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GTB-DYR, VERSION 2.

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Downloading Y-DNA Results

DNA Ancestry Project Understanding Your Y-DNA Results Contents


A. Y-DNA Background B. Downloading and printing your personal Y-DNA certificate C. DNA Haplogroups (Y-DNA) D. Indigenous DNA (Y-DNA) E. DNA Reunion (Y-DNA) F. DNA Archaeology (Y-DNA) G. Frequently Asked Questions H. Glossary Appendix 1: Summary of Y-DNA Haplogroups page 2 page 5 page 8 page 11 page 14 page 18 page 21 page 25 page 30

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Downloading Y-DNA Results

A. Y-DNA Background
Genetic Genealogy is a new and exciting way to supplement your ancestry research. While genetic genealogy is a powerful tool, it is important to understand both the benefits and limitations of DNA testing. The current industry recognized standards for DNA ancestry testing are mtDNA testing for tracing Maternal ancestry and Y-DNA testing for tracing Paternal ancestry. This Guidebook provides instructions for using your Y-DNA test results to investigate your PATERNAL ancestry.

Y-DNA Basics Your Y-DNA is passed down to you directly from your Paternal ancestors (father to son inheritance pattern).
Father carries Y-DNA which holds information about his Paternal lineage.


Son inherits Y-DNA from his father and passes his fathers YDNA to all future male descendents.

Daughter does NOT inherit YDNA from father because females do not have Y-DNA. Females also cannot pass YDNA down to the next generation of males.


Only males have Y-DNA, so only males can take the Y-DNA test. Females wishing to trace their own Paternal ancestry must test the Y-DNA of a male relative, such as a brother, male cousin, nephew, uncle, etc. on their direct Paternal line. The patrilineal inheritance pattern of Y-DNA means that your Y-DNA profile is unique to your Paternal lineage and shared by all people who descended from the same patrilineal ancestral lineage as you. Testing your Y-DNA allows you to trace your direct Paternal ancestry (your fathers, fathers, fathers. Paternal line).

What is Y-DNA? Y-DNA is DNA that is found in the Y-Chromosome. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. The 23rd pair are the X and Y chromosomes which determine a persons gender. Males have one Y-Chromosome and one X-Chromosome (XY) and females have two X-Chromosomes (XX) and no Y-Chromosome. Because females do not have a Y-Chromosome, females cannot take the Y-DNA test. Y-DNA is passed down strictly from father to son.

X and Y Chromosomes

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Downloading Y-DNA Results


Tracing Paternal ancestry with Y-DNA Genetic markers are present in the Y-Chromosome which carry valuable information about a persons Paternal ancestry. Two different types of genetic markers found in the Y-DNA are commonly used to trace Paternal ancestry: STR markers and SNP markers. STR (stands for short tandem repeat) - STR markers have a very fast mutation rate (approximately one mutation every 20 generations) so STR testing can be used to search for recent family links (within dozens of generations). SNP (stands for single nucleotide polymorphism) - SNP markers have a very slow mutation rate (approximately one mutation every few thousand years) so SNP testing can be used to confirm your Y-DNA Haplogroup. Haplogroups pertain to deep ancestry (ancient ancestry from thousands of years ago). Genealogists usually begin by taking the Y-DNA STR test. The Y-DNA STR test is the most versatile test because it will allow one to look for long lost relatives, find matches to indigenous populations, and also provides a prediction on deep ancestry (Haplogroup prediction). Once the Y-DNA STR test has been completed, genealogists may wish to further confirm their Haplogroup using Backbone SNP testing and even further refine their Haplogroup using Subclade SNP testing.

What are Y-DNA Haplogroups and Subclades? Y-DNA studies have shown all people living today can be traced back to a common Paternal ancestor who lived in Africa approximately 60,000 to 100,000 years ago. Over time, many different ancient family groups Haplogroups eventually journeyed out of Africa and populated the rest of the world. Y-DNA Haplogroups (labeled A to T) are associated with unique ancient migration routes out of Africa which led to different regions of the world (the Maternal line equivalent is the mtDNA Haplogroup). Once you find out which Y-DNA Haplogroup you belong to, you can find out which general region of the world your Paternal ancestors came from. Please note that Haplogroups are NOT country specific. There are no Haplogroups which are found in only one country and not a neighboring country. Y-DNA Haplogroups can be further classified into finer sub-branches called Subclades. Knowing your Subclade can often provide further geographical localization of your ancestry if published research on the geographical distribution of the Subclade is available.
Region/Population Native Americans Oceanic and Aboriginal Australians East Asian South Asian (i.e. India) Europe and Middle East Diverse African Major Y-DNA Haplogroups found in regions/populations specified C, Q C, K, M, N, S, C, D, N, O, Q, C, H, L, I, J, R, T, F, G, P, A, B, E, Refer to Appendix 1 Summary of Y-DNA Haplogroups on page 30 of this manual for details of each Y-DNA Haplogroup.

The Y-DNA testing process Your DNA is collected using mouth swabs called buccal swabs which are rubbed gently inside your mouth against your cheek to collect loose skin cells called buccal cells. Your buccal cells are an abundant source of DNA. When your DNA sample arrives at the lab, DNA testing begins immediately. First, your buccal cells are removed from the swab. Next, your DNA is extracted from the buccal cells and purified for DNA testing.
How soon do I have to send the samples back for testing? Your DNA kit has no expiry date, so you can collect your DNA sample any time after receiving your kit. After collecting your DNA sample, send it back to the laboratory for testing as soon as possible. If you cannot send your samples right away, dont worry because once your swabs are dry, your DNA sample is extremely stable and can be stored for months at room temperature.


Do I need to collect another sample if I order more tests? The laboratory will test the samples that you have remaining on file from your previous test. If more DNA is required, we will notify you and send you a recollection kit. The only upgrade test type which always requires more DNA is the mtDNA Full Sequencing Test. The mtDNA Full Sequencing Test requires a large amount of DNA so a recollection is always required when this upgrade test type is ordered.

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Downloading Y-DNA Results


4 types of Y-DNA tests are available:
Y-DNA Test Type Y-DNA STR Tests (required) Prerequisite none Purpose To be used in DNA Reunion, Indigenous DNA and DNA Archaeology search applications. Can also predict your YDNA Haplogroup. Description This test is the starting point for Paternal ancestry research. This test will allow you to search for Paternal line relatives, look for matches to indigenous populations and also allows you to predict which Y-DNA Haplogroup you most likely belong to. There are several options for STR testing including 20 markers, 44 markers, 67 markers, and 91 markers. As long as you have at least 20 markers, you will be able to use most of the search and analysis features. Testing more than 20 markers is recommended for those individuals who have found matches in DNA Reunion and wish to fine tune their comparison with matching individuals to narrow down the TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor). Testing more Y-DNA STR marker will not improve your Y-DNA Haplogroup prediction. If you are interested in confirming your Y-DNA Haplogroup, you must take the Y-DNA Backbone SNP test. For beginners, we recommend testing 20 or 44 markers, and then getting more markers once you find matches and wish to narrow down the matches. The Y-DNA Backbone SNP test analyzes a selection of SNP markers within your Y-Chromosome in order to conclusively confirm which Y-DNA Haplogroup you belong to. This test is only recommended if your predicted Y-DNA Haplogroup based on Y-DNA STR testing is weak or medium. If you have a strong prediction for your Y-DNA Haplogroup based on STR testing, you can skip the Y-DNA Backbone SNP test and go directly to the Y-DNA Subclade test. When the Y-DNA Haplogroup prediction strength is strong, the predicted Y-DNA Haplogroup is unlikely to change, so the Y-DNA Backbone SNP test is optional. The Y-DNA Subclade SNP test analyzes a selection of SNP markers within the Y-Chromosome in order to confirm your Y-DNA Subclade. Subclade testing is currently only available for the following Y-DNA Haplogroups: E, G, I, J, L, O, Q, R. To further refine your Y-DNA Subclade Over time, new SNPs are discovered and the Y-DNA Phylogenetic tree will continue to expand and become more detailed as new discoveries are made. If a new SNP is discovered in your branch of the Y-DNA tree, the new SNP will automatically be offered to you for purchase as a Stand Alone SNP test. This allows you to continue to refine your results over time as new discoveries are made. As new Y-DNA SNPs are discovered that are relevant to you, the test will automatically appear as an option on your account.

Y-DNA Backbone SNP Test (optional)

Y-DNA STR Test, minimum 20 STR markers

To confirm your YDNA Haplogroup

Y-DNA Subclade SNP Test (optional, only available for selected Haplogroups) Y-DNA Stand Alone SNP Test (optional, only available for selected Subclades)

Y-DNA Backbone SNP Test or a strong Haplogroup prediction strength from the Y-DNA STR test Y-DNA Subclade SNP Test

To confirm your YDNA Subclade

Tip: It is recommended that you begin by testing only your Y-DNA STR markers (20 markers minimum). Once you receive your results and have had a chance to better understand how genetic genealogy works and have become more familiar with DNA Ancestry Project features, you can decide whether additional testing is required in your particular case. All of the features in the DNA Ancestry Project are fully accessible with Y-DNA STR markers. 20 to 44 markers are more than sufficient in most cases. Testing more Y-DNA STR markers is recommended if you have found matches in DNA Reunion and wish to further fine tune the TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) calculation. Please remember that testing more Y-DNA STR markers will not confirm your Y-DNA Haplogroup. If your Y-DNA Haplogroup prediction strength is weak or medium, you can take the Y-DNA Backbone SNP test to confirm your Y-DNA Haplogroup. The Y-DNA Backbone SNP and Y-DNA Subclade SNP tests are optional and only intended for those individuals who wish to confirm their Y-DNA Haplogroup or determine their Y-DNA Subclade.

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Downloading Y-DNA Results

B. Downloading and printing your personal Y-DNA certificate


When your Y-DNA test has been completed, you will be notified by email. You can download and print your personal Y-DNA certificate directly from your account and then make use of the search and analysis features on the system to view your Haplogroup, find matches, compare with indigenous populations and compare against famous people in history.
Important! You will only be notified by email if you have registered your email to your account. If you have not yet registered your email to your account, go to www.genebase.com and login using the ID# and password provided in your DNA testing kit and the system will automatically prompt you to enter your email. If the system does not prompt you to enter your email, it means that your email is already registered. To view or change your email, login to your account, then click Settings at the top of the page, then click Contact Email.

Step 1: Download and print your personal Y-DNA certificate The first step is to download and print a copy of your personal Y-DNA certificate for your records. Your personal Y-DNA certificate contains your unique Y-DNA genetic code, also known as your genetic profile. To download and print your personal Y-DNA results certificate, follow these steps: 1. Go to www.genebase.com and login using the username and password provided in your testing kit. If you have already logged in previously and registered your email and reset your password, then login using your email and password.

Enter your username or email and password, then click Login. Your username and password are printed in the instruction manual that came with your DNA testing kit.


First time logging in? If this is the first time that you have logged in, you will be prompted to enter your email and select a new password. This step is optional, so if you dont have an email, you can skip this step. However, as long as you do not have an email registered to your account, you will be prompted to enter your email each time you login. Please note that the email is the unique identifier for an account so you cannot use the same email for more than one account. If you have multiple accounts for different members of your family, you will need to use a different email address for each account, or else you can choose not to enter an email for some of your accounts.

2.

Click My Tests to view your own tests and click My Familys Tests to view the tests that your family members have taken. Click View Results to view the results for each test.

Click My Tests to view a complete list of all of your own tests. Click My Familys Tests to view a complete list of all tests your family members have taken.

If the test has been completed, you will see a View Results link next to the completed test.


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Downloading Y-DNA Results


Multiple family accounts? If you had ordered DNA tests for other family members and their accounts do not appear in the My Familys Tests tab, it means that their accounts are not linked to your family tree. Contact us at support@genebase.com and let us know the name and order ID# of your relatives DNA tests and we will help you to link their accounts into your family tree. Once your accounts are linked into the same family tree, you will be able to view the results of your family members tests directly from your own account and trace multiple lines in your family tree.

3.

Next, click Print Certificate.


Click Print Certificate to download the test certificate.


4. Your Y-DNA certificate will show you your unique Y-DNA profile. Your Y-DNA profile is unique to you and your Paternal lineage and contains the unique genetic code for your Paternal ancestry. Your Paternal ancestors and all people who descended from the same Paternal line as you have exactly the same Y-DNA profile as you.
Print: Click here to print a copy of your personal Y-DNA certificate for your records.

Name:

The name of the person tested.

STR Marker Table: A table listing your unique Y-DNA profile results (your marker values for each STR marker tested)

Understanding your Y-DNA STR certificate: Your certificate lists each Y-DNA STR marker that was tested in your Y-DNA. The number on the right of each STR marker is your unique allele value for that marker. The unique pattern of values for all of the Y-DNA STR markers tested is called your Y-DNA STR Profile. Your Y-DNA STR Profile is unique to your Paternal ancestry. All males who have descended from the same Paternal lineage as you will have exactly the same or very similar Y-DNA STR profile as you, and that is how Y-DNA can conclusively confirm whether someone is related to you on your direct Paternal line.

Step 2: Tracing your Paternal Ancestry with Y-DNA


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Once your Y-DNA test has been completed, you can use your Y-DNA markers to research your Paternal ancestry and discover matches to your family lineage. You can connect with potential matches, build your family tree, and record your family history so that you can preserve your family history and share your findings with family, friends and future generations. Get Started - Genetic genealogy search and analysis tools for your Y-DNA markers: 1. DNA Haplogroups Find out which Y-DNA Haplogroup you belong to. Y-DNA Haplogroups are ancient Paternal family groups. Once you know which Y-DNA Haplogroup you belong to, you will know the general region of the world your Paternal ancestors came from, and the path they took to reach their ancestral homeland. 2. Indigenous DNA Compare your Y-DNA markers to indigenous populations from around the world to find out which indigenous populations are most similar to your Y-DNA type. 3. DNA Reunion All people who descended from the same Paternal ancestor as you will have exactly the same Y-DNA profile as you. Use your YDNA marker profile to search the DNA Reunion database to find potential family links on the Paternal side of your family. 4. DNA Archaeology Compare your Y-DNA markers to famous people in history to see if you share a common ancestor. The next few sections of this manual will provide you with step-by-step instructions for each of the 4 search and analysis features above.

Multiple family accounts? As long as the accounts for different people in your family are linked into your family tree, you will be able to see their results directly from your own account. If you need help linking different family member accounts into your family tree, please contact us at support@genebase.com for assistance.

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Downloading Y-DNA Results

C. DNA Haplogroups (Y-DNA)


What are Y-DNA Haplogroups? DNA studies have shown that all people living today can trace their ancestry back to common roots in Africa approximately 150,000 years ago. Over time, man eventually journeyed out of Africa, and in many waves of migrations which spanned tens of thousands of years, eventually populated the rest of the world. During these ancient journeys, small mutations called SNPs occurred randomly in their Y-DNA. Each SNP acts as a time-and-date stamp which allows us to understand the approximate time and location in the journey our ancestors were when the SNP first occurred. Once a SNP occurs, it is passed down to all future generations and serves as a marker which allows us to approximate where our ancestors were in specific timepoints every few thousand years along the ancient migration out of Africa. Today, our Y-DNA and mtDNA contain a rich collection of SNP markers, passed down to us from our ancient ancestors over thousands of years. Using SNPs found in our Y-DNA, all people living today can be plotted onto a Paternal tree of mankind called the Y-DNA Phylogenetic Tree. The main branches of the tree are called Y-DNA Haplogroups. The finer sub-branches of the tree are called Y-DNA Subclades. By testing the STR markers in your Y-DNA, you can predict which Y-DNA Haplogroup you descended from. By further testing SNPs in your Y-DNA, you will be able to conclusively confirm your Y-DNA Haplogroup.

Y-DNA Haplogroups are associated with different regions of the world. The following chart shows the Y-DNA Haplogroups found in each region.
Region/Population Native Americans Oceanic and Aboriginal Australians East Asian South Asian (i.e. India) Europe and Middle East Diverse African Major Y-DNA Haplogroups found in regions/population specified C, Q C, K, M, N, S, C, D, N, O, Q, C, H, L, I, J, R, T, F, G, P, A, B, E, Refer to Appendix 1 Summary of Y-DNA Haplogroups on page 30 of this manual for details of each Y-DNA Haplogroup.

What you will find out The DNA Haplogroups section allows you to use your Y-DNA STR results to predict which ancient Paternal family group Y-DNA Haplogroup you belong to. Y-DNA Haplogroups are associated with specific migration paths leading to specific regions of the world, so once you know which Y-DNA Haplogroup you belong to, you will know the general geographic location of the world your Paternal ancestors came from, i.e. Asia, Europe, Americas (Native American), Africa, Middle East, Australia, etc. Requirements - - - To view your predicted Y-DNA Haplogroup, you must have your Y-DNA STR results (at least 20 STR markers). To view your confirmed Y-DNA Haplogroup, you must have your Y-DNA Backbone SNP results (or a strong prediction based on your Y-DNA STR results). To view your confirmed Y-DNA Subclade, you must have your Y-DNA SNP Subclade results.

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Downloading Y-DNA Results


To view your Y-DNA Haplogroup or Subclade, follow these steps: 1. Login to your account at www.genebase.com.

Enter your username or email and password, then click Login.

2.

Click DNA Haplogroups tab at the top of the page.

Click DNA Haplogroups.

3.

Click Y-DNA Haplogroups tab.


Click Y-DNA Haplogroups tab.

4.

Next, click View

Important! If other members of your family have tested, their names will appear in the Select a family member dropdown list. If they do not appear in this list, it means that their account has not yet been connected to your family tree. Contact us at support@genebase.com for assistance linking your accounts together.

If more than one person in your family has been tested, select whether you wish to view your own Y-DNA Haplogroup or the Y-DNA Haplogroup of another member of your family.

If you have also taken the Y-DNA SNP Subclade test you will have the option of viewing Haplogroup or Subclade. 2012 DNA Ancestry Project | support@genebase.com 9

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Downloading Y-DNA Results


5. If you had only tested your Y-DNA STR markers, your predicted Y-DNA Haplogroup will appear on the right side of the page. If you have also taken the Y-DNA SNP Backbone test, your confirmed Y-DNA Haplogroup will appear on the right side of the page. If you had take the Y-DNA SNP Subclade test, your confirmed Y-DNA Subclade will appear on the right side of the page if you are viewing your Subclade results.
Further Studies: Click here to see whether there are further tests available to refine your Haplogroup or Subclade.

Generate Report: Click here to print a summary report of your YDNA Haplogroup results for your records and for sharing with family and friends.

Description: Click here to view what is currently known today about the distribution of your YDNA Haplogroup.

Timeline: A timeline is shown which illustrates the genetic path taken by your ancestors. The letters in the timeline represents the parent Haplogroups from which you descended from in the order that it occurred. The numbers under the letters show the genetic markers which are found in those Haplogroups.

Migration map: The migration map shows the approximate migration path your ancestors took and the approximate region of the world that they settled.

Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroup: After taking your Y-DNA STR test, your Y-DNA Haplogroup is predicted by comparing your Y-DNA STR markers to the Y-DNA STR marker results of individuals who have already taken both the STR test and the SNP Backbone test and have already confirmed their Y-DNA Haplogroup. The closest matching Haplogroup is shown here and a prediction strength is provided. The only way to conclusively determine your YDNA Haplogroup by taking the Y-DNA SNP Backbone test.

Origin: Furthest known male ancestor, also known as YChromosomal Adam. All people living today descended from this man.

Y-DNA Phylogenetic Tree: Click here to view your placement in the Y-DNA Phylogenetic tree of mankind. This tree shows how all known Y-DNA Haplogroups are interconnected with each other. It also shows you exactly where you fit into the Y-DNA Phylogenetic tree of mankind. Genetic Markers: The genetic markers found in each Haplogroup and Subclade are listed.

Haplogroup: Main branches of Y-DNA Phylogenetic tree.

Subclade: Further subbranches of Y-DNA Phylogenetic tree.

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D. Indigenous DNA (Y-DNA)


The Indigenous DNA feature is a unique search engine that allows you to compare your Y-DNA STR marker profile to the Y-DNA profile of published indigenous populations from around the world to see which populations most closely match your Y-DNA type. Scientists are racing against time to collect and test the DNA of the remaining indigenous population groups living today. Their studies and data are published in peer reviewed scientific journals. This feature allows you to search through the published articles to find out which published population most closely matches your Y-DNA STR profile. - To use the Y-DNA comparison feature, you must have at least 20 or more Y-DNA STR markers tested.

5. Click on each journal to


download the article or to read the abstract.

1. Scientists around the world test


indigenous populations.

2. The data for each indigenous


population is published and archived in peer reviewed articles in scientific journals.

4. The search engine ranks the


articles in the order of most similar to least similar to your DNA type.

3. You personal DNA profile is


used to search for articles which contain data that most closely match your DNA type.

Note: This search feature uses only Y-DNA STR markers. Y-DNA SNP markers are not used for this search feature.

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To compare against indigenous populations, follow these steps: 1. Login to your account at www.genebase.com.

Enter your username or email and password, then click Login

2.

Click Indigenous DNA tab at the top of the page.

Click Indigenous DNA

3.

Next, click Compare Y-DNA tab.


Click Compare Y-DNA tab

4.

Next, click Search

If more than one person in your family has been tested, select whose Y-DNA you wish to use to search.

Select the minimum number of markers to be used for comparison. A lower number will result in comparison to a larger pool of populations while a higher number results in a more stringent search. The default setting is 6.

Important! If other members of your family have tested, their names will appear in the Select a family member dropdown list. If they do not appear in this list, it means that their account has not yet been connected to your family tree. Contact us at support@genebase.com for assistance in linking your accounts together.

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5. Next, click Run Analysis next to the population set that you wish to search.
Click Run Analysis for the population set that you wish to search. Population sets: The system presents all possible population sets that you can search using your STR markers.

6.

The populations are ranked in the order of most similar to least similar to your Y-DNA type.
Most similar ranked at top of list Relative Match Index: RMI stands for relative match index. It is a measure of how similar a population is to you in ranking relative to other populations in the list.

Download Article in PDF: A PDF symbol means that the scientific journal that this population was published in has a publicly accessible full text copy that you can download for free. Click to download and print the journal. View Abstract: If no PDF symbol is shown, it means that the article that this population was published in is not open to the public. Click on the link to read the abstract for the journal.

Least similar ranked at bottom of list

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E. DNA Reunion (Y-DNA)


The DNA Reunion section allows you to search the database using your Y-DNA profile to find long lost family members in your Paternal lineage and discover potential links to your family tree. Requirements - - To use DNA Reunion, you must have at least 20 or more Y-DNA STR markers. This search feature only uses Y-DNA STR markers. Y-DNA SNP markers are not used for this search.

Y-DNA matches When you search the DNA Reunion database, you are looking for other individuals who may share a common Paternal ancestor as yourself based on similarities in your Y-DNA STR profile. If your Y-DNA STR profile is very different from another person, it proves that you do not share the same Paternal lineage.

Common Paternal Ancestor

Son #1: John Smith DOB: 1830 same Y-DNA STR profile as David Smith


Brothers

Son #2: David Smith DOB: 1835 same Y-DNA STR profile as John Smith

Y-DNA is passed down from father to son. Only males have Y-DNA so only sons can pass the Y-DNA down to the next generation.

Reconnecting family using Y-DNA: These individuals can be re-connected through Y-DNA STR testing because they share a common Paternal ancestor and will have exactly the same or very similar Y-DNA profile.

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To search for matches to your Paternal lineage, follow these steps: 1. Login to your account at www.genebase.com.

Enter your username or email and password, then click Login

2.

Click DNA Reunion tab at the top of the page.

Click DNA Reunion

3.

Click Y-DNA Match tab.


Click Y-DNA Match tab

4.

Next, click Find Matches

Important! If other members of your family have tested, their names will appear in the Select a family member dropdown list. If they do not appear in this list, it means that their account has not yet been connected to your family tree. Contact us at support@genebase.com for assistance in linking your accounts together.

If more than one person in your family has been tested, select whether you wish to search using your own Y-DNA or the YDNA of another member of your family.

Select the genetic distance. A genetic distance of 0 represents a perfect match. The lower the genetic distance, the more stringent the search.

Select the minimum number of markers to be used for comparison. A lower number will allow you to compare to a larger pool of people (increasing the chances of finding a match) while a higher number results in a more stringent search. The default setting is 6.

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5. Below is an example of the Y-DNA search results screen. All people in the database who are a close match to your YDNA profile will be listed.

Ethnicity: Click here to sort your matches by ethnicity

List: Click here to sort your matches in a list view

Genetic Distance: Genetic distance refers to the number of mismatches between your DNA and the DNA of the person you are comparing against. A genetic distance of 0 is a perfect match.

Matching Markers: Matching markers refers to the number of STR markers that are matching versus the total number of STR markers compared between two individuals.

Map: Click here to view where your matches are currently located

Name of matching individual: Click here to view the profile page of the matching individual.

TMRCA: Click this button to calculate how many generations ago you and the matching individual shared a common Paternal ancestor.

Compare markers: Click this button to compare your markers against the matching individual.

Contact matches: Click this button to contact the matching individual. A pop-up window will appear which allows you to write an internal message to the matching individual.


The more STR markers compared, the more stringent the comparison. Please remember that the number of markers compared depends on the number of markers you have tested versus the number of markers the other individual has tested. For example, if you had tested 91 markers, but the person that you are comparing against only tested 20 markers so far, then the maximum number of markers that can be compared is 20 markers, until the other individual tests more markers.

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How are matches ranked? Matches are ranked based on TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) Contacting matches You can contact your matches to see if you can identify the common link in your family tree. To follow are 4 tips for steps you should take to optimize your profile before contacting your matches:

Tip #1.

Complete your Profile Page: Ensure that your profile

Tip #2.

Build your Family Tree: Add as much as you know

page provides sufficient information about yourself so that your match can view your profile and understand a little bit about you and your research objectives before deciding to respond.

about your ancestors as possible to your family tree. The main goal of contacting matches is to share and compare your family trees and identify where you may have shared the common ancestor.

Tip #3. Adjust your Privacy Settings:

Ensure that your

Tip #4. Prepare an Informative Message:

When writing a

privacy setting allows at least basic information about yourself to be displayed. If you are concerned about privacy, set your tree to my family and friends, then invite your matches to be friends so that they can view your family tree.

message, try to be as specific and detailed as possible. Provide information regarding why you are contacting them, and also include a little bit of history about what you are trying to research and what you are hoping to establish from the contact. If you have little or no profile information and write a generic and non-informative message, it is likely that the recipient will not respond to you. - Introduce who you are - Explain what you are trying to find out - Describe what you know about your Maternal ancestry - Encourage your match to have a look at your profile page and your family tree and see if any common links can be identified.

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F. DNA Archaeology (Y-DNA)


The DNA Archaeology section allows you to compare your Y-DNA profile to famous people in history. Scientists are uncovering the Y-DNA profile of famous people in history using one of several methods, as summarized in the chart below. As the DNA types of more famous individuals are uncovered, they will be added to this section, so check back occasionally.

How is the DNA profile of the famous person obtained?

Is famous person living? Yes No

DNA is collected directly from famous individual.

Are the remains of the famous individual available for testing? Yes No

Forensic collection of DNA from remains of deceased individual. Example: The remains of Luke the Evangelist, the patron saint of physicians and surgeons were tested to obtain his mtDNA type.

Is there biological material available from the famous individual? i.e. hair, blood, etc. No Yes

Is there a known relative of the famous individual?

DNA is collected from biological material from deceased individual. Example: Hair samples from Marie Antoinette stored in a document was tested to obtain her mtDNA type. No

Yes

Is the relative living? Yes No Yes

Can DNA type be inferred? No

DNA is collected from known living relative. Example: A blood sample was collected from Prince Philip to obtain Queen Victorias mtDNA type. Yes

Are the remains of the deceased relative available for testing?

No

DNA is collected from remains of deceased relative. Example:: The body of Tsar Nicholas Romanovs brother was exhumed to obtain the DNA type of the Romanovs.

Is there biological material available from the deceased relative?

Yes

No

DNA is collected from biological material of deceased relative. Example: Hair samples from rosary beads from Marie Antoinettes sisters were tested to obtain her mtDNA type.

Infer from sudden changes in DNA type of a population. Example: Mongolian DNA is present in a small percentage of people in Europe. The Mongolian DNA type was introduced to Europe around the time that Genghis Khan invaded Europe. By inference, we can assume that the Mongolian DNA type that we detect today belonged to Genghis Khan and his troops).

Cannot trace this individual.

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To compare against famous people in history, follow these steps: 1. Login to your account at www.genebase.com.

Enter your username or email and password, then click Login

2.

Click DNA Archaeology tab at the top of the page.

Click DNA Archaeology

3.

Next, click Read to read more about the person you wish to compare against.

Click Read

4.

Next, click Discover your relation to compare against the person

Click Discover your relation to

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5. Next, click Select.
If more than one person in your family has been tested, select which family members Y-DNA you wish to compare. Important! If other members of your family have tested, their names will appear in this list. If they do not appear in this list, it means that their account has not yet been connected to your family tree. Contact us at support@genebase.com for assistance in linking your accounts together.

Click Select

6.

Your Y-DNA profile will be compared to the person and an analysis is provided regarding whether you are a match.

Your Y-DNA Profile: Your YDNA Profile is shown here.

Famous Persons Y-DNA Profile: The Y-DNA Profile of the person you are comparing against is shown here.

Match Results: Analysis summary, indicating whether you are matching the individual compared.

Direct Y-DNA Comparison: Direct comparison of your YDNA markers versus the Y-DNA markers of the famous person.

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G. Frequently Asked Questions:


Am I Native American? Y-DNA testing will allow you to find out if you are Native American on your direct Paternal line and mtDNA DNA testing will allow you to find out if you are Native American on your direct Maternal line. If you are Native American on your Paternal lineage, your Y-DNA test results will show that you belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup Q. If your Y-DNA Haplogroup is NOT Q, it means that you are NOT Native American on your direct Paternal lineage. If you are Native American on your Maternal lineage, your mtDNA test results will show that you belong to one of the known mtDNA Haplogroups that are found in Asians and Native Americans. Native Americans belong to mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C, D and X. Cherokees belong mainly to groups B and C. If your mtDNA Haplogroup is NOT one of known Native American Haplogroups listed above, it means that you are NOT Native American on your direct Maternal lineage. Please remember that your Y-DNA traces your Paternal line (father's father's father's.... line) and your mtDNA traces your Maternal line (mother's mother's mother's.... line). If your native ancestry is on a different line, such as your mother's father's line, you will not be able to trace that line using your own DNA. To find out who needs to be tested to trace different lines, we recommend using the Family Tree tool. The Family Tree tool has a built in calculator which shows you who needs to be tested to trace different lines in your family.

Am I Jewish? Both males and females can test their mtDNA to investigate their Maternal ancestry (mother's mothers mothers.... Maternal lineage). While there is no such thing as a "Jewish" gene which is found only in Jews, there are certain Haplogroups that are more strongly associated with individuals of Jewish descent. The mtDNA Haplogroups most commonly found in Ashkenazi Jews are K (31.9%), H (20.4%), N (10.1%), J (8.1%), HV (5.8%), U (5.8%) and T (4.8%).. Males can test their Y-DNA to trace their Paternal lineage, but females wishing to trace their Paternal lineage must test the Y-DNA of a male family member such as a brother, father, or another male relative on the Paternal lineage. Much like mtDNA, there is no Jewish Y-DNA type which is only found in Jews. However, there are Y-DNA Haplogroups which are commonly found in individuals of Jewish descent. The most common Y-DNA Haplogroups found in Jews are J (38%), E (20.4%), R1b (30.7%), G (9.7%), R1a (7.5%). Together, Y-DNA Haplogroups J and E make up almost 60% of all Jews. In particular, Y-DNA Haplogroup J1 is strongly associated with Cohanim Jews. The Cohanim modal haplotype, which is strongly associated with Cohanim ancestry is as follows: DYS393 = 12 DYS390 = 23 DYS19 = 14 DYS391 = 10 DYS388 = 16 DYS392 = 11 The "Cohanim Modal Haplotype is found in 45% to 70% of Cohanim Jews.

Am I African? Doesnt everyone come from Africa? DNA studies have shown that everyone originated from Africa over 150,000 years ago, but not all families stayed in Africa. Even though everyone originated from Africa, many ancient family groups Haplogroups migrated out of Africa to populate different parts of the world. The DNA test will tell you which Haplogroup you belong to. Your Haplogroup is associated with a specific region of the world, and not necessarily Africa. The only people who stayed in Africa are Africans, and Africans belong to Haplogroups that are found mainly in Africa. Refer to the following mtDNA and Y-DNA Haplogroup table to view a summary of the major mtDNA Haplogroups found in different regions of the world.

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mtDNA Haplogroups: Region Native Americans Oceanic and Aboriginal Australians East Asian South Asian (i.e. India) Europe and Middle East African Y-DNA Haplogroups: Region/Population Native Americans Oceanic and Aboriginal Australians East Asian South Asian (i.e. India) Europe and Middle East Diverse African Major Y-DNA Haplogroups found in regions/populations specified C, Q C, K, M, N, S, C, D, N, O, Q, C, H, L, I, J, R, T, F, G, P, A, B, E,
Refer to Appendix 1 Summary of Y-DNA Haplogroups on page 30 of this manual for details of each Y-DNA Haplogroup.

Major mtDNA Haplogroups found in region specified A, B, C, D, X P, Q, R, S A, B, C, D, E, F, G, M, Y, Z G, M, R, W H, HV, HV0, I, J, JT, K, R0, T, U, V, W, X L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6

How can I find out about % ancestry? Due to the manner in which Y-DNA and mtDNA are inherited, they can only trace the direct Paternal line or the direct Maternal line and cannot provide percentage of mixed ancestry from other lines. The only marker that is inherited from multiple lines is Autosomal DNA. The % ethnicity test that some people refer to is done using the Autosomal DNA test. While we provide Autosomal DNA testing, we do not recommend using it for mixed ancestry as the purpose of Autosomal DNA is for relationship testing and it is not recognized for the purpose of ancestry testing in the scientific community. Some genealogists enter their Autosomal DNA results into a program called Omnipop to examine percentage of mixed ancestry, i.e. the % ethnicity that some people refer to. The following link may be helpful if you are interested in reading more about mixed ancestry with Autosomal DNA: http://www.genebase.com/tutorial/item.php?tuId=33 The link above provides a link to download the Omnipop program for free. To use the Omnipop program, enter your Autosomal DNA results into the program and it will automatically calculate percentages.

Can DNA ancestry testing tell me a date or specific city? No. That is impossible. No DNA test can do that. There are no DNA markers that are specific to an exact date or city.

Can DNA tell me a specific country or race? DNA testing can predict or confirm which Haplogroup you belong to. Due to admixture, there are no DNA types which are exclusive to only one country. However, there are DNA types which are found in greater frequency in a certain country. Once you find out which Haplogroup you belong to, you can find out which countries have the highest concentration of people of your genetic type.

Can DNA give me names? No. DNA can be used to search for the people who are close matches to you and let you know their surnames, but it cannot give you a name.
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Will it tell me the general region of the world my ancestors came from? Yes. When you test your mtDNA , you will find out which Haplogroup you belong to. Different Haplogroups are found specifically in different regions of the world. Refer to Appendix 1 of this manual for details.

Which line will Y-DNA trace? Paternal line (fathers, fathers, fathers.. line).

Which line will mtDNA trace? Maternal line (mothers, mothers, mothers.. Maternal line).

Which line will Y-DNA trace? Paternal line (fathers, fathers, fathers.. Paternal line).

Will it tell me if I am Native American? Yes, Native Americans belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup Q on their Paternal line, and one of 5 possible mtDNA Haplogroups: A, B, C, D, and X on their Maternal line. If you are Native American on your direct Paternal or Maternal lineages, your Y-DNA and mtDNA test will show that you belong to one of the Native American Haplogroups. If your results show a Haplogroup that is not one of the possible Native American Haplogroups, it means that you are not Native American on your direct Paternal or Maternal lineage.

Will it tell me if I have Jewish Ancestry? It will show you if you belong to a Haplogroup which is found in high frequencies in Jews. While there is no such thing as a "Jewish" gene, there are certain Haplogroups that are more strongly associated with individuals of Jewish descent. Both males and females can test their mtDNA to investigate their Maternal ancestry (mother's mother's mother's.... lineage). The mtDNA Haplogroups most commonly found in Ashkenazi Jews are K (31.9%), H (20.4%), N (10.1%), J (8.1%), HV (5.8%), U (5.8%) and T (4.8%). Males can test their Y-DNA to trace their Paternal lineage, but females wishing to trace their Paternal lineage must test the Y-DNA of a male family member such as a brother, father, or another male relative on the Paternal lineage. Much like mtDNA, there is no such thing as a Jewish Y-DNA type which is only found in Jews. However, there are Y-DNA Haplogroups which are commonly found in individuals of Jewish descent. The most common Y-DNA Haplogroups found in Jews are J (38%), E (20.4%), R1b (30.7%), G (9.7%), R1a (7.5%), Q (5.2%). Together, Y-DNA Haplogroups J and E make up almost 60% of all Jews. In particular, Haplogroup J1 is strongly associated with Cohanim Jews. The Cohanim modal haplotype, which is strongly associated with Cohanim ancestry is as follows: DYS393 = 12 DYS390 = 23 DYS19 = 14 DYS391 = 10 DYS388 = 16 DYS392 = 11 While Haplogroups can often be used to exclude or not exclude Jewish ancestry, Y-DNA STRs can also be helpful. The "Cohanim Modal Haplotype" shown above is found in 45 to 70% of Cohanim Jews.

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Surprises or lack of surprises with results? Examples of some common types of questions: I am European but my test results show that I am Native American/Asian, why? I know I am European and the test shows that I am European, I didnt learn anything I didnt already know. I am African American but my results show that I am South Asian, why? Family legend indicates that I am Native American but my results indicate European, why? DNA testing will give you the truth about your ancestry. For some, it will confirm what you already know or suspect. For others, it will bring completely surprising and shocking results that contradict what was previously known, and yet for others, it will confirm or reject family legends. The laboratory has absolutely no control over what your results will be, but it can guarantee that the test will show you what you really are, regardless of whether the results are a surprise, shock, disappointment, or confirmation.

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H. Glossary
Allele: The alternative forms of a genetic marker at a single locus. In the Y-DNA, each allele is the numeric result for each STR marker tested. Each STR marker is a single locus. Anthropology: The study of humanity, including the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics, and social customs and beliefs of humankind. Atlantic Modal Haplotype: A Y-DNA STR haplotype found frequently in male individuals from western Europe: DYS19 = 14, DYS388 = 12, DYS390 = 24, DYS391 = 11, DYS392 = 13, DYS393 = 13. Autosomal DNA: A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, normally appearing in pairs in somatic cells. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes: 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (X and Y sex chromosomes). The X chromosome and Y chromosome are not autosomes. Backbone SNP Test: A SNP test which specifically examines the SNP markers required to confirm an individual's Y-DNA or mtDNA Haplogroup. Base: An important component of DNA consisting of a purine linked by hydrogen bonds to a pyrimidine. The bases found in DNA are A (adenine), T (thymine), G (guanine) and C (cytosine). Base Pair (bp): The pair of bases, consisting of a purine linked by hydrogen bonds to a pyrimidine that connects the complementary strands of DNA or of hybrid molecules joining DNA and RNA. The base pairs in DNA are A (adenine) which pairs with T (thymine) , and G (guanine) which pairs with C (cytosine). Branch: In reference to the SNP Y-DNA and mtDNA Phylogenetic tree, a branch is the point of divergence in the tree. For example, R1 and R2 are branches of R. R1a and R1b are further "sub-branches" of R1. Carrier: An individual who carries a DNA marker of interest. Chromosome: The threadlike linear strand of DNA and its associated proteins. Carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information. Humans have 22 pairs of chromosomes plus the sex chromosome (X and Y). Found in the nucleus of the cell. Clade: Also known as a Haplogroup. In relation to genetic genealogy, refers to the grouping of humans traced to common ancestors detected through shared SNP markers in the mtDNA and Y-DNA Phylogenetic tree. Coding Region: The region of mtDNA which is functional and codes for protein. SNP markers are not as abundant in the Coding region compared to the Control region but markers found here are often critical for mtDNA Haplogroup and Subclade determination. CODIS (Combined DNA Index System): CODIS is a distributed database system for documenting and comparing genetic profiles. CODIS specifies the following 13 autosomal DNA loci as a standard: (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, THO1, TPOX, CSF1PO). We test all CODIS loci and also 2 additional loci (D2S1338 and D19S433), resulting in a more informative result than using the CODIS loci alone. Cohen Modal Haplotype: A Y-DNA STR haplotype found frequently in male individuals of Jewish Cohanim descent: DYS393 = 12, DYS390 = 23, DYS19 = 14, DYS391 = 10, DYS385a = 13, DYS385b = 15, DYS426 = 11,, DYS388 = 16, DYS439 = 12, DYS389I = 13, DYS389II = 30, DYS392 = 11. Confirmed Haplogroup: A mtDNA or Y-DNA Haplogroup designation for an individual which has been confirmed through SNP backbone testing. Control Region: A region of the mtDNA which does not code for functional proteins. Contains the HVR1 and HVR2 regions which are abundant in SNP markers which are useful for Maternal ancestral analysis. CPI (Combined Paternity Index): The CPI is calculated by multiplying the PI values for each independent locus and is the total paternity index for the loci examined. A CPI of 0 corresponds to a 0% probability of paternity (paternity exclusion) whereas a CPI of >1000 corresponds to a probability of paternity of >99.9% (paternity inclusion). CRS (Cambridge Reference Sequence): The first human mtDNA ever fully sequenced and published. All mtDNA sequences are compared against the CRS and any differences from CRS are noted as positive (mutations). Cytoplasm: The part of the cell enclosed within the cell membrane and contains organelles such as mitochondria and the nucleus of the cell.
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D-Loop: A non-functional region of the mtDNA which contains the HVR1 and HVR2 region; This region contains an abundance of SNP markers which are important for Maternal ancestral analysis. Deep Ancestry: A study of the ancestry over a time frame of tens of thousands of years to our common roots in Africa. Tested using SNP markers for mtDNA and Y-DNA Haplogroup and Subclade determination. Deletion: When referring to SNPs, a deletion refers to the remove of one or more than one nucleotides (A, C, T, or G) from a defined location in the DNA. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): The molecule that carries the genetic information of all living organisms. In human, DNA is found in two locations: as chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell and in mtDNA in the mitochondrial of the cell. DNA Fingerprint: The data obtained from a DNA test, represented by numbers. The genetic profile of an individual does not vary with the age or tissue type of that individual. The genetic profile can therefore be used in forensic investigations to determine if two samples are derived from the same person. Note that identical twins will share identical genetic profiles. DYS, DYF, DYZ: The prefix found in the naming method for many Y-DNA STR markers, usually followed by numbers. D stands for DNA and Y stands for Y-Chromosome. Gene: A segment of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism by directing the formation of a protein. Genes undergo mutation when their DNA sequence change. Genetic Distance: When referring to Y-DNA STR markers, genetic distance refers to the total net difference between the markers compared. Genetic Event: A detectable change (mutation) in the DNA which is passed down to further generations. SNP mutations are considered genetic events and mark the branches of the Phylogenetic tree. Genetic Genealogy: The use of DNA testing to help individuals to trace their ancestry. Grandparentage Index: A statistical likelihood ratio representing a comparison of the probability that the individuals are related versus the probability that the individuals are unrelated. A kinship index is calculated for each locus and is used to calculate the Combined Grandparentage Index. Haplogroup: Also known as a Clade. In relation to genetic genealogy, refers to the grouping of humans traced to common ancestors detected through shared SNP markers in the mtDNA and Y-DNA Phylogenetic tree. Named by alphanumeric labels, such as R1a, I1b, etc. Haplotype: The combination of alleles at multiple loci that are on the same chromosome. In Y-DNA, refers to the combined results of all of the Y-DNA STR markers that are tested. Heteroplasmy: The presence of a mixture of more than one type of mtDNA and an individual's cytoplasm. Human Genome Project: A global research project aimed to determine the DNA sequence of the entire human genome. Official HGP information page. HVR1 Region: Locations 16,000 to 16,579 of the mtDNA Hypervariable Region (D-Loop); Contains abundant SNP markers which are informative for Maternal ancestral testing. HVR2 Region: Locations 1 to 400 of the mtDNA Hypervariable Region (D-Loop). Contains abundant SNP markers which are informative for Maternal ancestral testing. Hypervariable Region (HVR-1, HVR-2): Specific regions of the mtDNA that do not code for protein. In humans, the HVR region typically contains a large number of mutations which can be used to derive ancestry. The entire mtDNA is 16,569 base pairs in length. The HVR1 region is found within base pairs 16001 to 16569, and the HVR2 region is found between base pairs 1 to 574. Testing the HVR1 and HVR2 regions of the mtDNA is usually the starting point for ancestral studies. Indigenous DNA: The DNA type of individuals from populations or ethnic groups who have historically inhabited a geographical region. Indigenous DNA Database: A database consisting of DNA types from indigenous populations. Data in such database is not the same as the data from participants as participants in the project are not considered indigenous peoples. Only data from peer reviewed journals are included in the indigenous DNA database.

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Insertion: When referring to SNPs, an insertion refers to the addition of one or more than one nucleotide (A, C, T, or G) in a defined region of the DNA. Kinship Index: A statistical likelihood ratio representing a comparison of the probability that individuals are related versus the probability that the individuals are unrelated. A kinship index is calculated for each locus and is used to calculate the Combined Kinship Index. Locus (plural Loci): A fixed position on a chromosome. In Y-DNA, each STR marker is tested is a locus and the numeric result obtained for each STR marker is an allele, and the combined results of all of the alleles tested on the Y-DNA is called the haplotype (not to be confused with Haplogroup). Marker: A detectable genetic mutation type that can be measured through DNA testing. STR and SNP markers are commonly tested on the Y-DNA and SNP markers are detected on the mtDNA. Match Probability: The probability of a random match of a genetic profile within a population. For example, a match probability of 1:10 (i.e., 0.1) indicates that there is a 0.1 (i.e., 10%) chance of a random match in the population, whereas a match probability of 1:100 (i.e., 0.01) indicates that there is only a 0.01 (i.e., 1%) chance of a random match in the population. A 1:100 match probability is therefore a better indication that two samples are derived from the same individual than a match probability of 1:10. Matching Markers: When comparing Y-DNA STR markers between two or more individuals, matching markers refers to the number of STR markers that have identical allele values versus the total number of overlapping markers compared. Maternal Lineage: The direct Maternal line i.e. mother's, mother's, mother's.... line. This line can be traced by testing an individual's mtDNA since mtDNA is passed down from mother to child. Meiosis: A type of cell division that produces gametes (sperm and egg) which have a haploid chromosome number (23 single unpaired chromosomes instead of 23 pairs of chromosomes). Microsatellite Repeats: Also known as STR (Short tandem repeats). Short stretches of DNA usually 2 to 4 base pairs in length that repeat over and over again and the number of repeats can differ between different individuals or families. Minimal Haplotype: In reference to the DNA Clans indigenous DNA database, minimum haplotype refers to the STR profiles that have been tested in common for a group of populations. Mitochondria: An energy producing organelle which is found in the cytoplasm of our cells. Contains mtDNA. Mitosis: Cell division in which the resulting cells maintain the same number of chromosomes (23 pairs of chromosomes). Modal Haplotype: A haplotype which has been identified to occur at high frequencies in a particular population and is thus strongly associated with people from that population group. Examples include the Atlantic Modal Haplotype and Cohen Modal Haplotype. Motif: A defined DNA sequence. In genetic genealogy, a motif refers to the sequence in the Y-DNA that is counted as a repeat when assigning allele numbers. The motif is especially important for individuals wishing to compare Y-DNA STR markers between different laboratories. If the motif and counting method used by a laboratory is openly published, comparison is permitted between different labs. MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor): The most recent ancestor from which the individuals compared descended. mtDNA: The type of DNA found in mitochondria in the cytoplasm of cells. Passed down from mother to child along the Maternal line. Contains markers for tracing Maternal ancestry. mtDNA Tests: Genetic tests which examine the DNA sequence in mtDNA either through sequencing or SNP analysis. Mutation: A change in the DNA sequence. Examples of mutation types important in genetic genealogy include changes at a single base pair called "SNP" mutation or changes in the number of short repeats called "STR" mutation. Negative SNP Marker: When referring to mtDNA, refers to single locations in the mtDNA which are the same as CRS. If someone is negative for 16223, that means that at location 16223 of the mtDNA, their marker is the same as CRS. When referring to Y-DNA, refers to SNP markers which the same as the ancestral type. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Testing): Federal agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce with the mission to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology. NIST maintains STRBase and standards for Y-DNA STR markers. Nomenclature: Rules used for forming names for genetic markers.
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Nucleotide: The basic structural unit of DNA and RNA consisting of a deoxyribose or ribose sugar, joined with a purine (A or G) or pyrimidine (T or C) base and a phosphate group. When linked together, the chain of nucleotides form the DNA strand. Nucleus: A membrane enclosed structure found in the central region of the cell which contains most of the cell's DNA (chromosomes). Organelle: Membrane bound compartments within the cell that have specific functions such as the mitochondria. Overlapping Markers: Markers which you have tested which someone else have also tested. When comparing two or more individuals, overlapping markers are compared. Paternal Lineage: The direct Paternal line i.e. father's, father's, father's.... line. This line can be traced by testing an individual's YDNA since Y-DNA is passed down from father to son. Paternity Index (PI): A likelihood ratio representing a comparison of the probability that the alleged father is the biological father versus the probability that a random man in the population is the biological father. A PI is calculated for each locus and is used to calculate the combined paternity index and probability of paternity. Phylogenetic Tree: A tree which shows evolutionary relationships between organisms that have a common ancestor. In human ancestry, the Y-DNA Phylogenetic tree is constructed based on SNP markers in the Y-DNA and the mtDNA Phylogenetic tree is constructed based on SNP markers in the mtDNA and shows how all humans descended from common Paternal and Maternal ancestors respectively. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Technique for amplifying specific regions of DNA by multiple cycles of DNA polymerization. PCR is the method used by the DNA laboratory to amplify specific loci for analysis, and is capable of producing a genetic profile from very small amounts of sample. Polymorphism: The genetic variation between individuals or populations. Population Genetics: The study of differences in genetic material between different populations. Positive SNP marker: When referring to mtDNA, refers to single locations in the mtDNA which differs from CRS. If someone is positive for 16223, that means that at location 16223 of the mtDNA, their marker differs from CRS. When referring to Y-DNA, refers to SNP markers which are not the ancestral type. Power of Exclusion (PE): The ability of an assay to discriminate between a real match and a non-match. Predicted Haplogroup: In reference to Y-DNA, a Y-DNA Haplogroup that is predicted through Y-DNA STR testing but not yet confirmed through Y-DNA SNP backbone testing. In reference to mtDNA, a mtDNA Haplogroup that is predicted through HVR1 and/or HVR2 testing but has not yet been confirmed by testing the Coding Region through mtDNA SNP backbone testing. Prior Probability: This is a value ranging from 0 (impossible) to 1 (absolute certainty). A prior probability value of 0.5 is commonly used. Probability of Paternity: A statistical percentage based upon the combined paternity index and prior probability, describing the probability that the alleged father is the biological father of the child. A 0% probability of paternity indicates a paternity exclusion and a probability of paternity of 99.9% or greater is indicative of a paternity inclusion. RMI (Relative Match Index): A measure of how closely your Y-DNA STR haplotype matches those of defined population groups as compared to all other population groups in the comparison. For example, a RMI of 100 means that you are 100 times more likely to belong to that population set as compared to the rest of the populations. Sequencing: A laboratory process to read an entire length of DNA, usually up to 500 base pairs at a time. mtDNA HVR1, HVR2 and Coding Region Full Sequencing are tested using Sequencing technology. Sibling Index: A statistical likelihood ratio representing a comparison of the probability that the individuals are related as siblings (full or half) versus the probability that the individuals are unrelated. A sibling index is calculated for each locus and is used to calculate the Combined Sibling Index. SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism): A change (mutation) in the DNA sequence involving a single nucleotide (A, C, T, or G). SNP Test Panel: A specially selected panel of SNP markers designed for a specific purpose. Examples of SNP test panels include the mtDNA and Y-DNA Backbone SNP Panels to confirm an individual's Haplogroup and the Subclade SNP Test Panels, designed to provide further resolution by determining the Subclade once the Haplogroup has been confirmed.

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Somatic: The cells of the body with the exception of the reproductive cells (gametes). Examples of somatic cells are blood cells and buccal cells. STR (Short Tandem Repeat): Short stretches of DNA usually 2 to 6 base pairs in length that repeat over and over again and the number of repeats can differ between different individuals or families; Also known as Microsatellite Repeats. Sub-branch: Refers to the further branching of a main branch in the Y-DNA or mtDNA Phylogenetic tree into. For example, E1 and E2 are sub-branches of Y-DNA Haplogroup E. E1a and E1b are sub-branches of E1. Also see Subclade. Subclade: Refers to the sub-classification of Clades (Haplogroups) in the Y-DNA or mtDNA Phylogenetic tree into further subbranches; For example, E1 and E2 are Subclades of Y-DNA Haplogroup E; E1a and E1b are Subclades of E1. Subclade SNP Test Panel: A specially selected panel of SNP markers which allows and individuals who have confirmed their Haplogroup to gain further resolution by further deriving their Subclade. Each Haplogroup has its own designated Subclade test panel. Substitution: When referring to SNPs, a substitution is a single change in which the nucleotide (A, C, T, or G) is replaced with a different nucleotide. TMRCA (Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor): A measure of how long ago two or more individuals compared shared a common ancestor. X Chromosome: One of the two sex determining chromosomes, it's counterpart is the Y Chromosome. Females have two X Chromosomes (XX) and males have one X Chromosome and one Y Chromosome (XY). Y Chromosome: One of the two sex determining chromosomes, it's counterpart is the X Chromosome. Females have two X Chromosomes (XX) and males have one X Chromosome and one Y Chromosome (XY). The Y Chromosome is passed down from father to son along the Paternal lineage. Also known as Y-DNA. Y-DNA Test: Genetic tests which examine STR markers or SNP markers in the Y Chromosome.

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Appendix 1 - Summary of Y-DNA Haplogroups


Haplogroup A Defining SNP mutation: M91 Time and Place Emerged The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup A lived approx 75,000 to 100,000 years ago in Africa. Haplogroup A is one of the deepest and most ancient branches of the Y-chromosomal family tree. Region descendents found Region(s) found: Y-DNA Haplogroup A is mainly found in the Southern Nile region and Southern Africa. The highest frequency of Y-DNA Haplogroup A is found in A2 (M6) Khoisan peoples. the Khoisan of Southern Africa. It is also found at lower frequencies in other areas of Africa including Morocco, Egypt and Cameroon. Subclades: A1 (P108) - Moroccan Berbers A2 (M6) Khoisan peoples. A3 (M32) Rarely found today. Eastern and Southern Africa. A3b1 (M51) - Most frequently found in Khoisan peoples, also found in lower frequencies amongst Bantu peoples of Southern Africa. A3b2 (M13) East Africa and Northern Cameroon. Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup B can be found in sub-Saharan Africa, including Southern Sudan (Hausa), Central Sudan (Nuba) and Madagascar. Subclades: B1 (M236/M288) Bamileke from southern Cameroon B1a (M146) Mossi from Burkina Faso, Mali B2 (M182) Mbuti from Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bakola from Southern Cameroon, Dama from Namibia, Biaka from Central African Republic, India. B2a (M150) Mbuti from Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tupuri from Northern Cameroon, Luo from Kenya, Dogon from Mali, Baka from Central African Republic and Kikuyu and Kamba from Kenya. B2b (M112, M192) Pygmy from Central Africa, Juu in Southern Africa, Hadzabe in East Africa. Region(s) found: Haplogroup C descendents followed a coastal migration out of Africa along the Southern Asian coastline into and eventually settled in areas along the coastal pathway in Southeast Asia, Australia, up the Asian Coast and in the Americas. Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup C can be found in India, Southeast Asia, Polynesians, Australian aborigines, Mongolians, Kazakhs, Koreans, Manchurians, and Na-Dene peoples of the northwest Pacific coast of America. Native American ancestry: Na-Dene peoples of the northwest Pacific coast of America. Subclades: C1 Japanese and Ryukyuan populations of Japan C2 Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia C3 Mongolia, Russian Far East and Na-Dene (Native Americans) C4 Indigenous Australians C5 South and Central Asia C6 New Guinea Famous ancestors: Genghis Khan Region(s) found: Like Haplogroup C, descendents of Haplogroup D also followed a coastal migration out of Africa along the Southern Asian coastline into then upwards along the coast to populate East Asia. Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup D can be found in Tibet, the Japanese Archipelago and the Andaman Islands. It is also found in low frequencies in Central Asia and Northern East Asia. It is not found in India or the Americas. Subclades: D1 Tibeto-Burman populations of Southwestern China D2 Ainu, Japanese and Ryukyuans D3 Tibet, Tajikistan, Central Asia Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup E are Ancestors The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup A is a direct descendent of YChromosoma l Adam (MRCA, most recent common ancestor). Descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam.

B Defining SNP mutations: M60, M181

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup B was born approx 60,000 to 75,000 years ago in East Africa.

C Defining SNP mutations: M130, M216, P184, P255, P260

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup C was born approx 60,000 to 75,000 years ago in the Middle East.

Descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam.

D Defining mutation: M174

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup D was born approx 60,000 to 75,000 years ago in Asia.

The man who founded Y-

Descended from DE which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended
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Ancestors from DE which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam.


Haplogroup Defining SNP mutations: M40, M96 Time and Place Emerged DNA Haplogroup E was born approx 50,000 to 55,000 years ago in East Africa or Asia. Region descendents found found predominantly in Africa and are associated with an identified Subclade of E as listed below. Subclades: E1a (M33) West Africa, highest frequencies found in Malians. E1b1a Primary Subclade of E in West Africans. This is the most widespread Y-Haplogroup in Africa. E1b1b Most common E Subclade amongst East Africans (Maasai, Somalis, Ethiopians, Eritreans) and North Africans (Sudanese, Egyptians, Berbers and Arabs). Also found Near East. E2 (M75) Highest frequencies in South African and Kenyan Bantus. E2a (M41) Populations of the Great Lakes and Upper Nile regions of Central-East Africa. Highest frequency in Alur from DRC. E2b (M54) Highest frequency in Xhosa from South Africa. E2b1a (M200) Mbuti from the Democratic Republic of the Congo Region(s) found: Y-DNA Haplogroup F is an ancient Haplogroup. His descendents include most of the Haplogroups found in the world today (G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T). Most descendents of Haplogroup F belong to a Haplogroup that is downstream of F. The paragroup F* is extremely rare and can be found today in very low frequencies in India, Southwestern China, Malay Archipelago, Korea and the Middle East.

F Defining SNP mutation: M89

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup F was born approx 48,000 years ago in South Asia.

G Defining SNP mutation: M201

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup G was born approx 10,000 to 20,000 years ago in Middle East or Asia.

H Defining SNP mutation: M69

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup H was born approx 20,000 to 45,0000 years ago in South Asia.

Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup G have a wide geographical distribution. Subclade determination will provide more defined geographical distribution information. Subclades of G: G1 (M385 or M342) Iran and its neighboring countries to the west, Ashkenazi Jews and Kazakhs G2 (P287) no distribution data G2a (P15) no distribution data. Found in medieval remains in 75h century high status tomb in Ergolding, Bavaria, Germany. G2a1 (P16) Caucasus mountains )North Ossetians in the mid northern Caucasus area of Russia). G2a2 (M286) Rare. Some association with British Isles and Turkish. G2a3 (L30, S126, U8) Rare. Some association with Germany. G2a3a (M406) Turkey and coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean. G2a3b1 (P303, S135) Europe west of the Black Sea and Russia. India. G2a3b2 (L177) Irish, English G2c (M377) Ashkenazi Jews Famous ancestors: Joseph Stalin, King Louis XVI of France Jewish ancestry: G1, G2 and G2c are found in Ashkenazi Jews. Region(s) found: Today, descendents of mtDNA Haplogroup H can be found in South Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Pakistan). It is also found in the Romani people.

I Defining SNP mutations: M170, M258, P19, P38,

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup I was born approx 25,000 to 30,000 years ago in Eurasia.

Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup I can be found scattered throughout Europe, with highest frequencies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Subclades of I: I* (M170) Middle East and Caucasus

Descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from IJ which descended from F which descended
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Ancestors from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam.


Haplogroup P212, U179 Time and Place Emerged Region descendents found I1 (M253) Scandinavia and Northwest Europe. Highest frequency in Norway, Southwestern Sweden and Denmark. Also found in high frequencies in Finland. I2 (M438) Armenia, Georgia and Turkey I2a (P37.2) no distribution data I2a1 (L158, L159, M26) Highest frequency in Sardinia. I2a2 (L178, M423) Southeastern Europe. Highest frequency in Western Balkans (Dalmatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also found in north-eastern Italians. I2a2a (L69.2) Balkan (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia). Also in Moldavia and Romania. I2a2b (L161) Rare. Some association with British Isles. I2b (M436) Scandinavia and Northwest Europe I2b1 (M223) Northwest Europe. Highest frequencies in Lower Saxony in Central Germany. I2b1a(M284) Found in low frequencies in British Isles. I2b2 (L38) Upper Rhine and British Isles. Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup J can be found in highest concentration in the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula. Subclades: J1 (M267) Most frequent in Arabian Peninsula. J2 Most frequent in Fertile Crescent and throughout the Mediterranean, Balkan Peninsula, and the Iberian Peninsula. Jewish ancestry: J1 is found in 20% of Ashkenazi Jews and is associated with the Kohanim line. J2 is found in 24% of Ashkenazi Jews and 29% of Sephardic Jews. J2 includes the Cohen Modal Haplotype. Famous ancestors: Matt Lauer Region(s) found: Today, Haplogroup K is found in Oceania and Australian Aboriginals and also at very low frequencies in South Asia and the Malay Archipelago. Haplogroup K is the founder of Haplogroups L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, and T.

J Defining SNP mutations: 12f21, M304, P209, S6, S34, S35

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup J was born approx 30,000 years ago in the Near East/Arabian Peninsula.

K Defining NP mutations: M9, P128, P131, P132

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup K was born approx 40,000 years ago in Asia.

L Defining SNP mutations: M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup L was born approx 25,000 to 30,000 years ago in Asia.

Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup L can be found in highest frequencies in South Asia (India, Pakistan, Levant). Subclades: L1 (M76) India and Sri Lanka and Baloch. Also found in Pakistan, southern Iran and Arabia. L2 (M317) Low frequency in Central Asia, Southwest Asia and Southern Europe. L3 (M357) Burusho and Pashtuns. Also found in Pakistan, Georgia, Northern Iran, India, the UAE and Saudi Arabia.

M Defining SNP mutation: P256

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup M was born approx 10,000 to 30,000 years ago in Asia.

Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup M can be found in highest frequencies in Western New Guinea. Subclades: M1 (M4) Highest frequencies in New Guinea and Melanesia. Lower frequencies also found in Indonesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

Descended from IJ which descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from K which descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from K which descended from F which descended
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Ancestors from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from NO which descended from K which descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from NO which descended from K which descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam.


Haplogroup Time and Place Emerged Region descendents found M1a (P34) Western New Guinea. Also found in lower frequencies in Papua New Guinea. M1b (P87) Papua New Guinea M1b1 (M104) Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville Island. Also found in lower frequencies in New Guinea, Fiji, Tonga, East Futuna and Samoa. M2 (M353) Fiji and East Futuna M2a (M177) - Papua New Guinea M3 (P117) Papua New Guinea, Fiji, and Futuna. Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup N can be found in highest frequencies in Western New Guinea. Subclades: N1 (M231) Highest frequency in Yizu of Butuo County, Sichuan Province in Southwestern China. N1a (M128) Found in low frequency in Manchu, Sibe, Manchurian, Evenks, Koreans, Northern Han Chinese, Buyei and some Turkic peoples of Central Asia. N1b (P43) Northern Samoyedic peoples. Also found in lower frequencies in Uralic, Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic and Siberian Yupiks peoples. N1c (M46, P105) Siberia, highest frequency in Yakuts. N1c1 (M178, P298) Northern Europe (Finns, Latvians, and Lithuanians).

N Defining SNP mutation: M231

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup N was born approx 15,000 to 20,000 years ago in East Asia.

O Defining SNP mutation: M175

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup O was born approx 20,000 to 35,000 years ago in Asia.

P Defining SNP mutation: M45

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup P was born approx 25,000 to 40,000 years ago in Asia.

Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup O can be found in highest frequencies in East and Southeast Asia. Subclades: O* (M231) Highest frequency in Yizu of Butuo County, Schuan Province in Southwestern China. O1 (MSY2.2) Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Southern China, Taiwan). O1a (M119) Austronesians, southern Chinese and Kradai peoples O2 (M268) Austroasiatic peoples of India, Bangladesh and Southeast Asia, Koreans, Japanese and southern Tungusic peoples in China. O2a (M95) Highest frequency in Austro-Asiatic, Kradai, Malays, Indonesians, and Malagasy. Lower frequencies in other parts of Asia. O2a1 (M88) Highest frequency in Hani, She, Tai, Cambodians, and Vietnamese. Lower frequencies in Qiang, Yi, Hlai, Miao, Yao, Taiwanese aborigines and Han Chinese. O2a1a (PK4) Low frequency in Pashtuns, Tharus and tribals of Andhra Pradesh O2b (M176) Highest frequency in Koreans. O2b1 (47z) Japanese and Ryukyuans, lower frequencies in Indonesians, Koreans, Manchus, Thais, and Vietnamese. O3 (M46, P105) Siberia, highest frequency in Yakuts. O3a3c (M134) Sino-Tibetan peoples. Also lower frequencies in East and Southeast Asia. O3a3b (M7) Highest frequencies in Daxi and Hmong-Mien peoples. Moderate frequencies in Han Chinese. O3a3c (M134) Sino-Tibetan. Region(s) found: Today, the paragroup P* is found in south Asia. Haplogroup P is the founder of Haplogroups Q and R.

Descended from K which descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT
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Ancestors which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from P which descended from K which descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam.


Haplogroup Time and Place Emerged Region descendents found

Q Defining SNP mutation; M242

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup Q was born approx 15,000 to 20,000 years ago in Central Asia.

R Defining SNP mutation: M207

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup R was born approx 30,000 to 40,000 years ago in Asia or the Middle East.

Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup Q are widely distributed. Its highest frequency is in Native Americans but it is also found in low frequencies in many regions of the world. Subclade analysis will provide further geographical refinement. Native American ancestry: Y-DNA Haplogroup Q is the predominant Haplogroup in Native Americans. It is found in 94% of Indigenous peoples of South America, 25 to 50% of Na-Dene speakers, and 46% of North American Eskimo Aleuts. Subclades: Q1a (MEH2) Q1a1 (M120) East Asia (Han Chinese, Dungans, Japanese, Koreans, Tibetans) Q1a2 (M25) Iran and Lebanon Q1a3 (M346) Native Americans. Low frequency in Europe, South Asia and West Asia. Q1a3a (L53) Q1a3a1 (M3) Native Americans. Pakistan, Aaudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, India, Tibet. Q1a3a1a (M19) Native Americans of South America (Ticuna and Wayuu) Q1a3b (M323) West Asia. Also detected in Yemenite Jews. Q1b (M378) Widely distributed in Europe, South Asia, West Asia. Also found in Jews (Ashkenazim, Mizrachi, and Sephardi). Q1b1(L245) Ashkenazi Jews Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup R can be found throughout West Eurasia. Haplogroup R is the founder of Haplogroups R1 and R2. Paragroup R* - An individual belongs to the R* paragroup if he does not have any of the markers for any of the Subclades of R. R* is rare and to date has only been found in a small percentage of individuals from Northern Pakistan and Western India.

R1 Defining SNP mutation: M173

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup R1 was born approx 25,000 years ago in Asia or the Near East.

Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup R1 can be found in high frequencies throughout Europe and Western Eurasia. Descendents of R1 include R1a and R1b. Paragroup R1* - An individual belongs to the R1* paragroup if he does not have any of the markers for any of the Subclades of R1. R1* is rare and to date has only been found in a small percentage of individuals from Turkey, Pakistan, India and Iran. Region(s) found: Today, Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a can be found in Eastern Europe, India, and parts of Central Asia.

Descended from P which descended from K which descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from R

R1a Defining SNP mutation: L62 R1b Defining SNP mutation: M343

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup R1a was born approx 15,000 to 20,000 years ago in South Asia. The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup R1b was born approx 15,000 to 20,000 years ago in

Descended from R1

Region(s) found: Today, Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b can be found in highest frequency in Western Europe.

Descended from R

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Ancestors Descended from R


Haplogroup R2 Defining SNP mutation: M479 Time and Place Emerged Central Asia. The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup R2 was born approx 25,000 years ago in Asia or the Near East. Region descendents found Region(s) found: Today, Y-DNA Haplogroup R2 can be found in Southeast Asia, South Asia (India) and Oceania. Paragroup R2* - An individual belongs to the R2* paragroup if he does not have any of the markers for any of the Subclades of R2. R2* is found at highest frequencies in North Pakistan and South Caucasus. Subclades: R2a (L266, M124, P249, and P267) South Asia and South Central Asia. Mostly found in Indian sub-continent, arriving during the second wave of human migration into India. S Defining SNP mutation: M230 The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup S was born approx 10,000 to 20,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. Region(s) found: Today, descendents of Y-DNA Haplogroup S can be found in Papua New Guinea. It can also be found at lower frequencies in Indonesia and Melanesia. Descended from K which descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam. Descended from K which descended from F which descended from CF which descended from BT which descended from YChromosoma l Adam.

T Defining SNP mutation: M70

The man who founded YDNA Haplogroup T was born approx 25,000 to 30,000 years ago in the Middle East.

Region(s) found: Today, Y-DNA Haplogroup T is found in Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and Caucasus, Northeastern Africa and South Asia (India). Famous ancestors: Thomas Jefferson

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