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DNA Tribes Digest November 1, 2011

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DNA Tribes Digest November 1, 2011 Copyright 2011 DNA Tribes. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents:

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1

Genetic Analysis of the Norse Sub-Region of Europe (STR) ........................................................ 2 Historical Background ............................................................................................................ 2 Genetic Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 4 Getting the Most from Your STR Testing ...................................................................................... 5

SNP Update for November 2011 .................................................................................................... 7 Updated SNP Continent and Regional Admixture ......................................................................... 8 Updated Continent Admixture (SNP) ..................................................................................... 9 Updated Regional Admixture (SNP) .................................................................................... 12

Introduction
Hello, and welcome to the November 2011 issue of DNA Tribes Digest. This months feature article explores genetic relationships of the Norse sub-region of Europe, which includes Scandinavian populations of present day Norway, Denmark and Sweden. Also included with this Digest issue is updated continental and regional admixture analysis based on new SNP populations incorporated in DNA Tribes SNP analysis. One Week SNP Sale (expires November 8th, 2011): For one week only, DNA Tribes SNP analysis is available for a reduced total of $39.99 per genotype with submitted grandparent information. Our One Week SNP Sale is available at http://www.dnatribes.com/snp.html. Best regards, Lucas Martin DNA Tribes

DNA Tribes Digest November 1, 2011


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DNA Tribes Digest November 1, 2011


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Genetic Analysis of the Norse Sub-Region of Europe (STR)


Historical Background
The Norse sub-region includes Scandinavian populations of present day Norway, Denmark and Sweden (see map in Figure 1). Since early periods, the North and Baltic seas have linked Scandinavian traders, adventurers, settlers and sometimes raiders to Continental Europe and the British Isles.

Figure 1: Map of the Norse sub-region of Europe (highlighted)

During the last Ice Age, Paleolithic cultures emerged in Eurasia that specialized in hunting and coexisting with the large mammals of the period, including: European bison (wisent), Eurasian cave lions, wolves, Eurasian elk (known as moose in North America), tarpans (wild horses) and wide ranging wooly mammoths (whose bones were used to construct early yurt-like domed shelters on the East European plains). However, at the dawning of the warmer Holocene epoch around 10,000 BCE, these huntingfishing cultures adapted to dwindling large mammal populations and a changing climate. Near the North Sea, Mesolithic (late Paleolithic) hunting-fishing communities persisted based on abundant food sources that included whales and other marine life depicted in Stone Age rock art (petroglyphs) found throughout Scandinavia. In this period, some Ice Age lands were still habitable that now are submerged in the North Sea. These former Mesolithic lands included Doggerland, which once connected Scandinavia with Continental Europe and Britain. However, these hunting-fishing societies were transformed in the Neolithic Era by two new and related lifeways: sedentary agriculture and mobile pastoralism.1 This period of change was stimulated by
The complex interactions between sedentary agricultural and nomadic pastoralist forms of society (sometimes synergistic and sometimes opposed) are discussed in Europe Before History by K. Kristiansen, pp. 185-209.
1

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the expansion of Old European farming cultures from Southeastern Europe. These included the Linear Pottery (LBK) horizon that established agricultural communities in Central and Western Europe along rivers such as the Danube, Elbe and Rhine. In Scandinavia, new societies that appeared during the Neolithic period included the Funnelbeaker (TRB) culture (linked to the megalith building cultures of Mediterranean and Atlantic Europe) and the Pitted Ware culture (which still retained hunting-fishing based lifeways). In time, these local cultures participated in the broader Corded Ware horizon, which linked cultures in a wide zone spanning vast areas of Western and Eastern Europe. In the more expansive Bronze Age world, new technologies and trade specializations emerged based on metallurgy and the use of newly prestigious bronze objects. New forms of society developed that emphasized inter-cultural personal contacts over large distances, based on elaborate patterns of gift exchange, kinship links and even individual journeys to distant lands.2 According to archaeologists Kristiansen and Larsson, Bronze Age Scandinavia emerged as a secondary center of Minoan culture in the 18th to 16th centuries BCE, linked with the Aegean via industrial centers in Central Europe (present day Hungary and Slovakia). New techniques of metallurgy, woodworking, and shipbuilding were brought to Scandinavia from the more advanced Mediterranean civilizations, along with cultural forms recorded in monuments such as the Kings Grave near Kivik, Sweden. These inter-cultural links were interrupted around 1500 BCE, but soon resumed during the Mycenaean period recalled in Homers epics.3 Although these early Aegean influenced Scandinavian societies did not leave written records, neighboring Goidelic (Celtic) cultures of the western British Isles described ancient invasions by the Tuatha D Danann (tribes of the goddess Danu, somewhat similar to the Homeric Danaoi). In the dynastic legends of Ireland, the Tuatha D were said to be technically skilled mariners from four northern cities across the sea. These northerners were eventually defeated by Mediterranean (Milesian) tribes named for Godel the Green (Godel Glas or Gaythelos). Nevertheless, memories of the Tuatha D Danann lingered in the Irish landscape as the aes sdhe or people of the mounds. Scandinavian links with Mediterranean civilizations via Central Europe continued in the subsequent Iron Age, when trade flourished along a trade network between Italy and Denmark by way of present day Switzerland.4 Notably, the southern parts of this trade network were later associated with cultures speaking the Etruscan and Raetic languages. As in the Bronze Age, these inter-cultural links were possibly facilitated by migrations of technical specialists, as well as personal contacts via mutual hospitality, marriages, gift exchange and journeys between distant locations. During Classical antiquity, links with the Mediterranean world via Central Europe are also attested in the Runic alphabets, adapted from scripts used in Italic and Etruscan speaking Italy and ultimately derived from the Phoenician scripts of the ancient Mediterranean. In the following Migration Period, several cultures from near Scandinavia (such as the Franks, Saxons, Goths and Vandals) moved through Continental Europe and in some cases reached North Africa and Anatolia. In later history, Scandinavian cultures continued this ancient pattern of overcoming geographical isolation in the north of Europe by long wanderings into neighboring and faraway lands. These travels are recorded in the many Scandinavian sagas, recounting journeys as far as the Volga River and Vinland in search of fortune and to experience the wider world.
2

These Bronze Age forms of society are attested in the Amarna Letters discovered in the abandoned city of Akhetaten (Amarna), the capital of the pharaoh Akhenaten. 3 See The Rise of Bronze Age Society: Travels, Transmissions and Transformations by Kristiansen and Larsson. 4 See Europe Before History by K. Kristiansen, pp. 161-185.

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Genetic Analysis
Genetic contributions to the Norse sub-region were identified based on autosomal STR data. Results are summarized in Table 1 and illustrated in Figure 2. EuropeanSubRegion Germanic Celtic Polish Belgic Scythian Other GeneticContribution 49.2% 34.9% 6.9% 6.5% 2.2% 0.3%

Table 1: Genetic contributions to the Norse sub-region.

Discussion: Results in Table 1 indicate genetic links between the Norse sub-region and several surrounding regions of Europe. The largest genetic contribution identified was from the Germanic subregion (49.2%). This might express longstanding links between Scandinavia and Central Europe, perhaps including links with the early Old European LBK farming populations, as well as later links that transmitted cultural advancements from the Mediterranean civilizations during the Bronze and Iron Age. Results also indicate links with the Celtic (34.9%) and Belgic (6.5%) sub-regions, which might express the long history of Scandinavian trade and conquest in the British Isles and adjacent parts of Western Europe. Results indicate links with the Polish (6.9%) and Scythian (2.2%) sub-regions, perhaps reflecting Scandinavian trade and migrations in Eastern Europe since ancient times.

Figure 2: Genetic contributions to the Norse sub-region of Europe.

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Getting the Most from Your STR Testing


Once your 15, 21 or 27 Marker Kit STR testing is complete, we offer several options to keep your report current and customize your genetic analysis for the information you want. (Prices are listed as of November 1, 2011 and are subject to change.) Updating Your Analysis: DNA Tribes analysis is updated on a periodic basis to include new reference data as well as refinements to our match algorithms and world regions analysis. (A map illustrating current populations and genetic regions is available at http://dnatribes.com/populations.html.) After your testing is complete, your analysis can be updated at any times of your choice for $24.99 through our secure online checkout at http://dnatribes.com/order_addons.html. Customizing Your Analysis with Add-On Reports: DNA Tribes offers several $24.99 Add-On reports to customize your analysis: African Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for all individual Sub-Saharan African populations in our database. Central Asian Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for individual native Central Asian and Siberian populations in our database, also including Roma (European Gypsy) match scores. East Asian Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for East Asian populations in our database, including all individual Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Southeast Asian populations. Middle Eastern Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for Middle Eastern populations in our database, including all individual Arab, Berber, Caucasus, Jewish, Persian, and Turkish populations. Native American Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for all individual Native American populations in our database. South Asian Panel: A listing of your DNA match scores for South Asian populations in our database, including all individual populations of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Extended Match Results: A comprehensive listing of your DNA match scores for all individual populations in our database. Once lab testing is complete, Add-On reports can be performed at any time (without the need to submit new DNA samples) by ordering through our secure online checkout at http://dnatribes.com/order_addons.html.

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DNA Tribes Europa: A Detailed Comparison to European Sub-Regions: DNA Tribes Europa provides the most detailed and complete analysis of European autosomal genetic structure available. DNA Tribes Europa provides your DNA match scores for 17 genetic subregions of Europe, which is substantially more robust than the individual population matches in Parts B C of reports and more detailed than the European world regions referenced in Part D of core results. More information about DNA Tribes http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-europa.html Confirm or Clarify Your Results with Lab Upgrade: For customers who have completed testing with DNA Tribes, we offer 15-to-21, 15-to-27 and 21-to-27 Marker Upgrade tests. Upgrades include lab testing of additional STR marker systems, allowing a closer comparison of your own DNA to world populations for enhanced match precision and power of exclusion. The incorporation of additional marker systems can confirm or clarify your existing results, and all upgrades includes an update to all Add-On reports previously ordered for your kit. Upgrades are available through our secure online checkout system at: http://dnatribes.com/order_upgrades.html. Researching Your Results: Each persons DNA Tribes results are one of a kind and express their own unique collection of genetic material inherited from both paternal and maternal ancestors. Your personal DNA matches can express recent family genealogy and more ancient genetic relationships among world populations. A library of articles based on DNA Tribes original ongoing research and analysis of world genetic structure is available free at http://dnatribes.com/library.html. Europa is available for $49.99 at:

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SNP Update for November 2011

We are pleased to announce an update for DNA Tribes SNP analysis: New SNP populations: Several new populations have been incorporated in DNA Tribes SNP: Abhkazian Asur (Jharkand, India) Balkar Bonda (Orissa, India) Bulgaria Burma Chechen Gadaba (Orissa, India) Garo (Meghalaya, India) Ho (Bihar, India) Juang (Orissa, India) Kharia (Chattishgarh, India) Khasi (Meghalaya, India) Mawasi (Madhya Pradesh, India) Nogay North Ossetia Santhal (Jharkand, India) Savara (Orissa, India) Tajik Turkmen Ukraine (mixed)

More detailed Great Britain population analysis: The general Great Britain sample now includes a more specific comparison to three populations: England; Cornwall; and the Orkney Islands (Scotland). Updated world regions: Regional admixture analysis now includes the African Great Lakes, Central African and Horn of Africa regions, for a total of 20 world regions. For a complete list of regions, see page 3 of any sample SNP report at http://dnatribes.com/snp.html. New sample reports: Updated DNA Tribes SNP reports for several world populations are available at http://dnatribes.com/snp.html. An update to your personal DNA Tribes SNP report can also be ordered at this link.

DNA Tribes Digest November 1, 2011


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Updated SNP Continent and Regional Admixture


Recent Digest articles included continent and regional admixture analysis: Gradual Transitions between Europe, the Middle East and North Asia (continent admixture): http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2011-09-01.pdf; and Genetic Links between Three SNP Based Regions http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2011-08-01.pdf. in Europe (regional admixture):

The maps and tables below update the analysis from each of these past articles based on the new populations incorporated in DNA Tribes SNP as of November 1, 2011. Figure 3 and Table 2 illustrate continent admixture; Figure 4 and Table 3 illustrate regional admixture.

DNA Tribes Digest November 1, 2011


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Updated Continent Admixture (SNP)

Figure 3: Map illustrating continental admixture components of European and neighboring populations based on the 7 continental zones currently identified by DNA Tribes SNP analysis. For more information, see http://www.dnatribes.com/snp.html.

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Population AdygheNorthCaucasus Algeria Armenian BalochiPakistan BasqueFrance Belarus BergamoItaly Bulgaria Chuvash CornwallWestBritain Cyprus DarginUrkarahDagestan Egypt(sample2) England Finland France Greece Hungary Iran Ireland Kurdish Lebanon Lezgin Libya Lithuania MakraniPakistan Mordvin Nogay NorthMorocco OrkneyIslands Portugal Romania Russia

European 43.9% 30.2% 8.9% 82.5% 98.9% 69.3% 75.9% 71.0% 95.7% 29.5% 50.3% 96.2% 95.2% 85.3% 55.4% 90.9% 14.9% 96.1% 23.7% 15.4% 45.6% 100.0% 1.0% 90.0% 39.3% 96.3% 67.5% 69.2% 96.7%

Middle Eastern 33.5% 93.0% 58.7% 24.0% 17.5% 30.7% 24.1% 4.3% 70.5% 23.1% 100.0% 3.8% 14.7% 44.6% 9.1% 57.2% 3.9% 54.3% 77.2% 30.0% 96.6% 37.6% 22.7% 99.0% 3.7% 32.5% 25.2%

North Asian 22.2% 4.3% 5.4% 12.6% 0.8%

South Asian 22.6% 11.1% 67.0% 0.7% 5.2% 26.6% 28.0% 22.1% 7.4% 24.4% 61.3% 3.4% 20.1% 5.6% 0.9%

East Asian 4.9%

Nat. Amer. 0.4% 1.7% 0.5% 1.2% 0.4% 1.6%

SubSah. African 7.0% 3.4% 0.1% 1.0%

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Population Sardinia Scandinavia Selkup Slovenia S.ItalianandSicilian Spain Tunisia Turkey TuscanyItaly Ukraine(mixed) UzbekCentralAsia VologdaRussia

European 58.3% 100.0% 29.2% 93.9% 46.5% 75.9% 33.9% 63.2% 98.5% 25.1% 91.7%

Middle Eastern 41.7% 6.1% 53.5% 24.1% 99.2% 46.3% 36.8% 10.8%

North Asian 67.7% 22.2% 6.6%

South Asian 19.8% 1.5% 26.7% 0.5%

East Asian 14.4%

Nat. Amer. 3.1% 0.8% 1.2%

SubSah. African 0.8%

Table 2: Continental admixture components of European and neighboring populations based on the 7 continental zones currently identified by DNA Tribes SNP analysis. For more detailed discussion, see http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2011-09-01.pdf.

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Updated Regional Admixture (SNP)

Figure 4: Map illustrating regional admixture components of European and neighboring populations based on the 20 world regions currently identified by DNA Tribes SNP analysis. For more information, see http://www.dnatribes.com/snp.html.

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Population AdygheNorthCaucasus Algeria Armenian BasqueFrance Belarus BergamoItaly Bulgaria Chuvash CornwallWestBritain Cyprus Egypt(Sample2) England Finland France Greece Hungary Ireland Lebanon Lezgin Lithuania Mordvin Nogay NorthMorocco

Atlantic European 3.8% 92.6% 27.2% 72.5% 70.7% 97.8% 7.1% 94.1% 93.4% 36.5% 69.8% 86.6% 0.8% 0.1% 12.5%

Baltic Caucasus Urals Anatolian 1.7% 92.5% 0.1% 68.6% 67.0% 2.1% 5.8% 21.0% 13.1% 4.2% 84.9% 12.3% 83.3% 4.2% 12.2% 23.6% 5.2% 46.0% 1.5% 51.4% 5.6% 43.8% 80.2% 8.7% 59.9% 1.7%

North African 86.0% 5.9% 3.2% 8.8% 1.4% 2.9% 5.3% 85.8%

Arabian 9.2% 16.7% 1.5% 12.1% 5.7% 47.0% 88.8% 3.8% 9.2% 1.8% 45.7%

Indus Valley 4.4% 7.1% 1.7% 2.6% 15.6% 3.8% 7.6%

South Siberian India 0.3% 10.0% 1.9% 2.9%

Arctic Mongolian 0.1% 3.9% 1.4% 1.1% 5.8% 10.1%

Other 0.7% 0.9% 0.1% 2.4% 0.1% 0.3% 1.7% 0.8% 5.7%

100.0%

100.0%

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Population OrkneyIslands Portugal Romania Russia Sardinia Scandinavia Slovenia SouthernItalyandSicily Spain Tunisia Turkey TuscanyItaly Ukraine(mixed)

Atlantic European 88.5% 71.3% 54.9% 29.3% 69.5% 88.0% 74.4% 38.2% 86.4% 9.4% 61.0% 31.8%

Baltic Urals 10.3% 3.7% 7.8% 64.6% 10.8% 20.3% 61.7%

Caucasus Anatolian 1.2% 24.3% 4.3% 5.1% 31.1% 3.6% 84.4% 18.0% 5.6%

North African 15.1% 9.8% 2.0% 7.4% 87.1% 0.8% 0.3%

Arabian 8.4% 10.1% 20.7% 28.8% 6.3% 9.8% 20.6% 0.9%

Indus Valley 1.1% 0.9% 0.1% 0.3% 0.7%

South India 2.5% 1.4%

Siberian 2.0%

Arctic Mongolian 0.4% 0.1% 0.5%

Other 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.9% 0.8% 0.5%

VologdaRussia 95.4% 1.4% 0.2% 2.2% 0.8% Table 3: Regional admixture components of European and neighboring populations based on the 20 world regions currently identified by DNA Tribes SNP analysis. For a more detailed discussion of these regional relationships, see http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2011-08-01.pdf.

One Week SNP Sale (expires November 8th, 2011): For one week only, DNA Tribes SNP analysis is available for a reduced total of $39.99 per genotype with submitted grandparent information. Our One Week SNP Sale is available at http://www.dnatribes.com/snp.html.

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