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DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011

All contents 2006-2011 DNA Tribes. DNA Tribes DNA Tribes patent pending analysis is available exclusively from DNA Tribes. All rights reserved.

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011 Copyright 2011 DNA Tribes. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents:

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1

STR Analysis of the Ojibwa Region ............................................................................................... 2 Background ............................................................................................................................. 2 Genetic Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 3

Getting the Most from Your STR Testing ...................................................................................... 4

SNP Analysis: Gradual Transitions between Europe, the Middle East and North Asia................. 6 Background ............................................................................................................................. 6 Genetic Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 7 DNA Tribes SNP Ordering Information........................................................................................ 9

Introduction
Hello, and welcome to the September 2011 issue of DNA Tribes Digest. This months issue features two articles based on two different types of analysis. The first article, STR Analysis of the Ojibwa World Region, explores genetic relationships of the Ojibwa world region (characterizing Algonquian speaking populations of northeastern North America) based on autosomal STR data (used in DNA Tribes 15, 21, and 27 Marker Kit tests). The second article, Gradual Transitions between Europe, the Middle East and North Asia, highlights the genetic continuity between these continental zones based on our current SNP database (used in DNA Tribes SNP analysis). Best regards, Lucas Martin DNA Tribes

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


Web: www.dnatribes.com; Email: dna@dnatribes.com Mail: DNA Tribes, P.O. Box 735, Arlington, VA 22216

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DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


All contents 2006-2011 DNA Tribes. DNA Tribes DNA Tribes patent pending analysis is available exclusively from DNA Tribes. All rights reserved.

STR Analysis of the Ojibwa Region


Background
The Ojibwa genetic region characterizes Ojibwa (also written as Chippewa) or Anishinaabe (or Anishnabe) populations of northeastern North America, living in both Canada and the United States. The Ojibwa language is related to a larger group of Algonquian languages, spoken by indigenous peoples whose cultural homelands extend along the East Coast and around the Great Lakes of North America (see Figure 1). Traditional Ojibwa lore recalls a westward migration from coastal territories along the Atlantic Ocean (known as Waabanakiing or Land of the Dawn), with some groups eventually settling in several locations near the Great Lakes (and thus further away from what would soon become European colonies along the East Coast). Here, a Council of Three Fires was established to unite the Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi peoples that had emerged during the course of the Anishinaabe migration to the interior of the continent.

Figure 1: Map of the Ojibwa genetic region and associated tribal samples in our database.

Algonquian speaking cultures were some of the first indigenous peoples to come in contact with European settlers during the colonial period. These include the Powhatan Confederation that met the early English colony in Jamestown, Virginia and the Wampanoag Confederation that interacted with the Plymouth Colony of New England. To the north, French fur traders had also come in contact with Algonquian speaking indigenous peoples, including Algonquin and Montaignais. Algonquian influences on East Coast cooking traditions continue to the present day, through dishes such as hominy, succotash, maple sugar, and johnnycake. Another indigenous agricultural tradition is companion planting of the Three Sisters (squash, maize, and climbing beans), in which each sister plant synergistically enhances the growth of the others. Algonquian speaking tribal nations today include Abenaki, Innu, Lenape, Mikmaq, Mohegan, Ottawa, Pequot, Potawatomi, Wampanoag, and other indigenous peoples of northeastern North America.

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


All contents 2006-2011 DNA Tribes. DNA Tribes DNA Tribes patent pending analysis is available exclusively from DNA Tribes. All rights reserved.

Genetic Analysis
Genetic contributions to the Ojibwa world region were identified based on autosomal STR data.1 Results are summarized in Table 1 and illustrated in Figure 2. WorldRegion NorthAmerindian Salishan Arctic Amazonian GeneticContribution 65.9% 20.9% 7.4% 5.8%

Table 1: Genetic contributions to the Ojibwa region.

Figure 2: Genetic analysis of the Ojibwa genetic region based on autosomal STR markers.

Discussion: Results indicate genetic links with several neighboring regions, primarily in North America. The largest component identified was North Amerindian (65.9%), perhaps expressing contacts between Ojibwa and neighboring cultures, including populations indigenous to lands near the Great Lakes and Southeastern North America.2 Results also indicate substantial Salishan (20.9%) and Arctic (7.4%) links, perhaps expressing east-west contacts in northern North America. In addition, a small but substantial Amazonian (5.8%) contribution was identified, suggesting the possibility of some more distant geographical links with South America (perhaps mediated along the Atlantic and Caribbean coasts).
1

A map illustrating the genetic world regions presently identified by DNA Tribes analysis can be viewed at http://dnatribes.com/populations.html. 2 For more information, see http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2011-06-27.pdf.

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


All contents 2006-2011 DNA Tribes. DNA Tribes DNA Tribes patent pending analysis is available exclusively from DNA Tribes. All rights reserved.

Getting the Most from Your STR Testing


Once your 15, 21, or 27 Marker Kit STR testing is complete, we offer several options to keep your report current and customize your genetic analysis for the information you want. (Prices are listed as of September 1, 2011 and are subject to change.) Updating Your Analysis: DNA Tribes analysis is updated on a periodic basis to include new reference data as well as refinements to our match algorithms and world regions analysis. (A map illustrating current populations and genetic regions is available at http://dnatribes.com/populations.html.) After your testing is complete, your analysis can be updated at any times of your choice for $24.99 through our secure online checkout at http://dnatribes.com/order_addons.html. Customizing Your Analysis with Add-On Reports: DNA Tribes offers several $24.99 Add-On reports to customize your analysis: African Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for all individual Sub-Saharan African populations in our database. Central Asian Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for individual native Central Asian and Siberian populations in our database, also including Roma (European Gypsy) match scores. East Asian Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for East Asian populations in our database, including all individual Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Southeast Asian populations. Middle Eastern Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for Middle Eastern populations in our database, including all individual Arab, Berber, Caucasus, Jewish, Persian, and Turkish populations. Native American Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for all individual Native American populations in our database. South Asian Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for South Asian populations in our database, including all individual populations of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Extended Match Results: A comprehensive listing of your DNA match scores for all individual populations in our database. Once lab testing is complete, Add-On reports can be performed at any time (without the need to submit new DNA samples) by ordering through our secure online checkout at http://dnatribes.com/order_addons.html.

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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DNA Tribes Europa: A Detailed Comparison to European Sub-Regions: DNA Tribes Europa provides the most detailed and complete analysis of European autosomal genetic structure available. DNA Tribes Europa provides your DNA match scores for 17 genetic subregions of Europe, which is substantially more robust than the individual population matches in Parts B C of reports and more detailed than the European world regions referenced in Part D of core results. More information about DNA Tribes Europa is available for $64.99 at: http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-europa.html Confirm or Clarify Your Results with Lab Upgrade: For customers who have completed testing with DNA Tribes, we offer 15-to-21, 15-to-27, and 21-to-27 Marker Upgrade tests. Upgrades include lab testing of additional STR marker systems, allowing a closer comparison of your own DNA to world populations for enhanced match precision and power of exclusion. The incorporation of additional marker systems can confirm or clarify your existing results, and all upgrades includes an update to all Add-On reports previously ordered for your kit. Upgrades are available through our secure online checkout system at: http://dnatribes.com/order_upgrades.html. Researching Your Results: Each persons DNA Tribes results are one of a kind and express their own unique collection of genetic material inherited from both paternal and maternal ancestors. Your personal DNA matches can express recent family genealogy and more ancient genetic relationships among world populations. A library of articles based on DNA Tribes original ongoing research and analysis of world genetic structure is available free at http://dnatribes.com/library.html.

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


All contents 2006-2011 DNA Tribes. DNA Tribes DNA Tribes patent pending analysis is available exclusively from DNA Tribes. All rights reserved.

SNP Analysis: Gradual Transitions between Europe, the Middle East and North Asia
Background
DNA Tribes SNP is a geographical analysis based on autosomal SNP markers that complements DNA Tribes STR based 15 Marker, 21 Marker, and 27 Marker Kit tests.3 DNA Tribes SNP currently identifies seven continental zones based on our database of SNP samples (see Figure 3). Last months Digest article featured an admixture analysis of European and neighboring populations based on 18 world regions.4 This article will include a second admixture analysis of the same populations based on seven continental zones. In particular, this continent-level analysis will highlight the pattern of genetic continuity expressed in the gradual geographical transitions between European, Middle Eastern, and North Asian populations. It should be noted that the levels of admixture listed do not necessarily express any single historical process (such as the Neolithic transition, classical Greek and Roman colonial expansions, or Migration Period movements), which would require hypothetical models of ancient populations during particular time periods. Instead, these admixture levels express the relationships between modern populations as they exist today based on available SNP samples. In particular, results illustrate the genetic continuity linking neighboring populations of Southwest Asia, North Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, and Continental Europe.

Figure 3: Map of continental zones identified by DNA Tribes SNP analysis.

For more information about DNA Tribes SNP analysis, see http://dnatribes.com/snp.html. For more information about DNA Tribes STR based 15, 21, and 27 Marker Kit tests, see http://dnatribes.com/index.html. 4 See http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2011-08-01.pdf.

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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Genetic Analysis
SNP admixture analysis was performed based on seven continental zones for several populations in and near Europe. Results are summarized in Table 2 and illustrated in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Map illustrating regional admixture components of European and neighboring populations based on the continental zones currently identified by DNA Tribes SNP analysis.

Discussion: Results in Table 2 and Figure 4 indicated a gradual pattern of transition between Middle Eastern and Western European populations. Within Europe, the highest levels of Middle Eastern admixture (shown in purple in Figure 4) were in populations of the Mediterranean, such as Southern Italy and Sicily (68.2%), Greece (50.7%), Sardinia (55.8%), and Spain (31.2%). Substantial Middle Eastern admixture was also identified in populations of the Balkan Peninsula, such as Romania (32.0%) and South Balkan Slavic (31.5%) samples. Notably, these areas of Southeastern Europe were associated with the emergence of the Neolithic Old European cultures that introduced farming technologies from the Fertile Crescent. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (classical antiquity), Southeastern Europe continued its role as a seat of culture, when the Mycenaean and later Greek and Roman civilizations transmitted new technologies and ideas (some originating in the urban civilizations of the Fertile Crescent) to more distant parts of Europe. In addition, Middle Eastern admixture continued throughout the sampled populations of Central and Western Europe, for instance: France (20.0%), Hungary (14.2%), and Great Britain (7.2%). This is consistent with the spread of Neolithic farming communities and later urban societies outwards from Southeastern Europe: for instance, in spread of the agricultural LBK (Linear Pottery Culture) via the fertile river valleys of Central and Western Europe and the spread of Cardial Ware cultures via the

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


All contents 2006-2011 DNA Tribes. DNA Tribes DNA Tribes patent pending analysis is available exclusively from DNA Tribes. All rights reserved.

Mediterranean Sea.5 These results indicate substantial genetic continuity between Europe and the Middle East that is most pronounced towards Southeastern Europe, consistent with the geographical proximity of European and Middle Eastern populations. Similarly, another geographical transition was identified in northeastern Europe, between European and North Asian genetic characteristics. This gradual transition includes populations near the taiga (northern forest) ecological zone of northeastern Europe, with North Asian admixture observed in Finland (3.8%); Vologda, Russia (6.2%); and Chuvash (22.1%). East of the Ural Mountains, results for Selkup samples indicate both North Asian (67.3%) and European (28.3%) genetic characteristics. This suggests a history of contacts between neighboring populations of Europe and Asia.

Population Adyghe(NorthCaucasus) Algeria Armenian Basque(France) Belarus Bergamo,Italy Chuvash Cyprus Dargin(Urkarah, Daghestan) Egypt(Sample2) Finland France GreatBritain Greece Hungary Iran Ireland Kumyk(Stalskoe, Daghestan) Kurdish Lebanon Lezgin(Caucasus)
5

European 34.9% 0.0% 21.3% 75.6% 98.6% 59.3% 71.1% 15.2% 41.9% 0.0% 95.9% 80.0% 92.8% 49.3% 85.8% 1.2% 97.0% 31.2% 10.1% 2.5% 36.3%

Middle Eastern 42.5% 88.4% 66.9% 24.4% 0.0% 40.7% 0.0% 84.8% 31.2% 95.8% 0.0% 20.0% 7.2% 50.7% 14.2% 70.7% 3.0% 41.2% 67.5% 89.4% 38.8%

South Asian 22.6% 0.0% 11.9% 0.0% 1.4% 0.0% 5.3% 0.0% 27.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 28.1% 0.0% 26.9% 22.5% 8.1% 25.0%

North Asian 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 22.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 3.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

East Asian 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Native American 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

SubSaharan African 0.0% 11.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Although not generally accepted among linguists, some scholars have documented possible evidence of early contacts linking Afroasiatic languages of North Africa and the Near East with Germanic and Celtic languages of Western Europe. These alternative viewpoints are reviewed in http://www.cls.psu.edu/pubs/pubs/LINGUA1158.pdf and http://independent.academia.edu/SteveHewitt/Papers/231805/Remarks_on_the_Insular_Celtic_HamitoSemitic_question.

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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Population Libya Lithuania Makrani(Pakistan) Netherlands NorthMorocco OrkneyIslands Portugal Romania Russia Sardinia Scandinavia Selkup(WesternSiberia) Slovenia SouthBalkansSlavic SouthernItalyandSicily Spain Tunisia Turkey Tuscany,Italy Ukraine Uzbek(CentralAsia) Vologda,Russia

European 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 92.8% 0.0% 91.5% 60.2% 63.1% 97.6% 44.2% 95.3% 28.3% 89.7% 68.5% 31.8% 68.8% 0.0% 22.2% 51.5% 93.0% 21.8% 91.7%

Middle Eastern 92.1% 0.0% 35.7% 7.2% 93.8% 8.5% 39.8% 32.0% 0.0% 55.8% 4.5% 0.0% 10.3% 31.5% 68.2% 31.2% 94.1% 58.5% 48.5% 5.9% 12.8% 0.0%

South Asian 0.0% 0.0% 62.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.9% 0.6% 0.0% 0.2% 1.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 17.9% 0.0% 1.1% 27.4% 1.2%

North Asian 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 67.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.4% 0.0% 0.0% 22.2% 6.2%

East Asian 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 15.3% 0.0%

Native American 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 3.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.9%

SubSaharan African 7.9% 0.0% 2.2% 0.0% 6.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 5.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

DNA Tribes SNP Ordering Information

DNA Tribes SNP analysis can be performed based on genome data from any of several SNP microarray based tests. More information and sample reports are available at http://dnatribes.com/snp.html. An update to your personal DNA Tribes SNP report can also be ordered at the above link.

DNA Tribes Digest September 1, 2011


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