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1 CHAPTER 1Problems

1.1 Problems on Bonds

Exercise 1.1 On 12/04/01, consider a xed-coupon bond whose features are the following:

face value: $1,000

coupon rate: 8%

coupon frequency: semiannual

maturity: 05/06/04

What are the future cash ows delivered by this bond?

Solution 1.1 1. The coupon cash ow is equal to $40

Coupon =

8%$1,000

2

= $40

It is delivered on the following future dates: 05/06/02, 11/06/02, 05/06/03,

11/06/03 and 05/06/04.

The redemption value is equal to the face value $1,000 and is delivered

on maturity date 05/06/04.

Exercise 1.2 Consider the same bond as in the previous exercise. We are still on 12/04/01.

1. Compute the accrued interest taking into account the Actual/Actual day-count

basis.

2. Same question if we are now on 09/06/02.

Solution 1.2 1. The last coupon has been delivered on 11/06/01. There are 28 days between

11/06/01 and 12/04/01, and 181 days between the last coupon date (11/06/01)

and the next coupon date (05/06/02). Hence, the accrued interest is equal to

$6.188

Accrued Interest =

28

181

$40 = $6.188

2. The last coupon has been delivered on 05/06/02. There are 123 days between

05/06/02 and 09/06/02, and 184 days between the last coupon date (05/06/02)

and the next coupon date (11/06/02). Hence, the accrued interest is equal to

$26.739

Accrued Interest =

123

184

$40 = $26.739

2

Problems and Solutions

Exercise 1.3 An investor has a cash of $10,000,000 at disposal. He wants to invest in a bond with

$1,000 nominal value and whose dirty price is equal to 107.457%.

1. What is the number of bonds he will buy?

2. Same question if the nominal value and the dirty price of the bond are respec-

tively $100 and 98.453%.

Solution 1.3 1. The number of bonds he will buy is given by the following formula

Number of bonds bought =

Cash

Nominal Value of the bond dirty price

Here, the number of bonds is equal to 9,306

n =

10,000,000

1,000 107.457%

= 9,306.048

2. n is equal to 101,562

n =

10,000,000

100 98.453%

= 101,571.31

Exercise 1.4 On 10/25/99, consider a xed-coupon bond whose features are the following:

face value: Eur 100

coupon rate: 10%

coupon frequency: annual

maturity: 04/15/08

Compute the accrued interest taking into account the four different day-count

bases: Actual/Actual, Actual/365, Actual/360 and 30/360.

Solution 1.4 The last coupon has been delivered on 04/15/99. There are 193 days between

04/15/99 and 10/25/99, and 366 days between the last coupon date (04/15/99) and

the next coupon date (04/15/00).

The accrued interest with the Actual/Actual day-count basis is equal to Eur

5.273

193

366

10% Eur 100 = Eur 5.273

The accrued interest with the Actual/365 day-count basis is equal to Eur 5.288

193

365

10% Eur 100 = Eur 5.288

The accrued interest with the Actual/360 day-count basis is equal to Eur 5.361

193

360

10% Eur 100 = Eur 5.361

There are 15 days between 04/15/99 and 04/30/99, 5 months between

May and September, and 25 days between 09/30/99 and 10/25/99, so that there

3

Problems and Solutions

are 190 days between 04/15/99 and 10/25/99 on the 30/360 day-count basis

15 +(5 30) +25 = 190

Finally, the accrued interest with the 30/360 day-count basis is equal to Eur

5.278

190

360

10%Eur 100 = Eur 5.278

Exercise 1.5 Some bonds have irregular rst coupons.

A long rst coupon is paid on the second anniversary date of the bond and starts

accruing on the issue date. So, the rst coupon value is greater than the normal

coupon rate.

A long rst coupon with regular value is paid on the second anniversary date of

the bond and starts accruing on the rst anniversary date. So, the rst coupon

value is equal to the normal coupon rate.

A short rst coupon is paid on the rst anniversary date of the bond and starts

accruing on the issue date. The rst coupon value is smaller than the normal

coupon rate.

A short rst coupon with regular value is paid on the rst anniversary date of

the bond and has a value equal to the normal coupon rate.

Consider the four following bonds with nominal value equal to 1 million euros

and annual coupon frequency:

Bond 1: issue date 05/21/96, coupon 5%, maturity date 05/21/02, long rst

coupon, redemption value 100%;

Bond 2: issue date 02/21/96, coupon 5%, maturity date 02/21/02, long rst

coupon with regular value, redemption value 99%;

Bond 3: issue date 11/21/95, coupon 3%, maturity date 3 years and 2 months,

short rst coupon, redemption value 100%;

Bond 4: issue date 08/21/95, coupon 4.5%, maturity date 08/21/00, short rst

coupon with regular value, redemption value 100%.

Compute the future cash ows of each of these bonds.

Solution 1.5 Bond 1 pays 100,000 euros on 05/21/98, 50,000 euros on 05/21/99, 05/21/00,

05/21/01 and 1,050,000 euros on 05/21/02.

Bond 2 pays 50,000 euros on 02/21/98, 02/21/99, 02/21/00, 02/21/01 and

1,040,000 euros on 05/21/02.

Bond 3 pays 5,000 euros on 01/21/96, 30,000 euros on 01/21/97,

01/21/98 and 1,030,000 euros on 01/21/99.

Bond 4 pays 45,000 euros on 08/21/96, 08/21/97, 08/21/98, 08/21/99 and

1,045,000 euros on 08/21/00.

Exercise 1.8 An investor wants to buy a bullet bond of the automotive sector. He has two

choices: either invest in a US corporate bond denominated in euros or in a French

corporate bond with same maturity and coupon. Are the two bonds comparable?

Solution 1.8 The answer is no. First, the coupon and yield frequency of the US corporate bond is

semiannual, while it is annual for the French corporate bond. To compare the yields

4

Problems and Solutions

on the two instruments, you have to convert either the semiannual yield of the US

bond into an equivalently annual yield or the annual yield of the French bond into

an equivalently semiannual yield. Second, the two bonds do not necessarily have

the same rating, that is, the same credit risk. Third, they do not necessarily have

the same liquidity.

Exercise 1.13 Treasury bills are quoted using the yield on a discount basis or on a money-

market basis.

1. The yield on a discount basis denoted by y

d

is computed as

y

d

=

F P

F

B

n

where F is the face value, P the price, B the year-basis (365 or 360) and n is

the number of calendar days remaining to maturity.

Prove in this case that the price of the T-bill is obtained using the equation

P = F

_

1

n y

d

B

_

2. The yield on a money-market basis denoted by y

m

is computed as

y

m

=

B y

d

B n y

d

Prove in this case that the price of the T-bill is obtained using the equation

P =

F

_

1 +

ny

m

B

_

3. Show that

y

d

=

B y

m

B +n y

m

Solution 1.13 1. From the equation

y

d

=

F P

F

B

n

we nd

n y

d

B

1 =

P

F

and nally, we obtain

P = F

_

1

n y

d

B

_

2. From the equation

y

m

=

B y

d

B n y

d

5

Problems and Solutions

we nd

y

m

=

B

FP

F

B

n

B n

FP

F

B

n

=

B

n

FP

F

_

1

FP

F

_

Then, we have

n y

m

B

=

FP

F

P

F

=

F P

P

=

F

P

1

Finally, we obtain

P =

F

_

1 +

ny

m

B

_

3. From the equation

y

m

=

B y

d

B n y

d

we nd

y

m

(B n y

d

) B y

d

= 0

Then, we have

y

d

(n y

m

B) = B y

m

Finally, we obtain

y

d

=

B y

m

B +n y

m

Exercise 1.15 What is the price P of the certicate of deposit issued by bank X on 06/06/00,

with maturity 08/25/00, face value $10,000,000, an interest rate at issuance of 5%

falling at maturity and a yield of 4.5% as of 07/31/00?

Solution 1.15 Recall that the price P of such a product is given by

P = F

_

1 +c

n

c

B

_

_

1 +y

m

n

m

B

_

where F is the face value, c the interest rate at issuance, n

c

is the number of

days between issue and maturity, B is the year-basis (360 or 365), y

m

is the

yield on a money-market basis and n

m

is the number of days between settlement

and maturity.

Then, the price P of the certicate of deposit issued by bank X is equal to

P = $10,000,000

_

1 +5%

80

360

_

_

1 +4.5%

25

360

_ = $10,079,612.3

Indeed, there are 80 calendar days between 06/06/00 and 08/25/00, and 25 calendar

days between 07/31/00 and 08/25/00

6

Problems and Solutions

Exercise 1.16 On 01/03/2002, an investor buys $1 million US T-Bill with maturity date

06/27/2002 and discount yield 1.76% on the settlement date.

1. What is the price of the T-Bill?

2. What is the equivalent money-market yield?

Solution 1.16 1. The settlement date of the transaction is 01/04/2002 (trading date plus 1 work-

ing day). There are 174 calendar days between the settlement date and the

maturity date.

The price P of the T-Bill is equal to

100

_

1 1.76%

174

360

_

= 99.1493

2. The equivalent money-market yield is equal to 1.775%

1.76%360

360 174 1.76%

= 1.775%

2 CHAPTER 2Problems

Exercise 2.1 Suppose the 1-year continuously compounded interest rate is 12%. What is the

effective annual interest rate?

Solution 2.1 The effective annual interest rate is

R = e

0.12

1 = 0.1275

= 12.75%.

Exercise 2.2 If you deposit $2,500 in a bank account that earns 8% annually on a continuously

compounded basis, what will be the account balance in 7.14 years?

Solution 2.2 The account balance in 7.14 years will be

$2,500.e

8%7.14

= $4,425.98

Exercise 2.3 If an investment has a cumulative 63.45% rate of return over 3.78 years, what is

the annual continuously compounded rate of return?

Solution 2.3 The annual continuously compounded rate of return R is such that

1.6345 = e

3.78R

c

We nd R

c

= ln(1.6345)/3.78 = 13%.

Exercise 2.7 1. What is the price of a 5-year bond with a nominal value of $100, a yield to

maturity of 7% (with annual compounding frequency), a 10% coupon rate and

an annual coupon frequency?

2. Same question for a yield to maturity of 8%, 9% and 10%. Conclude.

7

Problems and Solutions

Solution 2.7 1. The price P of a bond is given by the formula

P =

n

i=1

N c

(1 +y)

i

+

N

(1 +y)

n

which simplies into

P =

N c

y

_

1

1

(1 +y)

n

_

+

N

(1 +y)

n

where N, c, y and n are respectively the nominal value, the coupon rate, the

yield to maturity and the number of years to maturity of the bond.

Here, we obtain for P

P =

10

7%

_

1

1

(1 +7%)

5

_

+

100

(1 +7%)

5

P is then equal to 112.301% of the nominal value or $112.301. Note that we

can also use the Excel function Price to obtain P.

2. Prices of the bond for different yields to maturity (YTM) are given in the fol-

lowing table

YTM (%) Price ($)

8 107.985

9 103.890

10 100

Bond prices decrease as rates increase.

Exercise 2.10 1. What is the yield to maturity of a 5-year bond with a nominal value of $100, a

10% coupon rate, an annual coupon frequency and a price of 97.856?

2. Same question for a price of 100 and 105.451.

Solution 2.10 1. The yield to maturity y of this bond is the solution to the following equation

P =

N c

y

_

1

1

(1 +y)

n

_

+

N

(1 +y)

n

where N, c, P and n are respectively the nominal value, the coupon rate, the

price and the number of years to maturity of the bond.

Here, y is solution to

97.856 =

10

y

_

1

1

(1 +y)

5

_

+

100

(1 +y)

5

Using, for example, Newtons three points method (or the Solver function

in Excel), we obtain 10.574%. Note that we can also use the Excel function

Yield to obtain y.

2. Yields to maturity (YTM) of the bond for different prices are given in the fol-

lowing table

8

Problems and Solutions

Price YTM (%)

100 10

105.451 8.613

Exercise 2.13 Consider the following bond: annual coupon 5%, maturity 5 years, annual com-

pounding frequency.

1. What is its relative price change if its required yield increases from 10% to

11%?

2. What is its relative price change if its required yield increases from 5% to 6%?

3. What conclusion can you draw from these examples? Explain why.

Solution 2.13 1. The initial price P is equal to

P =

5

(1 +10%)

+

5

(1 +10%)

2

+

5

(1 +10%)

3

+

5

(1 +10%)

4

+

105

(1 +10%)

5

= 81.046

After the yield change, the price becomes

P

=

5

(1 +11%)

+

5

(1 +11%)

2

+

5

(1 +11%)

3

+

5

(1 +11%)

4

+

105

(1 +11%)

5

= 77.825

Hence, the bond price has decreased by

P

P

P

= 3.97%

2. The initial price P is equal to

P =

5

(1 +5%)

+

5

(1 +5%)

2

+

5

(1 +5%)

3

+

5

(1 +5%)

4

+

105

(1 +5%)

5

= 100

After the yield change, the price becomes

P

=

5

(1 +6%)

+

5

(1 +6%)

2

+

5

(1 +6%)

3

+

5

(1 +6%)

4

+

105

(1 +6%)

5

= 95.788

Hence, the bond price has decreased by

P

P

P

= 4.21%

3. In low interest-rate environments, the relative price volatility of a bond is higher

than in high interest-rate environments for the same yield change (here, in our

example +1%). This is due to the convexity relationship between the price of

a bond and its yield.

9

Problems and Solutions

Exercise 2.14 We consider the following zero-coupon curve:

Maturity (years) Zero-Coupon Rate (%)

1 4.00

2 4.50

3 4.75

4 4.90

5 5.00

1. What is the price of a 5-year bond with a $100 face value, which delivers a 5%

annual coupon rate?

2. What is the yield to maturity of this bond?

3. We suppose that the zero-coupon curve increases instantaneously and uniformly

by 0.5%. What is the new price and the new yield to maturity of the bond? What

is the impact of this rate increase for the bondholder?

4. We suppose now that the zero-coupon curve remains stable over time. You hold

the bond until maturity. What is the annual return rate of your investment? Why

is this rate different from the yield to maturity?

Solution 2.14 1. The price P of the bond is equal to the sum of its discounted cash ows and

given by the following formula

P =

5

1 +4%

+

5

(1 +4.5%)

2

+

5

(1 +4.75%)

3

+

5

(1 +4.9%)

4

+

105

(1 +5%)

5

= $100.136

2. The yield to maturity R of this bond veries the following equation

100.136 =

4

i=1

5

(1 +R)

i

+

105

(1 +R)

5

Using the Excel function Yield, we obtain 4.9686% for R.

3. The new price P of the bond is given by the following formula:

P =

5

1 +4.5%

+

5

(1 +5%)

2

+

5

(1 +5.25%)

3

+

5

(1 +5.4%)

4

+

105

(1 +5.5%)

5

= $97.999

The new yield to maturity R of this bond veries the following equation

97.999 =

4

i=1

5

(1 +R)

i

+

105

(1 +R)

5

Using the Excel function yield, we obtain 5.4682% for R.

The impact of this rate increase is an absolute capital loss of $2.137 for

the bondholder.

Absolute Loss = 97.999 100.136 = $2.137

10

Problems and Solutions

and a relative capital loss of 2.134%

Relative Loss =

2.137

100.136

= 2.134%

4. Before maturity, the bondholder receives intermediate coupons that he reinvests

in the market:

after one year, he receives $5 that he reinvests for 4 years at the 4-year zero-

coupon rate to obtain on the maturity date of the bond

5 (1 +4.9%)

4

= $6.0544

after two years, he receives $5 that he reinvests for 3 years at the 3-year zero-

coupon rate to obtain on the maturity date of the bond

5 (1 +4.75%)

3

= $5.7469

after three years, he receives $5 that he reinvests for 2 years at the

2-year zero-coupon rate to obtain on the maturity date of the bond

5 (1 +4.5%)

2

= $5.4601

after four years, he receives $5 that he reinvests for 1 year at the 1-year zero-

coupon rate to obtain on the maturity date of the bond

5 (1 +4%) = $5.2

after ve years, he receives the nal cash ow equal to $105.

The bondholder nally obtains $127.4614 ve years later

6.0544 +5.7469 +5.4601 +5.2 +105 = $127.4614

which corresponds to a 4.944% annual return rate

_

127.4614

100.136

_

1/5

1 = 4.944%

This return rate is different from the yield to maturity of this bond (4.9686%)

because the curve is not at at a 4.9686% level. With a at curve at a 4.9686%

level, we obtain $127.6108 ve years later

6.0703 +5.7829 +5.5092 +5.2484 +105 = $127.6108

which corresponds exactly to a 4.9686% annual return rate.

_

127.6108

100.136

_

1/5

1 = 4.9686%

Exercise 2.15 Let us consider the two following French Treasury bonds whose characteristics are

the following:

11

Problems and Solutions

Name Maturity Coupon Price

(years) Rate (%)

Bond 1 6 5 100

Bond 2 20 0 31.18

Your investment horizon is 6 years. Which of the two bonds will you select?

Solution 2.15 It depends on the level of the reinvestment rate, at which you can reinvest the

coupons of Bond 1, as well as on the yield to maturity of Bond 2 at horizon.

If you suppose, for example, that the reinvestment rate is equal to the yield to

maturity of Bond 2 at horizon, then the total return of Bond 2 will decrease as

the reinvestment rate increases, as opposed to Bond 1. Indeed, while the unique

source of return for Bond 1 is its reinvested coupons, it lies for Bond 2 in its price

appreciation. Bond 1 and Bond 2 will yield nearly the same annualized return

(5.15%) for a reinvestment rate of 6.365%.

Exercise 2.18 We consider three bonds with the following features

Bond Maturity (years) Annual Coupon Price

Bond 1 1 10 106.56

Bond 2 2 8 106.20

Bond 3 3 8 106.45

1. Find the 1-year, 2-year and 3-year zero-coupon rates from the table above.

2. We consider another bond with the following features

Bond Maturity Annual Coupon Price

Bond 4 3 years 9 109.01

Use the zero-coupon curve to price this bond.

3. Find an arbitrage strategy.

Solution 2.18 1. The 1-year zero-coupon rate denoted by R(0, 1), veries

110

1 +R(0, 1)

= 106.56

We nd the expression

R(0, 1) =

110

106.56

1 = 3.228%

The 2-year zero-coupon rate denoted by R(0, 2), veries

8

1 +3.228%

+

108

(1 +R(0, 2))

2

= 106.20

We nd the expression

R(0, 2) =

_

108

106.2

8

1+3.228%

_

1/2

1 = 4.738%

12

Problems and Solutions

The 3-year zero-coupon rate denoted by R(0, 3), veries

8

1 +3.228%

+

8

(1 +4.738%)

2

+

108

(1 +R(0, 3))

3

= 106.45

We nd the expression

R(0, 3) =

_

108

106.45

8

1+3.228%

8

(1+4.738%)

2

_

1/3

1 = 5.718%

2. The price P of Bond 4 using the zero-coupon curve is given by the following

formula:

P =

9

1 +3.228%

+

9

(1 +4.738%)

2

+

109

(1 +5.718%)

3

= 109.177

3. This bond is underpriced by the market compared to its theoretical value. There

is an arbitrage if the market price of this bond reverts to the theoretical value.

We have to simply buy the bond at a $109.01 price and hope that it is mispriced

by the market and will soon revert to around $109.177.

Exercise 2.20 We consider two bonds with the following features

Bond Maturity (years) Coupon Rate (%) Price YTM (%)

Bond 1 10 10 1,352.2 5.359

Bond 2 10 5 964.3 5.473

YTM stands for yield to maturity. These two bonds have a $1,000 face value, and

an annual coupon frequency.

1. An investor buys these two bonds and holds them until maturity. Compute

the annual return rate over the period, supposing that the yield curve becomes

instantaneously at at a 5.4% level and remains stable at this level during

10 years.

2. What is the rate level such that these two bonds provide the same annual return

rate? In this case, what is the annual return rate of the two bonds?

Solution 2.20 1. We consider that the investor reinvests its intermediate cash ows at a unique

5.4% rate.

For Bond 1, the investor obtains the following sum at the maturity of the

bond

100

9

i=1

(1 +5.4%)

i

+1,100 = 2,281.52

which corresponds exactly to a 5.3703% annual return rate.

_

2,281.52

1,352.2

_

1/10

1 = 5.3703%

13

Problems and Solutions

For Bond 2, the investor obtains the following sum at the maturity of the

bond

50

9

i=1

(1 +5.4%)

i

+1,050 = 1,640.76

which corresponds exactly to a 5.4589% annual return rate.

_

1,640.76

964.3

_

1/10

1 = 5.4589%

2. We have to nd the value R, such that

100

9

i=1

(1 +R)

i

+1,100

1,352.2

=

50

9

i=1

(1 +R)

i

+1,050

964.3

Using the Excel solver, we nally obtain 6.4447% for R.

The annual return rate of the two bonds is equal to 5.6641%

_

100

9

i=1

(1 +6.4447)

i

+1,100

1,352.2

_

1/10

1 = 5.6641%

Exercise 2.24 Assume that the following bond yields, compounded semiannually:

6-month Treasury Strip: 5.00%;

1-year Treasury Strip: 5.25%;

18-month Treasury Strip: 5.75%.

1. What is the 6-month forward rate in six months?

2. What is the 1-year forward rate in six months?

3. What is the price of a semiannual 10% coupon Treasury bond that matures in

exactly 18 months?

Solution 2.24 1.

_

1 +

R

2

(0, 1)

2

_

2

=

_

1 +

R

2

(0, 0.5)

2

__

1 +

F

2

(0, 0.5, 0.5)

2

_

1.02625

2

= 1.025

_

1 +

F

2

(0, 0.5, 0.5)

2

_

F

2

(0, 0.5, 0.5) = 5.5003%

2.

_

1 +

R

2

(0, 1.5)

2

_

3

=

_

1 +

R

2

(0, 0.5)

2

__

1 +

F

2

(0, 0.5, 1)

2

_

2

1.02875

3

= 1.025

_

1 +

F

2

(0,0.5,1)

2

_

2

F

2

(0, 0.5, 1) = 6.1260%

3. The cash ows are coupons of 5% in six months and a year, and coupon plus

principal payment of 105% in 18 months. We can discount using the spot rates

14

Problems and Solutions

that we are given:

P =

5

_

1 +

0.05

2

_ +

5

_

1 +

0.0525

2

_

2

+

105

_

1 +

0.0575

2

_

3

= 106.0661

Exercise 2.26 Consider a coupon bond with n = 20 semesters (i.e., 10 years) to maturity, an

annual coupon rate c = 6.5% (coupons are paid semiannually), and nominal value

N = $1,000. Suppose that the semiannually compounded yield to maturity (YTM)

of this bond is y

2

= 5.5%.

1. Compute the current price of the bond using the annuity formula.

2. Compute the annually compounded YTM and the current yield of the bond.

Compare them with y

2

.

3. If the yield to maturity on the bond does not change over the next semester,

what is the Holding Period Return (HPR) obtained from buying the bond now

and selling it one semester from now, just after coupon payment? At what price

will the bond sell one semester from now just after coupon payment?

Solution 2.26 1. For the current price of the bond, we use the formula

P

0

= N

c

y

2

_

1

1

(1 +y

2

/2)

n

_

+

N

(1 +y

2

/2)

n

so that

P

0

= 1,000

6.5%

5.5%

_

1

1

(1 +0.0275)

20

_

+

1,000

(1 +0.0275)

20

= 1,076.14

2. The annually compounded yield to maturity (YTM) denoted by y and the current

yield denoted by y

c

are obtained using the following formulas:

y =

_

1 +

y

2

2

_

2

1 =

_

1 +

0.055

2

_

2

1 = 0.055756

y

c

=

cN

P

0

=

0.065 1,000

1,076.14

= 0.060401

Therefore, they are both larger than y

2

.

3. First, we compute P

1

, the price of the bond one semester from now:

P

1

= N

c

y

2

_

1

1

(1 +y

2

/2)

n1

_

+

N

(1 +y

2

/2)

n1

= 1,000

6.5%

5.5%

_

1

1

(1 +0.0275)

19

_

+

1,000

(1 +0.0275)

19

= 1,073.2

The Holding Period Return from buying the bond now and selling it one semester

from now is then:

HPR =

P

1

P

0

+

cN

2

P

0

=

1,073.20 1,076.14 +32.5

1,076.14

= 2.75%

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