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DNA Tribes Digest December 1, 2012

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Table of Contents:

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1

Genetic Evidence for Multiple Waves of Migration to the Americas (STR and SNP) .................. 2 Historical Background ............................................................................................................ 2 STR Analysis of Paleo-Indian and Arctic Genetic Components in Native North American and Far East Siberian Populations .......................................................................................... 6 SNP Analysis of Non-Local Genetic Components in Far East Siberian and the Americas ... 8 Conclusion: Multiple Layers of Native American Ancestry ................................................ 11

SNP Project for Enrolled Tribal Members.................................................................................... 12

Introduction
Hello, and welcome to the December 2012 issue of DNA Tribes Digest. This months article explores the origins of Native American populations. This analysis will include genetic evidence for multiple waves of migration from Siberia, as well as the role of copper using Mound Builder societies in integrating Paleo-Indian and Arctic related populations in Eastern North America. Have a safe and happy Holiday Season, Lucas Martin DNA Tribes

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Genetic Evidence for Multiple Waves of Migration to the Americas (STR and SNP)
Historical Background
The ancestors of Native Americans are thought to have migrated to North America from near the Bering Sea in several waves (see Table 1). The first Paleo-Indian settlers are thought to have migrated into North America from Beringia (the area between Far East Siberia and Alaska) some time before 11,500 BCE. These Paleo-Indian populations are thought to be descended from Siberian cultures that became the ancestors of indigenous peoples throughout North, Central, and South America. However, the more specific genetic relationships of Paleo-Indian populations to indigenous cultures of Siberia are less understood. These links within the vast territories of Siberia are particularly important, because Siberia has been a meeting point for populations of Europe, the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent, and East Asia since early periods.1 Some of the geographical links in Siberia that might have shaped populations that migrated to North America are illustrated in Figure 1. Several thousand years later, a second group of migrations expanded into North America: the Paleo-Eskimo and subsequent Proto-Inuit (Thule) cultures (see Table 1) ancestral to present day Inuit peoples of Far East Siberia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. Like the earlier Paleo-Indians, these cultures originated in Beringia. However, the substantially more recent time periods of these waves of migrations (beginning 2,500 BCE and continuing after 1000 CE) makes them contemporaries of emerging Uralic and Indo-European related cultures of West Siberia. For instance, archaeologists have suggested links between the Siberian Ust-Poluy culture (1st millennium BCE coastal hunters living along the Arctic Sea near the Gulf of Ob) and not only Inuit cultures, but also Iroquoian cultures of Eastern North America.2 Another link with Siberia that survives until the present day is the similarity between Athabaskan languages (such as Apache, Navajo, and Dogrib) and the Yeniseian languages of Central Siberia. These archaeological and linguistic links are a reminder that indigenous Siberians interacted with distant cultures during the time that Paleo-Eskimo cultures were expanding in North America (2,500 BCE - 1,500 CE) and long prior to the modern period. Similar contacts might also have connected the Siberian ancestors of Paleo-Indians (expanding into North America before 11,500 BCE) with populations linked to East Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Indian Subcontinent.
1 2

For more information, see http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2009-11-30.pdf. See Prehistory of Western Siberia by V. N. Chernetsov and W. Moszynska p. 129-133; 243; 308. Ust-Poluy (500200 BCE) were Arctic sea hunters (similar to Inuit and coastal Chukchi). Ust-Poluy peoples used distinctive bone and antler combs (decorated with a face to face bird motif) similar to combs used by Iroquois until the modern period and somewhat similar to combs used by Inuit. Linguists have suggested that vocabulary shared between Northern Samoyedic, Yukaghir, and Inuit (Eskimo) languages might derive from Arctic coast cultures that might have helped transmit the Ust-Poluy comb tradition between the Gulf of Ob and Eastern North America. Ust-Poluy was also influenced by Scytho-Sarmatians of West Siberia and shared some cultural practices (such as facial tattooing and braided hair worn by men and women) with later Ob-Ugrians. Masks from the Scythian influenced Tashtyk culture vividly illustrate West Siberian personal adornment from this period, including elaborate facial painting and a mohawk hairstyle with shaved sidelocks. See http://hermitagemuseum.org/fcgibin/db2www/quickSearch.mac/gallery?selLang=English&tmCond=oglahty&go.x=4&go.y=7 (copy and paste full URL). DNA Tribes Digest December 1, 2012 Page 2 of 12

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Figure 1: Geographical links in Siberia that might have influenced ancestral Paleo-Indian, Paleo-Eskimo, and Proto-Inuit (Thule) populations that migrated to North America.

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MigrationGroup

SourceArea Beringia(Siberian Origins)

Dates

Notes

Thoughttobetheprimaryfounding settlersoftheAmericas. PaleoIndian Before11,500BCE ReachedthroughoutNorth,Central, andSouthAmerica. MultipleculturesrelatedtoArctic BeringSea(Siberianand SmallTooltradition. PaleoEskimo 2,500BCE1,500CE Alaskanorigins) ReachednorthernpartsofNorth America. AncestorsofpresentdayInuitcultures Thule(ProtoInuit) CoastalAlaska 1,000CEpresent ofFarEastSiberia,Alaska,Canada, andGreenland. InternalNorthAmericanmigrations duetoclimatechanges. EarlycoppermininginNorthAmerica. OldCopper WesternGreatLakes Ritualsignificanceofmetaluse. 4,000BCE1,000BCE Complex (NorthAmerica) Newcopperelitesubgroupsmight havehelpedlinknorthernand southernpopulationsinEasternNorth America. Complextradenetworksincrease contactsbetweenNorthAmerican populations. MississippiRiverValley Ceremonialcenters(WatsonBrake, MoundBuilder Encompassedthearea Cahokia,Kituwah,SpiroMounds,etc.). 3,500BCE1,600CE Societies betweentheGreatLakes Specialistsubgroupstransmitting andGulfofMexico ideasbetweenpopulations(Ani (NorthAmerica) Kutani,Allegewi,etc.). PossibleinfluenceonMesoamerican civilizations. Table 1: Migration waves from Siberia and internal expansions that shaped ancestral Native American populations.

These periods of migration from Siberia (Paleo-Indian, Paleo-Eskimo, and Proto-Inuit) potentially introduced multiple genetic components to the Americas. However, later processes might have brought these populations in contact at various periods, particularly in North Eastern America. One period that might have helped integrate these various populations might have been the Old Copper Complex (4,000 BCE - 1,000 BCE; see Table 1). This complex introduced copper mining and metalworking (possibly predating metallurgy in Central Siberia), first near Lake Superior and eventually throughout Eastern North America. Due to its reddish color (like ochre), copper was considered a sacred material and was used by an early specialist class or sub-culture (appearing in only a small percentage of burials in Eastern North America). The Old Copper Complex emerged during a period of ecological change around 3,000 1,500 BCE. During this time, retreating glaciers changed the landscape in Eastern North America. The formerly navigable water route linking the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean was closed by uplift of the land (due to less ice weight). A warmer climate caused populations to move northward and shift to a lifestyle
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based more on plant cultivation and less on hunting. These changes fueled population growth and placed new stress on cultural traditions, stimulating an increase in artistic and ceremonial activity (including symbolic copper use).3 These copper using specialist sub-groups became influential throughout Eastern North America during later periods, when Mound Builder societies were founded along the Mississippi River Valley (3,500 BCE - 1,600 CE; see Table 1), connecting tribal cultures in large areas between the Great Lakes and Gulf of Mexico. In Mound Builder ceremonial and trade centers, copper was used for important cultural symbols (for instance, in Hopewell breastplates and Mississippian copper plates).4 Native traditions describe the importance of early specialist sub-cultures (such as the Ani-Kutani and Allegewi) that established cultural norms and founded key settlements (such as the Cherokee mother town of Kituwa in North Carolina).5 These Mound Builder centers participated in extensive trade: for instance, importing grizzly bear teeth and mountain goat horns (probably from the Rocky Mountains) and alligator teeth (probably from Southeastern tribes). These early trade and ceremonial settlements attracted populations from surrounding parts of North America, possibly mixing cultures and becoming a source of population expansions when settlements were disrupted due to climate change. In recent years, archaeologists have suggested links between early Mound Builder centers in North America (particularly in present day Louisiana) and later Mesoamerican civilizations (such as the Classic Era Maya and Aztec cultures) based on similarities between building proportions and alignments.6 Summary: Native populations of the Americas have been shaped by major migrations from Beringia (Far East Siberia) during two general time periods: (1) Paleo-Indian migrations that reached throughout the Americas before 12,000 BCE; and (2) Paleo-Eskimo and Thule (Proto-Inuit) migrations that primarily reached northern parts of North Americas after 2,500 BCE. Later developments in Eastern North America (such as the Old Copper Complex and Mound Builder societies) might have increased north-south population contacts in areas between the Great Lakes and Gulf of Mexico between 4,000 BCE and 1,600 CE. To assess genetic evidence of these migrations and internal expansions, the autosomal STR and SNP analysis in this article will explore evidence for: 1. Origin regions in Eurasia for ancestral Native American populations. 2. Variation between Native American populations that might reflect multiple migrations from Siberia, as well as inter-regional contacts within North America.
3 4

See Miskwabik, Metal of Ritual: Metallurgy in Precontact Eastern North America by Amelia M. Trevelyan, p.184. The symbolic importance of copper continued during the Trail of Tears and Ghost Dance movement of the 1800s. 5 The small percentage of elite copper burials included people of both genders and a range of ages, probably representing related members of kinship societies. Archaeologists have noted evidence of high levels of endogamy among the Adena and Hopewell copper elite. See Miskwabik by Amelia Trevelyan, pp. 133-134. A similar role for metallurgist sub-cultures (such as Bell-Beaker peoples) as intermediaries between less developed wilderness areas and primary civilization centers has been suggested for Eurasian prehistory. See http://www.ajaonline.org/sites/default/files/AJA1134Amzallag_0.pdf. 6 See Americas Lost City by Andrew Lawler at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6063/1618.summary or http://andrewlawler.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=508%3Aamerica%E2%80%99s-lostcity&Itemid=22. DNA Tribes Digest December 1, 2012 Page 5 of 12

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STR Analysis of Paleo-Indian and Arctic Genetic Components in Native North American and Far East Siberian Populations
To identify genetic evidence for Eurasian regional origins and variation between Native American populations, Paleo-Indian (Native Central and South American), Arctic, and other Asia-Pacific Island genetic components in North America and Far East Siberia were identified using autosomal STR data.7 Results are summarized in Table 2 and illustrated in Figure 2. Discussion: Results in Table 2 indicate several genetic components in North American and Far East Siberian populations. These included the expected Paleo-Indian (Native Central and South American) and Arctic components, as well as smaller Asia-Pacific Island genetic components in some populations of Northwest North America.
Population Yupik(Alaska) Inupiat(Alaska) Koryak(FarEastSiberia) Chukchi(FarEastSiberia) Athabaskan(Alaska) Ojibwa(Ontario) Cree(Saskatchewan) Minnesota(NativeOnly)* CoastSalish(BritishColumbia) Navajo(SouthwestU.S.) Michigan(NativeOnly)* Dogrib Tepehua(Mexico) Apache(SouthwestU.S.) PaleoIndian 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 40.9% 48.1% 44.1% 55.1% 45.6% 68.0% 72.9% 61.3% 84.5% 86.9% Arctic 96.0% 91.0% 88.4% 71.9% 58.1% 51.9% 51.3% 44.9% 34.7% 32.0% 27.1% 18.7% 15.5% 11.3% Polynesian 0.0% 9.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 11.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Malay Archipelago 0.0% 0.0% 11.6% 9.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 8.1% 0.0% 0.0% 11.9% 0.0% 0.0% Other 3.7% 0.0% 0.0% 17.6% 1.0% 0.0% 4.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 8.1% 0.0% 1.7%

YucatanMaya(Mexico) 97.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.3% Table 2: Genetic components of Native North American and Far East Siberian populations. For mixed Minnesota and Michigan populations (noted with an asterix), only the relative percentages of native (Paleo-Indian and Arctic) components are listed.

The Paleo-Indian component is largest in the most southerly populations included in this analysis. These include Tepehua (84.5% Paleo-Indian), Apache (86.9% Paleo-Indian), and Navajo (68.0% Paleo-Indian). The Paleo-Indian component is also relatively large for the Dogrib of Northwest Canada (61.3% Paleo-Indian), whose Athabaskan language is distantly related to Apache and Navajo.
7

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Similarly, a higher percentage of the Paleo-Indian component is expressed for the sampled Alaskan Athabaskans (40.9%) than for the Inupiat and Yupik populations (both Inuit related Alaskans) for which no Paleo-Indian component is expressed. This indicates that Paleo-Indian (Native Central and South American) ancestry is found in most parts of North America, possibly reflecting widespread settlements by Paleo-Indian populations that entered the Americas before 11,500 BCE. Within Northwest Canada and Alaska, the Paleo-Indian genetic component is associated with Athabaskan languages.

Figure 2: Genetic components of North American and Far East Siberian populations. For mixed populations (noted with an asterix), relative percentages of Paleo-Indian and Arctic components (not including European components) are listed.

The Arctic component is largest in the most northerly populations included in this analysis. These include Yupik (96.0% Arctic) and Inuit (91.0% Arctic) populations of Alaska, as well as Koryak (88.4% Arctic) and Chukchi (71.9% Arctic) populations of Far East Siberia. This concentration near the Bering Sea that links Siberia and Alaska suggests this component is related to the Paleo-Eskimo and Thule (Proto-Inuit) expansions since 2,500 BCE. Outside of Alaska, the Arctic component is highest in northern and western populations of North America, including Ontario Ojibwa (51.9% Arctic), Saskatchewan Cree (51.3% Arctic), and the Minnesota Native Americans (44.9% Arctic). In addition, the Arctic component is found to some degree as far south as Apache (11.3% Arctic) and Tepehua (15.5%).

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This wide distribution suggests the Paleo-Eskimo and Thule (Proto-Inuit) expansions affected not only Inuit and other far northern cultures of Alaska and Canada, but eventually reached relatively distant parts of North America. This could reflect secondary population expansions within North America, such as mixed populations (of partly Paleo-Indian and Arctic origins) that gathered around Mound Builder ceremonial and trade centers (such as Kituwah and Cahokia) and then dispersed to surrounding areas. Asia-Pacific Island components are also identified for some North American populations. These include Malay Archipelago and Polynesian components, both related to maritime cultures of the Pacific Ocean. These populations include Coast Salish of British Columbia (11.6% Polynesian and 8.1% Malay Archipelago), Dogrib of Northwest Canada (11.9% Malay Archipelago), and Inupiat of Alaska (9.0% Polynesian). Similar Pacific Ocean components are also found in Koryak (11.6% Malay Archipelago) and Chukchi (9.9% Malay Archipelago) populations of Far Eastern Siberia. Asia-Pacific Island components are concentrated near Beringia and Northwest North America and not found in other studied populations. This suggests these components might have accompanied maritime related Paleo-Eskimo and/or Thule (Proto-Inuit) expansions in contact with early populations near the Pacific Rim of East Asia.

SNP Analysis of Non-Local Genetic Components in Far East Siberian and the Americas
To further explore genetic evidence for ancestral Native American origins in Eurasia and multiple waves of migration to the Americas, non-local genetic components for Native American and Far East Siberian populations were identified using autosomal SNP data (excluding local Arctic and Mesoamerican genetic components).8 Results are summarized in Table 3 and illustrated in Figure 3.
Population Maya(Mexico) Amerindian(Colombia) Aymara(LaPaz,Bolivia) Surui(Brazil) Karitiana(Brazil) Pima(Mexico) EasternGreenland Totonac(Mexico) Koryak(FarEastSiberia) Chukchi(FarEastSiberia) Baltic Urals 7.1% 1.1% 8.9% 2.8% 1.5% 4.8% 0.0% 7.3% 0.0% 0.0% Indus Valley 6.8% 4.3% 3.1% 2.9% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% West Siberian 40.6% 42.2% 44.0% 39.6% 48.0% 48.1% 52.6% 45.3% 16.1% 33.2% East Siberian 29.7% 36.9% 29.1% 38.6% 36.0% 30.0% 43.9% 30.0% 82.6% 66.8% East Asian 15.7% 12.5% 10.2% 13.8% 12.1% 14.5% 0.0% 16.4% 1.4% 0.0% Tibetan 0.0% 0.0% 4.7% 0.0% 0.0% 1.2% 3.6% 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% Southeast Ocean Asian ian 0.0% 2.4% 0.0% 0.4% 2.1% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.5% 0.0% 1.9% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Other 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Average 3.4% 1.7% 41.0% 42.4% 9.7% 1.0% 0.5% 0.3% 0.1% Table 3: Non-local genetic SNP components of Native American and Far East Siberian populations (excluding Arctic and Mesoamerican genetic components).
8

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Figure 3: Non-local genetic SNP components of Native American and Far East Siberian populations (excluding Arctic and Mesoamerican genetic components).

Discussion: Results in Table 3 indicate a variety of non-local regional components for Native American populations, with some degree of local variation between individual populations. The largest non-local components for the studied Native American populations are West Siberian (average 41.0%) and East Siberian (average 42.4%), consistent with origins for ancestral Native American populations in Siberia. Relative proportions of these two components were generally similar for studied populations throughout the Americas. However, the East Siberian component is substantially larger for the studied Far East Siberian populations (Chukchi and Koryak), which might
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reflect contacts of ancestral Paleo-Eskimo and Thule (Proto-Inuit) with other East Siberians populations, after the initial Paleo-Indian populations migrated to the Americas. An East Asian component (related to present day populations of China and Japan) is identified for most studied populations (average 9.7%). Percentages of this component are largest in Totonac (16.4%), Maya (15.7%), and Pima (14.5%) populations of Mexico (near centers of Mesoamerican civilization), but smallest in Chukchi (0.0%), Eastern Greenland (0.0%), and Koryak (1.4%) (near Beringia). This suggests that this component might be related to earlier Paleo-Indian migrations, rather than Paleo-Eskimo or Proto-Inuit (Thule) migrations. A Baltic-Urals component (related to present day populations of Northeastern Europe) is identified for most studied populations (average 3.4%). This component is largest in Aymara, Totonac, and Maya populations (located near early Mesoamerican and South American civilization centers) but absent in Eastern Greenland and Far East Siberia. This similarly suggests that this component might not be related to Proto-Inuit (Thule) migrations to Northern North America, but instead could relate to earlier Paleo-Indian and/or Paleo-Eskimo related migrations. Indus Valley components are identified for some studied populations, including Maya (6.8%), Colombia (4.3%), Aymara (3.1%), and Surui (2.9%). However, this component is absent for other studied populations. This limited geographical distribution (concentrated near the Caribbean Sea and South America) and absence in Mexico and Greenland suggests this component (although relatively small) might not be related to either Paleo-Indian or Proto-Inuit (Thule) migrations. This leaves a possible link to a wave of Paleo-Eskimo migrants, possibly with some early ancestral links to Central Asia (where Indus Valley components are found today).9 For instance, archaeological evidence supports some level of contacts between Iroquoian cultures of Eastern North America, Ust-Poluy cultures of the Arctic Coast, and Scytho-Sarmatian cultures of Central Asia and West Siberia (see Historical Background). To evaluate this possibility further, more data (in particular from other North American populations) are needed. Several small Asian components are also identified for some populations. These include Tibetan components, which are highest in Aymara (4.7%) and Eastern Greenland (3.6%); Southeast Asian components, highest in Colombia (2.4%) and Karitiana (2.1%); and Oceanian (Papua New Guinea and Melanesian related), highest in Surui (1.9%). These small components might express traces of ancestral links with Asia for the Paleo-Indian, Paleo-Eskimo, and/or Proto-Inuit (Thule) migrations to the Americas. In summary, SNP analysis shows more variation in small non-local genetic components in Central and South America than in Far East Siberia and Greenland. This might be due to older PaleoIndian origins in archaic Siberians with early links to populations of East Asia, Northeast Europe, and the Indian Subcontinent. In contrast, non-local components of Chukchi, Koryak, and Greenland Inuit populations showed less variation, possibly due to recent contacts with Paleo-Eskimo and Thule (ProtoInuit) populations that were more similar to modern Siberians.

For more information about early archaeological links between Central Asia and West Siberia, see The Neolithic period of north-western Siberia: the question of southern connections by L. L. Kosinskaya, collected in Early Contacts between Uralic and Indo-European: Linguistic and Archaeological Considerations pp. 265-287, available at http://tiedekirja.fi/. DNA Tribes Digest December 1, 2012 Page 10 of 12

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Conclusion: Multiple Layers of Native American Ancestry


In conclusion, both autosomal STR and SNP results present evidence for multiple layers of Native American ancestry. Autosomal STR analysis identifies geographical variation in the proportions of Arctic and Paleo-Indian (Native Central and South American) components for North American tribal populations. Paleo-Indian components (possibly related to the founding Paleo-Indian migrations) are highest in southern parts of North America; while Arctic components (possibly related to later PaleoEskimo and Proto-Inuit migrations) are highest in northern parts of North America. STR results express a gradual north-to-south transition in proportions of these Paleo-Indian and Arctic genetic components. This might reflect mixing of populations descended from various waves of migrations, possibly facilitated by Mound Builder trade and ceremonial centers and other internal processes. In addition, STR results identify smaller Asia-Pacific (Malay Archipelago and Polynesian) genetic components in some populations near Beringia and Northwest North America that were not found in other studied populations. These components might have accompanied maritime related Paleo-Eskimo and/or Thule (Proto-Inuit) expansions in contact with early populations near the Pacific Rim of East Asia. Autosomal SNP results indicate that, after excluding local Arctic and Mesoamerican components, the largest non-local genetic components of the studied Native American populations are East Siberian and West Siberian. This is consistent with ancestral origins in Siberia for the Paleo-Indian, Paleo-Eskimo, and Thule (Proto-Inuit) populations that migrated to the Americas. SNP results further identify several smaller components found in varying degrees in the studied Native American populations. These include: East Asian components (possibly related to Paleo-Indian migrations); Baltic-Urals components (possibly related to Paleo-Indian and/or Paleo-Eskimo migrations); and Indus Valley components (possibly related to Paleo-Eskimo migrations with links to Central Asia). As new STR and SNP data become available in the future, it might become possible to further clarify the genetic history of the Americas, including both ancestral links with Eurasia, as well as local genetic variation between Native American cultures.

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SNP Project for Enrolled Tribal Members


For a limited time, DNA Tribes would like to offer a free DNA Tribes SNP analysis for enrolled members of federally recognized Native American tribes. This will help us include less sampled Native American populations in our geographical analysis. Project Requirements: Members of U.S. federally recognized tribal nations are eligible for free SNP analysis. Genome data from a SNP microarray based autosomal test is required (separate from 15, 21, or 27 Marker Kit STR testing). New lab testing is not included in this offer. There are several commercial tests available that include SNP microarray lab work (such as an autosomal test to locate distant relatives). If you have had a previous SNP microarray test, we can confirm whether this can be used, if you email your genome file to snpsubmit@dnatribes.com. Your SNP genome will be submitted for anonymous, aggregated inclusion in our geographical SNP database. Offer is available until January 1, 2013. Example SNP reports are available at http://dnatribes.com/snp.html.

For free DNA Tribes SNP analysis, interested participants can fill out the Project Submission Form (http://dnatribes.com/snp-tribal-project.html) and email their zipped genome file to snpsubmit@dnatribes.com between now and January 1, 2013. Project participants will not need to enter an order through our website after submitting grandparent information.

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