1 in Figure 6.9 and 6.10 should be obtained by a shift of

the single antenna curve to the left by the amount of the beamforming gain. However, the

channel estimation quality in the two antenna situation is lower compared to the single

antenna case since the overall transmission power for one and two antennas is the same.

Therefore, the graphs for = 1 and the single antenna have dierent slopes even if the

amount of diversity provided by the multipath channel is equal.

Assume a transmit power in the single antenna case of P which is equal to the overall

transmit power in the two antenna situation. Both antennas should transmit with equal

power. The power at antenna 1 and 2 is therefore given by

1

P1 = P2 =

2:

(6.7)

CHAPTER 6.

65

SIMULATION RESULTS

s

(6.8)

2:

The received signal at the mobile is the sum of the amplitudes A and A , if the path loss

between the base station and the mobile is neglected and by assuming optimal antenna

weights at the transmitter

P

Arx = Ai = 2 :

(6.9)

2

The received power in the two antenna case is therefore given by

Prx = Arx = 2P;

(6.10)

which results in a gain of 3 dB | the beamforming gain | over the single antenna

transmission where the received power is just P . The values for the beamforming gain

mentioned above are lower than 3 dB. This is due to the quantization of the transmit

weights. Therefore exactly coherent combining is not possible which reduces the beamforming gain.

Furthermore, Figure 6.11 shows the required Eb =N values over dierent correlations

between the propagation channels. The performance of both modes decreases with rising

correlation due to the lost diversity.

A1 = A2 =

1

BER=10 ,1 user, SF64,1000 frames,4 taps,4 fingers

4.5

3.5

3

mode1

mode2

1 ant

2.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0

CHAPTER 6.

6.5

66

SIMULATION RESULTS

Feedback Errors

This section claries how erroneous FBI bits in
uence the BER performance of closed

loop mode 1 and 2. The simulated BER curves are presented in Figure 6.12 for both

modes with dierent values of the probability for the occurrence of an feedback error.

The performance of closed loop mode 1 and 2 in case of feedback errors results in an error

oor at high Eb =N values.

0

10

10

BER

10

10

10

10

mode1 no FB errors

mode2 no FB errors

mode1 2% FB errors

mode2 2% FB errors

mode1 4% FB errors

mode2 4% FB errors

mode1 8% FB errors

mode2 8% FB errors

1 ant

5

10

E /N (dB)

b

15

20

CHAPTER 6.

67

SIMULATION RESULTS

Figure 6.13 shows the required Eb =N for a BER of 10%. The performance of both

modes decreases strongly with increasing feedback error probability. The loss due to the

feedback errors is about 0.2 dB per 1% feedback error for both modes. The dierence

between mode 1 and mode 2 is a little bit smaller for more feedback errors. Table 6.4

lists the gain in dB over the single antenna transmission for mode 1 and 2. For 2% FB

errors the dierence in the required Eb=N value for mode 1 and 2 is 0.25 dB and for 8%

FB errors 0.15 dB.

0

5

4.5

3.5

mode1

mode2

1 ant

2.5

0

4

FB error (%)

0

FB errors (%)

0 2 4 8

10

Mode 1 1.26 0.89 0.52 -0.25

Mode 2 1.55 1.14 0.68 -0.11

Table 6.4: Transmit Diversity gain for dierent feedback error probabilities (values in dB)

1

CHAPTER 6.

68

SIMULATION RESULTS

The feedback errors have a strong eect on the performance of both closed loop modes as

shown in the previous section. Mode 1 oers a straightforward possibility to check if the

transmit weight of the received signal corresponds to that signalled to the base station.

In contrast to mode 2 mode 1 sends dierent pilot symbols in the DL-DPCH . Therefore,

it is possible to additionally estimate both propagation channels with the dedicated pilot

symbols. By correlating the received signal with both dedicated pilot sequences we get

an estimate of the products of the channel impulse responses hd and hd multiplied by

the transmit weights w and w

Hd = [ hd w hd w ]:

(6.11)

Antenna 1 is used as phase reference and therefore only the estimation of channel 2

is needed. The phase dierence between the hd and the channel estimation with the

common pilot sequence h results in an estimate of the transmit weight w . By comparing

this estimation with the transmit weight which was signalled to the base station, it should

be possible to determine a feedback error. Therefore, it is necessary to store each transmit

weight after the power maximization for one slot duration. The procedure of checking the

transmit weight of antenna 2 is called Antenna Verication (AV) according to [18] which

describes a more sophisticated method.

The simulations with AV show no error
oor. The performance of mode 1 with AV at

high Eb=N values is quite good even for 8% feedback errors. However, the interesting

area of the BER curves is at much lower Eb=N values where the performance is worse

than the simulation result for mode 1 without AV.

6

7 CPICH2

6 Downlink

(Common Pilot Channel)

CHAPTER 6.

69

SIMULATION RESULTS

Figure 6.14 shows the results at low values of the Eb=N ratio. The use of antenna

verication | as described above | produces more errors than mode 1 without AV. The

reason is that the channel estimation by means of the dedicated pilot bits performs bad for

low Eb =N as the dedicated pilot sequences consist of a lower number of symbols than the

common pilot. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the AV procedure to avoid additional

errors and to be able to correct feedback errors. In Figure 6.14 the graph for mode 1

with ideal AV is also plotted. Ideal AV means that the mobile identies exactly which

transmit weight was applied at the base station. The identied transmit weight is used

for the combining in the Rake receiver. The graph for ideal AV shows that the application

of AV can improve the performance of mode 1 in case of feedback errors. However, the

performance for mode 1 with ideal AV decreases with higher feedback error probabilities.

This is due to the perturbed transmit weights which avoid the coherent combining of the

signals from the transmission antennas. Values of the gain of mode 1 with AV over mode 1

without AV are summarized in Table 6.5.

0

5.5

mode1 without AV

mode1 with AV

mode1 ideal AV

5

1 ant

4.5

3.5

3

0

4

FB error (%)

0

BER

FB errors (%)

0

2

4

8

10 with ideal AV 0 0.29 0.58 1.11

with AV -1.02 -0.92 -0.81 -0.59

Table 6.5: Gain of mode 1 with AV over mode 1 without AV (values in dB)

1

Mode 1

Chapter 7

Summary and Conclusions

This thesis considers the performance of closed loop Transmit Diversity concepts for

capacity enhancement in the downlink of UMTS. The rst part of this work provides a

summary of the main UMTS components and focusses on system properties essential for

the understanding of the link level simulations. A detailed description of the considered

closed loop Transmit Diversity concepts is given in Chapter 4. In the sequel I highlight

the main characteristics of closed loop mode 1 and 2:

Both closed loop modes use two transmit antennas at the base station. Antenna 1 is the phase reference and the signal of the second antennas is adjusted

according to antenna 1. Mode 1 provides four weight values for the phase

adjustment and performs a sliding window averaging over two consecutive

feedback bits. Mode 2 oers eight phase values and 2 constellations for the

amplitude setting. A substantial disadvantage of both modes is the capacity

of the feedback channel. The specications limit the feedback information to

only one bit per UL-slot.

I implemented a simulation environment to investigate the performance of mode 1 and

2 in terms of the BER over the received energy per bit to the spectral density of the

noise plus interference from other base stations Eb =N . With this simulator the downlink

connection of a base station with one mobile terminal in a Rayleigh fading channel with

a classical Doppler spectrum and an exponential PDP is modelled. The simulation tool

is based on the WCDMA FDD specications of UMTS. In the following I summarize the

simulation results presented in Chapter 6:

0

The best performance of the closed loop Transmit Diversity modes is achieved

in
at fading and slowly varying environments. My simulation results show

a gain of 3.21 dB for mode 1 and 3.59 dB for mode 2 over the single antenna transmission when there is only one multipath component per transmit

70

CHAPTER 7.

71

antenna arriving at the mobile station at v=3 km/h. These values decrease

signicantly for both closed loop modes in environments with more than two

multipaths. The weighting with one transmit vector at the base station cannot optimally adjust the signals in each multipath tap. However, in a channel

with a larger number of resolvable multipath components a gain of 1.15 dB

and 1.48 dB for mode 1 and 2 respectively can be achieved.

The delay of the feedback information has a severe eect on the achievable

gain of the closed loop modes for higher speeds of the mobile station. The

feedback delay for mode 1 and 2 is dierent as they use dierent numbers of

weight values. However, both modes use the same feedback bit rate of only

one bit per UL-slot. My simulations show that mode 2 provides a gain over

the single antenna transmission up to a speed of 55 km/h and mode 1 up

to 75 km/h. Mode 1 performs better than mode 2 for higher velocities of

the mobile. For velocities below 21 km/h mode 2 outperforms mode 1 as the

in
uence of the feedback delay decreases. For lower speeds the quantization

error of the transmit weights of mode 1 results in a poorer performance.

The amount of diversity provided by the transmission with two antennas depends on the statistical dependance between the propagation channels. The

higher values of the correlation coecient the lower the performance of both

closed loop modes. For fully correlated channels the gain of mode 1 and 2

decreases to 0.72 dB and 0.86 dB respectively. These values are the result of

the beamforming gain since there is no diversity provided by the transmission

with two antennas in fully correlated channels.

The occurrence of erroneous feedback bits has a strong in
uence on the performance. The simulations results in a performance reduction of 0.2 dB per

1% feedback errors for both modes.

Mode 1 allows to verify if the base station has used the correct transmit

weight by additionally estimating the propagation channels with the dedicated

pilot bits. The simulations with perfect detection of feedback errors result

in signicant improvement of the performance. However, a straightforward

solution for correcting feedback errors provides no performance enhancements.

The dierence in performance between mode 1 and 2 depends primarily on the speed

of the mobile station. Mode 2 performs typically about 0.2{0.3 dB better than mode 1

independent of the investigated problem as long as the mobile moves slow.

With these results I come to the following conclusions:

Since the best performance of the closed loop modes is achieved in
at fading chan-

nels, I recommend to use the closed loop modes in environments which provide low

or at best no multipath diversity, e.g. indoor.

CHAPTER 7.

72

With a higher feedback capacity in the uplink it would be possible to reduce the

feedback delay. This would enhance the performance of both closed loop modes in

case of faster channel variations.

The application of the closed loop modes makes sense in environments where low

user velocities are expected, e.g. pedestrian areas or indoor environments. Since

mode 1 provides a gain over the single antenna up to 75 km/h it can even be used

in urban areas.

The lower the correlation between the propagation channels the higher the performance gain with the closed loop Transmit Diversity modes. Therefore, the antennas

should be suciently separated in space.

The strong eect of the feedback errors could be reduced by advanced channel

coding of the FBI bits at the price of higher feedback delay. This would result in a

performance enhancement compared to the uncoded FBI bits at low mobile speeds.

I propose the investigation of the performance of coded FBI bits at higher mobile

velocities.

For the use of antenna verication with mode 1 the quality of the channel estimation

with the dedicated pilot symbols has to be optimized to avoid additional errors and

to be able to correct feedback errors.

Appendix A

Relation between BER and BLER

The requirements of the UMTS specications refer primarily on certain target values of

the BLER rather than to the BER. Since my simulations generate gross BERs without

error-correction through channel coding, a link to the target BLERs is needed. This

was determined by Thomas Baumgartner by means of link level simulations with RadioLab3G. RadioLab3G is used by The Institute of Communications and Radio-Frequency

Engineering under license from RadioScape .

The simulation results are shown in Figure A.1. The used parameters are summarized in

Table A.1 for a data rate of 28 kbit/s which corresponds to a channel transport format

using a spreading factor of 64. According to the requirements in [29] a target BLER of

1% was chosen. As Figure A.1 shows, this corresponds to a gross BER of 10%.

Parameter

DTCH

DCCH

Information bit rate

28 kbit/s

2.5 kbit/s

Transport block size

560 bit

100 bit

Transmission time interval 20 ms

40 ms

Error protection

Turbo coding Convolutional code

Coding rate

1/3

1/3

Size of CRC

16

12

Table A.1: Parameters for the simulation of the relation between BLER and BER

1

1 The

views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily re
ect the views

within RadioScape.

73

APPENDIX A.

74

10

28 kbit/s

BLER

10

10

10

10

BER

10

Figure A.1: Block Error Rate (BLER) versus Bit Error Rate (BER)

75

APPENDIX B.

ABBREVIATIONS

Appendix B

Abbreviations

3GPP

AV

AWGN

BER

BLER

CDMA

CIR

CN

CPICH

CS

DL

DPCCH

DPCH

DPDCH

FBI

FDD

FSM

GGSN

GMSC

GPRS

GSM

HLR

L1

L2

L3

LFSR

LOS

LSB

MAC

ME

Antenna Verication

Additive White Gaussian Noise

Bit Error Rate

Block Error Rate

Code Division Multiple Access

Carrier to Interference Ratio

Core Network

Common Pilot Channel

Circuit Switched

Downlink

Dedicated Physical Control Channel

Dedicated Physical Channel

Dedicated Physical Data Channel

Feedback Information

Frequency Division Duplex

Feedback Signalling Message

Gateway GPRS Support Node

Gateway MSC

General Packet Radio Service

Global System for Mobile communications

Home Location Register

Layer 1 (physical layer)

Layer 2 (data link layer)

Layer 3 (network layer)

Linear Feedback Shift Registers

Line Of Sight

Least Signicant Bit

Medium Access Control

Mobile Equipment

76

APPENDIX B.

ML

MRC

MSB

MSC

NLOS

OSI

OVSF

P-CPICH

PDF

PDP

PS

PSTN

QPSK

RLC

RMS

RNC

RRC

S-CPICH

SF

SGSN

SIR

SNR

SSDT

TD-CDMA

TDD

TDMA

UE

UL

UMTS

USIM

UTRAN

VLR

WCDMA

ABBREVIATIONS

Maximum Likelihood

Maximum Ratio Combining

Most Signicant Bit

Mobile Switching Center

None Line Of Sight

Open Systems Interconnection

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

Primary Common Pilot Channel

Probability Density Function

Power Delay Prole

Packet Switched

Public Switched Telephone Network

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

Radio Link Control

Root Mean Square

Radio Network Controller

Radio Resource Control

Secondary Common Pilot Channel

Spreading Factor

Serving GPRS Support Node

Signal to Interference Ratio

Signal to Noise Ratio

Site Selection Diversity Transmission

Time Division-CDMA

Time Division Duplex

Time Division Multiple Access

User Equipment

Uplink

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

UMTS Subscriber Identity Module

Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

Visitor Location Register

Wideband CDMA

77

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