Sie sind auf Seite 1von 245

I N T R O D U C T I O N T O THE

DEVANAGARI
FOR S T U D E N T S

SCRIPT
OF

SANSKRIT, HINDI, MARATHI GUJARATI A N D BENGALI

INTRODUCTION T O THE

DEVANAGARI SCRIPT
FOR STUDENTS HINDI, AND
BY

OF .

SANSKRIT, GUJARATI

MARATHI BENGALI

H. M. L A M B E R T , M.A.Cantab.
Senior Lecturer in Marathi in the School of Oriental (Maharaja Gaekwad's Lectureship) of London and African Studies, University

WITH PROFESSOR J.

A R.

F O R E W O R D FIRTH,

BY M.A. of London

O.B.E.,

Professor of General Linguistics

in the University

GEOFFREY C U M B E R L E G E

OXFORD

UNIVERSITY

PRESS

Oxford University Press, Amen House, London E.C 4


GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE WELLINGTON IBADAN BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS KARACHI CAPE TOWN

Geoffrey Cumberlege, Publisher to the

University

First

published

1953

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN

FOREWORD

I T is a commonplace of linguistics to a c k n o w l e d g e the debt w e owe to the ancient Indian grammarians and to couple w i t h it the n a m e o f Sir William Jones. It was he w h o first set a proper value on the Devanagari and A r a b i c scripts in his dissertation as President of the Asiatic Society of Bengal on the O r t h o g r a p h y of Asiatic W o r d s in R o m a n Letters. His chart of suggested symbols for the transliteration of the Devanagari, with the addition of letters for Arabic and Persian, is the first presentation of what may be called a phonetic alphabet on such a scale. H e finds the A r a b i c alphabet almost perfect for Arabic itself: 'Not a l t e could be added or taken away without manifest inconvenience. The same may etr indubitably be s i of the Devanagari system, which, as i i more naturally arranged than any other, ad t s s a l here be the standard of my particular observations on Asiatic l t e s Our English alphabet hl etr. and orthography are disgracefully and almost ridiculously imperfect.' He aims at using diacritics common in Europe rather than n e w lettersand symbols from 'fluxions' or mathematicsso as to equal the D e v a n a g a r i itself in precision and clearness. A system of writing and spelling is the foundation of a system of grammar. Meillet went so far as to say that the foundations of the science of grammar were laid b y the Indians. F o r all languages e m p l o y i n g forms of the Devanagari script, the writing system and the spelling carry implications of p h o n o l o g i c a l analysis and statement. T h e y are at once practice and theory and deserve the first attentions of all students. T h i s is well illustrated in Miss L a m b e r t ' s w o r k on the D e v a n a g a r i script, and it will be agreed that the presentation of the phonological patterns, s u c h as 'junctions' occurring in words or arising out of 'sandhi' in Sanskrit, and other characteristic patterns in the modern languages, is clear, systematic, and original, and particularly interesting in Bengali. T h e treatment of conjunct characters in the third chapter of each section is new, and apart from its intrinsic interest m a y b e taken as an indication of what is lost w h e n the structure of the Devanagari s y s t e m is superseded b y the usual roman trans literations. In addition to this study of the w r i t i n g system, attention is rightly given here to calligraphy, for the practice of the h a n d is an obligation no less compelling than that of the tongue and both are expressions not only of courteous relations but of disciplined knowledge. Miss Lambert has consistently applied the A l l - I n d i a R o m a n A l p h a b e t to all five languages in order to make comparison possible w h e t h e r the languages are k n o w n to the student or not. T h i s treatment could b e e x t e n d e d to the Dravidian languages. B y this

vi

FOREWORD

means it has been found possible to make a systematic statement of the various c o n v e n tions governing the use of the Sanskritic writing system for the m o d e r n languages. T h e Sanskrit and H i n d i sections are published separately in one v o l u m e since they employ one script and will presumably be more generally required, b u t the appeal of the entire w o r k is to those w h o s e interests range from India through F u r t h e r India to the Indonesian Islands following the Sanskritic system of writing. I have been acquainted w i t h M i s s L a m b e r t ' s work in Indian studies since 1937, first in Western India and later as a colleague in L o n d o n . It gave m e great pleasure to be asked to write this brief foreword to her work on a subject w h i c h I have always held to be of high importance and the results of w h i c h are n o w offered to students of Sanskrit and the four principal Sanskritic languages of India. J. R. F I R T H

PREFACE
G O O D writing, the understanding of the w r i t i n g system and the formation of a good hand, is as important a part of the study of the written language as good pronunciation is of the study of the spoken language. Y e t too little time is usually given to the teaching of writing to students of Sanskrit and of the m o d e r n Indian languages; writing is generally left for the student to teach himself as b e s t he can. T h e result is that many students neither have an adequate understanding of the w r i t i n g system and the difference between a syllabic and an alphabetic method of representation, nor k n o w h o w the characters of the script are written and what features are important for the formation of a cultured literate hand. It is hoped that this b o o k will p r o v i d e not only a guide to students learn ing to write the scripts w h i c h are described in each section, but will also give them a fuller understanding of the special nature o f the scripts a n d the adjustments w h i c h are made in the Sanskrit system in order to use it for writing the modern languages of northern India. T h e notation used for the transcription of the scripts in this work is the A l l - I n d i a Roman Alphabet devised b y Professor J. R . F i r t h of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of L o n d o n , and u s e d already in several publicationsA. H . Harley, Colloquial Hindustani, T . G r a h a m e B a i l e y , Teach Yourself Hindustani, and m y o w n Marathi Language Course. T h e use of this transcription necessitates the use of certain conventions, particularly that of the representation of the 'inherent v o w e l ' , in final characters w h e n listing the contents of e a c h section of the w o r k . T h e transcription of the Sanskrit terms in the Sanskrit section is entirely systematic; but owing to the varying realization of the characters of the script i n certain positions in w o r d s in the modern languages, it has been necessary to use in t h e C o n t e n t s of the other sections certain con ventions which are discussed in the t e x t . A n e x a m p l e of such conventions occurs in the writing of such Sanskrit terms, used b y grammarians in the modern languages, as 'antasth' and 'uusm', in w h i c h the realization of the 'inherent v o w e l ' of the final character varies from a short glide-vowel to a full syllable. A s it is b e y o n d the scope of this work to make a fine analysis of the v a r y i n g realization of such final characters, it is necessary to establish certain conventions w i t h regard to the transcription of them. T h e s e con ventions are of necessity anticipated in the C o n t e n t s . Some degree of repetition has b e e n inevitable in order to preserve the basic unity of the description of the Devanagari s y s t e m of w r i t i n g while allowing for specialization

viii

PREFACE

in each of the languages. W h i l e this repetition may at times seem irksome to the reader, it has the advantage of facilitating comparison of one section w i t h another. T h e words given in each section to illustrate the writing and reading of the various scripts have been selected in order to provide examples of every character or combina tion of characters w h i c h occurs in the language under consideration. S o m e characters occur only in colloquial forms o r in loanwords from other languages, including English. I n order to illustrate the use of all the characters, examples are drawn, therefore, from the whole range of vocabulary, from colloquial forms occurring in m o d e r n speech to learned Sanskrit loanwords occurring only in literary texts. A n y w o r d w h i c h occurs in a standard dictionary is a w o r d w h i c h the student may have to read and illustrates the use of the characters of the script. T h i s study of the D e v a n a g a r i script owes its inspiration to the suggestion and en couragement of Professor F i r t h , to w h o m m y thanks are first due. B u t a w o r k of this nature could not have b e e n accomplished without reference to experts in the languages discussed, and I am greatly indebted to m y colleagues of both the D e p a r t m e n t of India, Pakistan and C e y l o n , and the D e p a r t m e n t of Phonetics and Linguistics, of the School, for their co-operation and g u i d a n c e . I am especially indebted to M i s s G . M . S u m m e r s , formerly L e c t u r e r in Bengali in this School, for her collaboration in the Bengali section, without w h i c h the study of the Bengali script could not have been included in this w o r k . T h e t w o scribes w h o have written the script portions of the book, M i s s W . Westover and M r . P . Pritchard, m u s t also b e given recognition for their careful and accurate w o r k . Finally I wish to express m y appreciation of the great generosity of the School of Oriental and African S t u d i e s for their subvention towards the publication of this b o o k ; and of the help and advice g i v e n b y the Oxford University Press on all matters concern ing its production. H. M . L.

CONTENTS
Foreword Preface Introduction: The Devanagari Script Notation Calligraphy SANSKRIT SECTION 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 5 6 8 9 1 1 3 6 6 0 1 2 2 page v vii 1 2 5

Chapter 1 . Arrangement of the Syllabary Sanskrit syllabary in roman notation Sanskrit phonetic terms Chapter 2 . Characters of the Syllabary 1. Consonant Characters i Characters of the vargiiya group ii. Characters of the antahstna group iii. Characters of the uusman group, and Vedic \o Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs i. Vowel characters ii. Vowel signs Modifiers i. anusvaran ii. visargah The Complete Syllabary Numerals Punctuation

2. 3. 1+. 5 6.

Chapter 3 . Conjunct Characters 1. 2. 3.

3 3

Construction of Conjunct Characters 3 3 Contexts of Conjunct Characters 3 5 Classification of Conjunct Characters 3 7 Class 1 . Two similar characters joined 3 8 Class 2 . Two vargiiya characters joined 3 9 Class 3 . Characters joined with antahstha characters 1 + 3 i. witn following ya 1+3 ii. with following va 1+1+ iii. with preceding or following ra 1+5 iv. with preceding or following la and \Q 1 + 7 Class 1+. vargiiya characters joined with preceding or following uusman characters 1+8 i. witn Ja , sa and sa 1+8 ii. with ha 5 0
5 1

Transcription of reading examples

C O N T E N T S

HINDI SECTION Chapter 1. Arrangement of the Syllabary Hindi syllabary in roman notation Chapter 2. Characters of the Syllabary 1. Consonant Characters Realisation of akar consonant characters i. Characters of the vargiiy group ii. Characters of the antasth group iii. Characters of the uusm group 2. Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs i. Vowel Characters ii. Vowel Signs Realisation of characters in special contexts 3 . Modifiers i. anusvar and candr-bindu ii. visarg 1+. The Complete Syllabary 5. Numerals 6. Punctuation Chapter 3 Conjunct Characters 1. Contexts of Conjunct Characters in Hindi 2. Realisation of Conjunct Characters in Hindi 3 . Classes of Conjunct Characters Class 1. Two similar characters joined Class 2. Two vargiiy characters joined Class 3 . Characters joined with antasth characters i. with following ya ii. with following va iii. with preceding or following ra iv. with preceding or following la Class 1+. vargiiy characters joined with preceding or following uusm characters i. with J a , sa and sa " ii. with ha Hindi prose passage Transcription of reading examples page 57 59 6l 61 6 2 63 61+ 65 67 67 67 69 70 70 73 73 71+ 71+ 75 75 76 76 77 78 79 79 80 80 81 82 82 83 81+ 85

C O N T E N T S

xi

MARATHI SECTION Chapter 1. Arrangement of the Syllabary Marathi syllabary in roman notation Chapter 2. Characters of the Syllabary Consonant Characters , Realisation of akar consonant characters i. Characters of the vargiiy group ii. Characters of the antasth group iii. Characters of the uusm group, and \e 2 . Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs i. Vowel Characters ii. Vowel Signs Modern forms of Marathi vowel characters Realisation of characters in special contexts Realisation of characters of the ca-varg 3 . Modifiers i. anusvar ii. visarg h. The Complete Syllabary 5 . Numerals 6 . Punctuation Rules of Marathi Orthography Chapter 3 . Conjunct Characters 1. 2. 3. Contexts of Conjunct Characters in Marathi Realisation of Conjunct Characters in Marathi Classes of Conjunct Characters Class 1 . Two similar characters joined Class 2 . Two vargiiy characters joined Class 3 . Characters joined with antasth characters i. with following ya ii. with following va iii. with preceding or following ra iv. with preceding or following la Class k- vargiiy characters joined with preceding or following uusm characters i. withr J a , sa and sa " ii. with ba 1. page 91 92 9k 9 5 9 6 9 6 99 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 3 0 5 106 0 8 108 1 1 112 1 2 1 2 1 3 118 1 1 8 119 1 1 9 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 3 12k 1 2 6 1 2 7 1 2 7 128 129
1 3 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Marathi prose passage Transcription of reading examples

xii

CONTENTS

GUJARATI

SECTION page 1 3 5 1 3 6 1 3 8 1 3 8 1 3 9 1 1 + 0 1 1 + 2 1 1 + 3 11+1+ 11+1+ 1 1 + 5 1 1 + 6 1 1 + 8 1 5 0 1 5 0 1 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 1 + 1 5 5 1 5 6 1 5 6 1 5 6 1 5 7 5 7 5 8 5 9 5 9 6 0 6 l 6 l 6 2 6 2 161+ 6 5 6 5 6 6

Chapter 1 . Arrangement of the Syllabary Gujarati syllabary in roman notation Chapter 2 . Characters of the Syllabary Consonant Characters Realisation of akar consonant characters i. Characters of the vargiiy group ii. Characters of the antasth group iii. Characters of the uusm group, and \Q 2 . Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs i. Vowel Characters ii. Vowel Signs Realisation of vowels ' e' and ' o' Realisation of characters in special contexts Realisation of ' c^a' and ' qha' Orthography of 'i* and 'u' 3 . Modifiers i. anusvar ii. visarg 1+. The Complete Syllabary 5 . Numerals 6 . Punctuation Rules of Gujarati Orthography Chapter 3 Conjunct Characters 1. 2. 3. 1.

Contexts of Conjunct Characters in Gujarati 1 Realisation of Conjunct Characters in Gujarati 1 Classes of Conjunct Characters 1 Class 1 . Two similar characters joined 1 Class 2 . Two vargiiy characters joined 1 Class 3 Characters joined with antasth characters l i. with following ya l ii. with following va 1 iii. with preceding or following ra 1 iv. with preceding or following la Class 1+. vargiiy characters joined with preceding or following uusm characters 1 i. with Jo , sa and sa 1 ii. with ha 1

Gujarati prose passage Transcription of reading examples

1 6 7 1 6 8

CONTENTS

xiii

BENGALI

SECTION page 173 17k 175 177 179

Chapter 1. Arrangement of the Syllabary Notation Bengali syllabary in roman notation Calligraphy Chapter 2. Characters of the Syllabary

1. Consonant Characters i. Characters of the vargiiya group 181 Realisation of akar consonant characters 183 ii. Characters of the antastha group 186 iii. Characters of the uusma group 188 Realisation of akar consonant characters in verbal forms 190 2. Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs 192 i. Vowel Characters 192 ii. Vowel Signs 191+ Realisation of consonant and vowel characters in special contexts 195 a. Realisation of akar consonant characters 195 b. Realisation of vowel characters in special contexts 197 Realisation of antastha ya 199 3. Modifiers 201+ i. candra-bindu and anus vara 2 0 1 + ii. visarga 2 0 6 1 + . The Complete Syllabary 2 0 6 5. Numerals 2 0 7 6. Punctuation 207 Chapter 3. Conjunct Characters 2 0 8

1. Construction of Conjunct Characters 2 0 8 2. Contexts and Realisation of Conjunct Characters 2 0 9 3. Classes of Conjunct Characters 211 Class 1. Two similar characters joined 211 Class 2. Two vargiiya characters joined 212 Class 3 Characters joined with antastha characters 211+ i. with following ya 2 1 1 + ii. with following va 2 1 6 iii. with-preceding or following ra 2 1 8 iv. with preceding or following la 220 Class 1 + . vargiiya characters joined with preceding or following uusma characters 221 i. with Ja , sa and sa 221 ii. with ha 223 Bengali prose passage Transcription of Reading Examples 2 2 5 2 2 6

INTRODUCTION
Tne Devanagari Script The script traditionally referred to as the Devanagari Script is used in writing Sanskrit and, of the modern, languages of northern India, Hindi, Marathi and Nepali. The script used in writing Gujarati is a slightly modified form of the Devanagari script, and the scripts used in writing Bengali and Panjabi are related to the Devanagari script, though this relation is apparent in only some of the charact ers. The writing system, based on the character representing the syll able, is the same for all these languages. However, in order to use this system for writing the modern languages, which have each develop ed in their own particular way from the original Sanskrit, a number of conventions have become necessary in reading from the script, con ventions which vary with the special features of each language. The realisation of the characters as they are used for writing Hindi, Bengali, Marathi and Gujarati, and the conventions which have become established in each language, are described in the various sections of this work. Though the Bengali script differs considerably from

the Devanagari script in the form of most of the characters, the study of it is included in this work because the writing system is the same as the Sanskrit writing system, and the conventions by which

I N T R O D U C T I O N

this system is adapted for writing Bengali have much in common with the conventions used in the other modern languages. An examination

of these conventions makes possible an interesting comparison both between the writing of these four languages and that of Sanskrit, and between the writing of the modern languages themselves. The origin of the name 'Devanagari' is obscure.
1

The shorter

form of the name is Nagari'(nagarii), which has been variously inter preted. It is thought by some to be tbe name given to the writing of

'tbe people of the city'(nagaram, 'a city'); by others it is said to derive its name from the Nagar Brahmans of Gujarat. Notation The system of roman notation used in this text for transcribing the Devanagari characters is the All-India Roman Notation^. Three minor modifications have been introduced in this text in order to adapt the notation for transcribing both Sanskrit and the modern languages. These modifications are :i. The use of the vowels of the vowels and uu y and i i ('short' i) and ii ('long' ii) instead u u . ('short' u )

; and of the vowels w n and

('long' uu ) for the vowels rj instead of r

ii. The use of the letter

for representing the

mark of nasalisation known as the anusvar. iii.The placing of a micron above the letter and above the letter v in the diphthong y in the diphthong ay , av , thus: ay , av .

1.

See Preface.

INTRODUCTION This mark distinguishes the transcription of the diphthongs from the transcription of combinations of characters which are real ised in certain contexts as s-y and 9-v , not distinguishable

in ordinary speech, in the modern languages, from the diphthongs. Besides these modifications, it is necessary to make certain additions to the notation in order to represent characters used in writing the modern, languages but not used in Sanskrit, and certain modified characters used in Hindi and Bengali. The complete notation used in the Sanskrit syllabary is this: Vowels: a and Modifiers :
1

a r

i rr

ii

u 1

uu

ay

ov

11 , for the syllabic consonants.

rj (representing the onusvara) and r h (representing the visarga)

Consonants:

k c

kh ch

g j

gh jh

n j i

t
t p y r

t*
th ph l

a
d b

<i

n
n m J * s s h

dh bh v ;

\ , used in transcribing Vedic Sanskrit The additional letters used in the syllabaries of the modern languages are these: r and rh for transcribing the modified forms of the characters ^ and cjh , in Hindi and Bengali, and for

representing

1. For the use of this term, see Sanskrit section, Chapter 1.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

indicating the intervocallic realisation, in certain words, of the Gujarati character representing q , x , y , z and c . [

f , for transcribing certain modified Devanagari

characters used in Hindi in writing Persian and Arabic loanwords, ts , z and zh , for transcribing characters of the 'palatal' class

in Marathi, when they are realised with alveolar articulation. In modern spoken Gujarati and modern spoken Bengali, certain vowel sounds occur which are not separately represented in the script. For indicating the contexts in which such vowel sounds occur, the three symbols e , o and s are used. e

The sign of nasalisation,'"' , is used in transcribing the modifier representing nasalisation when it is realised, in the modern lang uages, as the nasalisation of a vowel and not as a nasal consonant. This roman notation is used for writing all the Sanskrit grammat ical terms referring to the syllabaries of Sanskrit and of the modern languages, the classification of the characters and the phonetic de scription of their realisation. The names of the languages, the scripts, and grammatical terms, such as 'sandhi'(sandhi), which are in regular use in English, are written in their conventional English form. The Sanskrit syllabary, as arranged by the Sanskrit grammarians, is given in the roman notation in the Sanskrit section^, and serves as a standard with which the syllabaries of the modern languages can be compared.
1

1. 2.

See Sanskrit Section, Chapter 2 , 3 . i . a . anusvara. ibid., Chapter 1.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

Callig^P^Z The writing of the Devanagari characters should he practised at first with a reed or bamboo pen. Such pens are still in use in manyparts of India, and in many schools Indian children are taught first to write on a large scale with a broadly cut bamboo pen. Writing in this way will train the eye to recognise easily details of difference and will train the hand to write a standard form of the characters with the broad and thin strokes in the right place and proportion. These pens are cut in the same way as a quill pen, except that the point is cut to slant in the opposite direction from that of the quill used for English writing with the tilted axis. The English pen, when cut for the tilted axis, looks like this from the back: writing thus: The pen cut for the Devanagari script looks like this from the back: writing thus: The pen should be neld in such a way that the thin line, made by the cut edge, falls from left to right at an angle of k5 degrees from a line drawn horizontally across the page. The broad stroke then forms a right-angle with the thin stroke and crosses the horizontal line of the page at an angle of i+5 degrees. Care must be taken not to change the angle of the pen during the writing of curved or rounded strokes, as this will change the shape and balance of the character. Some of the typical strokes of the script should be practised Until good control of the pen, held at the right angle, is establish ed before the characters themselves are written. For example.:

I N T R O D U C T I O N

The use of the broad, pen should be continued until a good style of handwriting is formed; the introduction of writing with an ordinary pen, and without sufficient attention to the details of line and form, often interferes with the formation of a good hand. In the illustrations given below, which may be used as writing exercises, the characters are grouped so as to show different combin ations of strokes, and to draw attention tosimilarities and to small but important differences. It will be seen that some of the characters have an upright stroke, others are curved or rounded, without an up right stroke; but all have the head-stroke, though it is not always written right across the top of the character. The alignment of the characters is made by this head-stroke, that is, by the top of the character, though there is an invisible alignment also by the bottom of the character. For this reason, it is well to practice writing at first between two lines; if one line is used, the characters should be written from the line downwards, not on the line. The general method of writing the characters is this: first,

the characteristic part of the character, usually on the left side of the upright stroke; then the upright stroke, if there is one; and finally the head-stroke. The head-stroke binds the whole character together, as will be seen when vowel signs and other marks are added. The general direction of making the strokes is from the top downwards, and from left to right. But the order of the strokes in some charact ers, and their direction, differ from this general rule, and where this is so, the calligraphy of particular characters is illustrated when these are introduced in the chapters which follow.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

Examples of Devanagari characters, showing the order in which the strokes are written:

Examples of similarity and difference between characters:

SANSKRIT

SECTION

C H A P T E R ARRANGEMENT OP THE

1 SYLLABARY

When the characters of the Devanagari Script,

, are

arranged in the traditional order, they constitute a series of syll ables which may be regarded as the basis of the Sanskrit phonological system. Each character represents a syllable, and is called -*A"ql (gksorom). 3"*$HloHl The series of characters in the syllabary is called (vornsmala) , and consists of:-

Pourteen vowel characters, Two modifiers and Thirtythree consonant characters. The syllabary used in writing Vedic Sanskrit includes one more con sonant character. In reading aloud from the script, a vowel character is realised as a syllable consisting of a vowel, " ^ T ^ :
-

(svarah) , and a consonant

character is realised as a syllable consisting of an initial conson ant, oEn3p=JJT (vyojijonam) followed by the vowel o . This vowel,

when realised with a consonant, is generally referred to in English textbooks as the 'inherent' vowel. The term 'modifier' is used here

to refer to the two signs which indicate some modification in the realisation of the character with which they are written. These two signs are usually referred to individually, as the 'anusyarsh' and the 'visarggh' , as there is no Sanskrit term which is used to refer to them together.

12

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

Each character is referred to, for instance, in spelling, as the syllable which it represents, and the particle example, ^fl^TTT (kara); for

(akara) , ^cf^R(ikara) , c^cfTI? (kakara) , rTorTTT (takara).

The roman syllabary given below corresponds in arrangement and classification with the Devanagari syllabary. As the consonant

characters are discussed first in this work, the table of consonant syllables is placed first in this syllabary. 1 Velar 2 Palatal 3 Cacum inal k Dental 5 Labial

CONSONANTS with Voiceless

C Q C D

Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated

kg kha

ca cha

.? t
tha

ta tha da dha na la sa

pa pha ba bha ma va

i>
H

0s

Voiced

gha ra j jha jia ys dha

Nasal Semi-vowels Fricatives Aspirate Lateral VOWELS, associated with consonant-classes MODIFIERS a

ra sa

ha

I
a i e Nasal -m ii ay r

rr

.1

11

u o

uu av

Aspirated

-h

A R R A N G E M E N T OF T H E SYLLABARY The character represented " y va b in the roman table is usually

13

realised with labio-dental articulation in reading from a Sanskrit text. The retroflex lateral consonant
1

T a occurs only in Vedic _

Sanskrit.

The vowel 'syllabic 11 does not occur in Sanskrit, but the

character representing it is traditionally included in the script syllabary. The main feature of the syllabary is the arrangement of the con sonant characters in groups according to the position and the manner of articulation of the sounds which they represent. The following

Sanskrit phonetic terms are used by grammarians in the description of the characters as they are classified in the syllabary: i. The consonant characters are placed in three groups: characters

representing syllables with an initial plosive consonant, that is, a consonant articulated with 'contact', ^-q(spar/ah,'touch')j

characters representing syllables with an initial semi-vowel, that is, 'neither a consonant nor a vowel', "=H-ri:lF3T (antahstha, 'standing between'); and characters representing syllables with an initial fricative consonant, vjo^H*"^ (uusman, 'heat'). ii. The five positions o f articulation are: ct)<c^( (kanj;hya,'velar')
or t ^ ^ ^ o i t ^ T ( jihvamuuliiya ,' root of the tongue'); cTToToZT

(talavya, 'palatal');

T^j[Z=Zf

(muurdhanya,' cacuminal'!) ; Labio-dental

(dontya, 'dental') and 'SHV&O^ (osthya, 'labial'). articulation is described as cfl ^"U.

(dantavs^hya).

1. This term refers to the area of the roof of the mouth with which contact is made by the tongue. Consonants of this class are also de scribed as 'cerebral'. As the retroflexion of the tongue is an import ant feature in the pronunciation of consonants of this class in the modern languages, the class is described as 'retroflex' in the roman tables of those languages. Cf. Hindi, p. 5 9 .

14

SANSKRIT

SECTION

iii. The manner of production of the sounds by which the characters are realised is described in the following terms, and in each class of plosive consonants the characters are arranged in this order: voiceless, unaspirated - -M vf]^ voiceless, aspirated voiced, unaspirated voiced, aspirated nasal - SfJ^STfar - "^TtWrT (aghosa ), (aghosa), (ghosavat^),
1

y(alpaprana )
2

H^l V 1 1 I ^ CM ^T^TTfW

(mahapra:na3) (alpaprana) (mahaprana)

^TtTcr^ (ghosavat) ,

^ T ^ l l fo^5 (anunasika 5) ,

1. 2. 3' . h. 5.

'without sound', or 'voiceless'. 'with little breath', or 'unaspirated'. 'with big breath', or 'aspirated'. 'with sound' or 'voiced'. 'nasal'.

C H A P T E R CHARACTERS OP THE

2 SYLLABARY

The characters of the script are described in this chapter in the same order as that in which the syllables are placed in the roman syllabary: Consonant Characters, Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs, and Modifiers. The general style of the characters varies from period to period and from region to region. In the older editions of Sanskrit works some characters are found that are now supplanted by newer and more widely used forms; and there is sometimes a marked difference in the style used in printing books in Bombay, Calcutta and other parts of India. The most commonly used of the alternative forms of some of the characters are given below, among the characters of each group. The calligraphy of any characters which are not written according to the general order of strokes given in the Introduction is illustrat ed when the characters are introduced.

1. Consonant Characters. The consonant characters of the syllabary represent syllables consisting of an initial consonant followed by the vowel ant characters realised with the vowel a a . Conson

are described as ^ c f t K

(akara). If a character is to be realised as the consonant element only of the syllable, this is shown by writing the mark known as f^TTPT(viramah) at the foot of the character. The writing of this

mark with a character is illustrated below, after the first table.

16

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

Characters written with the viramgh are described as ^tyr^rT (hslants), 'ending in a consonant'. i. Characters of the vorgiiys group ( ofTffcr ) . The twentyfive characters of this group are arranged, as in the roman table given above, in five classes, (vergah), representing

the five positions of 'contact', ^Cf^f: (sparJsh), used in the articul ation of the plosive consonants. Each class consists of five charact

ers, arranged in order according to the manner of production of the consonant of the syllable which they represent.

k9-v9rg9h

35
k9 kh9 gh9 C9 Ch9

3>
Dh9
J19

ca-varggh

-|;9-V9rg9h

th9

3h9

t9-varg9h

t9

r
th9 ph9

d9

dhg

n9

pg-varggh

P9

b9

*r
bh9

mo

The Bombay form of the character for 35 and 7^

jhg

is T > and the forms The Bombay

are found in older books printed in Calcutta.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY form of the character for no is . The Bombay forms of these

17

characters are used in Hindi writing, but the Hindi forms are not used in Marathi writing, or in Sanskrit books printed in Bombay. Calligraphy. All the characters in the above table are written in the way described in the introductory notes on calligraphy, except the following three characters:
jh9

jo to
r

\>

\r

\j|

\jf

*J

*b

*R

ri

rT

The writing of the viramoh to indicate the realisation of a con sonant character as a consonant without the vowel by these characters: a is illustrated

<5 *
k-

^
c-

^
t~

^
tp-

When writing words, which may be of one or more characters, each character is written and completed with the head-stroke before the next character is written. In the reading examples which are given

below, words which are usually written with the modifier known as fof^'f: (visargeh)^ are written in the form in which they occur in The visorgah is written with Verbal

various contexts without this modifier.

reading examples after the modifiers have been discussed.

roots, in the form in which they are given in grammars and diction aries, are included in the examples in order to illustrate the writing of characters with the viramoh.

1. The first stroke in these characters is written from right to left. 2. See below, under 3. Modifiers, ii. c

18 Reading examples 1. One character words

SANSKRIT

SECTION

2. Two character words TT5 xbti 3. R vrfs

^ TfiZ

**<5
"W

^ ^fcT

^FT ^"T ^

TO^T

3*T
TTUT

Three character words


TTTT5R

^PTrT
cfi-qe

xTCPR
3qv3foR

HSR

-<Tc5cfi

3^*1
TT^OFI

TcT5F)

7Turop5

cf^xf

i+. Four and five character words

"B^rTxr
*T*TH*T

M^^fflT
"q3^*T

'TCTT
eFPTO

cRSFR
* W * B * i r R

SRFR

vSFTCR

^ " ^ ^ r p r

ii. Characters of the antahstha

group ( *5yrl*.) Bombay form la

^
ya Calligraphy la : Hindi form ^ ^ ra la

^J j* J
va

Bombay form

^ ^ ^

^7>

These four characters are associated with four of the vargah, as indicated in the roman syllabary, and with four of the vowels, thus: T{ ^
r

, ya, associated with the ca-vargah, and the vowels , ra, associated with the , and the syllabic

and r 1

ii

and rr^"
k

Cn , la, associated with the ta-vargah, and the syllabic

and 11

o f > va, associated with the pa-vargah, and the vowels u and uu 1. Transcription of examples is given on p.51. 2 . 'standing between.' 3 . This stroke is written from right to left. U. See below, under 2 . Vowel Characters.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY These characters are all described as cf , olpgprang and

19 ghossvet.

, though associated with the labial class, is. realised with 3[-<^| (dantovsthys).

labio-dental articulation, and described as Reading examples 1.


1

One character words

5f

*T

r T

2. Two character words


o^cf ^TM
qoT R

cRf

WtT

STc5
^

TC
^

W
^^*
N

TO
^5

c=5^T

3.

Three character words ^ c*opJT 5*13 *T*T^ TSfc55 *P*cT


x

^f5T

WW cT^R

S^TT cTC*T

h. Words of four or more characters


Z(V(cl^

cTCRTT

*RcT*T

tT$^*??T

SFPTSoWW

iii. Characters of the uusman

group (\53"5EpT )

?
J9 Calldgraphy Jg : Hindi form ha : i. ^ $ |>

^
S9 S9 $| or is 5j ii.

Bombay form < $

f
h9 3l 41 IT

An older form of

, a form still used in joining this This form is illustrated

character to certain other characters. later under Conjunct Characters-^.

1 .

2.

Transcription- of examples is given on p 5 1 o 'heat' 3. See Chapter 3.

2o

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

The first three characters of this group represent syllables consisting of a fricative consonant with the vowel described as 9ghos9 and mohaprang. as an aspirate followed by the vowel and mehaprar). thus: 9 , and are

The fourth character is realised 9 , and is described as ghosevot

The uusmen characters are associated with the classes , so , with the -[Q-Yorgoh; , he , with the ko-vergeh.

51 , j o , with the C9-V9rg9h; " , 89 , with the T 9 - v 9 r g 9 h ; The character | T and

is the last consonant character in the syllab In writing Vedic Sanskrit

ary used in writing classical Sanskrit. one more character is used, oS consonant followed by the vowel Calligraphy of 55 Reading examples
1

, \B 9 . OO

, realised as a retroflex lateral

Or

06

55

1. One character words

2. Two character words

Tsre
^7rT
N

^sr
PI

^
^TST 1#

T^r
^ ^

^Rr

3- Three character words bi^t ^T5T^


n

^ C T 5R ^TOcS

opre

*pt*t $*5f5

ttrst t p ^ -*sth

H^ST

k Pour, five and six character words 3"5R*T ^Tc^lTH ^ T ^ H =ToTSr^P*>lT TfSR"^ H ^ T ^ R ^ 5p>^"H
s

"STTFT^

^TcTTT^ ^*m?T*T

^TT^T^^T

1. Transcription of examples is given on p. 51.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY 2. Vowel Characters, with corresponding Vowel Signs. A vowel which constitutes a syllable is written with a vowel character; a vowel which is part of a syllable with an initial con sonant is written with a vowel sign added to a consonant character, x. Vowel Characters. There are fourteen vowel characters in the V9rr|9mala:

21

w 5
o a i

4
ii rr

3 in
u uu

%
Syllabic r e The character form, ^Tf , Wl" and ay

% K
1 11 o
9v

, and the other characters based on the same , and the characters ^ of and

, have these alternative forms:

<3T 3ff < * # 2t


o a o
8v

S R ^ R ^ ^
r rr 1 11

Both forms of these vowel characters are used in Hindi writing; only the Bombay forms are used in Marathi writing. An older form of

55ft

, o , is 3* .
1

The order of writing the strokes in vowel

characters is illustrated by these examples: 9 9 M a r oy


*>

M\

ii 1 C

*>

*
5

1. See below, under 3.Modifiers,i.note c.

22

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

The vowel characters are referred to as "swoftlT > a-kara, smooiT ? a-kara, J j ^ B T ^ i-kara, and so on. They are related to the five posit

ions of articulation as shown in the table of the roman syllabary. The vowel 11 does not occur in Sanskrit words, but the character is

traditionally included in the syllabary for the sake of symmetry. The first ten vowel characters represent five pairs of 'simple' vowels, each pair consisting of a character realised as a 'short' vowel, f^^oT , (hrasva) and a character realised as a 'long' vowel, ^t ^
7

, (diirgha).

The remaining four characters represent vowels

which are described as 'compound' or 'conjunct', ^T^rf) > (sarrjyukta-'-). In the system of modification and combination of vowels known as 'sandhi', ^f^r: , (sandhih), as in the formation of compound words,

derived words, and the joining of final and initial vowels in con secutive words in a phrase or sentence, the vowels are grouped thus: Simple vowels
TJUT'* (gunah)

a
9

a
a

i
e

ii

u
o

uu

r
ar

rr

1
al

(vrddhih) Examples :
2

a nagaram diva bhuuti

ay

av
'TI^Tf^oB

ar

al nagarika

^rpri^

?5

kr kip
op><v^HI

kalpana

cftio/HpJof)

kalpanika

1. 2.

See above, Ch.l., and below,3. i. for the modifier represented by rj r. See below, ii, for the vowel signs used in these examples.

CHARACTERS OF T H E

SYLLABARY

23

Reading examples of words with vowel characters;1

1. One character words

TJ

35

51

^ft

2. Words of more than

ne character

5\
w -STt^ 3Tc5

3<T
i^i

3$^

^ ^ ^r s if 3^r

ii. Vowel Signs Each of the vowel characters, except , a , has a correspond

ing vowel sign which may he added to a consonant character to re present a syllable consisting of an initial consonant followed by one of the vowels a - av . As the vowel a is realised with every con

sonant character unless it is either marked with the viramah or has one of the vowel signs added to it, there is no sign for this vowel. The vowel signs, added to the consonant character oft , are:

5T R f % %
ka ki kr krr ke kay

kii

ku

kuu

'

kl

kll

ko

kav

1 . Transcription of examples is given on p 5 1 . 2. See note on the vowel 11 under Vowel Characters, above.
0

24 Calligraphy

SANSKRIT

SECTION

The order of writing the strokes when a vowel sign is added to a consonant character is illustrated in the following examples: ka ki dhi ke

cb 1 1

cbl
!<*>

ku kii

cb cb 1 oh

3> <> *l m
ft

IM '

ft

fa

bhi ko

obi

When the vowel signs are added to consonant characters which have an upright stroke, the superscribed signs are placed above the upright stroke, and the subscribed signs are written at the foot of that stroke. When vowel signs are subscribed to rounded characters

they are written below the mid-point of the lowest curve, thus:

f
chu Special forms

5
pxn

f
du ^

djiuu

5
du

I
huu

^
ru An older form of is

*
ruu

5
dr ^ , and of -

1
Jr is ^

^
hr

The vowel sign of 9 f representing if with ^ "^ 5

is not written with

The character

is written with the superscribed stroke

used to represent

when it is to be realised before another con

sonant character without an intervening vowel. This stroke is placed over the vowel character Mark of 'separation'. When an initial or s l fT S occurs after certain final vowels in , known as 3T3"3T$|":
3

5fJ

, as in

Pis+^irl

, nirrti .

the preceding word, the mark


1 .

(avagrohah)^ is 'separation'.

See C h . 2 , l o i i i .

2. See C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3.iiia-

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

25

written after the vowel in which the final and initial vowels are co alesced, to indicate the presence of two words in the piece. is written once when the initial vowel of the second word is twice when the initial vowel is ^\ , as in these examples: The mark *5T , and

yo - ay am

yo-yam

te - api

te- pi

sada - atman

sada

Reading examples^ 1. One character words

*'

*
X

ft

2. Two character words

V*

ft? ^
3Tt
3.

fcT
fa^to

^
sttct t?or facj^T ^ftcr
s

Three character words jjfacr 5*nfr f^TTcI ^ft^R ^fre^r ^ r e

^Tf^r
5u^t=T

^rf^
^ff^SBT

irtW
|o5cl"

U. Four, five and six character words ?of)Tfo>R ^RI*T% {jfttofc^r ^frf^^T ^ f i ^ ^ T f^"^f%oHT OTjftf^SFjT

hUiP|F>
*sfa^ftl'+>

?5^TTftf5F

a f o ^ T ^

1.

, tma , the characters CT and T combined. See Chapter 3 Class 2. iii. 2. Transcription of examples is given on p. 51.
n

26 3. Modifiers

SANSKRIT

SECTION

The two modifiers, known as

^ T * J iPfl I T :

(onusvarsh) and "fcf^'^f";

(visorgsh), are signs which may be added to a character to indicate a modification in the realisation of the character. They are placed

in the syllabary after the vowel characters, and, as they cannot be written alone, they are written-with the character ^ however, be written with any character. . They may,

io

anusvareh, ^"|T ITT

This modifier is written as a dot above the character of which it modifies the realisation, thus:
*

I or rj ar r) ir rj

i
irj ir

3
ur rj urj ur

T
em erj yr or rj arj vr

#>
kij Qr kairj

%
kirrj

#
kiirrj

f
krj ur kuurrj

% % #
krj er koyrrj krj or kevrrj

Calligraphy The Qnusvareh is generally added to the character after the vowel sign has been written and before the headstroke is written to complete the character. It is placed above the middle of the character, or

over the last upright stroke if there is one, and to the right side of any superscribed vowel sign, for example;
*

krj gr gang dhirrj 1.

oh 4||

Ob 4jj f$

eft itf grj ir

3 \i\ ftj R

^ fSf

hsnj grj er rrj or

^ Jj

|T Jf

bhirrj \M

*i

'after-sound'.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY The anusvarah is written with a character in various contexts, and is realised in various ways according to the context. a. When a word of which the final character represents the form ative particle occurs in any position except at the end of a line

27

of verse or a sentence, the character

is omitted before an initial

consonant character of a following word and the formative particle is represented by the anusvarah. This formative particle is usually writ ten as only at the end of a line or a sentence. For example:

yetarrj vibhuutirrj yogarr] ca. ..

yetam

vibhuutim

yogam

b. The anusvarah may be written with an initial or. medial character followed by a vargiiya character. In this context it is

realised as the nasal consonant of the class to which the following character belongs. Examples:

" - q J

a r k (arjka) rja VW

purrjkha (punkha)

lirrjga (linga)

j " J g

parrjca (panca)

varrjch (vajich)

sirrjj (sip.3)

q -n

kuirj^ha (kun^ha)

arrjda (an^a)

p r j ^ (pin_qa) irda 3% barrjdhu (bandhu)

51
Jarrjti (janti) irrjdu (indu)

rj - m r karrjpa (kampa) arrjbu (ambu)

kurrjbha (kumbha)

re usual, method of representing a homorganic nasal is that of combining the appropriate nasal consonant character with

28

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

the vargiiya character that follows it, that is,

with characters

of the ka-vargah, \>f^ with characters of the ca-vargah, and so on. This method is used also when the formative particle occurs before

an initial vargiiya character in a sentence, where consecutive words are joined in sandhi. illustrated later . ^-("!
1

The calligraphy of such combined characters is , -anti, and

Formative particles, such as *lf~cl

, -ante, are usually written by this method and not with the

anusvarah. The anusvarah is sometimes written to represent -n compounds formed from the prefix with R or T * e.g. H*T(T
N

or -m , in

^T*T > sam-, and words beginning TTHf^" sammati.

sannata, and

c. When the anusvarah is written with a character preceding a character of the antahstha or the uusman group, the realisation of it varies according to the position of articulation of the character which follows it, and also with the custom of speakers in different parts of India. The anusvarah preceding an antahstha character is

realised as follows: Before If , ya , as r , m , n j or y ; e.g.

^PTt'T Before T > ra , as ^ Before oT , la , as

sarjyoga, samyoga, sanyoga or sayyoga or v ; e.g.

r , m , n j

sarjraga, samraga, sanraga or savraga r , m , n j or 1 ; e.g.

^fo/i^T Before ^ , va , as

sarjlaya, samlaya, sanlaya or sallaya v ; e.g.

r , m , or j

^fo|sanvada,

samvada or savvada

1. See Chapter 3, Conjunct Characters, Class 2.b.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY The anusvarah preceding an uusman character is realised thus: Before J[ , Ja , as ^T"5T Before " T > 5 sa , as n , m , n , or v; e.g. sgJ"8 sm/s, an/a or avj"a n , m , nasalisation of the vowel, or vj e.g. haviirjsi, haviimsi., haviisi or haviivsi Before , sa , as n , m , n , or v; e. g. sansara, samsara, sansara or savsara,

29

^FI^IR

or as nasalisation of the vowel, as in "f^f^TT ijf^f Before ^ , ha , as "f^^" hirjsa, himsa, hivsa or hisa punsi, pumsi, pusi

rj , m , n , or v; e. g. sinha, simha, sinha or sivha ^ " l * > sayha

or as nasalisation of the vowel in The sign

is sometimes written above a character preceding an

antahstha or an uusman character to indicate realisation by nasal ising the vowel of the syllable instead of by a nasal consonant, following the vowel. This sign is called ^ - J - H f^cp> (anunasika ),
1

and it is usually written, in preference to the anusvarah, in the 'sacred syllable'


3

\Q*

, (orrj)

Reading examples a. fifr W "^r ift ^cr <Tf w ^PFCRN


s

b. ftr
|

-qff
^TCTCT
s

^*t
^TTH ^ t t ^Tcnri^Tr

i%i^cr
HoflH i

3?fcr*r

^TffcT

ami
1.

"*?wf^r

'nasal'. 2. See above, under 2.i. 3 . For transcription of examples, see p. 52. . The lines a, b and c correspond to the notes given above under 3 i . L. Gitagovindakavyam, sarga 3 > v . 6 o

30 ii. visargah , fcfH'fc


1

SANSKRIT

SECTION

The visargah is written as two dotsj placed vertically, after a character.

ah

ah

ih

iih

uh

uuh

rrh

eh

ayh

oh

avh

cfr
kah

cBT: fcB:
kah kih kiih kuh kuuh krh keh kayh koh kavh

Calligraphy The visargah is usually added to a character after every other stroke has been made, including the head-stroke.
e

-g- ch

ch)

cfit

CWT:

The realisation of the visargah varies in different parts of India a. It may be realised as strong aspiration following the realisation of the character with which it is written, for example

JFFOT devah malah kavih guruh kaveh gunayh bhanoh

% gavh

It is realised in this way when it occurs medially, as in ^:^q*T^ , duhkham; or as the doubling of the following consonant, tapahsu, tapassu. h following the vowel of

as in r P T i ^

b. . It may be realised in final position as

the character with which it is written, and a very short repetition of the same vowel after h , as illustrated by this transcription of

the examples given above: devah


9

malah

kavih

guruh

kaveh

gunayh

bhanoh

gavh

1. 'emission of breath'

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY Reading examples ofi:


7J-CTT:
1

31

3*
^ffT:.
TT|:
f^h

% ffi
w : o t > w t
n

f ^ '

^ftrj

^gfo ^r^fq-rT: .^P ^T* ^mtf^rTTi


:

^rw-.
^fcTtsf^oR:

cP^fsTT:

^ife ^gfr

TO^t

^rerr^

^rffcr^tfrrW^cr^^T^

U. The Complete Syllabary The complete syllabary, arranged in the traditional order, is given on the following page. The characters are further arranged in a .table in which the vowel characters, and the two modifiers added to the character , are placed in order at the head of a series of

columns consisting of every consonant character in the Qkarg form, each consonant character with each of the vowel signs and each of the modifiers.6 These two tables together show the order in which the characters are placed as initial characters of words in dictionaries. Characters with the onusvaroh are, however, placed before characters without the onusvarah but followed by another consonant character. 1. For transcription, see p.52. 2. BhagavadgTta,ch.10,v.1a. 3. ibid., ch,10,v.U.b. h. GTtagovindakavyam, sarga l,v.8. 5. ibid., sarga 1.3,v.7. 6. Cf. the series of characters with vowel signs given above under 2.ii.

32

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

*
3? 3

at 5
%

55
5. The Devanagari numerals Hindi forms: ^
1

=1
2

3
3

I
5

%
6 7

c
8 9 1 0

Bombay forms: ft
1 2

A
3

*
K

<3
5 6

vs
7

C
8 9

*o
1 0

6,

Punctuation

In prose writing, the end of a sentence is marked with a vert ical stroke of the same height as the characters. In verse, the first

line of a stanza or couplet is closed with one vertical stroke, and the complete stanza or couplet is closed with two vertical strokes and numbered as illustrated in the verse examples given at the end of the next chapter.

C H A P T E R CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Consonant characters may "be combined to represent two or more consonants realised without any intervening vowel. A character

formed by combining other characters is called a conjunct character, H^TblT5HH ( ssrrjyuktakssrsm).


y

1, Construction of Conjunct Characters. Characters may be combined in various ways, according to the form of the characters to be joined. i. The second character may be subscribed to the first:

k- ko

kka

rj- ka

nko

tt

v 9

ii. If the first character has an upright stroke, this stroke may be omitted, and the first part of the first character is joined to the second character by the head-stroke, thus:

n- da

ndo

g- gs

ggo and ^ of ,

t- ps

tpa

n- mo

nms

The characters o F " , characters in the forms

are usually joined with following * F and ^.

Some conjunct characters may be formed by either of these two methods, for example: ^ ^ ^
o r

j-

C- C9

CCS

v3T ^ j - J9
V

^ o r w f j J9

34

SANSKRIT

SECTION

Some conjunct characters are formed by a combination of methods i. and ii. ; for example: d- dho ddha d-bho dbha

iii. If the first character is a rounded character, with no upright stroke, it is usually written in full, and the second character is joined with it in a modified form, for example:

t~ y

ty

n_

"y

&

m o

me

iv. Some characters are written in a special form when joined with other characters, for example:

/- ve

JVG

r- ths

rtho

g- ro jjf

gre

J"- re

/re

The characters

(Hindi form) and

(Bombay form), represent j-ji9 , have been in

ing k-so , and the character

, representing

eluded in the syllabic series from a very early date, though no con junct characters are included in the syllabary. Calligraphically

these three characters are not formed by joining two distinct charact ers, but they are considered in this work under the appropriate classes of conjunct characters because they represent syllables con sisting of two consonants and the vowel 9 .

If any characters are not modifiable, and therefore cannot be combined, by any of these methods, the realisation of them without an intervening vowel is indicated by writing the first character with the viramsh, thus 3 ^ ^5 ^ ^
d 8

^
d 9

ci^T

t- k9

k 8

3~

<i- bre

dbr9

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS

3 5

Characters combined with other characters in this way do not form conjunct characters in calligraphy, but they are included in this chapter because they complete certain series in the classes of con junct characters. Three, four or five characters may be combined to form a conjunct character, for example: rT
\

n
\

~Q

7^ tmyo

* X
V V

ST

*v* bdhva

T
\

1
\

Z
\

"grf rstye

t - m - yo

b - dh - va

r - s - \ - ya

The general rules already given for the order of strokes in writ ing a character apply also to the conjunct characters. The vowel

signs are added to the character before the headstroke is written. Examples: ktyu
stvi
RJYAIRJ

ojI
\J

o|I*-

o|- ^|
r

IVc!
\rM\

f?r|
VTIJF"

VR^|

2.

Contexts of Conjunct Characters.

Conjunct characters occur in the following contexts: i. In words, such as

<HfiT:
iccha agnih

<%PT:
ksiprah

WfT^
brahmen Jlokah

^
strii

ii. In junctions arising from grammatical processes: a. In words formed by the addition of suffixes to verbal roots, such as bhaj-ta bhakta gam-ya gamya labh-tva labdhva

36

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

b. In derivatives of various kinds, such as

diva

dayvyam

Juura

Javryam

c. In words formed "by the addition of prefixes or suffixes to other words, as in

ut-tama

uttama

ut-gamah

udgamah

abhi-asah

abhyasah

dur-guna

durguna

vi-adhih

vyadhih

vac-maya

vanmaya

iii. In compound words, in which the final character of one part of the compound word, if it is a halanta character, is joined with the initial character of the following part, as in

sat - masah

sanmasah

rc - vedah

rgvedah

Jriimat - bhagavat - giita

/riimadbhagavadgiita

iv. In pieces consisting of two or more words, in which a conjunct character is written joining the final character of one word, if it is a halanta character, with the initial character of the following word. For example:

Jreyo

hi

jjianamabhyasa j jjianaddhyanam
c ^ ^ T r * T P T T - * H I Pel

vijisyate,
ft II

qT^TccF>

^ ^ T ^ c R H II

dhyanatkarmaphalatyagastyagacchantiranantaram. 12. 1. Bhagavadgita, Ch.l2.v.l2.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

37

The process of joining characters illustrated in ii. to v. above is known as 'sandhi' 'of consonants" '.
1

The examples in ii.a. and ii.b.

illustrate the process of 'internal' sandhi, and those in i i . c , iii. and iv. illustrate that of 'external' sandhi.

3 . Classification of Conjunct Characters. The conjunct characters are arranged in this work in classes according to the combination of consonants which occurs when the con junct character is realised in reading. The conjunct characters,

when arranged in this way, fall into four classes. Class 1. Two similar characters joined. Class 2 . Two vorgiiys characters joined. Class 3 . Characters joined with sntshsths characters in various combinations: i. Characters joined with ii. Characters joined with ~3[ iii. Characters joined with a. preceding "[ > < or b. following T

iv. Characters joined with


2

a. preceding oT^

or b. following oT

Class h. vargiiys characters joined with uusmen characters: i. Characters joined with a. preceding ST , or ; or b. following , " f or^T C

ii. Characters joined with a. preceding |J ; or b. following |* 1. Compare reference to 'sandhi' of vowels, in Chapter 2 , 2 . i . 2. The Vedic character oo" , X included in this class.
s i s

38

SANSKRIT

SECTION

Class 1. Two similar characters joined^.

M -kks

R4
-kkhs

-ggs

-gghs

"SSI

-CCS

-cchs

jjhs

-nns

1
"tt
9

-tts
<>s s<{

-tths

-dds

-ddhs

"PPS

-pphs

-bbs

-bbhs

-mms
ocf

w
3

-yys Alternative forms

-lis

-vvs-^

-SS&

-sss
UU|

-sss

&
9

-CCS

- DJs and

-jjhs

-nn

-lis The

The characters

> T

do not occur in this series.

second and fourth characters in each vsrgsh are formed by combining the slpsprans characters with the corresponding mshaprans characters. Reading examples .
SOF^t:

^b^rstz:

^tNt*

snf^r

ftgfrr^
"r^aT ftrT ftWoT:

"q%oRr
3TTIT

o7|
ff|T

faquui
^TS|s

^Pm

3^*T

*rs$PT:

^arfrk

^FTtf:

^TT

^f^:

cT^^

^fto

(f^5T)

$MI^

(^^5^]

^TCTO

^gfaBT*

1. Conjunct characters which do not occur- initially are indicated by prefixing a hyphen in the roman transcription. 2. This character occurs only in the grammatical term given in the reading examples. 3. This character occurs only in combination with preceding T . U. Transcription of examples is given,on p.52.
N

CONJUNCT Class 2.

CHARACTERS

Two vergiiy characters joined.^

i. ghos and ghosovst characters, excluding nunasik characters: vsrgsh ghos 0 ghosovst

ko - CO -kco - Z ko -\t?

-kcho

-gjh

-kto

-tko

-ktho

-tkho

-go;

-d^g

-gdh

-a^gh

- cT ko - to -kto Wi - T ko - P -kpo S
8

-tko -ktho -tkho -gd -dgo -gdh -dgh

-pko

-kph

-pkho

-gba

-bg

-gbh

-bgh

-{co

-tcho

-^.DO

-djh

CO - t

-pco

-pcho -b jo

CO - p

-b jh

Z - rT - to -tto - T - po -tP - H to - po -tpo

tt
2 -tto -tthe -ttho -dd -dcje -qdh -ddh

-Pt

-tpho

-pfho

-db

-bo;

-dbh

-bdh

-pto

-tpho

-ptho

-dbo

-bd

-dbh

-bdh

1 . Many of these conjunct characters occur only in external sandhi. 2. This combination occurs in the character combining ~g , <=p and .

40

SANSKRIT

SECTION

ii. Characters of each vsrgsh joined with a preceding or following nunasik character of the same vorgoh. a. onunasiko character preceding.

f -nke
TO

1
-nkh

f
-n<l
9

f -ngho
TO

^3T
-jice -jicho -P-J -njh

TO

-nt

-nt

h 9

-nta

-nth

-nd

-ndh

-mpa

-mpha

-mb

-mbh Tig -jijh -i].t


9 - I

Alternative forms lt
n 9

TTJJ -ncjh

"^TA

These characters, representing a preceding homorganic nasal consonant, are usually written in preference to the nusvarsh placed on the preceding character, of which examples have been given above^. The following examples illustrate the contexts in which the nusvarsh may be written, and in which it is not written: ^TcT^cr pstsnti^ ft^rfrt: 1^n%. lsbhsnte^ ^Trt njte or nte^

vinsnjtih or vinntih3

b. nunasik character following.

^
-cji

?
jn

^
~th:n

i
-djhn

?
-tn -thn

^
-pm

r
-bhm

-dn^ -dhn

The character

3T is not calligraphically a conjunct character,

and is found, from an early date, included in the syllabic series of characters^. In realisation, however, it belongs to this class of 1. See above, Ch.2,3.i.b. 2. Verbal forms. 3. Non-verbal forms. k. The combination ( - *f more usually becomes T in sandhi. J 5 5. See above, Ch.2,l. iii.
x

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS conjunct characters. "beginning with In the order of words in dictionaries, words and

41

are placed between words beginning with

those beginning with^T^T. iii. Characters joined with a preceding or following onunasiko character of a different vorgoh: a. onunasiko character preceding.

R '
-nbho

^
-nko -ngo

^
-nco -n jo

^
-nphe

%
-nbho , on account *T .

Most characters may occur joined with preceding

of the frequent occurrence of formative particles ending in ^

, no , also may occur with many characters in external sandhi.

b. onunasiko character following. -UT -ita -kno -no

-bhno

s R
kne -khno koM -kmo -khmo gno ghno -pne

W
-bno

"9 -bhno

-T
-me

71?
-gmo -ghmo -cms -jmo -dmo

-tmo'

-dme

-dhmo

iv. Two onunasiko characters of different vorgoh.

g*r
-nno -nmo -nno formed with " O T , e.g.

*pt
-nmo -nmo

^
-mno VTTf -bhno T^Jf -rang
U

?r
mno H -ipio .

Alternative forms of the conjunct characters in iii. and iv. are " U T T -g^o

1. It i s more usual to write ^of before characters of the co-vorgoh.

42 Reading examples i. ciicmh w ^ f c w

SANSKRIT

SECTION

i^t^r-

^ ^ f e r r r

^rr-sF^t^r

tst^^t^

oTT6FTB^TH

- s p ^ ^ f T ^ -

oB^o^TtTT

^S^fW:

^3$rh

^SJT

^CTfe

5^T5F5T

^F>*T

^STTf

^f^SSFfvT:.

ll.a. ^ | f : ^RT:

^Tf:

fi^T -q-fferT:

TTf: <jfu& ^FrD

^F^fT TpSJcfi

^ ^ T : B ^ W ^=3R ^ S T :

cRTO:

^TT^T

ITFR

%^TfrT

?r#q
iii. a.

IfTfa T ftirw taring


^J?:

KVTT

^STlfc*

^TI^R

^ f T ^ f o

b. ^arcr
^Tlfrt

^mr
W W

^rfrt
^f?^ft

^ngj: ^iRf:
^f^T: ^ T ^ : ff*T

^TTFtfrt

m f ^ R

iv.

f^HT*?.

STTf^

f^TT*T:

WTTO:

^FiR

WlfrT

TcT

1. 2.

For transcription of examples, see p . 5 2 . Examples illustrating characters which could occur in sandhi arising from the sequence of words in a sentence are placed between hyphens. The first character represents dvi . See Class 3ii

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS Glass 3 Characters joined with ntohsth characters. i. Characters joined with following .

43

^5
kyo khyo ,gy ghyo s -gy
9

TO
cy -chy jyo jhy

-ty

-t y

-dj

-djiy

n y

ty

thy

dy

dhy

nyo

TO
py -phyo hy hhy my

TO

TO
/ye -sys sy hy

(yyo)

-ry

ly

vy

Examples of conjunct characters of Classes 1. and 2. with 3.i.

5qr
-nny -tty -tmy -pty -gdhy -dhhy -hjy

Reading examples.

3^*F?frf

oFjq-^^

W c S ^

W ^ F T

^arrS^T

^ T E W

cZTFHT

^I^FT
HvqT^

^ f r
#^^T: f%^T f ^ T T

*T-pT:
rT^fcTH.

^F*T
% ^ W

W
X

^<TO
^TTfTc^R.

1. See under Class 1, 2. The superscribed stroke in this character represents r preceding another consonant. 3. For transcription see p. 53. k- The first character represents Jla . See below under iv.b. 5. NTtisatakam, verse 3.a.

44

SANSKRIT 5* . J

SECTION

ii. Characters with following

TO
kve khvo gvo ghvo -nvs
CVS

TO
-chvs dvs jhvs

-tvo

?
TO
yvs

-thvs

-d^vs
ocj

f -djivs
-bhvo

TO
-nvo tvs

TO
-thvs dvs

TO TO
dhvs nvs

-pvo

-tvo

-mvo

TO
1 -rvo and ^ do not occur in this series. Ivo (-wo)

TO
svs ^ svs

f
hvs preceding another
4

character occurs in oXXJ" , -vne, ?T > -vne , 9T , vrs " and

, vis .

Examples of conjunct characters of Classes 1. and 2. with 3.i. and ii. TO -ttvo

o^f
-rvvs

^
-cchvs

TO
-ktvs -dvys

TO
-bdhvs

TO

-gdhys

Reading examples.^

oT^p
^ff^cT

^"?r^T
"HMI

Tf|T

Tf*T

^
ft*5R

r^rftrT
^F*ft: ^TPJcft

3%5f ^Hl" ^c^T--

5F53T^T*i;

^^T

o^oTr ^ T F ^ T

"^TWr W ^ t T

%TTfcT

TTToWT

VJI;cUh

1. 2. U. 6.

For the superscribed stroke in this character, see below, in iii.a. See -vvs in Class 1. 3. For this form of J s see Ch. 2,1. iii. " See below, under iii.b. 5. See below, under iv.b. For transcription of examples, see p.53. 7. The initial characters in these words represent gro and pro . 8. From BhagavadgTta, Ch.6,v.kl.a.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS iii. Characters joined with preceding a. preceding another character. To represent preceding another character a stroke is superr is to be realised. This . or following .

45

scribed on the character before which

stroke is called "V^T: , rephoh, the name given to the character ^ repheh in this form may be written with any character, but it does not occur with * -rko -* -rco or -r^o , I -rts * -rpo $ -ryo TTf , , -r/o \jf , I -rho ?T >

Some of the characters, particularly S [ , [ , > repheh. Xf , and

C$ >

^" , ax-e frequently doubled when written with

This practice is found in Hindi writing, but is not usual Examples:

in Marathi writing.

*f ^ *
-rgge -rjjo

-rtte

^
-rddho

^
-rmms

^
-ryye

^
-rvve -rkev

Characters written with vowel signs and repheh:

F b
-rka

f&
-rki -rkii

^
-rku

^
-rke

^
-rkey -rko

and with repheh and onusvaroh:

cF i
-rkairj

fl <
-rkirr) -rkiiirj

^
-rkuirj

c f
-rkerq

<fc
-rkeyrrj -rkevm,

The repheh is placed above the upright stroke of a character, or above the raid-point. It is always written to the right side of any other superscribed stroke, as shown in the examples given below. It is written also with the vowel character |J . as in the word Pl^fci: .

1, repho, 'rough'; rephoh, 'a rough sound'.

46

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

Characters with rephoh are written as shown in these examples: rki rke rkiir] <*>

ft

t*

rkii rko rkovrrj

ebl

Kl *T

%
ft

o^l

In Bombay writing 'the character representing written as

-rho

is sometimes

, though the use of this stroke for rephoh is more rare

ly used in writing Sanskrit than in writing Marathi. b. following another character. To represent ^ following another character, a diagonal stroke

is placed against the upright stroke of those characters that have one, or beneath the mid-point of the lower part of a rounded character.

SB
kr

gr

HI -ghr -nro

V
-chr thr

<*
jr dr

ST
W -nr

5 -tro3

-cjr

tr

dhr

TO
-ktre

5T

sT

pro br bhr mr vr Jr sr hr Examples of conjunct characters of Classes 1. to 3.ii. with 3.iii.

TO
-tpr

TO
-rty

5?T
-dry -rdhv rdr -ntry -rdhny

1. See above, Ch.2,2.ii. Vowel signs. 2. This combination occurs in the character joining and . 3. S and ^ are combined in the character representing^ " f , Z and"^" . 5 k. For this form of , see Ch.2,1. iii.
s s

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS Reading examples''"


a. rp:

47

OPFFQ"

^TT^

W&fr ^^flT

JFF^FEW

^T^T:

ftsfo; 7l1*?cT

^ T ^ 3>f&

cFF>fc

SRRF^oR

^TT

^ c T

^ J :

^ofa

3$R*T

fl^T

3Tl

^ H ^ R

^Tft^PT

TTft^

-qrPSETc^T

iv. Characters combined with preceding a. '(FT preceding another character.*

cT or following

TO
-Ike TOT -lge

TO -lpe

c h -lpho

TO
-Ibe Vedic

TO
-lbhe

TO
-lme

TO
-lse -Ihe

-Us
b.

-Ihe

oT following another character.

~%
kl gls -chle -<|lo ^ pie ble

$
bhle 5?T or 3 r T Jle

mlo

vie

his

Most of these characters may be written either by method i. by method ii., described earlier in this chapter.^" 1. 2. 3o h. For transcription, see p.53. For oT joined with entohstho characters, see i. to. iii. above. Vedic o"5 is included in this class. See above, 1. Construction of Conjunct Characters...

48

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

Examples of conjunct characters of Classes 1 . to 3 * i i i . with 3 . i v .

rfj
-tplo Reading examples. ^F^T xrc^J
1

SWT
-cchlo -Ibhy

-tkl

T^^T

^c*TW

^1^BH"

JPTFT

^Tcb:

f^>-

'fR^r

^|pr

^^T:

T%*JTE: T T ^ - ^ q :

tcRitf^rf^r

*T^

IIW

Class 2 . vorgiiyo characters joined with preceding or following | uusmon characters. i. Characters joined with
a

7T > T

>

preceding another character.

The following characters occur in this series, some occurring only in external sandhi.
*r
3

TO
-Jks -J*c -Jcho Jn "e J"pe

TO
Jm

FJ

*r
s-

TO
-sks

S
sthe

TOT
-sn -?P8 -sphe -sm
TO? TO

TO
sko 1. 3. skho

T3f
-sjo

TFT
sto stho

FT
sno

7
spo

sph

sm

For transcription, see p . 5 k . 2 . Vairagyasatakam, v . 6 2 . These characters may be written with either or &f .

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS b. , or following another character. some occurring

49

The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r s only in e x t e r n a l Js * so sandhi.


s

occur i n t h i s s e r i e s ,

TOT
-n/o M
2

TOT

-k/o or kso

-n/o
1

TO
-nso

TO
-pso

so -kso The c h a r a c t e r

* ~t

TO
S 8

-nso

-tso

-nso

-pso series
3

has been i n c l u d e d i n the s y l l a b i c

from In

an e a r l y d a t e , and i s n o t c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y the order of words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s , p l a c e d ^after words b e g i n n i n g w i t h

a conjunct c h a r a c t e r . T^T

words beginning with f} h.

are

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s of C l a s s e s 1. - 3. w i t h C l a s s

"R
stro
_

"?
?t
r 9

f
~?t
v 9

W
ksi^o

M -ksmo -stvo

c^T TFT
-tstho 7 ^ -rtsnye f. fcj $J -tsno

TTO
stryo Calligraphy: Reading e x a m p l e s ^ a. W * T * k
N

HTO
-tsmyo kso , Bombay form -

TP?
-rsty $

3^C=T ^ C R ; *tW ^f>TT T^ferT

fi^T

^cT f^rfcT: ^ft

f^RoT

S T F ^ TcT5q"

1. Bombay form. 2. T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n u s u a l l y becomes g".^jf 3. C f . n o t e on $T , C 1 . 2 . i i . b . k. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 5^.


s

SO

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

ii. a.

onunasiko c h a r a c t e r s f p r e c e d i n g *tj , ^

joined with preceding and If . ^ -hno

"j?" or f o l l o w i n g ^ hno -hmo

b.

following

^.

and ? f

-rjho Reading e x a m p l e s .
1

-nho

^fjfrt

^f|:

|^

ffTfPST

Tn^fTrT:

[PTfTrT:]

^SF*Tu%

^W^^I^HI-^^^^^T^f^TrTr

\\^\\ II w i
5

f^^wmsTT^I^r^sRWfR;

1, For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 5 h . Uo BhagavadgTta, c h . l , v . 2 6 .
6 ibid., ch.5?v.8.

2 5o
7 .

R i g v e d a , 1. 3. i b i d . , i b i d . , ch.3v. 2 5 . NTtisatakam, v . l i 8 .

TRANSCRIPTION

T r a n s c r i p t i o n , o f R e a d i n g Examples Chapter 2 . 1. i . bh]; chsd gsmeke dhe"|;ok chedonm gemonem l.ii. leve lobh terole nskhere yemevot v jl yev
-

do ke

dho bho

to jo

pho bo

mo gho phsn. bot

po cho ghn chg

no tho

co kh

c{ jh

go n

pd dhsn jhsg jcj jeget kp"(;

kcj m"(;h ph"|;o poth methon gr|k

khoc pc]h p|hk khjk

ddh dem gh"|; gn dsmsth pdk

cei]k bhjk

gh"|;k ksthsm

pnnm p"(;hnem ye khsre dhore

n"|;nm ksthsnsm bhsnonem jenopode dhonmd jhnjhnm jhi\ jhsr^sm re ved ly lo jhsr jhsro dhsvol bhsvst bo blo r"|; j"|;hr nsysn th vere ran kh ' ron phl t v"|;h rsth d^emsr l"|;bh

lvn legate vsysnsm

bhsysm cpl

csrsne vcr

grlm

pdkml

kp"|;vecenm

l . i i i o s
/ere set sorele y/s seh Jo^he

h
t ke/o

s
v/ ks

/
hs /s

c|
jhs hy

r
rs hr smy per/

kh
vs jhss J*eve bhss

kl/ /r{

jshst -vys s e p h e l e srs

/path hrk

bshel /lbh rbhs h s t s k /t/s d//tm v rr

de/eroth /ke^em svys kslshsm /ssnsm j e l o c e r e s noved/ekm shgmnm kmolovdn


2 i.
0

r eke uche okh rsobh

ii

uu

oth. uuh ed iiset


2 o i i <

is ut edho i i J 1 vm uuhenem nii kr bhuu chi

in ot evm rn rc oyn evsdhm da bhii ji /rr gov /ii dos pur guru uuru

d y/o rdh uucjh i h e us udon rnm yssmss upkrnem pey dr /rt phen vrtha rsi me hi dhrt mvl /i/u enii duu hr ruuc|h krrt setu ii"Le

gey nev ram pevl duugi etev

sr hoy

duuro gyre pitr otu

b h i i to kr/ mem iiti

cor tin kip drcjh b h i i t i hrdi rtu iti

52 bhuusita kumarii vidhatru

SANSKRIT

SECTION bhavmika jhirika

vijesa upaya vaybhava p i t r r n p a v r u s a r u c i r a jhatiti thalinii rirusita avsadhi kaykeyii ayhika c^halin surabhi khacjika he^ate

ekakin hrsike/a itihasa kav/aleya visuucika pavranika devanagarii anunasika avpanisada upajiivika avpade/ika upanive/ika avpanayika ko-pi rte-pi ya J"o-paya J*a 3.i. kin] marrj sukharrj harirr) mrtair) tanum, shorn evarrj rsiinarrj cjirnba panjcju layrrjgam djiumdhi jrrnbh jharrjjha kirrjcit kavmteya sarrjyamana sairjvat mairjsa janjyu. sainruuc|ha samliina arrjhati tamahair) h r d i sairjgatamani Jarrj bhr/air) ramayami kirn v a n e - n u s a r a m i t a m i h a kinj v r t h a vil9pami 3 . i i . kgh chgh t jhah ayh oh uuh rh navh sah gunah dhrtih bahuh n i t eh nrpayh viduh Jrn^ih purusah manahsu hivihsu dhenubhih vi/esatah amjatah arrjtahkaranam samaduhkhasukhah Junah/epah jagatohitah mato-dhikeh tejorrj-Jsh behevoirj-buvegah yogomayasomavrteh garrjgataranjgahima.fiikaraj'iitalani jayadevapanjcjitakaveh. pan_cjitanarrj sama je-parrjc(ita mavnarr) b h a j e y u h bhuya eva mahabaho Jrnu. me par amain vacah. sukhair) duhkharrj b h a v o - b h a v o bhayarrj cabhayameva ca v a h a s i v a p u s i v i j a d e vasanarrj jaladabharrj h a l a h a t i b h i i t i m i l i t a y a m u n a b h a m k e j a v a d h r t a h a l a d h a r a r i m p a jaya j a g a d i i / a h a r e m a d h a v i k a p a r i m a l a l a l i t a n a v a m a l a t i jatisugarrjdhav munimanasamapi m o h e n a k a r i n i i t a r u n i i k a r i n a b a m d h a v Chapter 3 Class 1 . thakknrah kakkha^a drggocarah vagghi tinnatin uccayh iccha rajjuh u j j h a t i pa^tika la^ho ua^din sed^ha visani^a visnr| uttom u t t h i t a u d d e / a h buddhih b h i n n a p i p p a l a h phupphuiisah abfcmh abbhogah sammatih sarrjmohah Jayya u l l e k h a h tacchrnu sannaddh duj/iila (duh/iila) J a t a y u s s u (J"atayuhJ"u) j a s s a r a j a h Jubharrjllokan Class 2.
n s n

i. v a k c a l a v a k c h a l a m p r t h a g j a n a h vagjha"|;iti v a k ^ i i k a s"|;kon s a t k h e t a k a m vagc^ambarah khac^gah v a g d j i s v k a t e dvid^ghora b h a k t i h utka"|;a uktham utkhata hrdgata sadguna dagdha udgha"(;aka vakpa^u vakphalam k a k u p k h a l u p r t h a g b h a v a h kakubguruh kakubghora s a t . c a r a n a h satjchavih sad^jah s a d ^ j h a ^ i t i apcarah k a k u p c h a v i h kubja k a k u b j h a ^ i t i sacjdevah sacjdha s a t p s t i f/up-tiika ^atphana sacjbahu kakup"|;hakkurah abc|imbha Jabdah sacjbhaga labdha kakubcjhavkate utpanna satphalah g u p t a udbodhaka udbhavah madbhakta buddhiyukta sacchabdah

bhagavadgiita

sarrjyukta

adbhuta

TRANSCRIPTION ii.a. gijkgh Jgijkhgh lirjggm sgijghgh s s j i c s y a h vajicha g p j i i r g h j h g n j h a ghui\t9h k9i\th8h pgi\cjitgh ^huijdjiih g n t g h p g n t h g k g s u n d g r g indhgh ksmpgng gumphgti sgmbgndhgh argmbhgh pgrjktih grunddha b. yacjia jnangm he-|;h:nati hedjiinati rgtngm m9thna b u d h n a t i papmgn tgjpeys sgjijjia sgrrjjjia vi/esgjjig jijnasu i i i . a. udgrjbhih mghankgvih drunphuh drunbhuh

53

b. r k i p rugrig g r b h n a t i Jsknoti cgkhnutuh agnih vighng mrcjnati a p n o t i sbnabhgh rukmii^ii vagmin vgcmih gjmgh kudmglg atmgn pgdma dhmatg drbhmgs dgdhmgv iv. diijnaggh vaijmgyg dvirvnalgh S9i\masgh jgnmgn rgmiiati rrmatg

C l a s s 3. i. vekygm k h y a t g vgyragygm J l a g h y g udgrjygj'gh c y u t g vapchyg j y o t i s ujjhygti kapQ^ysn! J"a-|;hygm jad^ygm gvadhyg puipram tyajyg pgthyg v i d y a dhyangm k s n y a apyg riphygte gbyonih gbhyasgh sgvmygm dhgyrygm gmuulyg vyuudjig dr/yg mgmisygh r g h g s y g hygs sgynygsyg sgnnyasgh sgrrjnyasgh c i n t y g buddhya t g j j y o t i s vgydggdhygm mahatmygm bhgktya kgvbjygm sghrdbhygh b h g g g v g n v y g k t i b evgmetgdygthatthg guhygmgdhyatmgsgrrjjpitgm g j p g h sukhgmaradhygh s u k h g t g r g m a r a d h y g t e vijesgjjigh i i . k v g c i t pgkkvanngm akhvoh p g v e d g h l g g h v i i u c c h v a s g h u j j v g l g u j j h v g Igf/vgh y g d n g t v a sgcjvidhg drcjhvgm J"rr|ygn t v s r i t g prthvii udvigng dhvgnih g n v i t g apva gbvahgngrrr r i b h v g n cgmvoh y v a g u l i i s g r v g s g r v v g n g l v g h i i j v g r g h v i / v s s v g k k g t e g n u s v a r g h h v e v i h v g l g vidhvgrrjsgh dvgndvgh tgttvgm dugdhva I s b d h v a u k t v a davna e t g d d h v a v l i n a t i gravida prarjvg/gh tygktva--tmgj"uddhye p u i p r g k r t a r r j l l o k a n u s i t v a J a j v g t i i h sgmah i i i . a , tgrkgh muurkhs vgrggh v g r g i i y g d i i r g h g Jarrjgg c g r c a m u u r c h i t g arjungh n i r j h g r g h dardhygm v g r i p h k g r t r v y g r t h g durdgyvgm grdhg mgnurnamg grpgr^gm d u r bglg ggrbhitg uurmih kgrmmgn dharmikg p g r y g n t g pgrygrrjtg s u u r y g h d u r l g b h g puurvg
ssrw dgr/gnsm

hrsh g r h g t k i i r t i h hrnij*m uurdhvm v s r j y

rrniurdhni rmiurdhnyadhayatmgngh n g y r r t i i durbuddhsyryuddh Jvetsyrhsysyryukte vedsyjnadhyaysnsyrn dangyrng C9 b , vikrmh agrhah J i i g h r g p r a i j r a t r i i krcchr vgjrgm psv^rgh f g t r u h drgvygm dhruv prytnh premna brniv b h r a t r ngrnrg v r s j s h J u j r u u s a srgjva h r g s v g hrsv h r s y hirrjsrg Jraddhg ardr ardr d a r i d r y g m daridrygm srrjhriir] etgcchrutva digvrtm sgtjtrirrjjg ytprmai]m jmbvamrle

54

SANSKRIT

SECTION

iv. u l k a phslgta s v s l p lpspran g u l p h i t ulb prggslbhg hlj"bdh hlsndhih V9lh praglbhym j"[hu mi'Lhuse klej"h gl9V pl9V9 p i p l u h bling k s k u b h l a b h s h m l e c c h s h vlinati J"lokh Jles9h sihlsh hladste ucchlskh utklej"h utplsv psresarrj cetarrjsi p r g t i d i v s s g m a r a d h y g bghu ha prssadsrrj kirrj neturrj v i / s i hrdsy prsnne tvsyysntsh svymuditcintamnigune vimuktsh snklph k i m s b h i l s s i t s i r j C l a s s h. srstih krsn jyes-f/h sthyuutg puspsm nisph! uusman Jlesma ssrrjskrtg s k h s l i t b h r o s j stsbdh sthitih strii ntshsth s n i g d h 9 sprs ); s p h u u r t i h bhgsmg J"res"|;htvm / c y u t drstjva drrjs"|;ra varsney nmoste-stu
-

kleJklilm pusysti ri9 t e

i.a.

aj*crym

pr/nh

Jm Jru

pusksl

bleskm

b . p r a k j i r s s prtynj"irs tajijuka t a n / u k a S9"|;/astr9 rpj*te kssrsm tirysnsu s e t s s s t i h ksetrsjji dikssm l i ^ s u v s t s s h sugnsrti sugrjj;srti ksma J"lksn u t k s i p t bhsksy mtsyh t s t s t h ! k s v e t pkrtsn k a r t s n y s m v i b h r s s t o / c h s n n krmphlprepsurlbdhh nbhhspr J " m dharstysm etstksetrsm ii. g r h n a t i v s h n i h h n u t e brahmen p r a n h s s t s h pranghsth i s t . a n b h a n h i

gnimii^e purohitsrrj yjnsy d e v s m r t v i jsirj / hotarsrrj rtndhatmm gnih p u u r v o b h s r r s i b h i r i i d ^ y o n u u t s n s y r u t / s devarrj eh v s k s s t i ttrapJytsthitanparthh p i t r r n s t h pitamshan acaryanmatulanbhrantrrputranpvtranskhirrjstth s s k t a h krmi|yvidvarrjso y s t h a k u r v s n t i b h a r s t kuryadvidvarrjsttha-sktJcikiirsurloksngrhm nyv k i r r j c i t k r o m i i t i y u k t o msnyet t s t t v s v i t p Jysn J r n v s n s p r / n j i ghr nn J n s n g s c c h s n s vpn J vs n * a j j i a k i i r t i h palsnsirj brahmanarrj dansrrj bhogo mitrsmrksnm c y e s a m e t e sc[guna n p r s v r t t a h korthstesairj p a r t h i v o p a / r s y e n

HINDI

SECTION

C H A P T E R ARRANGEMENT OF THE

1 SYLLABARY

The Devanagari S c r i p t i s u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i ( ^ P ^ t arrangement of t h e c h a r a c t e r s Sanskrit arrangement.


1

) and t h e the writing texts.

in the syllabary

is

t h e same a s

Some of t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e u s e d o n l y i n them may b e f o u n d i n l i t e r a r y

S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , b u t most o f

Some of t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e m o d i f i e d f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g s o u n d s i n P e r s i a n and A r a b i c The s c r i p t loanwords. t o as sn^TsTtST

occurring

is usually referred

(balabodh) , ^'T^lT

'that

can be u n d e r s t o o d by a c h i l d ' . ( e k s o r ) , and t h e s y l l a b i c 'character-series'). series

Each c h a r a c t e r is called

is called

cflffHIo'JI

(vornomala, to

The t e r m s u s e d b y H i n d i grammarians t o r e f e r but as the

the s c r i p t a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d i n S a n s k r i t , i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n Hindi d i f f e r s

realisat

somewhat from t h e

Sanskrit o ,

system i n r e s p e c t of c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s t h e s e terms a r e u s e d i n t h i s section

r e a l i s e d w i t h the vowel

i n t h e H i n d i f o r m , and a r e of t h e c h a r a c t e r s between the in

tran Hindi.

scribed in accordance w i t h the r e a l i s a t i o n The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e

the difference

terms this

u s e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g terms u s e d i n section: Sanskrit ^SPqjR'^ foTTT'R: 'SFrTYfSr (oksorom), (viramoh) , (antahstha), Hindi
SWGJIT

(okser) (viram) (antasth) of

fcfTPT 3T^cT**T

The t a b l e g i v e n b e l o w i n t h i s

c h a p t e r shows t h e arrangement

the Hindi s y l l a b a r y i n roman n o t a t i o n . 1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.l.

The s o u n d s o c c u r r i n g i n A r a b i c

58

HINDI

SECTION the in

and P e r s i a n l o a n w o r d s , and t h e i n t e r v o c a l i c r e a l i s a t i o n of characters r e a l i s e d i n i t i a l l y as t h e roman n o t a t i o n a s follows: 5f5 c|e and

cjhe , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d

q , for the v o i c e l e s s uvular p l o s i v e , x , for the v o i c e l e s s velar fricative,

j , f o r t h e v o i c e d v e l a r f r i c a t i v e , TT z , f o r t h e v o i c e d d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e , yT f , for the v o i c e l e s s l a h i a l fricative, ^ ~ . and t h e charact and

r , rh , f o r t h e r e t r o f l e x f l a p p e d c o n s o n a n t s N a s a l i s a t i o n of v o w e l s i s shown by t h e s u p e r s c r i p t

As t h e D e v a n a g a r i s y s t e m of w r i t i n g i s s y l l a b i c ,

e r s i n t h e s y l l a b a r y r e p r e s e n t s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g e i t h e r of a v o w e l or of a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by t h e vowel each consonant w i t h t h i s vowel. consonant c h a r a c t e r , 'inherent' vowel . includes 'short' i and ' l o n g ' ii , 'short' some the
1

o , t h e roman t a b l e

shows

T h i s v o w e l , when r e a l i s e d w i t h a the

i s u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to i n E n g l i s h t e x t s as

The s e r i e s of v o w e l s u and ' l o n g '

uu . T h e s e p a i r s of v o w e l s o c c u r i n Hindi w o r d s , 'short'

words b e i n g a l w a y s w r i t t e n w i t h t h e 'long' vowel.

vowel and o t h e r s w i t h

There a r e c e r t a i n p a i r s of words w h i c h a r e 'short' or t h e 'long'

distinguish vowel, and but

ed i n meaning by t h e w r i t i n g of t h e o t h e r words i n w h i c h t h e 'no d i s t i n c t i o n 'short',

or t h e

' l o n g ' vowel i s w r i t t e n , these

i s made i n s p e e c h . 'short'

In t r a n s c r i b i n g e x a m p l e s ,

vowels are w r i t t e n as

or ' l o n g '

in accordance w i t h Hindi sounds.

o r t h o g r a p h y , and n o t i n r e l a t i o n t o 1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.l.

' l e n g t h ' of s p o k e n vowel

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY Hindi S y l l a b a r y i n Roman N o t a t i o n

59

CONSONANTS w i t h Voiceless Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated

1 Velar ka kh go gh (rj)
3 1

Palatal c cho

Retro flex t
9

k Dental t th do

Labial P ph b bh m
5

P l o s i v e s

tha
c|2

Voiced

jha (p) yo
3

dha na^" r s^

dh no 1 s z
6

Nasal Semivowels. Voiceless Fricatives Voiced Aspirate VOWELS MODIFIERS a i rj r

va

x y h

ii and

of

av

Nasal -

Aspirated - h ' 1 - 7 i n t h e above ka table:

Notes on t h e s y l l a b l e s marked

1. The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s y l l a b l e sent t h e uvular p l o s i v e , 2. qa .

i s modified t o repre

The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e t w o s y l l a b l e s a r e m o d i f i e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e m e d i a l and f i n a l r e a l i s a t i o n of these characters

60

HINDI as f l a p p e d s o u n d s , w r i t t e n as

SECTION r no and and rh jio in the transcription. as other

3.

The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g single characters characters,

are not w r i t t e n

i n H i n d i , "but o n l y i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h

i l l u s t r a t e d below i n Chapter 3 . no and so occur only in

h. The two c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g

S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and do n o t o c c u r 5. The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t e d by dental a r t i c u l a t i o n ; 6. These s y l l a b l e s vo

initially, labio

i s usually realised with as a b i l a b i a l plosive.

or, i n i t i a l l y ,

a r e w r i t t e n by m o d i f y i n g o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s articulation:

which

r e p r e s e n t s o u n d s somewhat s i m i l a r i n xa ye with the character f o r with the character for r kho ; go ; fe za

with the character for with the character for

pha; jo

7. T h i s v o w e l , s y l l a b i c

, o c c u r s o n l y i n a few S a n s k r i t

loanwords.

C H A P T E R CHARACTERS OP THE

2 SYLLABARY

The c h a r a c t e r s of t h e D e v a n a g a r i S c r i p t u s e d i n w r i t i n g Hindi are t h o s e g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n , w i t h t h e t e r m s w h i c h a r e u s e d by Hindi grammarians i n r e f e r r i n g t o them and t o t h e sor.nds which t h e y represent. The method of w r i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s i s t h a t d e s c r i b e d special in

t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , and i n t h e n o t e s on t h e c a l l i g r a p h y o f c h a r a c t e r s as t h e y a r e g i v e n i n t h e tables.

The c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f them i n r e a d i n g H i n d i , d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r under t h e same h e a d i n g s a s i n t h e section: Consonant C h a r a c t e r s ,


1

are

Sanskrit

Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s ,

and M o d i f i e r s .

1. Consonant C h a r a c t e r s . The c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s characters, 'ontesth


1

are arranged i n three groups: and 'uusm' c h a r a c t e r s .


2

'vergiiy*

characters,

The c o n s o n as

ant c h a r a c t e r s , a s t h e y a r e g i v e n i n t h e s y l l a b a r y , s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g of an i n i t i a l by t h e vowel consonant,

are r e a l i s e d

or s e m i - v o w e l ,

followed

. Characters r e a l i s e d

i n t h i s way a r e d e s c r i b e d a s this is the

^T^RTT

( k a r ) . The r e a l i s a t i o n o f a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h o u t

vowel, that i s , as the consonant e l e m e n t of the s y l l a b l e o n l y , i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s c r i p t by w r i t i n g a d i a g o n a l s t r o k e , known a s

1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . l . f o r t h e u s e o f t h i s t e r m . 2 . See S a n s k r i t , Ch.2. R e f e r e n c e s are g i v e n throughout t h i s chapter t o t h e d i v i s i o n s and s u b - d i v i s i o n s w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g numbers i n Chapter 2. of t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .

62 foTTW ( v i r a m )
1

HINDI

SECTION , cT , t .

a t t h e f o o t of t h e c h a r a c t e r t h u s , of) , k -

The r e a l i s a t i o n o f akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n r e a d i n g Hindi differs i n some r e s p e c t s from t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s The f o l l o w i n g n o t e s may be r e g a r d e d a s g e n e r a l guiding characters in

Sanskrit.

p r i n c i p l e s t o w h i c h r e f e r e n c e may be made l a t e r , when t h e are d i s c u s s e d i n a. A final detail.

akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h

zero-

v o w e l , e x c e p t i n a few S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s . b. A final okar c h a r a c t e r formed by c o m b i n i n g two o r more c o n s o n a n t


3

c h a r a c t e r s , or a f i n a l

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d e d by a conson

character w r i t t e n w i t h the onusvar r e p r e s e n t i n g a n a s a l a n t ^ , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an c. o-glide.

A m e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

or

i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s , a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , when s u c h

a c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r of a word o f t h r e e or more c h a r a c t e r s and t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s w r i t t e n w i t h one o f the vowel s i g n s 5 . Other c o n t e x t s are g i v e n l a t e r , when t h e detail. c h a r a c t e r of a or w i t h an of

c h a r a c t e r s are d i s c u s s e d i n d.

When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t h e f i n a l verbal base, i t

i s usually r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,

o - g l i d e , b e f o r e t h e a d d i t i o n of f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e s c o n s i s t i n g a consonant c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel sign. okar

In t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s of Hindi w o r d s , f i n a l

c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , or w i t h an - g l i d e ,

1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.2..1. 2. kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , a s d e s c r i b e d below i n n o t e s a. - d . , a r e , h o w e v e r , n o t w r i t t e n w i t h t h e v i r a m , which i s u s e d m a i n l y i n w r i t i n g c e r t a i n Sanskrit loanwords. 3 See b e l o w , Oh.3. h. See b e l o w , 3 i . n u s v a r , 5. See b e l o w , 2 . i i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY are t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h o u t o , and m e d i a l okar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d , t' , p' in

63

t h i s way are w r i t t e n t h u s , k'

, for guidance in reading.

Characters which do n o t o c c u r i n an i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n are i n d i c a t e d by a hyphen p r e f i x e d t o t h e s y l l a b l e i n t h e roman i. Characters of t h e v o r g i i y g r o u p . The f i r s t group o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s c o n s i s t s of c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s s y l l a b l e s w i t h an i n i t i a l p l o s i v e f o l l o w e d by t h e vowel e s , or cT ^


7

transcription.

twentyfive consonant class the

e .

These c h a r a c t e r s are p l a c e d i n f i v e

( v e r g ) , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f a r t i c u l a t i o n of

consonant i n t h e s y l l a b l e t h e y r e p r e s e n t . the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .


1

The c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n i n , no and \5f . . . j i o ,

Of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s ,

do not occur i n Hindi w o r d s , and o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s o n l y i n combination with o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . 2 The c h a r a c t e r U T , 1 ^ 0 , occurs

only i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i .

The c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n a s frequently

'Bombay' forms are a l s o u s e d i n H i n d i w r i t i n g * b u t l e s s than t h o s e g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e s .

Some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e m o d i f i e d

t o r e p r e s e n t c e r t a i n s o u n d s i n P e r s i a n and A r a b i c l o a n w o r d s and t h e i n t e r v o c a l i c r e a l i s a t i o n of ^ and <5 .

I
qo

?
x and

7
ye

?
z

T i f

f
- 5

5
-rh and Z are

The c h a r a c t e r s

< occur only i n i t i a l l y ; J final.

never i n i t i a l , b u t may be m e d i a l o r Reading e x a m p l e s . 3

1. One c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , r e a l i s e d a s a c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e vowel
I?

o .

rT

*t

1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch. 2,1. i . 2. S e e b e l o w , Ch.3. 3. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p a g e 85.

64

HINDI

SECTION zero-vowel. ^TS


^

2. Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , t h e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r r e a l i s e d w i t h R
xrtit * r

*TC
^ts

^3
w=t

^FT
Tf^r

3*r
yrc

*5?T
^

xR3

3. Three c h a r a c t e r words
*TTR *Tv5R-

*fi*Tf
=c^oF>

W T

**p=> SRCR

^^sp

TTvyTST

^rf
^T^T zero-vowel

T^rW

h. Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h or w i t h an - g l i d e , f i n a l characters with zero-vowel.

R3RrT

5r^=T

TcTflB^r

xpj^cjvT

SECTS

ii.

Characters of the ntssth group. There a r e f o u r c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s g r o u p , r e p r e s e n t i n g syllables

c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l s e m i - v o w e l w i t h t h e v o w e l e r s are g i v e n i n the S a n s k r i t When t h e c h a r a c t e r s U( section . , y and


1

The c h a r a c t

, v , o c c u r i n i t i a l l y ,

or

w i t h one of t h e v o w e l s i g n s , t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d a s c o n s o n a n t s "by a v o w e l .

followed

When t h e y o c c u r m e d i a l l y i n a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y a r e

r e a l i s e d w i t h a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l , t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d a s c o n s o n a n t s . When t h e y o c c u r m e d i a l l y i n p o s i t i o n s i n w h i c h an kar c o n s o n a n t i s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , or f i n a l l y , character

they are r e a l i s e d as semi syllable.

v o w e l s , f o r m i n g a d i p h t h o n g w i t h t h e v o w e l of t h e p r e c e d i n g Examples: ^3=FT ymn The c h a r a c t e r ^ cTop vk SHJ bhsy lv

i s o f t e n r e a l i s e d i n i t i a l l y or m e d i a l l y a s Ch.2,1.ii.

b .

1. See S a n s k r i t ,

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY Reading e x a m p l e s . 1 2.


0 1

65

One c h a r a c t e r word.

3" character r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel.

Two c h a r a c t e r -words, t h e f i n a l

m
R

err

Tior is^r ^

m
^

Wf

OT"
* R

3.

Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , t h e f i n a l

character r e a l i s e d with

zero-vowel.

STSoT T^yf

^TOT^T

TR^T

*R*R sr^H "^T

FT^R

cRSR

*Rc*

i f S j]yf^ flR
in four character with

h. Pour and f i v e

character words; second characters

words and t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i n f i v e z e r o - v o w e l or w i t h an e - g l i d e , ETrTc^ SRIXf

character words, r e a l i s e d characters with Sc^Ff

final

zero-vowel. ^CTic*

wzrt
iii.

*oRore

qr^ors

^ S ^ R

*M<HMH

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e uusm group,. This group c o n s i s t s of t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s which are r e a l i s e d o , and one w h i c h are is given in as

f r i c a t i v e consonants f o l l o w e d by the vowel r e a l i s e d as an a s p i r a t e f o l l o w e d b y in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

o . These c h a r a c t e r s , so

The c h a r a c t e r

, occurs only It i s often

some S a n s k r i t loanwords u s e d i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i . i n o r d i n a r y s p e e c h as is Jo . The l a s t character

realised syllabary

i n t h e Hindi

I?

, he .

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 85. 2 . This i s t h e o n l y o n t e s t h c h a r a c t e r w h i c h o c c u r s as a word. 3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h o 2 , l i i i .

66

HINDI

SECTION only, the real

I n words c o n s i s t i n g o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i s a t i o n of a. When ^ ^ , ho , v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p o s i t i o n

i n t h e word. and is in

o c c u r s m e d i a l l y p r e c e d e d by an okar c h a r a c t e r , it is

f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , combination w i t h t h e vowel o

often realised as

of the p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r (ee), a s in

a s p i r a t i o n accompanying the vowel

W
Johor( Jfflhr) b. When ^ pahor(p8ehr) rohon(rffihn)

c^'H'T
lahoson(leehson) consonant vowel

occurs as a f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r f o l l o w i n g an okar

character i t

i s g e n e r a l l y r e a l i s e d in combination w i t h the Examples:

of t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r a s ( a ) .

cR^
toroh(tora) Reading examples.
1

^SRT(?
jagah(joga)

Exceptions:

Xf^
yoh(yeh)

^
voh(voh)

TJf
soho

1. None of t h e uusm c h a r a c t e r s 2.

o c c u r s a s a word. character r e a l i s e d with w zero-vowel. %z

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , t h e f i n a l <3?h
TO

srer
if^T
the f i n a l

*6*r
^ 5 TT^T

TH

5f

*R

3. Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ,

character r e a l i s e d with

zero-vowel.

*R*F> $vFT ^TTJ^ ^B^qif

^TTR ^FcT

STR ^cT5T

*TC)T TOT
zero-vowel,

U. Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l

characters r e a l i s e d with or w i t h an o-glide.

second c h a r a c t e r s w i t h zero-vowel

*T*RS

35STTrT f?5F>cT

vR?T f^foT H^R^fi

H^Tc^cT

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

s e e p.85.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY 2. Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s , i . Vowel C h a r a c t e r s .

67

The vowel c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i a r e t h e same a s t h o s e given i n the Sanskrit s e c t i o n , syllabic rr and s y l l a b i c 1


1

omitting the characters and 11 . The c h a r a c t e r

representing occurs i n

S a n s k r i t loanwords u s e d i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i . usually placed f i r s t in the syllabary,

The v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s a r e

and t h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s

okar, a k a r , i k a r and s o o n .

The Bombay forms o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e

sometimes w r i t t e n i n H i n d i , b u t t h e f o r m s g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e a r e more usual. The g e n e r a l r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s s h o u l d be a p p l i e d i n r e a d i n g a l l e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w , u n l e s s s p e c i a l n o t e s are added. Reading e x a m p l e s .


2

1. Words c o n s i s t i n g o f v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s ^rrat

only.

5TT

^rnr

msft
^ far ^ f r ^ft5

vsm characters. f^cf

Words c o n s i s t i n g o f v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s and okar c o n s o n a n t ^ T ' , ' TO* .. 3 5 3 sfrsR %<zr ^pr i^r ^vFf OT" i$

^TTTT

^nr ^ri tt vafrsnc >afocr

^ f t

i i . Vowel S i g n s . The vowel s i g n s u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i , c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s and w r i t t e n w i t h t h e o k a r form o f t h e c h a r a c t e r ^ , are g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . 3 Each c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s a

1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i . 3. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i i .

2. F o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 85.

68 syllable to consisting

HINDI

SECTION a

o f a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d b y one o f t h e v o w e l s (matra) , as i n

v . The v o w e l s i g n s a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s HT^TT ( e k i i matra


1

*T ^Rt H i "511 Reading

, ' t h e s i g n of

e.').

examples.

1. One c h a r a c t e r

words. % ^ 1

"5F7T

Two c h a r a c t e r W

words. fte

*McT
3. Three c h a r a c t e r ^ t f t ^f^aft gsjp words. %)ciw B3>T spRm ^^TT ^r ^W^fr g*TTf (Jr^nr (|^T

Words o f f o u r or more c h a r a c t e r s . realisation an - g l i d e , given above. o f kar c o n s o n a n t if

Numbers i n b r a c k e t s

indicate the or with

characters with zero-vowel,

t h e words a r e n o t t o be r e a d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r u l e s a r e compounds realis

Most words o f more t h a n f o u r c h a r a c t e r s character of the f i r s t part,

in which t h e f i n a l ed w i t h TYTCT %TT*ft zero-vowel. ^R^yftT s^Jtf^q

i f kar, i s

^nrmm
^JTTS

^TyT^5f> ttarnft

<5?5TT<7TT
ITTSRN*

^feqT^T ^mTifr

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 8 5 . 2. A S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d , w i t h f i n a l d^h .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY The f o l l o w i n g r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e a l i s a t i o n c h a r a c t e r s i n words w h i c h h a v e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s some g u i d a n c e f o r r e a d i n g from t h e s c r i p t , guide i s a knowledge o f t h e s p o k e n a. When a m e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t i s f o l l o w e d by a f i n a l of okar

69 consonant

and s i g n s

provide reliable

though the only

language. i n a t h r e e c h a r a c t e r word, it is usually

character,

c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel s i g n , or w i t h an - g l i d e , e.g.

r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,

rej'mii b. i.

p'na

lor'ka

lok'ra

per'da

sod'rii this before with

When a v e r b a l b a s e e n d s i n a n kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , or w i t h an - g l i d e ,

character i s r e a l i s e d with z e r o - v o w e l , formative p a r t i c l e s which c o n s i s t a vowel s i g n e.g.

of a consonant c h a r a c t e r

sokii.

sk-na

sk-tii of

bol

bol-ta

bol-te the

When a v e r b a l b a s e c o n s i s t s and p r e - f i n a l

t h r e e or more c h a r a c t e r s ,

final

c h a r a c t e r s b e i n g kar c o n s o n a n t

characters, form is

the r e a l i s a t i o n

of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s

v a r i e s according to the This v a r i a t i o n

of t h e f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e s w h i c h a r e a d d e d . i l l u s t r a t e d in the following Tm*FTT somsjh c. Medial i. Medial sm jha , h , f^" ^ , hi


T

examples; "SRSRS&T smjh-kr ^T*T*HHT sm'jhana follows: sign

H*T*BcTT smjh-ta and j ^ " , hu

are r e a l i s e d as

, p r e c e d e d by a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel of the vowel ^ T r T tuhmst of t h e p r e c e d i n g %e>cTT behtsr

i s r e a l i s e d as a s p i r a t i o n
e

syllable. # ^ c l sohbot

-s-

WJ$m cahna

ft^cT mihnot

70 ii.

HINDI

SECTION in

M e d i a l f^T , p r e c e d e d by an akar c h a r a c t e r , may b e r e a l i s e d

c o a l e s c e n c e w i t h t h e v o w e l of a p r e c e d i n g okar c h a r a c t e r a s e.g. M^cHI p a h i l a or p e y h l a iii. srf^T b a h i r a or b o y h r a Sff^T b e h i n or bayhn

ayh.

M e d i a l 2 , p r e c e d e d by an akar c h a r a c t e r , may b e r e a l i s e d as

in

c o a l e s c e n c e w i t h t h e v o w e l of a p r e c e d i n g okar c h a r a c t e r e.g.

ovh.

Gt|?r
bahut or b e v h t

"CHpr^TT p o h u r - n a or p o v h r - n a t h e above n o t e s ,
1

Reading e x a m p l e s , under 1. i i i a. b. c. ^ f^fit

illustrating

and n o t e s a.

and b .

(uusm c h a r a c t e r s ) . ^ R J ifecft f cPTT ^fcTT

of^TST WfT^T TOO*-

SfT^t TO?*TT s^^tt

W W

<P*TK*T

*afc%

-gsrf

*r?ft5

*ri%7T

"qfw^r

^rfft

3.

Modifiers. ^c^^gT^" (onusvar) and [o|^fT^ ( v i s o r g ) are both

The m o d i f i e r s ,

2
used in w r i t i n g Hindi. i. T h e s e a r e g i v e n i n the S a n s k r i t section,

onusvar. Both forms of t h i s m o d i f i e r a r e u s e d i n H i n d i , t h e f i r s t f o r m , a s i n 55T > b e i n g c a l l e d t h e o n u s v a r , and t h e s e c o n d f o r m , a s i n 35T ,

3
t h e c e n d r a b i n d u . The a n u s v a r i s u s u a l l y w r i t t e n , the c o n d r e b i n d u , w i t h c h a r a c t e r s am. am im iirrj uirj in preference to

t h a t h a v e any s u p e r s c r i b e d uuirj eirj eym, orr)

stroke. ovrr)

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 86. 2. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . and i i . 3 . 'moon and d o t ' .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY The onusvar and c o n d r a b i n d u a r e r e a l i s e d i n Hindi a s f o l l o w s : a.

71

As t h e n a s a l i s a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h which i t i s written. The c o n d r o b i n d u i s p r e f e r r e d f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g a n a s a l i s e d

v o w e l , e x c e p t when t h e c h a r a c t e r h a s a s u p e r s c r i b e d s t r o k e ; e . g . iff or $ ha Reading examples.''' ttZ T TT T5 ^ or f muh ^

ft
thii me hey

3for

fz

*n>

^ft

sarcbw b.

Trff

crt^TT

A%~*r\

i^RT

-qj^^rr

As t h e n a s a l c o n s o n a n t o f o n e o f t h e v o r g .

The onusvar w r i t t e n on

a character preceding a v o r g i i y character i s r e a l i s e d as the nasal consonant of t h e same c l a s s a s t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r , or a s when t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s of the ce-varg. n

The c a n d r a b i n d u When t h e

i s not usually written t o r e p r e s e n t a nasal consonant. onusvar i s r e a l i s e d a s a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t b e f o r e a f i n a l character, the f i n a l character

okar 2 i s r e a l i s e d w i t h an o - g l i d e .

tt^t
ponkh

$iz
kon^h porantu hindii sambandh

#>^pr
kanjuus

In w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , t h e r e i s an a l t e r n a t i v e and more f r e q u e n t l y used method of r e p r e s e n t i n g n a s a l consonants i n t h i s c o n t e x t , by combining c h a r a c t e r s . as a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t b e f o r e a f i n a l


2

When, t h e o n u s v a r i s r e a l i s e d okar c h a r a c t e r , t h e f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d w i t h an a - g l i d e ^ .
1 .

3.

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 8 6 . See a b o v e , 1 . n o t e b

2. S e e S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.3,3*Class

2.ii.

72

HINDI

SECTION

I n some w o r d s , t h i s m o d i f i e r may be r e a l i s e d a s i n a. or a s i n b . The r e a l i s a t i o n a s i n b . i s more u s u a l when t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e onusvar i s o k a r . e.g. ok R e a d i n g Examples."'' ^ftcr wi*r z z 3>T^) or onk reg or rang

sf^rt

w*r

^r^r

^Htr -q-^ar Rfar fr

3"sft

#etc

^55*

c . When t h e a n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g one o f t h e entosth or uusm characters, a s i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s and l e a r n i t i s r e a l i s e d in various con

ed words u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e ,

w a y s . Among t h e s e v e r a l ways o f r e a l i s i n g t h e o n u s v a r i n t h i s t e x t u s e d by s p e a k e r s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f India2, t h e u s u a l examples:

Hindi p r a c t i c e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g onusvar b e f o r e 7J[ , X , ^ , , !^ and

1" , r e a l i s e d as 5 e.g.

n , or

as the n a s a l i s a t i o n

o f t h e vowel o f t h e s y l l a b l e ,

sonyog or s a y o g

sonrag sarag

sonlegn salagan

s o n fay saJay

ahinsa ahisa

sinha siha

anusvar b e f o r e

o f , r e a l i s e d as b

m , the character e.g.

o T being,

usually r e a l i s e d as

in this context,

somvad (sambad) 1. 3.

varamvar (barambar)

but

kuvarii c.

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 8 6 . 2. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . n o t e The l a s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s word r e p r e s e n t s 7T combined w i t h T f .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY ii. viserg. This m o d i f i e r i s r a r e l y u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i .

73

I t o c c u r s i n some

S a n s k r i t loanwords u s e d m a i n l y i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e , and i n a few Hindi words. When w r i t t e n w i t h a m e d i a l c h a r a c t e r , it is usually represented

r e a l i s e d e i t h e r as s t r o n g a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r the s y l l a b l e hy the c h a r a c t e r w i t h which i t words from a l i t e r a r y t e x t ; o r ,

i s w r i t t e n , as i n r e a d i n g l e a r n e d i n l e s s formal r e a d i n g , as the example: ntokkoror^

d o u b l i n g of the c o n s o n a n t of t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r ; f o r ^:^cT , duhkh or dukkh 'CRT: o f t ^ T , entohkoror^ character, or

When the v i s a r g i s w r i t t e n w i t h a f i n a l strong a s p i r a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the f i n a l l e a r n e d words such a s

i t i s r e a l i s e d as in it

syllable,

for instance, ; or

^J*T* p u n s h , jcj ^)"^TrTt , v i f e s ' t s h , ch .

may be d i s r e g a r d e d , a s i n I+. The Complete

Syllabary. of the Hindi s y l l a b a r y i n the section,

The arrangement of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

t r a d i t i o n a l order i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t g i v e n , i n t h e S a n s k r i t o m i t t i n g t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s a l l t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s , e x c e p t , c and ^

. 1 The t a b l e i n which

, and t h e m o d i f i e r s added t o t h e consist signs

c h a r a c t e r ![ are p l a c e d a t t h e h e a d o f a s e r i e s of columns

i n g of e v e r y c o n s o n a n t i n t h e kar f o r m , w i t h e a c h of t h e vowel and each of t h e m o d i f i e r s , i s c a l l e d i n H i n d i t h e ^T^^<c|^l

, barhin

k h s ^ i i , the 'twelve c h a r a c t e r s ' . s c h o o l s by c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t o 1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.2,h.

This table i s often recited read.

'

HINDI These two t a b l e s

SECTION are is

show t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r s characters
1

p l a c e d as the i n i t i a l t h e same a s t h e order characters

o f words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s , Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e o f words b e g i n n i n g w i t h

which

in Sanskrit.

modified the

are p l a c e d i n the s e r i e s characters.

corresponding unmodified 5. Numerals.

The n u m e r a l s u s e d i n H i n d i a r e g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t Both t h e Hindi 'Hindi' f o r m s and t h e

section.1

'Bombay' forms a r e u s e d i n modern

printing. 6. P u n c t u a t i o n . In p r o s e w r i t i n g , t h e end of a s e n t e n c e i s marked w i t h an u p

r i g h t s t r o k e o f t h e same h e i g h t a s t h e u p r i g h t s t r o k e o f a c h a r a c t e r . Other p u n c t u a t i o n marks a r e u s e d a s i n E n g l i s h . This system is


2

i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e H i n d i p r o s e p a s s a g e a t t b e end o f t h i s The s y s t e m of p u n c t u a t i o n u s e d i n v e r s e i n Sanskrit3.

section . used

i s t h e same a s t h a t

1. 3.

See S a n s k r i t , See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.2,5. Gh.2,3.ii.

2. S e e end of C h . 3 . Reading examples.

C H A P T E R CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Two or more c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s may b e combined i n w r i t i n g Hindi t o r e p r e s e n t c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h a r e r e a l i s e d w i t h o u t an i n t e r v e n i n g vowel. C h a r a c t e r s formed b y c o m b i n i n g o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a r e c a l l e d (sonyuktakser )


1

^JFfsR ^rjii

b y Hindi grammarians.

The c o n s t r u c t i o n and sect

c a l l i g r a p h y of conjunct c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t ion .
2

The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i a r e c l a s s i f i e d characters^.

i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n t h e same way a s t h e S a n s k r i t c o n j u n c t 1. C o n t e x t s o f Conjunct C h a r a c t e r s i n H i n d i .

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r i n H i n d i i n t h e s e i.

contexts:

In Hindi w o r d s , t h a t i s , w o r d s n o t b o r r o w e d from S a n s k r i t or from other languages; e.g.

<F=gr
becca ii.

C R M %
kyoki

m^t
mokkhii

In S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e i t h e r w o r d s commonly u s e d i n H i n d i , o r l e a r n e d loanwords u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e ; e.g.

pustok

strii e.g.

/obd

i i i . I n loanwords from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ;

?TW
doroxt

WWrU
hofta s^e/on

1 .

'joined character'.

2 .

See S a n s k r i t ,

C h . 3 , 1 .

3 .

ibid.

Ch.3,3.

76 2.

HINDI

SECTION

R e a l i s a t i o n of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s i n H i n d i . consist

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n r e a d i n g a s s y l l a b l e s i n g of two or more c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by a v o w e l . junct c h a r a c t e r occurs as the f i n a l r e a l i s e d w i t h an o - g l i d e , The r e a l i s a t i o n as i n

When an okar c o n is usually

c h a r a c t e r of a word, i t , g u p t ' , $|| V I > J a s t r ' . l

i n modern Hindi of akar c h a r a c t e r s w i t h in words


2

zerospell

vowel i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s ing.

gives rise

t o a p r o b l e m of

For i n s t a n c e , when a f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n s o n okar conson

a n t c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e e n d i n g i n a f i n a l ant c h a r a c t e r , the f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e i s u s u a l l y

realised is

with zero-vowel.

T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e c o n s e c u t i v e c h a r a c t e r s Similar

s i m i l a r t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r .

problems realis

a r i s e i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , where an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s ed w i t h z e r o - v o w e l b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , pound words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t

and i n com charac-

p a r t ends i n an okar c o n s o n a n t 3 t e r , and t h e s e c o n d p a r t b e g i n s w i t h a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r . 3. C l a s s e s of Conjunct Characters in Hindi.U of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e

A l l the c l a s s e s

Sanskrit of

s e c t i o n o c c u r i n H i n d i , b u t i n some of t h e c l a s s e s o n l y a few the c h a r a c t e r s are used. Those u s e d i n w r i t i n g Hindi a r e

illustrated loan

by t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n e a c h c l a s s , w h i c h i n c l u d e some S a n s k r i t words w h i c h a r e commonly u s e d i n H i n d i .

More r a r e l y u s e d l o a n w o r d s , are i n c l u d e d among t h e section.

some of w h i c h may o c c u r i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i ,

examples g i v e n w i t h each c l a s s i n the S a n s k r i t 1.

In t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , t h i s g l i d e i s n o t i n d i c a t e d i n words t o which t h i s r u l e a p p l i e s . 2. See a b o v e , C h . 2 , 1 . n o t e s a. t o d. 3 . Examples of such words a r e g i v e n b e l o w , w i t h e a c h c l a s s of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s . U. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 .

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS C l a s s 1 . Two s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s joined. is

77

The s e r i e s o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s c l a s s o c c u r r i n g i n S a n s k r i t given in that s e c t i o n .


1

Most of t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s of t h e Hindi loan -rra

s y l l a b a r y occur i n t h i s c l a s s , b u t some o c c u r o n l y i n S a n s k r i t words u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e . i s w r i t t e n as ^

The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g

, the s u p e r s c r i b e d s t r o k e r e p r e s e n t i n g

when p r e < do n o t J

p
c e d i n g a n o t h e r c o n s o n a n t . The m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s occur i n t h i s c l a s s , b u t o|-oh , qqa , w r i t t e n i n P e r s i a n and A r a b i c VHVh , ffo ^ and , and \FjT , z z o a r e

loanwords.

A c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g an a s p i r a t e d c o n s o n a n t i s n o t w r i t t e n i n S a n s k r i t as t h e f i r s t part of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s \o^cj -mm , khkh and class,

but i n w r i t i n g Hindi t h e c h a r a c t e r s are sometimes u s e d . The c o m b i n a t i o n

, "|;h"|;h

may be a l t e r n a t i v e l y r e ^ , as

p r e s e n t e d by w r i t i n g an a n u s v a r w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g in V4J-41 <3[ or VS^ft"^ , ummid .

The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e s e c u t i v e consonant c h a r a c t e r s ,

H i n d i words i n w h i c h two c o n in

t h e f i r s t b e i n g kar, a r e r e a l i s e d characters: us-se k

ordinary s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t snn Reading examples . pF?f>T *raR5FT cR^ft bn-na'3

yusse

sf^cft

I ^ W

1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . . 3 , C l a s s . 1 . 3 . Verbal form. 5. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 86.

2. S e e b e l o w , C l a s s 3 . i i i . a . L\.. Pronoun w i t h s u f f i x .

78

HINDI

SECTION

C l a s s 2. Two v e r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

joined. are

in t h i s c l a s s which occur i n S a n s k r i t
1

g i v e n in the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .

Some of t h e more common c o n j u n c t loan

c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s o c c u r r i n g i n H i n d i , m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t w o r d s , a r e g i v e n b e l o w , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of some c o n j u n c t o c c u r r i n g i n P e r s i a n and A r a b i c l o a n w o r d s .

characters given loan

Some of t h e e x a m p l e s

i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n may be f o u n d i n Hindi t e x t s , i n l e a r n e d words i n t h e l i t e r a r y language.

-kto

-tko
OXJrj

-gd

-dg

-pt 9FST -qb

-tp

-bd

-db

3.

<Frf
-bz -qt

-xte ii.

- b j

-qf

-ft

-bt section

Most of t h e c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n under i i . a .

in the Sanskrit

a r e w r i t t e n i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i , t h i s method of r e p r e s e n t i n g a homorganic n a s a l c o n s o n a n t p r e c e d i n g one of t h e v e r g i i y e r s b e i n g g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d t o t h e u s e of t h e o n u s v a r , charact in the ,

w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t loanwords3. Among t h e c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n under i i . b . , only occur i n Hindi. The c h a r a c t e r and i t "JfT , jji and

<T , -tn ? a

i s not c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y syllabic

conjunct c h a r a c t e r , series.

i s often included in the

I t i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d as

gy , w i t h n a s a l i s a t i o n

of

the this

f o l l o w i n g vowel^-.

I n Hindi d i c t i o n a r i e s , words b e g i n n i n g w i t h vj^" .

c h a r a c t e r a r e p l a c e d a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h iii. These c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t loanwords:

-kmo

-gn

-ghn

-tm

-dm

-pn

1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.3>Class 2. 2. The numbers i . - i v . c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . 3. See a b o v e , C h . 2 , i . b . L. Cf. gy , i n C l a s s 3 . i . b e l o w .

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS i v . Of t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s g r o u p , o n l y occur i n H i n d i , i n S a n s k r i t loanwords. H i n d i words i n w h i c h , -rjmo and

79 , -nmo

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e ive consonant c h a r a c t e r s , the f i r s t

consecut in

b e i n g okar, are r e a l i s e d characters;

o r d i n a r y s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

Jokti

sok-tii
2

robt

dab-ta

padma

ad'mii

Reading e x a m p l e s .
* T % W R T

-&cW>-R

" H I P

TTOF^TT

fOT
F^RF

^TovT
"H|*

^cT
^^PFT

OTT
h^rt

|WT
w^zr

TT^

olW
SNF%

oTcST
^ftc

^F^H^fl
Class 3 . i.

| O P R ^llcHI W F T
joined with a n t a s t h Xf occurring in Sanskrit is characters.

Characters

Characters

joined with f o l l o w i n g

The s e r i e s of c h a r a c t e r s

in this class

g i v e n i n t h a t s e c t i o n . 3 Most o f t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s of t h e s y l l a b a r y can be combined w i t h f o l l o w i n g Xf , t h o u g h some of

Hindi

these literary

conjunct c h a r a c t e r s occur o n l y i n S a n s k r i t loanwords i n the

l a n g u a g e . Some of t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n may o c c u r i n a Hindi l i t e r a r y t e x t . Of t h e m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s , ZJ -in P e r s i a n and A r a b i c Jpf and

occur combined w i t h f o l l o w i n g

loanwords.

1 . Verbal form. 2. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , 3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 , C l a s s 3 . i i i . b .

see

p . 86.

80 Reading E x a m p l e s . oRt to^TcT

HINDI

SECTION

^TTTl"

^ T ^ T

"^TTZT

cqt
OFH^J

"qT

^3"^Tt T
T

*TT

=*rrq"
^Tors^r

wfT
Trgw

sq^IT
^m^-

^TT
o^srr

^pjc^r

siTRotrr^r

ii.

Characters

joined with following

cT . is

The s e r i e s o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s c l a s s o c c u r r i n g i n S a n s k r i t p given in that s e c t i o n .

Only a few of t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e H i n d i cf , and t h o s e t h a t o c c u r o n l y ^cf are

s y l l a b a r y o c c u r combined w i t h f o l l o w i n g mainly in Sanskrit loanwords. i s combined w i t h Reading e x a m p l e s .


" W T T

Of t h e m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s ,

cf 3

^ocTTsr

-3cTR

^OTR

CTT^T

E5# ^f%rT
or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

f^T "^TK
.

"H^
iii. a. Characters

ivFTT

joined with preceding

*[ p r e c e d i n g . 5 Characters r e a l i s e d with preceding r , r e p r e s e n t e d by the stroke in the

called

( r e f ) , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d , w i t h n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y ,

S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . ^ These c h a r a c t e r s occur i n Hindi w o r d s , i n l o a n w o r d s , and i n l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . below i l l u s t r a t e The c h a r a c t e r s

Sanskrit given

The e x a m p l e s

t h e c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n H i n d i . 7T, 7T ref . ^ > *T


a n d

3"

are

often

d o u b l e d when w r i t t e n w i t h

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , 3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

s e e p . 8 6 . 2. See S a n s k r i t , s e e p . 8 6 . U. See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.3Class Ch.3,Class

3.ii. 3.iii.a.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e H i n d i words i n which consecut

81

i v e consonant c h a r a c t e r s , t h e f i r s t b e i n g kar, a r e r e a l i s e d i n ordinary s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t characters:

korta

kor-ta^

srv

dor'vaza

dhorm

dr'maha

A few words may b e w r i t t e n e i t h e r w i t h

f o l l o w e d by a c o n s o n a n t ref ; e.g.

c h a r a c t e r or w i t h a c h a r a c t e r w i t h s u p e r s c r i b e d

dor'bar b.

dsrbar

por'da

parda

dr jii

dsrjii

"[ f o l l o w i n g . 5 Characters r e a l i s e d w i t h r following, r e p r e s e n t e d by a s h o r t

s t r o k e p l a c e d e i t h e r a g a i n s t t h e u p r i g h t s t r o k e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r or beneath the c h a r a c t e r , are g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . examples g i v e n below i l l u s t r a t e occur i n H i n d i .


2

The which

the c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s

The m a j o r i t y o f s u c h words a r e l o a n w o r d s from

S a n s k r i t and E n g l i s h . Reading e x a m p l e s . 3

?foR
srJ

t $

"3?ff
7

^^cT

* r n
^ T f ^

* &n* P *or
PT

^tfS s f ^| H
ST^FT ^

^P SW
fit*?
iv. a.

F4
^ y T Tffr

gj^f srff H
ttX^T ^*J$
cT F

^IT

*JPT

W^FT

TO

^Tg

*W

cffa

^T^T

Characters j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g q% p r e c e d i n g .

cvT or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

The c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t a r e g i v e n i n that s e c t i o n . ^ The c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r r i n g i n H i n d i a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b y

1. Verbal form. 2. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.3,3.CI.3.iii.b. 3. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 8 6 . U. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C 1 . 3 . i v . a .


G

82 the examples g i v e n b e l o w .

HINDI

SECTION

Some words may be w r i t t e n e i t h e r w i t h or w i t h a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r of

f o l l o w e d by a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , this class; e.g. b. following.

f^cyfc^cT or RorcpoT , b i l k u l .

The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t a r e g i v e n t h a t section.-*- The e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e which o c c u r i n H i n d i , p Reading examples. the characters

in

i n S a n s k r i t and E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s ,

*f35
C l a s s U.

ararao

if^T^T

f r m

^ g ^ r

vorgiiy characters characters.

j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g uusm

i* a.

t "^T > "^T


o

or
r

p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g v o r g i i y preceding.

characters,

The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n are given i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .

Sanskrit

Those w h i c h a r e w r i t t e n i n H i n d i , indic

i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o c c u r r i n g i n S a n s k r i t and o t h e r l o a n w o r d s , a r e a t e d by t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w . The f o l l o w i n g c o n j u n c t

characters in

which are not i n c l u d e d i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n occur i n H i n d i , l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s :

S3o
-Jqe -J"to

T
-sto -sbo the first

H i n d i words i n w h i c h c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s ,

c h a r a c t e r b e i n g o k a r , a r e r e a l i s e d i n o r d i n a r y s p e e c h i n t h e same way 1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch. 1 + . 3 , C I . 3 . i v . b . 2 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . h . 3 , C I . k - i . a . 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p. 87.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS as c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e s e examples:

83

rosta b. "T , 5 or

bos-ta

qismot

us-me 2

"T following. ^ of t h i s c l a s s which occur i n S a n s k r i t Only a few o f t h e s e characters

The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

are g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n " ^ . occur i n H i n d i .

The c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h o c c u r a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e Some a d d i t i o n a l series, , xja , characters of this from

r e a d i n g examples g i v e n b e l o w .

c l a s s , not included in the S a n s k r i t other l a n g u a g e s : "^o^ , x s o , *o%\

occur i n loanwords , fsa .

Reading e x a m p l e s . ^ a.

gf%oT

qTTrT

'HI ^ 4

g**EoT

^TC fe^ft

Vf$C
^cTfT

t<* f ^ r l
f^SRT

^ R * T

S^cTR ^ c = f

W W ^ T F T

Ttf5RT

ii.

|[

p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g an o n u n a s i k of t h i s class

character^. illustrated

Only t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s by t h e s e a. h. examples:, as i n ^ ,or

occur i n Hindi,

| | preceding || following

sTfirTW

> brahmor; . , untie ,

* a s i n ^URT , nhan , T

4-^1^1 u n h a r i i 1. Verbal form. 3 . See S a n s k r i t , 5. See S a n s k r i t ,

mharii

, ^FsfST kumhora , <J1=^ , tumhe .

2. Pronoun w i t h s u f f i x . Ch.3. 3 . CI. 1+. i . b . U. F o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , Ch.3. 3 . 01^1+. i i . a. and b .

s e e p . 87.

84

H I N D I

S E C T I O N

Hindi p r o s e

passagel

^TPW

oft? C ^ T *rrW , c^^q TT

^ffcr

HT^t 3

^ f a r f o f c T ^HT | I tT

^5T5er f c t ^ tf

f , c^f cqf

gfrTfm

-fen

^TT 7^1 |

I T

wft

focFt

^f^r

1 1

VTiUft

tfgF

hstt

*rfw

ftcTT f

1. Hindi S h a b d a s a g a r , p . l , e d . Shamsundardas, p u b . 1916, by K a s h i Nagari-Sabha.

TRANSCRIPTION

85

Transcription Chapter 2 .

of

Reading

Examples

1. i .
kab phon^ mogon hhejon

cho dhan thon jhogor canak

dha bht

to caph xam

tho ghon gaz kharak ghtk pt'jh

n djiab yem qdm kthn cht qd dhmk chamak ckh Oht kf ght m"|;h

phohn pkr

yazab xatsm

psrhst zxm jhafpa.t

dhm'kt
1 .

bsc'psn

jsm'gh"];

phafkan

i i.

v DOl nav colsn taraf vr jar phsl chal


l 8

kr dhr bdl yaraz mat'lb com'rax l.iii.

vay

ghar bal vzn yavan

vn lav qbr xabar

tr D*ey lyn yamak

khsl yam

chay bhar

gar a3 yamal
1

cspsl vcn caph'kar prj'vo\ bas ros

varaii yzl kat'phal

l a m ' ch khr V9\ das haq hr dhs

k a r ' V9~[ paka^'kar hal har kaj ham had

dal'kan macal'pan sab

yoj" Jsrsr^ semoy

hath sar saf ar taras

Japath hazam mas'nad hafkan

samajh sagarh kas rat hr'kt a ek uupor bhii ke bhat nav J*uruu ai uuth yzon sav pii
1

hasad halaf

saras fakal

Jabar kalaj xas'lot sar'dal

hoz'rot hoi'col ao ae evr un is iid ovsodh gar ka dho de ja hoyth gay dhobii qitab keuur pay nav

s a r 'kaj" mas'raf ao ai

2. i .
ab ojh idhor 2.ii.

ae iikh saii

orh uukh m ag or geii goe oyj ojhar avr'at aypan 311 do le ya hoy ched rtu krpa tsyyar sunaii kha so drdh huii borii

se

ve thii jhiil dhoe jae dii jie bahudha

duudh hoy lie maydan prthivii

c n z din poysa

khul jhuut xana kara:q siiar

mavj usa bhiiti faqiir dekhao

huzuur rupayye

86 maz'duur beinamii bonav'tii kam'zor isiiliye musal'man

HINDI

SECTION ghariyal roz'garii

f'sos moz'dik der'vaza caturaii bayl'gacjii savdagar xabar'dar xid'mat'gar

p . 1 3 . k h i r ' k i i duus'ra it'na ad'mii kap'ra l o m ' r i i b a v ' l i i phay'da dekh-na b a y t h - t i i l i k h - t a pak'pana g h a b ' r a t i i pakar-na cjhalak-na t e r a h cavdah s u b a h b a y e r a h g a h i r a pahacan ' ( ; h ~ kacaharii
n 8 8 r n a

2 . 1 . a .

may

jo

hii

meh

os lit jauu kue adh bhok bhvk-na auuga jaege soh

nahii gae mi\ pac gav gaii dono voha akhe ghuus bhays dej"6 davrii poch-na bhaiio ec|ua lahaga mahaga has-na pahuc-na
n 8 r

b . p a n d i t arambh s a n g a t t l ^ . o n j i i r p a s a n d bandhan sarjghat kamp-na pan jab jangal barjcjii sing d^imb andar angul Jankh sangh pane'mii khambha ant kutumb manoronjak Chapter 3 Class 1 . pakka huqqa makkhan laggii ghugghuu baccii lajja izzat jhajjhar patt tt \<\ ^ha patthar baddal Juddh ann chappar phupphuus bhabbhar kimmat rayyat harra killii navve
a c i n i : i 9< a b u

iccha patta d^ibbii hissa

Class 2 . i. bhakti kubj ii. ling arambh iii.rukminii i v . janm C l a s s 3 i kyo tyo karyy rrmkhy xyal gyareh jyo zyada cjyavdjiii pur^y pathy udyog madhy nyay pyarii byatha sabhy ammily vyakhyan ava/y manusy syal vyatha vaqt satkar daraxt sadgur^ vaqf ekbiis sabz gupt utpann hafta Jabd lafz latf s a n g h pajicamii manjha ghar^a t lA / a n t i lampat parantu uparant jjian ( g y a n ) jijjiasu ratn sambandh huqm atma xatm lagn umda vanmay
n8r

Class 3 ii pakvann svamii Class xvab sarv gvar sarvv jvar iijvar tattv kvara dvara kvacit dhvani J*vas vi/v svapn

3.iii.

a. t a r k f a r q muurkh s u r x v a r g g d i i r g h rrraryii xarc rrraurchit arz a r j k o r t garc[ vorr^amala k i i r t i a r t h urduu arddh uurf arpar^ arb garbh dharmm a r y y sarvv dar/an vers kursii arhit b. kram kram gram angrez t priy frak namr abru Jram
r a m

ratrii tiivr

patr chidr mantr

samudr

TRANSCRIPTION C l a s s 3 i v . bolki nrnlk ql ( e q o l ) C l a s s h. i.a. mujkil prsjn pa/cat ajcsry csjma pusksl krsr^ ras"|;r pustsk vaste vsstr strii rasta hindusthan snan spas']; sphuurti svssti svssth ustad Jastr pojcim ki/tii iftiha nisbet ijq skuul s^ejon VX
0S

87

phalguri iltiza ilmii kulha^a ilzam fsl (fsl) ixlas vssl Juki klas

ultha ulmukh

b. baxj"

aksor Jaxs

ksor afsos

poriiksa

ksama

laksmii

vats

pratyaks

Hindi p r o s e p a s s a g e k i s i i j a t i ke j i v a n me u s ' k e d v a r a p r o y u k t Jobdo ka otyont mehettvopuurn^ s t h a n hoy. a v e j y o k ' t a t a t h a s t h i t i ke nusar i n p r a y u k t Jahdo ka agam a t h ' v a l o p t o t h a v a c y , l a k s y evam d y o t y bhavo me p o r i v o r t e n h o t a r e h - t a hoy. o t ' e v a a v r s a m a g r i i ke abhav ma i n Jabdo ke dvara k i s i i j a t i ke j i i v e n k i i b h i n n b h i n n s t h i t i y o ka i t i h a s u p a s t h i t k i y a ja s a k - t a hay. i s i i adhar p a r a r y j a t i ka p r a c i i n ' t a m i t i h a s p r e s t u t k i y a gaya hay avr jyo j y o s a m a g r i i u p o l o b d h h o t i i ja r o h i i h a y , tyo tyo yoh i t i h a s t k k i y a j a r a h a h a y . i s a v a s t h a me yah b a t s p a s t samajh me a s a k - t i i hay k i j a t i i y j i i v a n me Jabdo ka s t h a n kit'ne mahattv ka hoy. j a t i i y s a h i t y ko r a k s i t k a r - n e t a t h a u s - k e b h a v i s y ko sucaru avr samujval bonane ke a t i r i k t vah k i s i i b h a s a k i i s a m p a n n ' t a ya J e b d ' b a h u l t a ka suucok avr us b h a s a k e s a h i t y ka adhyayan k o r - n e v a l o ka sab s e bo-pa sahayok b h i i h o t a hay. vijes'teh any b h a s a b h a s i y d avr v i d e j i y o ke l i y e t o u s - k a a v r b h i i a d h i k upeyog h o t a h o y . i n sob d r s ^ i y o s e J o b d - k o j k i s i i b h a s a ke s a h i t y k i i muulyavan s a m p e t t i avr us b h a s a ke bhancjar ka s a b s e ba^a n i d a r j a k h o t a h o y .
n i i 1

MARATHI

SECTION

C H A P T E R ARRANGEMENT OP THE

1 SYLLABARY

The Devanagari S c r i p t i s u s e d i n w r i t i n g Marathi ( Ep[r<t t h e arrangement o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s

) and

i n t h e s y l l a b a r y i s t h e same a s

t h e S a n s k r i t arrangement-'-. Some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e u s e d o n l y i n w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , b u t m o s t o f them may be found i n l i t e r a r y texts. The s c r i p t i s u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s JI c*ST)*T can be u n d e r s t o o d by a c h i l d ' . Devanagari s c r i p t t o d i s t i n g u i s h i n w r i t i n g M a r a t h i , and known a s c a l l e d 3T~$TT (balobodh) , 'that

T h i s name i s u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e i t from t h e c u r s i v e s c r i p t a l s o u s e d qt^t ( m o c j i i ) . Each c h a r a c t e r series i s c a l l e d 6Ju^|<v>| is

(ksor) and t h e s y l l a b i c

(vornmala) , ' c h a r a c t e r - s e r i e s ' .

The t e r m s u s e d by Marathi grammarians

in referring to the characters are s i m i l a r to those used in S a n s k r i t , but as t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n Marathi d i f f e r s somewhat these

from t h e S a n s k r i t s y s t e m i n r e s p e c t o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s ,

terms are u s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n t h e i r Marathi f o r m , and t r a n s c r i b e d i n accordance w i t h t h e Marathi r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s . The

d i f f e r e n c e between t h e terms u s e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g Marathi terms i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e s e Sanskrit ^{jjf^j^ i^TPR": ^FcT^Sf 1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . l . (ekssrsm), (viramoh) , (ontohstho), Marathi ^3T^IT fotTW examples: (okser) (viram)

sS^TT^^r ( n t o s t h )

92

MARATHI

SECTION syll

The t a b l e g i v e n b e l o w shows t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t b e M a r a t h i

abary i n roman n o t a t i o n . As t h e s y s t e m o f w r i t i n g i s s y l l a b i c , t h e characters i n the syllabary represent s y l l a b l e s consisting e i t h e r of a vowel or o f a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d b y t h e v o w e l o . The roman t a b l e

shows e a c h c o n s o n a n t w r i t t e n w i t h t h i s v o w e l , w h i c h , when i t i s r e a l i s e d With a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , texts as the 'inherent vowel'. 1 Velar k kh g gh 2 Palatal


C ,

i s usually referred to i n English

CONSONANTS w i t h Voiceless Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated

3 Retro flex t
9

k Dental t th d dh n 1 s

5 Labial p ph b bh m v-^

ts ch 3 1
9

P l o s i v e s

th a; dh

Voiced

jh zh- 1

Nasal Semivowels Fricatives Aspirate Lateral VOWELS MODIFIERS


5

(p) y

h I a i ii ~
u
UU
9

N a s a l - nj , o r

Aspirated - h Chapter 1.

1. - h. S e e n o t e s on f o l l o w i n g p a g e .

5. S e e S a n s k r i t ,

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY Notes on t h e s y l l a b l e s marked 1.. - h. 1. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g co i n t h e roman t a b l e : are r e a l i s e d or in

93

, j a and jho

some words as a l v e o l a r c o n s o n a n t s , w i t h f r i c a t i v e articulation. This r e a l i s a t i o n table. na and jia is t r a n s c r i b e d as

affricated and

1^sa , za

zha , as shown i n t h e

2. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g

do n o t o c c u r a s

single and

c h a r a c t e r s , but only i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h other c h a r a c t e r s , only i n Sanskrit loanwords u s e d i n t b e l i t e r a r y 3 The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g dental articulation.


-

language.

vo

i s usually r e a l i s e d with l a b i o

I I . The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g Sanskrit loanwords.

sa

and

syllabic

occur only

in

The s e r i e s of v o w e l s i n c l u d e s

short

i and ' l o n g '

ii,

'short'

and ' l o n g ' uu. These p a i r s o f v o w e l s o c c u r i n Marathi w o r d s , and t h e characters representing the 'short' and t h e ' l o n g ' vowels are w r i t t e n This d i s t i n c t i o n between transcription often

a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n r u l e s o f orthography-'-.

the ' s h o r t ' and t h e ' l o n g ' v o w e l s i s p r e s e r v e d i n t h e

of the c h a r a c t e r s , t h o u g h i n modern M a r a t h i s p e e c h t h e r e i s

l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n of words w r i t t e n w i t h t h e characters representing the The term ' m o d i f i e r ' 'short' or the 'long' vowels. Fully

i s explained i n the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

n a s a l i s e d v o w e l s a r e r a r e i n M a r a t h i and t h e symbol irj t r a n s c r i b i n g t h e mark o f n a s a l i s a t i o n

i s used for transcript it

only in a systematic

i o n of examples f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h is realised. it is left In words i n w h i c h t h i s mark i s g i v e n zero-realisation,

untranscribed.

1, See b e l o w , end of Chapter 2.

C H A P T E R CHARACTERS OP THE

2 SYLLABARY

The c h a r a c t e r s of t h e D e v a n a g a r i S c r i p t u s e d i n w r i t i n g and t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of them i n r e a d i n g , a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s under t h e same h e a d i n g s a s t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e S a n s k r i t 1. Consonant Characters, and

Marathi, chapter

section:

2. Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s , 3. M o d i f i e r s .

The s t y l e of t h e c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n i s s t y l e g e n e r a l l y u s e d i n H i n d i p r i n t i n g and w r i t i n g . The forms of

the the

c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h a t s e c t i o n a s 'Bombay' forms a r e u s e d i n Marathi p r i n t i n g and w r i t i n g i n s t e a d of t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g H i n d i f o r m s . differences of l i n e and form may b e s e e n by comparing t h e Other

characters The

given in t h i s s e c t i o n w i t h those given in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n . Hindi s t y l e i s n o t u s e d i n Marathi p r i n t i n g or w r i t i n g .

The method of w r i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s i s

i n g e n e r a l t h e same a s calli

t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , and i n t h e n o t e s on t h e graphy of s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r s a s t h e y a r e g i v e n i n t h e section. When w r i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s , r e f e r e n c e

Sanskrit

s h o u l d b e made t o

t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g g r o u p s o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h a t section."'"

1. R e f e r e n c e s a r e g i v e n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r t o t h e d i v i s i o n s and s u b - d i v i s i o n s w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g numbers i n Chapter 2. of t h e Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY 1. Consonant Characters. are arranged in three groups: a n d 'uusm' c h a r a c t e r s . ! are r e a l i s e d as

95

The c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s characters, 'ontesth'

'vorgiiy'

characters

As t h e y a r e syllables

given i n the s y l l a b a r y , c o n s i s t i n g of an i n i t i a l vowel

these characters consonant,

or semi-vowel, (okar). that

f o l l o w e d by t h e The r e a l i s a t i o n

o , and t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d a s 3TBTT this vowel,

of a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h o u t ant element of t h e s y l l a b l e s t r o k e known a s fof^fiq" Sanskrit ,


2

i s , as the conson

only,

i s i n d i c a t e d by w r i t i n g a diagonal of t h e c h a r a c t e r , , p - . Characters as i n written

(viram)

at the foot , TJ"


N

thus,

cR , k - ,
V

cT , t \

w i t h t h i s s t r o k e a r e d e s c r i b e d b y M a r a t h i grammarians a s ' h o l o n t ' , as i n S a n s k r i t , b u t i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g i n Marathi the w r i t i n g o f t h i s s t r o k e i s c a l l e d 'breaking the f o o t ' ) , as 05*1% (longocjem, THT ftS'^t
T

schools

( p a y mo^onem, stroke i s described

and a c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h i s 'lame').

The r e a l i s a t i o n , of okar c o n s o n a n t differs somewhat from t h e r e a l i s a t i o n

characters

i n r e a d i n g Marathi in Sanskrit. to

of these characters

The f o l l o w i n g n o t e s may be r e g a r d e d a s g e n e r a l

guiding principles

which r e f e r e n c e may be made l a t e r when t h e c h a r a c t e r s in detail. okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

are d i s c u s s e d

a. A f i n a l

i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d with loanwords.

zero-

vowel, except i n a few S a n s k r i t b. A f i n a l

okar c h a r a c t e r f o r m e d b y c o m b i n i n g two or more c o n s o n a n t o k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d e d by a

characters3, or a f i n a l

1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch2,1.1 - i i i . 2. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i o okar consonant c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , a s d e s c r i b e d below i n n o t e s a. - d. a r e , h o w e v e r , n o t w r i t t e n w i t h t h e v i r a m , w h i c h i s u s e d m a i n l y i n w r i t i n g c e r t a i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s and Marathi c o l l o q u i a l forms. 3. S e e b e l o w , Ch.3. i

MARATHI

SECTION
1

character w r i t t e n with the anusvar i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an c.

representing a nasal

consonant,

-glide. i s realised with zero-vowel, or

A m e d i a l kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h an - g l i d e ,

in c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s ; a s , for

i n s t a n c e , when s u c h or

a c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r of a word of t h r e e more c h a r a c t e r s
2

and t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s w r i t t e n w i t h one of

vowel s i g n s .

Other c o n t e x t s a r e g i v e n l a t e r , when t h e detail. i s the f i n a l

characters

are d i s c u s s e d i n

d. When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r v e r b a l "base, i t -glide, before

c h a r a c t e r of a or w i t h an or b e g i n signs.

i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel, t h e a d d i t i o n of s u f f i x e s

c o n s i s t i n g of,

ning w i t h ,

a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h one of t h e v o w e l of Marathi w o r d s , f i n a l kar

In t h e t r a n s c r i p f i o n

consonant are in written this

characters realised with zero-vowel, without

or w i t h an - g l i d e ,

, and m e d i a l kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d t', p ' , f o r guidance in reading.

way a r e w r i t t e n t h u s , k ' ,

Reference

t o t h e s e n o t e s s h o u l d b e made when r e a d i n g t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n w i t h the characters throughout t h i s chapter. occur as i n i t i a l syllable characters C h a r a c t e r s w h i c h do n o t the

a r e i n d i c a t e d by a hyphen p r e f i x e d t o

i n t h e roman

transcription.
3

i.

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e v o r g i i y The f i r s t

group. of twentyfive

group o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s c o n s i s t s

c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g s y l l a b l e s w i t h an i n i t i a l p l o s i v e c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by t h e v o w e l . These c h a r a c t e r s f a l l i n t o f i v e ofTf (vorg), or c l a s s e s . The c h a r a c t e r s 2. i n t h e t a b l e g i v e n b e l o w may be See below, 2 . i i . Vowel signs.

1. See b e l o w , 2 . i i . 3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY compared w i t h t h e S a n s k r i t c h a r a c t e r s , written i n t h e Hindi style.

97

ko-vorg

35
k c(tsa)

7?
kh go ch ja(za)

XT
gha

co-verg jha(zha)
-jia

Jo-verg

z
t
9

z
th a; th d

z,
aha dha
na

to-vorg t

po-vorg
P

r
ph and ba bha
ma

The c h a r a c t e r s t h e y are w r i t t e n ,

v T do n o t 3"

occur i n Marathi words, but i n some

in combination w i t h other c h a r a c t e r s , language. are r e a l i s e d

S a n s k r i t loanwords u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y The t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s , vrf and

in reading

i n two w a y s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e word i n w h i c h t h e y o c c u r , and t h e vowels w i t h which t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d when w r i t t e n w i t h one of vowel a. signs. ^ as co , ^T as 3 ja , and as the

The p a l a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n ,

jha , i s made u s u a l l y i n r e a d i n g S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , when t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s have t h e s i g n s b. The a l v e o l a r r e a l i s a t i o n , as ^ as of t h e v o w e l s i \Jf as

and a l w a y s , ii or ay.

1^s ,

za , and ff characters

zha , i s made u s u a l l y i n o t h e r w o r d s , when t h e s e

98

MARATHI

SECTION

are a k a r , or when t h e y a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e s i g n s o f t h e v o w e l s a , u , uu , o c. or ev- -. e ,


1

When t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e s i g n o f t h e vow61 t h e p a l a t a l and a l v e o l a r r e a l i s a t i o n s o c c u r i n an a l m o s t e v e n

d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w o r d s , and e v e n may v a r y from t i m e t o t i m e w i t h changing conventions of speech. No c o m p r e h e n s i v e r u l e c a n be g i v e n f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s , h o w e v e r , and i n t h e r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s t h e p a l a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n s h o u l d b e made u n l e s s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a l v e o l a r isation i s given. The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a r y i n g r e a l i s a t i o n o f okar consonant c h a r a c t e r s a. in certain contexts: real

As t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r of a f o u r c h a r a c t e r word: ^rTF>^' dhamaka"!; , r e a l i s e d a s


x

dham'ka !;

b.

In a v e r b a l f o r m , t h e r e a l i s a t i o n c h a n g i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m ative particle or p a r t i c l e s added: tsod^h i^socjhet

tSTS , i^socjhe , v e r b a l b a s e , r e a l i s e d a s ^TcTfi tpod^hote , b a s e w i t h ^TS^^T

<f a d d e d , r e a l i s e d a s = ^

it6oc|hete1}S , b a s e w i t h r e a l i s e d as
p

, and e m p h a t i c p a r t i c l e , W

1is6^h ' t e ^ s .

Reading e x a m p l e s . 1 . One c h a r a c t e r w o r d s . words: TJ W <> 3 Four o f t h e v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r a s

1 . See b e l o w , i n t h i s c h a p t e r , 2 . i i . 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , s e e page 1 3 0 . The a l v e o l a r r e a l i s a t i o n o f c-vrg c h a r a c t e r s i s i n d i c a t e d by an a s t e r i s k .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY 2. Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l W\ W W characters r e a l i s e d with BTT T^cT zero-vowel. ^ ST*?

99

3. Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l q^r "TO^ T35W> *W&rt

characters r e a l i s e d with *r<5Hr *T^cT 5 ^

zero-vowel.

eRSfi

VsTfT

*vjTCcr

*3mS
zero-vowel,

1+.' Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h or w i t h an - g l i d e , f i n a l characters with zero-vowel.

T3wz
^ o f i ^

erqsFie

wjj?iz
*^5R^T

k w ^ z
*ZhW*iZ

'^qsRrT

*^^rcRrT

*fTeFR

ii.

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e n t o s t h group."*" The c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s group g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n a r e

w r i t t e n i n t h e Hindi s t y l e .

The M a r a t h i c h a r a c t e r s

are:

yo When t h e c h a r a c t e r s

ro and cf

lo

vo or m e d i a l l y consonants.

occur i n i t i a l l y ,

realised with a following vowel,

t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d as

When they occur m e d i a l l y i n p o s i t i o n s

i n w h i c h okar c o n s o n a n t or f i n a l l y , they are realis preceding

c h a r a c t e r s are r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

ed as s e m i - v o w e l s , f o r m i n g a d i p h t h o n g w i t h t h e v o w e l of t h e syllable. Examples:

yevon 1. See S a n s k r i t ,

vor Ch.2,l.ii.

bhoy

lov

lov'kor

ioo Reading examples"'" 1. One c h a r a c t e r word. o c c u r s a s a word. 2. ^"

MARATHI

SECTION

i s t h e o n l y c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s group w h i c h

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h

zero-vowel.

^5 <q?
3.

or vsz m as ^TcT
*xRcT

*rc ^ cPR
*^T<?T*

c*5*T
*^5r zero-vowel. T^rf
*c(^T

Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h

5T5c^ cFTO

<

^T

tT65H
ofTST

WT
*tt^

3 ^
*^s?f^

35R^5

h. Pour and f i v e c h a r a c t e r w o r d s . Second c h a r a c t e r i n f o u r w o r d s , or t h i r d c h a r a c t e r

character with zero-

in f i v e character words, r e a l i s e d

z e r o - v o w e l or w i t h an o - g l i d e ; f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h vowel.

^oToRT TfftZV]
iii.

opTTrT ^^cRcf TO^rf

ZlVtt *W?QZ
2

^3"cT

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e uusm g r o u p . The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s group g i v e n i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n a r e

w r i t t e n in the Hindi s t y l e .

The Marathi c h a r a c t e r s

are:

51
Jo

^
so

*T
so

f
ho

The c h a r a c t e r "Gf

o c c u r s o n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and when i s o f t e n r e a l i s e d as . Jo ,

r e a d i n g words i n common u s e i n M a r a t h i , i t except in formal r e a d i n g . 1. 2. Pinal f

i s usually r e a l i s e d with

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 0 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i .

CHARACTERS

O F T H E SYLLABARY

IC

Reading e x a m p l e s 1.

None of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

o f t h i s g r o u p o c c u r s a s a word. characters o .
$R W

2. Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l

r e a l i s e d with

zero-vowel,

or, in the l a s t three words, w i t h


TO *T5T ^ ^

5**

^e:

^TH

W
characters r e a l i s e d with

^
zero-vowel.

3 . Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l

sro*r
TO^

wm

*rc*r
*H^r

^F^rer

*^nr
character words.

h. Four and f i v e

Second c h a r a c t e r s ,

or c h a r a c t e r s or w i t h

i n d i c a t e d by numbers i n b r a c k e t s , and e - g l i d e ; WrT final characters


HTSre ^ T O C K J

r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel zero-vowel.

r e a l i s e d with

fR*T

3TcT"qe

" & V W trw*rw


L
? J

%*mz

*iw>m;zp

The l a s t c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

i n t h e Marathi s y l l a b a r y

is 2

o5" , -],Q , r e a l i s e d a s a r e t r o f l e x Examples of words w r i t t e n w i t h t h i s


Uo5 XFIOS "^["55" ^?TO5"

lateral character
* WOFOS

consonant with

^ 5 5 ^

oToStr

CJAFOS

tJoSH

*xT55cl55

^o5gR3"

**R\3TcT55 (2)

SfJoSlToSrT t2) * ^ o o ^ *

The two c h a r a c t e r s

$T and ^"

a r e o f t e n added a f t e r

55

in the con

Marathi s y l l a b a r y , b u t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , s i s t i n g of two c o n s e c u t i v e

representing syllables , do n o t later.^

c o n s o n a n t s w i t h t h e vowel and a r e d i s c u s s e d

'properly belong to the s y l l a b a r y ,

1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p a g e 1 3 0 . 2. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i , V e d i c c h a r a c t e r . 3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p a g e 1 3 0 . kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d as shown i n p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e s . h. See b e l o w , C h . 3 . Conjunct C h a r a c t e r s , C l a s s e s 2. and h.

102

M A R A T H I

S E C T I O N
1

2 . Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s . i. Vowel Characters. the

The vowel c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g Marathi a r e t h e same a s S a n s k r i t c h a r a c t e r s , u s i n g t h e Bombay forms where t h e s e d i f f e r


2

from

the Hindi f o r m s , and o m i t t i n g s y l l a b i c characters are u s u a l l y p l a c e d f i r s t of t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s

rr , 1

and

11 . The v o w e l The calligraphy

i n the vernomala.

i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the S a n s k r i t are: u uu e y

section.

The Marathi v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s a i ^? ii

v Sanskrit characters

The c h a r a c t e r

, syllabic

r , o c c u r s o n l y i n a few The v o w e l

loanwords, used mainly i n t h e l i t e r a r y language are r e f e r r e d to as akar , ikar , ukar

, and s o o n . okar c o n s o n a n t characters should

I n a l l r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s which f o l l o w ,

which o c c u r i n words h a v i n g vowel c h a r a c t e r s or v o w e l s i g n s be r e a l i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g e n e r a l r u l e s a l r e a d y g i v e n , s p e c i a l n o t e s are Reading examples-'. 1 . Vowel c h a r a c t e r s o n l y . $fl T J 3Tt 3TT^ added.

unless

2 . Vowel c h a r a c t e r s w i t h kar c o n s o n a n t
6T f$

characters.
%fi sffe affe

* 5 TF

"fc

3Tto5

<3tW

W*T

*^5r^r

35?r

^osi

sfcrsr

aftos^-

1.

The u s e of vowel c h a r a c t e r s and vowel s i g n s i s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e Sanskrit sect-ion, C h . 2 , 2 . i . 2. ibid. 2 . 2 . i . 3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p , 1 3 0 .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY ii. Vowel S i g n s . Vowel s i g n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o e a c h v o w e l c h a r a c t e r , are added t o t h e okar form of c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l vowels a to ov . except

103

to represent

c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by one o f t h e a r e shown h e r e added t o t h e c o n with

The v o w e l s i g n s

sonant c h a r a c t e r

of) . The o r d e r o f s t r o k e s i n w r i t i n g c h a r a c t e r s forms, are g i v e n in the Sanskrit

vowel s i g n s , and s p e c i a l

sectionl.

ka

ki

kii

ku

kuu

kr

ke

key

ko

kev of^TT,

In t h e t e a c h i n g of w r i t i n g i n s c h o o l s ,

the upright stroke

\3TT and <2rft , and of t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o w e l s i g n s , a s i n and o^* , i s r e f e r r e d t o a s obi HI r e f e r r i n g to the upright s t r o k e (kana).

oRT ,

This term i s a l s o used i n The d i a g o n a l and , and o f

i n any c h a r a c t e r . TT , oFvt" g vsfr


a r

superscribed strokes i n the c h a r a c t e r s t h e vowel s i g n s i n % J-|T5f"i as (matra). , ofe , oRt and

e r e f e r r e d t o as ^ are r e f e r r e d (d^avii to

The s i g n s of t h e v o w e l s ft>

and

%?5ft ( v e l a ^ i i ) , t h e s i g n i n 'left velan^ii')

being

^ T ^ t %c7ft"

velanJii,

and t h e s i g n i n

b e i n g ^vSTcft" %"c^t1*

(uzovii velanj;ii, t o as <e^U|

'right velanj;ii'). khuna.).

A l l the vowel s i g n s are r e f e r r e d

(khuun_, p l u r a l

In some modern Marathi p u b l i c a t i o n s new forms o f some of t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s a r e b e i n g u s e d , w i t h the c h a r a c t e r \3? , thus: f o r m e d b y w r i t i n g t h e vowel signs

%
i

3fr
ii

<f
u

3j;
uu

<3J
r

$
e

&
oy

1.

See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.2,2. i i .

Calligraphy.

104 Reading 1. examples


1

MARATHI

SECTION

One c h a r a c t e r w o r d s .

W ^
oBTq

ft

%
**fN"

*fr

TIT

2. Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s .

W
^t*T

fe
^noT ^>"^T ^"cT sft^

^fa
^

^
3fa UTrft %|

tc^
sfj

%rT
^ JJ?>

3 ^
^ ^

ofsfoT

f$T5J

4nrf
spg

*#^T
3TfooT

*n3> 3.

^Bfir words. %ft*r *^-ifrT ^oj^r

Three c h a r a c t e r w r a sR^tT ^frcTR"

^fcpfi

=ft^5T m i

%5>

t^s"

^\

*^tmt

-rt\S[

f^sFn^

%TPn~

f^r^flr

R e a l i s a t i o n of m e d i a l characters with vowel s i g n s

okar c h a r a c t e r s in various

i n words w h i c h have
2

positions. precedes with

a. When a m e d i a l o k a r c h a r a c t e r , a final

in a three c h a r a c t e r word, it

c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel s i g n , or w i t h an o - g l i d e , and

is usually realised and of as in TT^iY hav'^ii ^NTTT koy'ta form

zero-vowel,

diphthongs

w i t h t h e v o w e l of t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r s , ORl^Toft ar/khii 5T*lit Jeg'^ii >$T"*ft rej'mii *TT5F>tr bhak'rii IpSTT mul'ga ^oR^T chok'd^a ofJTW kay'da 3TcRT o^h'ra

1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s s e e p . 1 3 0 . 2. Compare t h e s e n o t e s w i t h n o t e s b . and c . above i n t h i s

chapter.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

ic

The r e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n words of f o u r or more c h a r a c t e r s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w . r e a l i s a t i o n v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n i n e a c h word of c h a r a c t e r s w i t h v o w e l s i g n s , and a k n o w l e d g e of t h e l a n g u a g e t h e o n l y r e l i a b l e g u i d e t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of s u c h w o r d s . Second c h a r a c t e r r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , ttrTcF^iJet'korii m^Tr^ bhan'god^ %c^^t^T vel'dod^a or w i t h an o - g l i d e : m w saa^'pataT, or w i t h an a - g l i d e : The the is

Third c h a r a c t e r r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

rrrwf^r
tabed/tob

*rfa<5c^r
mobad'la

*rrg^?fr
bhatuk'lii or w i t h an o - g l i d e :

Other c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

ttf^Fs^rr
palikad/tsa

-qw^nfr
por'van'gii

^T^TT^R
sem'zuut'dar

When a s u f f i x c o n s i s t i n g o f ,

or b e g i n n i n g w i t h , a c h a r a c t e r with

a vowel s i g n i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e e n d i n g i n an okar c o n s o n ant c h a r a c t e r , t h i s f i n a l or w i t h an a - g l i d e , character i s r e a l i s e d with examples: zero-vowel,

as in t h e s e

has

basat

bas-to

va\

va^ot

va^-tat

When such s u f f i x e s

a r e added t o v e r b a l b a s e s of t h r e e or more and p r e f i n a l a r e okar c o n s o n a n t

c h a r a c t e r s of which t h e f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r s , t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f a k a r c h a r a c t e r s v a r i e s i n t h e way i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w . Verbal b a s e of t h r e e characters:

semoz

sam*za

sam'zat

samaz-to

samaz-til

106

M A R A T H I

S E C T I O N

Verbal base of f o u r c h a r a c t e r s , fcTT^ST^ vir'gheT, Reading examples


1

second, f^-EToScT

t h i r d and f o u r t h "f^T^To5c5T vir'ghaT_-la

okar:

f ^ ^ c ^ T vir'gholuun

vir'ghel.ot

1. R e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a s i n n o t e a.

above.

^^NFTtfT.
^fe^vST

^HcTT oRT^fr

'$ 5 % *^3Ta^

>3WIT
ftf^^UT

W & h ^3TR
*g5R?ITxr

^qr^r
2.

^w^xcfc

fia^^rr

^ffe-snajoR

^ i ^ w
above, ^ 6 # $ 5

R e a l i s a t i o n of o k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a s i n n o t e b . ofioo-rr cfioScTt "TOTT WTcTTcT ^TT^^T

f%^T

fll^npt

ft^&OT

\3T^^To5rf

^TSWoScTTrT

R e a l i s a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s The t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s palatal or ii xjT ,

of t h e c o - v e r g w i t h v o w e l \xT and

signs. as i real

, are always r e a l i s e d of

c o n s o n a n t s when t h e y a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e v o w e l s i g n s , or w i t h any v o w e l s i g n i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s .

They a r e

i s e d more f r e q u e n t l y

a s a l v e o l a r c o n s o n a n t s when w r i t t e n w i t h

other or

vowel s i g n s . When w r i t t e n w i t h t h e vowel s i g n o f

e , the a l v e o l a r to

p a l a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n may v a r y from t i m e t o t i m e and from d i s t r i c t district. The r e a l i s a t i o n of these c h a r a c t e r s as a l v e o l a r is i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e or a s

pal

a t a l consonants

in various contexts

examples of

given below, but the only r e l i a b l e

guide for reading the majority

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p.131. 2 . See a b o v e , n o t e on t h e v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s ,

in

l.i.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

10

words i n which t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r i s a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l a n g u a g e , a. P a l a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n w i t h t h e v o w e l s i g n s o f i , ii:

cikot

ciid^

bhacii

jii

bhajii

majhii

h. P a l a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n i n S a n s k r i t and Hindi l o a n w o r d s , and o t h e r s , w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g vowel signs:

3txT
vac on niic colon ceyn ceha car cehera cuup

kocora

jen

me j a

ujeq

juva

jeven_

jhela

c. A l v e o l a r r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , s i g n e x c e p t t h o s e of i , ii or ey :

o k a r , or w i t h any vowel

^>ft
tsot'nii
KJ

WR tsar
,
%J

W*TWT tsom'tsa
Kf %J

^
tsuuk titse
KJ

dfft
tsor
<J <J

^cfi

tsevk

fa I

^ft
ZQT[

^r^t
vezon

"OT^r
semez zhad^ zaga

.
"bazuu mazhe zhucjuup

^rte
vazel

%r
zor zhop

zhofken^

The emphatic p a r t i c l e

tT , w r i t t e n a s t h e f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r of a The words and jhiiz and 35

word, i s always r e a l i s e d a s an a l v e o l a r c o n s o n a n t . -oftvji and "SffaT


a r e

r e a l i s e d r e s p e c t i v e l y as ^ and 3 ('short'

ciiz

The vowel c h a r a c t e r s

vowels)

and j

( ' l o n g ' v o w e l s ) , and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o w e l s i g n s , a r e w r i t t e n i n Marathi words a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n r u l e s o f o r t h o g r a p h y . These

r u l e s i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r t h o g r a p h y of t h e m o d i f i e r known a s

108

MARATHI

SECTION statement of Marathi

t h e a n u s v a r ! , and a r e t h e r e f o r e g i v e n i n t h e f u l l r u l e s of O r t h o g r a p h y , 3. Modifiers. after the m o d i f i e r s

have b e e n

discussed.

Both t h e m o d i f i e r s

o c c u r r i n g i n S a n s k r i t are u s e d i n of them d i f f e r s from t h e

writing realisation

Marathi,, though t h e r e a l i s a t i o n in reading Sanskrit.


2

1.

onusvar.^ The a n u s v a r i s a l w a y s w r i t t e n i n Marathi i n t h e form o f a d o t thus:


*

p l a c e d above a c h a r a c t e r ,

<3T
or rj

m
am iar crj

t
im iirrj

3
ur ij

T
er rj or rj

5R
karrj

SET
kiirj

#
kiirrj

f
kurrj kerrj korrj

The o n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n t o t h e r i g h t sign. The o r d e r o f s t r o k e s

s i d e of a s u p e r s c r i b e d

vowel signs Sanskrit

i n w r i t i n g c h a r a c t e r s w i t h vowel in the

and t h e o n u s v a r i s section.

g i v e n i n t h e n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y

The o n u s v a r i s r e a l i s e d i n M a r a t h i a s a. The o n u s v a r , is s t i l l originally

follows: of a v o w e l , are

a mark i n d i c a t i n g n a s a l i s a t i o n

w r i t t e n i n many Marathi words i n w h i c h t h e v o w e l s i n s t a n d a r d modern s p e e c h . in reading, though i t

not n a s a l i s e d is disregarded

The o n u s v a r i n s u c h words written either of to

is s t i l l

show t h e e t y m o l o g y of a word, t o p r e s e r v e a d i s t i n c t i o n i n p a i r s of words i n w h i c h one h a s a vowel w h i c h was nasalised, or t o e x p r e s s g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

meaning

originally Characters

1. See b e l o w .

3. i .

2.

See S a n s k r i t , C h , 2 . 3 . i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY w r i t t e n with the onusvar a r e , however, s t i l l i s a t i o n of t h e v o w e l i n Konkani s p e e c h l . i l l u s t r a t e some of t h e c o n t e x t s hut n o t r e a l i s e d i n r e a d i n g . Words:
"SBTiff

109

r e a l i s e d with n a s a l examples written

The f o l l o w i n g

i n which t h e a n u s v a r i s

#5T
dat gohuu pots

tuu P a i r s of w o r d s :

to

kii

kahii
TO

TO
2 nav^ Grammatical f o r m s : he
^Tctt wfa g^T^f

nav^

pats^

pats5

#
tii bas-to
*l^t#

bol-te
^ ^ f f

kor-uu
^r^r

ye-ta

baget

mulane

mulanii character

mulajii i s never

ghorii realised,

An onusvar p l a c e d on a f i n a l

e x c e p t i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s i n modern Marathi w r i t i n g i n w h i c h a d a p t a t i o n s of t h e s c r i p t a r e made i n o r d e r t o r e p r e s e n t


c

collo-

q u i a l forms of s p e e c h , a s i n drama and d i a l o g u e h.

. onusvar

In many w o r d s , i n c l u d i n g m o s t S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , t h e w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g one of t h e v o r g i i y

characters

i s r e a l i s e d as t h e n a s a l c o n s o n a n t o f t h e same c l a s s a s t h e consonant r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r , b e f o r e a c h a r a c t e r of t h e c o - v a r g . as a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t b e f o r e a f i n a l or a s n realised

When t h e anusvar i s akar c o n s o n a n t

character, spoken

1. The v a r i e t y of Marathi s p e e c h known a s 'Konkani s t a n d a r d ' i s on t h e c o a s t a l s t r i p s o u t h o f Bombay, t h e Konkan (korrjkori). 2. 'boat'. 3 . 'name'. U. ' e m e r a l d ' . 5. ' f i v e ' . 6. See b e l o w , Marathi r u l e s o f o r t h o g r a p h y . 7. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . n o t e b .

no

MARATHI

SECTION
1

the f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d w i t h an - g l i d e .

This

realis

a t i o n o f t h e nusvar i s i l l u s t r a t e d hy t h e f o l l o w i n g

examples:

t*r
rang

^
unts

vsMtr
njiir

zz
unj;

f*m
bhint

flttft
Jimpii

^
themb

As i n S a n s k r i t ,

t h e r e i s . an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f

representing T h i s method i s p .

nasal consonants preceding v o r g i i y characters. described l a t e r , When s u f f i x e s

i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

a r e added t o p l u r a l nouns and p r o n o u n s , t h e a n u s v a r This onusvar ,

i s w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g t h e s u f f i x . i s r e a l i s e d as n before

t h e v a r i o u s forms o f t h e s u f f i x the s u f f i x e s
7*?HT

and o f t e n r e a l i s e d b e f o r e

"ft

and

"$?T e . g .

r*TRT
tyan-1^sa^ c.

c*?Hfr

rm^f
tyan-nii

mtff
tyan-Jii

tyan-cii

tyan-na

When t h e o n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g one o f t h e o n t o s t h or uusm c h a r a c t e r s , as i n Sanskrit loanwords, mostly in

l e a r n e d words u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e , various ways.

it is realised

Among t h e ways o f r e a l i s i n g t h e o n u s v a r i n s u c h practice

words, g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n ^ - , the u s u a l Marathi i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g onusvar b e f o r e onusvar b e f o r e T f , r e a l i s e d as c^> r e a l i s e d a s examples: y , as in 1 , as i n Hc/^M

sayyog sollogh
5

o n u s v a r b e f o r e o t h e r o n t o s t h and uusm c h a r a c t e r s , savreksoi]^ 1. kivva vj" hivsa

r e a l i s e d as v . sivh

mavs

See b e l o w , C h . 3 , 2 . 2 . ibid., 3.Class i i . 3 . The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s e w o r d s i s <T combined w i t h Z" . S e e Ch. 3 * 3 * CI. 3 . J 2+. S e e S a n s k r i t ,Ch. 2 , 3 . i . n o t e c . 5 . The l a s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s word i s " T combined w i t h ^ . See Ch. 3 , 3 . CI. 2 . i i i . * 6 . The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s 3 5 combined w i t h ^ . S e e C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 4 . i . b .
N s

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY In some e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t s t h e c h a r a c t e r "7 6


s

u is in-

s e r t e d b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e o n u s v a r and a f o l l o w i n g o n t o s t h or uusm c h a r a c t e r , f o r m i n g a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r w i t h i t ; e.g. d. Ho^R > sovhar , Rjo^ , sivh , ^o^gJTJr , sevrokson, .

The onusvar i s r e a l i s e d a s n a s a l i s a t i o n o f a v o w e l i n a few e x c l a m a t i o n s ; e . g . n3^" , o , v J ^ nil ; and i n t h e number word

^T?fr
ii.

, oyjii.

visorg. This m o d i f i e r i s described in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n . I t occurs


1

It is

rarely

used in w r i t i n g Marathi.

i n a f e w S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and t o i n d i c a t e p r o l o n g a t i o n or character in Sanskrit loan

i s sometimes w r i t t e n w i t h e x c l a m a t i o n s ,

s t r e s s . When i t i s w r i t t e n w i t h t h e f i n a l words, i t i s r e a l i s e d a s words: h

f o l l o w e d by the vowel
2

a , as in these .

"^T: , punha, " p T f , s v e t a h a , io^:

f c ^ Qij^T:

, vi/es'toha

When the v i s o r g o c c u r s m e d i a l l y i n a w o r d , i t i s r e a l i s e d e i t h e r a s the d o u b l i n g o f t h e c o n s o n a n t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w h i c h f o l l o w s i t , or as a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r t h e v o w e l o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h which i t i s written; e.g. c^:^ dukkh, \3TcT:^F5T^T > antohkorer; . i t usually represents

When the v i s o r g i s w r i t t e n a f t e r e x c l a m a t i o n s ,

a p r o l o n g a t i o n of t h e v o w e l , o r a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r t h e v o w e l , a s i n t h e s e words: v y , u u . . . , o r uuh ; fs j. , cheh ; cfT,, vah .

1.

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i i . 2 . The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s word is combined w i t h of S e e Ch. 2 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i .

I I 2

MARATHI U. The Complete Syllabary.

SECTION

The arrangement o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s of t h e Marathi s y l l a b a r y i n traditional order i s s i m i l a r to that given in the S a n s k r i t ^ , ^

the
1

section,

o m i t t i n g the vowel c h a r a c t e r s 'Bombay' f o r m s .

and c , and u s i n g o n l y t h e (except the * ), R

The t a b l e i n w h i c h t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s

and t h e m o d i f i e r s added t o t h e c h a r a c t e r

\3Ff , a r e p l a c e d a t

head of a s e r i e s of c o l u m n s c o n s i s t i n g o f e v e r y c o n s o n a n t

character

i n t h e okar f o r m , w i t h e a c h o f t h e vowel s i g n s and e a c h of t h e m o d i fiers, i s c a l l e d i n M a r a t h i the

TRl rCl

>

barakhoc^ii, t h e

'twelve learn

characters'. ing to read.

T h i s t a b l e i s o f t e n r e c i t e d i n s c h o o l s by c h i l d r e n

These two t a b l e s show t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r s p l a c e d as i n i t i a l

are the given illustrat

c h a r a c t e r s o f words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s , w h i c h i s e x c e p t t h a t no s p e c i a l p l a c e i s This d i f f e r e n c e in order i s

same a s t h e o r d e r i n S a n s k r i t , to characters with the onusvar. ed by t h e f o l l o w i n g Sanskrit: a Marathi: 5. a ai ai series: arrjyo ak arrjj" arrjk

arrjh akh

ak

akh . . ay arrjy arrjj" . .

arrjkh . . .

Numerals. the

The n u m e r a l s u s e d i n M a r a t h i a r e t h e 'Bombay' forms g i v e n i n p Sanskrit 6. section.

Punctuation. t h e same s y s t e m o f p u n c t u a t i o n i s u s e d a s in the

In prose w r i t i n g , English prose. Sanskrit

The s y s t e m u s e d i n Marathi v e r s e i s t h e same a s

system.^

1.

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , i + .

2 . ibid. , 5 .

3. ibid. , 6 .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY Rules of Marathi Orthography. the j" and the

113

The r u l e s of Marathi o r t h o g r a p h y c o n c e r n t h e w r i t i n g of vowels and 3 ( ^fT*T h r a s v , or ' l o n g ' , or 'short'


1

vowels)

and

, diirgh

vowels) ;

and t h e w r i t i n g o f forms. Some of t h e

onusvar i n c e r t a i n words and i n g r a m m a t i c a l itional r u l e s are b e i n g m o d i f i e d

trad

i n modern Marathi w r i t i n g ,

new r u l e s Society Some

h a v i n g b e e n p r e s c r i b e d i n 1932 b y t h e M a h a r a s h t r a L i t e r a t u r e ( *T!TTn| Tnf^r^T "*rfWT

meharastro sahityo porisod ) .

of t h e s e r u l e s have become w i d e l y a c c e p t e d . stated f i r s t modifications i. a. i n terms of 'standard'

The r u l e s g i v e n below a r e f o l l o w e d by t h e Society.


2

orthography,

recommended by t h e M a h a r a s h t r a L i t e r a t u r e ?[ , and

R u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w r i t i n g of The ' l o n g ' vowel c h a r a c t e r s position; ^Tla e.g. Hlool ^frf^T such a s The v o w e l s of t h e ing ' f i n a l '
^o^lcM

3" > 3r>

and v o w e l s i g n s a r e w r i t t e n i n a f i n a l

baii

malii ani, and some S a n s k r i t guru

bhauu

W\> t s a k u u

Exceptions:

loanwords,

oftfcj k a v i

'crude form'

of nouns f o l l o w the

this rule

regard e.g.

characters before

a d d i t i o n of s u f f i x e s ;

mulii-la

ohoH-^l

kavii-tsa 'short'

^J'^f

guruu-ne tula

Pronouns are w r i t t e n w i t h t h e b. The ' l o n g ' vowel c h a r a c t e r s p o s i t i o n immediately b e f o r e h tiik \5fT^o5 z a i i l

v o w e l s : fclcrtl t i l a , "^c^ST

and v o w e l s i g n s a r e w r i t t e n i n a m e d i a l a final *|c?> okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ; muul "^B*T gheuun e.g.

1. 2.

See a b o v e , C h . l . These r u l e s a p p l y t o t h e v o w e l s i g n s vowel c h a r a c t e r s .

corresponding with

the

ii4

M A R A T H I

S E C T I O N

E x c e p t i o n s : The ' s h o r t ' words, e . g . I^rt , hit ,

v o w e l s a r e w r i t t e n i n some S a n s k r i t > purus ;

loan

when t h e y o c c u r w i t h as in conjunct

the onusvar b e f o r e a f i n a l bhint, character ,


1

ekar consonant c h a r a c t e r ,

, unts as i n

; o r when t h e y o c c u r b e f o r e a f i n a l , citr ,
2

monusy^. The S a n s k r i t

o r t h o g r a p h y i s p r e s e r v e d i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s s u c h a s *JT^t muurkh^, and c. In a l l cft"5T , tiivr . or f o l l o w e d by any f i n a l c h a r a c t e r the except e.g.


2

other p o s i t i o n s ,

an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,

' s h o r t ' vowels are w r i t t e n ;

1*<ft
kitii

firs*
tik'd'e

gsRsr
tuk'^a vihiir

f^r%%(crude form, vihirii-) bhiiti.

E x c e p t i o n s : Some S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e . g. TJ^J , p u u j a , "vftfff ii. a. Rules c o n c e r n i n g t h e onusvar w r i t t e n i n grammatical All neuter forms, s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l , e n d i n g - i n Tf forms.5 ,

| or

a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e o n u s v a r on t h e s e f i n a l v o w e l s ;

e.g.

he

tii sftif

lug'a^ii ^rf

ker'cjuu

mule 5TT5 zhale ^

bhanj^e W% yave

mo^he Exceptions:

thoc|ii

poc[*te
U

kelii

c*|uf| , l o n i i

and H I D

, panii

. The word ^T^* ,

gehuu , i s m a s c u l i n e

plural. , i n t h e n e u t e r forms of T h i s change alone,

I n modern Marathi s p e e c h , t h e vowel words, i s o f t e n r e a l i s e d as

o , i n informal speech.

of s p o k e n form i s o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d by w r i t i n g t h e o n u s v a r

1. L.

See b e l o w , C h . 3 . 2.ibid. 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i i . b . 3 . i b i d . Class 3 . i . ibid.Class 3 i i i . a . 5. The o n u s v a r i n n o t u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d i n g r a m m a t i c a l forms,* e x c e p t i n t h e c o n t e x t g i v e n b e l o w i n b .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY as, for instance, i n t h e d i a l o g u e o f n o v e l s o r dramas; e . g . ltf zhale b. zhalo bhancje *Ttt bhan^o 5ft bore 5R baro

The onusvar i s w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r w h i c h h a s t h e v o w e l o f the ' c r u d e form' of words t o w h i c h t h e s u f f i x singular, and b e f o r e a l l s u f f i x e s rT i s a d d e d , e.g.


1

in the

i n the p l u r a l ,

ghora-t

bage-t

kholii-t

man/sa-huun

mula-nii form'

The onusvar w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r of words b e f o r e as c.

r e p r e s e n t i n g the 'crude
Tiff

the a d d i t i o n of t h e s u f f i x suffixes .
2

i s always

realised

n , and o f t e n b e f o r e o t h e r

The onusvar i s w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r s suffixes; final e.g. e.g. , ^ , $\ , ^

representing and

certain

\3^T ; and on t h e 5 , * ^
a n d

c h a r a c t e r of p a r t i c l e s

ending in

vT , 3T

>

TRf

mage, cf)^" koa"e

p u d h e , ^c"

< | *T

khalii

v3fl"cft

ta .

Exception: Suffixes of

and p a r t i c l e s

ending

i n a c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e vowel

sign

M a r e o f t e n spoken i n modern M a r a t h i w i t h f i n a l " o f dramas or n o v e l s ,

o . When the f i n a l

t h e s e forms o c c u r i n t h e d i a l o g u e

character i s often w r i t t e n w i t h the onusvar a l o n e , matra, a s i n


XJcf

omitting the mage , t h e forms o f oR% >

, pucjhe

Xi5

, pua"he ,

IfRf

*TT"*T , mago . T h i s u s e o f t h e o n u s v a r t o r e p r e s e n t colloquial

speech i s sometimes e x t e n d e d t o the p a r t i c l e in "3)*T e . g . , tik'd^uun ef",^" ,

and t o some p a r t i c l e s tTTTFT p a s ' n o 1. ,

kod" , TTSJ^f , pasuun , fecR^ tiked/no .

f^cfi^T

The mark of n a s a l i s a t i o n i s p a r t o f t h e s u f f i x , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s the word OTTrT , S t . The i n i t i a l v o w e l o f t h i s word c o a l e s c e s w i t h the vowel of t h e crude form o f t h e noun t o w h i c h i t i s added a s a suffix. 2 . See a b o v e , 3 . M o d i f i e r s , i . b .

n6 d.

MARATHI

SECTION added t o v e r b a l bases:

The a n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on c e r t a i n s u f f i x e s 1st. p e r s o n s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l :


rf

elf - t o

-te

^ -ii \3Tf^"
a h

-e
e

3F> - u u > 3TT^f >


a h o

-lo .
a n d

^5" - l e

and t h e v e r b a l f o r m s 2nd. p e r s o n p l u r a l : and t h e v e r b a l f o r m s

Tl^f > ^
a

nahii

eff , t a

>3fl" , a , and 'TT^f ,

off nahii

^ T ^ f > aha , and if^

3 r d . p e r s o n s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l :

n a h i i and

""(CTh n a h i i t variable

and a l l n e u t e r f o r m s w h i c h change i n t h e same way a s adjectives. Suffixes w h i c h a r e added t o form v e r b a l , particles: ^ , re r[ )

cTT t
e.

ta

clMI >

tana

, "T O

, uu , and

(sometimes

w r i t t e n in d i a l o g u e as

and r e a l i s e d a s

The o n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on c e r t a i n forms o f t h e p e r s o n a l when t h e y s t a n d i n t h e same g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p words a s nouns and p r o n o u n s w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e and ofitofi, ^ff . e.g. kon.il . iff , mii s33""X"st , a m h i i
1

pronouns, other

to

suffixes , tumhii ,
1

cj^lft

1.

The c h a r a c t e r

represents

mho

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY R u l e s o f Orthography o f t h e M a h a r a s h t r a L i t e r a t u r e The m o d i f i c a t i o n of the r u l e s Society.

117

o f s t a n d a r d o r t h o g r a p h y recommend

ed hy t h e Maharashtra L i t e r a t u r e the w r i t i n g of t h e o n u s v a r . pamphlet ^jTc^T f H I ^ 1 %


s

S o c i e t y are mainly concerned with are stated i n the Society's ( J u d d h o l e k h o n a t s e nove niyom) of the

The r u l e s f^flJIT

p u b l i s h e d i n Poona i n 1 9 3 6 . The m o s t i m p o r t a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s s t a n d a r d r u l e s g i v e n above a r e t h e s e : a. I f t h e onusvar u s u a l l y w r i t t e n on c e r t a i n words ( t h a t suffixes or p a r t i c l e s ) i s not realised

i s , not speech,

i n modern Marathi

i t should not be w r i t t e n , u n l e s s

i t i s c o n s i d e r e d important t o i t i s t h e o n l y means o f

show t h e e t y m o l o g y o f t h e w o r d , o r u n l e s s

d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i n meaning b e t w e e n p a i r s o f w o r d s , a s g i v e n above i n 3 i . n o t e a. b. The onusvar u s u a l l y w r i t t e n on t h e s u f f i x e s the p a r t i c l e s g i v e n above i n r u l e ~f


a n (

on

i i . c . should be omitted, e . g .

go3T%
mulane

g^T^fr
mulanii

Wfc^
khalii

*TFT
mage

OTT TCT
ata colloquial

The onusvar i s , h o w e v e r , s t i l l forms such a s t h o s e g i v e n a b o v e c.

written to represent i n i i . a . and c . 5flf

The onusvar u s u a l l y w r i t t e n on t h e word be w r i t t e n o n l y when t h i s v e r b a l s i n g u l a r or p l u r a l , on t h e p l u r a l form

> nahii

, should person,

form r e f e r s t o t h e f i r s t

and t h e s e c o n d p e r s o n p l u r a l ; TTfafcT > nahiit

and t h e o n u s v a r

, should be omitted. cfitsfT >

d.

The onusvar w r i t t e n on t h e f i n a l kahii , should be o m i t t e d , o^i ^ | .

c h a r a c t e r o f t h e wo.rd

C H A P T E R CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Consonant c h a r a c t e r s may be combined t o r e p r e s e n t

two or more vowel.

c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h a r e t o be r e a l i s e d w i t h o u t an i n t e r v e n i n g C h a r a c t e r s formed i n t h i s way a r e c a l l e d by Marathi g r a m m a r i a n s , writing in s c h o o l s . or ^t^T'!^ ^SJrFTTSflT

(soyyuktaksor) of

(zoa^aksor)

in the teaching of

The c o n s t r u c t i o n and c a l l i g r a p h y i n the Sanskrit

conjunct used the


p

characters

is described

s e c t i o n ^ , but the s t y l e

i n w r i t i n g Marathi c o r r e s p o n d s , style of the Bombay c h a r a c t e r s

in the conjunct c h a r a c t e r s , with given in the t a b l e s in t h i s

section

The Marathi c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s same c l a s s e s a s t h e S a n s k r i t c o n j u n c t 1. characters.^ i n Marathi.

chapter in

the

C o n t e x t s of C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s i.

o c c u r i n Marathi i n t h e s e

contexts: or

I n Marathi w o r d s , t h a t

i s , words n o t borrowed from S a n s k r i t e.g.

from t h e modern l a n g u a g e s ;

djiobbuu

ghod.yaT,

vhava

ii.

In S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e i t h e r Words u s e d commonly i n M a r a t h i , l e a r n e d words u s e d nly i n t h e l i t e r a r y language; e.g.

or

pustok

potr 2.

iijvor See a b o v e , C h . 2 . i - iii.

1.
3.

See S a n s k r i t ,
See Sanskrit,

Ch.3l
Ch.3/3

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS iii. In loanwords from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ; e.g.

119

s-fejen
2. R e a l i s a t i o n of C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s i n M a r a t h i . Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n r e a d i n g a s s y l l a b l e s consist

i n g of two or more c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by a v o w e l . When an okar c o n junct c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e f i n a l r e a l i s e d w i t h an o - g l i d e , c h a r a c t e r of a w o r d , i t i s , p h e k t ' , $|| ^sj /astr'.


1

usually

as i n " ^ T T T

The r e a l i s a t i o n i n modern M a r a t h i of okar c h a r a c t e r s w i t h vowel i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s ing.


2

zerospell

i n words g i v e s r i s e t o a p r o b l e m of

For i n s t a n c e , when a f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n okar real

sonant c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e e n d i n g i n a f i n a l consonant c h a r a c t e r , ised with zero-vowel. the f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e i s u s u a l l y of the c o n s e c u t i v e

This r e a l i s a t i o n

characters

i s s i m i l a r to the r e a l i s a t i o n of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r .

Similar prob is and

lems a r i s e i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s , w h e r e an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel before a f o l l o w i n g consonant c h a r a c t e r , i n compound words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t

p a r t e n d s i n an kar c o n s o n a n t character. conjunct

c h a r a c t e r , and the s e c o n d p a r t b e g i n s w i t h a c o n s o n a n t

Examples of such words a r e g i v e n b e l o w w i t h e a c h c l a s s of characters. 3. C l a s s e s of Conjunct C h a r a c t e r s Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s of a l l in Marathi.

the c l a s s e s given in the

Sanskrit

s e c t i o n ^ occur i n M a r a t h i , b u t i n some o f t h e c l a s s e s o n l y a few of the c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r . Those w h i c h a r e u s e d i n w r i t i n g Marathi are

1. This g l i d e i s not r e p r e s e n t e d i n t r a n s c r i b i n g words t o w h i c h this rule applies. 2. See Ch.2,1. n o t e s a. and b . 3. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.3,3-

120

MARATHI

SECTION

shown, hy e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n e a c h c l a s s , w h i c h i n c l u d e some S a n s k r i t loanwords f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n Marathi. More r a r e l y u s e d l o a n w o r d s , examples

w h i c h may o c c u r i n l i t e r a r y M a r a t h i , a r e i n c l u d e d among t h e given w i t h each c l a s s C l a s s 1. in the Sanskrit section.

Two s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s

joined. occurring in Sanskrit is of

The s e r i e s of c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s given in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .


1

Most of t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s The c h a r a c t e r

the Marathi s y l l a b a r y o c c u r i n t h i s c l a s s . -rro is written

representing r

, the superscribed stroke consonant .


2

representing

preceding another

A c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g an a s p i r a t e d c o n s o n a n t i s n o t w r i t t e n as t h e f i r s t

usually but
a r e

p a r t of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s c l a s s ; <o^o( -nno , khkho and and ^ are , t t


n n s

i n Marathi w r i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s sometimes u s e d . The c o m b i n a t i o n s

-mmo

represented

i n some words by w r i t i n g t h e o n u s v a r o v e r t h e c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g "Cf or . e.g.

^WfcT or ^f-CTff^
semmoti but

TRcT
gemmot

or
sonnidhi but

^
nn

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e Marathi words i n w h i c h c o n s e c u t i v e consonant c h a r a c t e r s , t h e f i r s t b e i n g kar, a r e r e a l i s e d characters: in

o r d i n a r y s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

^F^TT
anna

^T^Pf
an^-ne-^

fo^T
killa

%Sc^T
bol-la^

STTTT
cjsgga

SfTWft
ag'gadii^

1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s , C l a s s 1. 2 . See b e l o w , C l a s s 3* i i i . a * 3 . Verbal f o r m s . U. Compound word.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS Reading e x a m p l e s .


1

12

iff

^1
S J ^ v T

f%FR ^XXM

T^fr
3Sf

^nnujor
ft

"TTTT
f l f f

3?3TFT
^ T o ^ T

T|T
W W

5 ^
t | ^ T

Class 2 . Two v s r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s

joined. i n t h i s c l a s s which o c c u r
2

The f u l l s e r i e s of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s in Sanskrit i s given in the S a n s k r i t

section .

The c h a r a c t e r s of

this

c l a s s which occur i n M a r a t h i , m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , are g i v e n below. Some of t h e examples g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n may o c c u r texts,

as loanwords i n Marathi l i t e r a r y i. c5Fv -kto -tko

-gdo

-dg

-gdh

-dgh

FT
-tpo ii. -pto
-aba -bd
- b j

Most of the c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n u n d e r i i . a .

in the Sanskrit

section conson
3

occur i n l i t e r a r y M a r a t h i , r e p r e s e n t i n g homorganic n a s a l

a n t s ; but t h e method of r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e c o n s o n a n t s by w r i t i n g the onusvar on t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s more o f t e n U s e d . The word ^^T^cf, d e h a n t , 'death', a learned Sanskrit loanword, it

i s w r i t t e n w i t h t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r , which d i s t i n g u i s h e s from the word w i t h a Marathi suffix,^"^TRT, dehat,

' i n the body'. ii.b. i s not

Among the c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n under only JJ , jno , and J" , -tn occur i n Marathi. |T

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 1 . 2 . See S a n s k r i t ,Ch. 3 , 3 . C i . 2 . The numbers i . - i v . c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . 3- S e e a b o v e , C h . 2 , 3 . i . nusvar.

122 calligraphically

MARATHI

SECTION and i t is often included placed

a conjunct character,

i n t h e v o r n o m a l a . Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h last iii. i n Marathi dictionaries. occur in Sanskrit

jj a r e u s u a l l y j

These c h a r a c t e r s *FT -kmo -gne

loanwords:

^
-ghno -tmo -dma

V
-pno in Sanskrit

iv.

Only two c h a r a c t e r s loanwords: ^*

o f t h i s group o c c u r i n M a r a t h i , and 5 ^ , -nmo .

, -nmo

The e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e words i n w h i c h consonant c h a r a c t e r s ,

consecutive ordinary

t h e f i r s t b e i n g o k a r , are r e a l i s e d i n characters:

s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

Jok-tii o Reading e x a m p l e s ^

Jokti

gupt

kap-to

/obd

ub'dar

C l a s s 3 C h a r a c t e r s i. Characters

joined with ontosth

characters.

j o i n e d w i t h f o l l o w i n g TJf . Sanskrit ex

The s e r i e s of c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s c l a s s i s g i v e n i n t h e

s e c t i o n ^ . A l l t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s of t h e Marathi s y l l a b a r y , cept ^* , no and ^ , no , o c c u r i n t h i s c l a s s ,

t h o u g h some o c c u r

only in S a n s k r i t loanwords.

Many of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r i n Marathi

1 . Verbal f o r m s . 3 . See S a n s k r i t ,

2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e Ch.3,3.CI.3.i.

p.131.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS a s a r e s u l t of c e r t a i n g r a m m a t i c a l p r o c e s s e s . sometimes w r i t t e n w i t h c h a r a c t e r s vowel sound in words s u c h a s Reading e x a m p l e s


1

123

E n g l i s h loanwords a r e XJ[ , t o r e p r e s e n t t h e cpipT 'camp'.

joined with

olfoT)

, 'Dank' and

YTSFZT

^ZTT^T

^ f t s ^

Ri#mi

tfts^TFf^TToZjTH

6TVZTT-cr oZTT^TPT

tuijTc^T STq"^

T^ZT

TJ^f *f^*T

ii. Characters j o i n e d w i t h f o l l o w i n g

of . in t h i s s e r i e s , g i v e n in

Only a few of t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s p the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n

, o c c u r in M a r a t h i , most o f w h i c h o c c u r i n l o a n

words. The c h a r a c t e r s which o c c u r i n M a r a t h i w o r d s , and i n some l o a n words i n common u s e , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d Marathi words a r e w r i t t e n w i t h The r e a l i s a t i o n o f a f i n a l i n t h e examples g i v e n below. .

o^" , S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s w i t h

o k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i n some words
qi<fy\

which form compounds w i t h t h e words

, vala

, o r qT"T

, var ,

i l l u s t r a t e s the r e a l i s a t i o n of c o n s e c u t i v e consonant when t h e f i r s t For example: pokvann cjak'vala dhvoni i s o k a r , in t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

characters, characters.

budh'var

1.

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

see

p.131.

2.

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i .

124 Reading examples


v
1

MARATHI

SECTION

^f^cT

3qTft

^TTc^T

^r*q~r^r

^RcT:

iii. a.

Characters

joined with preceding character. series

or w i t h f o l l o w i n g "J "f

preceding another The c h a r a c t e r s

in this

are given in the Sanskrit

s e c t i o n2

These c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s \' 7T , reph as t h e f i r s t


T

a r e formed "by p l a c i n g t h e s t r o k e 1[ i s t o be

called realised this

, above t h e c h a r a c t e r b e f o r e w h i c h o f two o r more c o n s e c u t i v e

consonants.

The p l a c e o f

s t r o k e on t h e v a r i o u s i s given in the notes characters

c h a r a c t e r s , w h e t h e r kar or w i t h v o w e l on c a l l i g r a p h y in the Sanskrit section.

signs, These

occur i n Marathi words, i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s ,

and i n loan

words from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s .

C h a r a c t e r s a r e n o t u s u a l l y d o u b l e d when though i n the w r i t i n g of Sanskrit

w r i t t e n w i t h r e p h i n Marathi w o r d s , d o u b l i n g may s o m e t i m e s o c c u r . are i l l u s t r a t e d

The c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h o c c u r i n Marathi

i n t h e r e a d i n g examples given below. the r e a l i s a t i o n of , with to the

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e zero-vowel, realisation

f o l l o w e d by another consonant c h a r a c t e r , o f reph w r i t t e n above a c o n s o n a n t

similar

character:

korta

kor-ta^

orpon^

sor'pen^

tark

par'kar

1.

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

see

p.131.

2 . See S a n s k r i t , 3 . Verbal f o r m .

Ch.3.3. , Class

3iii.a.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS A s p e c i a l form of r e p h i s w r i t t e n <f q with or i n Marathi w o r d s . to represent preceding sometimes

125

T h i s f o r m of reph i s

written this reph

^T i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , "but i t -

i s not usual to write examples i l l u s t r a t e

form i n a S a n s k r i t text"'". w r i t t e n i n t h i s form w i t h

The f o l l o w i n g ]T :

torha

korhacja

girhaiik

rhosv^ to

The w r i t i n g of reph i n t h i s form w i t h Marathi words i n which t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f grammatical p r o c e s s e s . superscribed reph. e.g.

is usually restricted ^ and arises

from the

Other w o r d s a r e u s u a l l y w r i t t e n w i t h

suury^ The word suffixes sSTT^ 1^1

suurya-^"

dus'ra

dus'rya-^ adding of the

> when c h a n g e d t o t h e

'crude form', b e f o r e 'crude form' reph: ^Tf-^F^Tacarya-^"

or p a r t i c l e s ,

i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e i n t h e w r i t i n g of -34MI$)
4

word vSTp^TTlt by t h i s d i f f e r e n c e ^-^T^rfacary-' Reading examples 7 cpfe acarya-*

acarii^

Wr

*$Jji

&F$t*

c#rJ

-mi

srsftc-r
v$

orSc^
mffidb

^r^rf
rfr tp?

<sp?w
rih" ^

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i i . a . 2. Sanskrit ' h r e s v e ' . 3. S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d . U. ' c r u d e f o r m ' . 5 . ' s p i r i t u a l p r e c e p t o r ' . 6. 'Brahman c o o k ' . 7 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 ' 1 .

126 b.

MARATHI following another The f u l l series

SECTION

character. i s given in the Sanskrit in

of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s these characters

section .

Only a f e w o f

occur i n Marathi, m o s t l y For t h e ^

S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s and some E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s . of p r i n t i n g , times used. new f o r m s s u c h a s vr*^ > bhr and

simplification are the some

, Jra

The r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e

charact

e r s of t h i s group w h i c h o c c u r i n M a r a t h i . Reading examples


Sb"*T
2

5R*r .

^r^T

3TTO^

^T^T

f^T

iv.
a

Characters with preceding preceding another The c h a r a c t e r s of

or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

character. given are

t h i s group w h i c h o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t a r e The c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r r i n g i n Marathi below,

in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n ^ .

i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e w o r d s g i v e n a s r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s b. following another The c h a r a c t e r s S a n s k r i t section**. of character.

t h i s group u s e d i n S a n s k r i t a r e g i v e n i n

the the

The r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e Marathi. consecutive consonant i n t h e same way a s "Wc^f

c h a r a c t e r s which occur i n

The f o l l o w i n g w o r d s i l l u s t r a t e ers, the f i r s t being akar, r e a l i s e d

charact-.

conjunct %Tc*T

characters: ul'-Jiii 1. bol-to5

ghal-ne5

bas-la5

ghet-la5 of

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i i . b . 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n examples, see p . 1 3 1 . 3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i v . a . ibid. , iv.b. 5. Verbal forms.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS Reading e x a m p l e s
x

127

mmc^TOT

ohlcl

^"c^f

c^Tofr

cW

C l a s s U.

vargiiy characters characters.

j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g

uusm

i. a.

vorgiiy characters , "8^ or series

joined with

or

^j" .

preceding a v o r g i i y of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s
2

character. occurring in Sanskrit is are occur loan

The f u l l

given i n . t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .

T h o s e w h i c n o c c u r i n Marathi

i l l u s t r a t e d in the examples g i v e n b e l o w .

Most of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and t h e c h a r a c t e r "^"l o c c u r s i n E n g l i s h words. The f o l l o w i n g examples u t i v e consonant c h a r a c t e r s , same way as c o n j u n c t illustrate the f i r s t M a r a t h i words i n w h i c h b e i n g okar, are r e a l i s e d

consec in the

characters:

oys'poys Reading examples

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 2 . 2 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 4 . i . a . 3 . Verbal form. i+. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 2 .


1.

128

M A R A T H I

S E C T I O N

b.

or ^

following a vorgiiy

character. Sanskrit

The s e r i e s of c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s group which o c c u r i n are g i v e n i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .


1

Only a few of t h e s e These a r e

characters illustrated is in placed

occur in Marathi, m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t loanwords. i n t h e r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n "below.

The c h a r a c t e r

jj , k s o , JT

n o t c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r , and i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d t h e v o r i j o m a l a . Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r a r e u s u a l l y i n Marathi d i c t i o n a r i e s a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h 5 Reading e x a m p l e s


oTr^Tc^ -q%^T cT
2

^ .

<ft8pT

tfftij

cFTT

<3fcFSTrar$t

ii. a.

p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g nunasik ( ' n a s a l ' ) p r e c e d i n g an nunasik character.

characters,

These c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n ^ . Only one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i s u s e d i n M a r a t h i , i n t h e word b. | f o l l o w i n g an nunasik The c h a r a c t e r s i n Marathi^. Reading e x a m p l e s .


ofiTr-f-afs=^Tofr
0

brahman^ .

character. , -nh and


*^jjT

"C^"

, -nho ,

, -mh , o c c u r

*^TcTHT

1. 2. 3. U. 6.

See S a n s k r i t , Ch. 3 , 3 - C l a s s i+. i . b . Compare n o t e on t h e c h a r a c t e r 5 " i n C l a s s 2 . i i . b . " For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 1 3 2 , See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s U . i i . a , 5. i b i d . b . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 1 3 2 .

above.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS
Marathi p r o s e passage
1

i<
2

Vf&

^TT%cf. TTTcnTT, < 3 ^ q ^ = R T , f c ? ^ T ^ ^ f t ^ T f t " q s ^ , ^ ^ o;tft S i f t q T f ^ K T T ^ R ^H^T

^f?T^5R

-q-|^n-^f gpf STfTFft

iRcSf

^flcITcT.

JlfittS

fcT^HT^

. W ^ T 3ff

i%cR' ff

^TlffrT, 3TJ"R "^bff ^ o ^ i - c ^ l i

%of ^ r q fofcerT ^ ^ i ^ q i

t&zft

*rf|$ ^q=n
^ R M x I

n%.gyf

sif?

^ ^ w i t q i ^ T ftr^T^fRT^ri^

srrl.qT *rtff

STITT^

^ r o f -spfrjcft
T

^ r ^ f t c^fe^r
7 ^ 1 % ^ 7

^t^T v3Trf^t

-^fq-jfa-

SFf

^ T f ^

tfte "g^i

^^mcft ^ T I J ^ I ^ I K ^ I ^^rr.^uiji^^ ^ c T T w s q M ^ o s

sfr

1. M a r a t h i V a c h a n m a l a , B k . k , p . 1 5 , b y V a s a n t Keshav B h i k a j i D h a v a l e , G i r g a u m , Bombay.

Ramchandra

Nerurkar,

pub.

MARATHI

SECTION

T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f R e a d i n g Examples Chapter 2 . l.i. jog chot modot dhemok khe-t ' p o t phej; ' k e n l.ii. kr dhr bdl tlph lv'kr psl'ton. l.iii. phonos Jehor her'kot henve^ chel. pe^es 2.i. <l nun seii aper^ 2.ii. thiik kay cjoTa baii
9

no pod noth khor^ dheg bogh kon.

tso
Is

dhe thg bht kht l^sokh pod, zer^ {hensk zspst thb'kt kets'kef dhsm zht phbt zhegec"_ khen/ke-|; z h o t *kn

mon <tph bhejen zekhem

peked^ khecjek

gho^ok tsoo^han.

thkt pe-^set men/ g"|; dts'kt

dhsm'k"!; tsem'ket

gsd^'b^ "tjsts'k^

v jsl kl vr lth
l

vn bhr cln vrv

joy dor go v e t t^serot

thor lov teney nozsr (; P l tsor'hot


9 r , n 9

vy tsor

ghsr ol

ledh zer kenev mezel

ley tsev reyet vezen

dhrr dhekol

vecon gerez

kor'met kets'ret sor hos bes ? t


9

per'ker poked"/vet yo; khes Jepeth serek


-

dhen'ger kerem'tots /ok Jebe herein leher Jev tehe

ker*vet phes sehe kele/ phesel

hot ve/ sod^ek dejok

her J*er

sen^ res semoy hezer

peser besev

seres sehez mes'let

hey'gey ser'seko");

ser've "; meson/vet

J"et'po"(; ser'pon. semez'tei^s

phel, khe], sere^ zevel, tsej/voT; beT/ket mez'zeve^ a eyt menu eyvez kha ath iiq. zeii ud^et hii to jhiil nav krpa rsi iid uus neuu eyrer; ne pey an uuth iter se^eii dhuu

he^ed ve^ei; d/ieve^ kel/meT_et zevel/ser

ek eyn u s el. ojhor chi

eyk evt d^ekh evsedh ga

ocjh eyj uter ol_ekh ghe

ev"|; rn. ukhe^ thuu ho

bhii

ruuc|h hoy peysa bhauu

tel mevz jev kevi dhobii Jiju suii eke

dos drcjh b e y l hit duudh khecjuu Jev b e h u n e y e berii chatii bhiiti guru tsevda yeii rtu eyke oTii

TRANSCRIPTION

13

maydan rumal "[he v l In jevuun kavtuk nokar becjuuk gariiud. ka"|;hor jiivan zamiin deim^ patois laa"haii t a r a z m i 1^Bui"|;ii vagayre -^savpajii pahije mara-|;b.ii "; ilcaxi-uL J bayragii bhikarii itar ek aykila utar uufh gheiin aii dhuuun p. 106. k h i d / k i i kor'cja diis'ra kap'c^e ik'cje tek'cjii kun/bii ^savk'/ii koy'ta guc]/ghe av'gha par'dhii ev'cjha bat'mii tar'buuz ker'sunii phavz'dar .fik'vari ub'dar mik'tats khabar'dar phasav'rjuuk hat'us'na soqav'nuuk lahan'pana kal_at ghasar bighad^ ka^-to pas'ra pasar-tat sar'kuun sarak-tiil g h a s ' r u u n g h a s ' r i i l ghasar~.fi i l a^h'Tuun a"|;hav-tiil bigh'cjuun bighad^lela ad/kha^at ad/kha^-tat

Chapter 3 C l a s s 1. phikka akkal sakkhii cjagga kat^sa gaccii iccha lajja ha"j;tii l a " t t t t khacj^a J"a:nr|av p a t t a u t t h a n r a d d i i biiddhi ann chappann l a p p h a d^habbuu h i y y a k i r r h a l l i i s a v v a i / / h i s s a
n 9 c i n i l

Class 2. yukti Jabd lagn Class vaky rajy gaqya pothya dhohyane karavyas hyala Class camatkar sadgui| gupt satphal atma padma upodghat mugdh samapt udbhav ratn jnan sa^kon. utpann -udbodhak phakt janm varjmay

cjokyala jyane pec[hyatsa udya abhyas vyakhyan ma^yane

sarjkhya tujhya hor|_yas madhye bhyala ava/y atmyatsa

agya petya
arjyatse nyahal/ne

ramy rahasy raukhy

ghya mo"|;hyane tyacya pyala suury

ticya citthya naphyatsa kholya mamisy nadya

3.ii. svatah kevha vhava vha^ Jvas

kvacit gvahii ucchvas jvala vi/vas iijvar svacch svapn dvara sarasvatii tattvajjian mahattv anvay sarv dhvaja Class 3iii-

a. t a r k imiurkh marg d i i r g h khurcii k h u r c y a a r z kor "; garc[ puurr^ kiirti arthat vardal ardha arpar^ uurph barph durbal garbh dharm dharmik dhayry sarv darjan hars nars tarha durlabh kurhac[ puurvii varse sarvat ardhya ryarya b. kram prayatn Jriimant kram priiti sahasr irjgrajii agraha tras abruu prapt namr tryaipqav samudr chidr tiivr citr tamra"";

132

MARATHI 3iv. phalguri svalp kolha

SECTION

Class

valgana C l a s s U.

kalhaii

Ihovii

klas

sle\

i.a. ajcary pajcim puskal, vyavastha stabdh nisphal strii strya spast drs^l Jastr sneha skuul b. vatsal poriiksa suuksm ksarajah ii. tumhii amhii Passage
1

us "; r a s t r Jresth rasta tast krsn. snan sthir rastyane drs"|;ya sthiti ajcary sphuurti s^ejan post tilksr^ ak'smat nhavii ksatriya mhatara vansa unha^a oksaboksii cinh

durlaks utsuk kantiane

Marathi P r o s e

p r a t y e k J o h o r a t s e m a h a t t v k a h i i ek v i T i s t g o ^ t i i t a h e . a p ' l y a y a mumboii i l a k h y a t az m u m b o i i , eh'medabad, s o l a p u u r v o g o y r e Johore v y a parasa"{;hii p r o s i d d h ahet. s a t a r a , eh'med'noger, vijapuur vogoyre Johore e y t i h a s i k drs"|;ya m a h a t t v a c i i a h e t . per]cjher'puur, n a / i k v a g a y r e Johore dharmik drs"|;ya J r e s ^ h g e n i l i i z a t a t . pure J o h o r a c i i p r e s i d d h i v i d v a n a n t s e raaher'ghar mhor|Uun v i j e s a h e . karon. ya t h i k a n i i sarv prakar'cya Jiksenacya j i t ' k y a s o y i i a h e t , t i t ' k y a i t e r t h i k a n i i n a h i i t , ani p u u r v i i p e J v y a n c y a v e l i i kay kimva h o l l i c y a irjgrejii r a j ' v a ^ i i t kay m a h a r a s t r a t i i l v i d v a n l o k a n t s e t e ek a v e c f t e s t h a n houun r a h i l e a b e . pure Jahar s a m u d r a p a t i i p a s u u n 1850 phuu"(; u n t s a h e . ya J a h a r a c i i s t h a p a n a don Je v a r s a p u u r v i i Jivajiimaharajani^se guru d a d a j i i k o r ^ a d e v y a n i i k e l i i . m a h a r a j a n t s a vacja ye t h e h o t a ani r a y "gad. g h e i i p a r y a n t t y a n t s e mukhy "[hane puny-asats a s e , maharajancya p a j c a t s a t a r a he Jahar mara^hyancya s a t t e t s e kendr z h a l e . puqyanajiik simhagad. k i l l a , b h a f g h a r y e t h i i l dharan_ va t a l a v a n i l a s k a r a t i i l sundar imar'tii pah'nyasar'khya ahet. p u r ^ y a t i i l Janivar'vad^yazava^ Jrii Jivajiimaharajanl^se smarak mhanuun t y a n t s a ajvaruud^h bhavy p u t a ^ a ubha k e l e l a a h e .

1 . anusvars t o be read w i t h z e r o - r e a l i s a t i o n are not t r a n s c r i b e d this passage.

in

GUJARATI

SECTION

C H A P T E R ARRANGEMENT OP THE

1 SYLLABARY

The w r i t i n g s y s t e m of G u j a r a t i

(?L*Y3.lCLl

, gujaratii)

i s "based

on t h e S a n s k r i t s y s t e m , w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n s l a n g u a g e s of N o r t h e r n I n d i a w h i c h a r e w r i t t e n script. The c h a r a c t e r s of t h e G u j a r a t i

a s i n t h e o t h e r modern Devanagari

in the

s c r i p t a r e a r r a n g e d i n t h e same given in the Sanskrit (ba^obodh) , section" ".


1

way as t h o s e of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t , The s c r i p t is referred to as

^ I ^ ^ M X ^ I

' t h a t can be

u n d e r s t o o d by a c h i l d ' . and the s y l l a b i c s e r i e s series'.

Each c h a r a c t e r
l

is called

$13. ( a k s a r ) , 'characterto the realisa

i s c a l l e d ct 5L^-LLCd.L ( v e r n o m a l a ) , grammarians t o r e f e r

The terms u s e d by G u j a r a t i

characters are s i m i l a r t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

to t h o s e u s e d i n S a n s k r i t , but as the in reading Gujarati of c o n s o n a n t differs

somewhat from t h e the form

Sanskrit system in r e s p e c t vowel

characters r e a l i s e d with section in t h e i r Gujarati of t h e

o , t h e s e terms a r e u s e d i n t h i s

and t r a n s c r i b e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e a l i s a t i o n in Gujarati. The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s illustrate

characters between terms

the difference

the terms u s e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t used i n t h i s section:


^TT*T
N

section

and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g

Sanskrit

(akseram) (viramoh) (ontohstha)

Gujarati

^if^A C^.^.LH ^iMrrl^l

(oksor) (viram) (ontosth)

fcTTTT:

1. See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.l.

136

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

The t a b l e g i v e n b e l o w shows t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e G u j a r a t i s y l l a b a r y i n roman n o t a t i o n . and t h e c h a r a c t e r s either a vowel, As t h e s y s t e m o f w r i t i n g i s s y l l a b i c , c o n s i s t i n g of

i n the syllabary represent s y l l a b l e s

o r a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by t h e v o w e l The v o w e l

o , t h e roman o , when referred

t a b l e s show e a c h c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h i s v o w e l .

r e a l i s e d i n t h i s way w i t h a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , to i n English t e x t s as t h e 'inherent .1 Velar ko kho go gho jho (P-9) yo Jo ho vowel'. 2 Palatal
CO

i s usually

CONSONANTS w i t h Voiceless

3 Retro flex t
9

k Dental to tho do

5 Labial p ph b bh m v^

Unaspirated Aspirate Unaspirated Aspirated

P l o s i v e s

cho

tho q
1

Voiced

clhe no ro so**

dho no lo so

Nasal Semivowels Fricatives Aspirate Lateral VOWELS MODIFIERS 1. a

fo)

I
11

uu

e , z y o , o ^ v Aspirated

Nasal - m or page.

- 5 . S e e n o t e s on f o l l o w i n g

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY 1. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d b y and f i n a l l y w i t h t h e f l a p p e d 2. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d by cjo and c|he r no are r e a l i s e d and rh

137 medially

consonants no and

i n some w o r d s .

occur only in combinat

ion w i t h o t h e r c o n s o n a n t s , i n S a n s k r i t 3 . The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t e d by dental articulation. so ve

loanwords.

i s usually r e a l i s e d with l a b i o

h. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d b y Sanskrit loanwords. 5. The v o w e l s e and e

and s y l l a b i c

occur only

in

a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e s c r i p t w i t h t h e same e . The v o w e l s or vowel sign,

c h a r a c t e r , or vowel s i g n , u s u a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d a s o and o

are a l s o w r i t t e n w i t h t h e same c h a r a c t e r , o . 'short' i and ' l o n g '

u s u a l l y transcribed as

The s e r i e s of v o w e l s i n c l u d e s u and ' l o n g ' uu.

ii,

'short'

These p a i r s o f v o w e l s o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i w o r d s , 'short' and t h e 'long'


1

and the c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e

vowels

are w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n r u l e s i o n between t h e ' s h o r t ' and ' l o n g '

of orthography .

This d i s t i n c t

v o w e l s i s p r e s e r v e d i n t n i s work i n t h o u g h i n modern G u j a r a t i

the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s , speech t h e r e i s o f t e n l i t t l e

d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the 'short' or t h e

words w r i t t e n w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s - r e p r e s e n t i n g 'long' vowels.

1.

See Chapter 2 , under 2 . i i . V o w e l

Signs.

C H A P T E R CHARACTERS OP THE

2 SYLLABARY

The G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e a m o d i f i e d form of t h e

Devanagari

c h a r a c t e r s , w i t h some c h a n g e s of l i n e and form w h i c h have come a b o u t through an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e s c r i p t f o r c u r s i v e w r i t i n g . e r s a r e more rounded t h a n t h o s e of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t , have a h e a d - s t r o k e . section will Comparison w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s in the The c h a r a c t and do n o t Sanskrit

show how t h e G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e l a t e d i n form t o The method of w r i t i n g t h e Gujarati

t h o s e of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t . characters is in general

t h e method d e s c r i b e d i n t h e

Introduction,

and r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d b e made t o t h e n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y g i v e n w i t h e a c h group of c h a r a c t e r s i n the Sanskrit s e c t i o n . Special notes are

g i v e n b e l o w on t h e c a l l i g r a p h y of any c h a r a c t e r s of w h i c h t h e of s t r o k e s c a n n o t b e e a s i l y deduced from t h e D e v a n a g a r i

order

characters. the

The G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r u n d e r same h e a d i n g s a s t h e c h a r a c t e r s in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n :

Consonant

C h a r a c t e r s , Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s , and M o d i f i e r s . 1 . Consonant Characters. 'vorgiiy'

The c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e a r r a n g e d i n t h r e e g r o u p s : characters, 'ontosth' c h a r a c t e r s and 'uusm' c h a r a c t e r s . t h e s e characters are r e a l i s e d as consonant,


1

As t h e y a r e syllables

given in the s y l l a b a r y , c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l vowel

or s e m i - v o w e l , f o l l o w e d by t h e ^ H B l ^ (okar). The realisation

a , and t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d a s iii.

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY of a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h o u t ant e l e m e n t of t h e s y l l a b l e written at the f o o t only, this is vowel, that i s , as the

139 conson stroke , and and a

i n d i c a t e d by a d i a g o n a l thus called called ^ , k, t1

of t h e c h a r a c t e r , This s t r o k e this stroke is is

so on, a s i n S a n s k r i t . character w r i t t e n with

(p(j^LH ( v i r a m ) halont' by

Gujarati characters 'lame'). Gujarati Sanskrit. to

grammariansj b u t i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g written with t h i s stroke are d e s c r i b e d as

in s c h o o l s ,

**lX^

(khodu,

The r e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s differs somewhat from t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of

in reading in

these characters

The f o l l o w i n g n o t e s may be r e g a r d e d a s g e n e r a l g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s which r e f e r e n c e may be made l a t e r when t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e in d e t a i l . a. A final okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s usually realised with loanwords.^

discussed

zero-

v o w e l , e x c e p t i n a few S a n s k r i t b. A final

kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r f o r m e d by c o m b i n i n g two or more


0

characters^,

r a final

o k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d e d by a conson

character written with the onusvar r e p r e s e n t i n g a nasal ant* -, i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an c. A m e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r with zero-vowel,
4

e-glide. i s r e a l i s e d in certain for contexts

or w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

i n s t a n c e , when s u c h a character signs^.

c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r of a t h r e e word, and t h e f i n a l d. c h a r a c t e r h a s one of t h e v o w e l is the f i n a l

When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r verbal b a s e , i t

c h a r a c t e r of a or w i t h an

is usually r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,

1 . See S a n s k r i t ,Ch. 2 , 1 . 2 . The v i r a m i s n o t w r i t t e n i n G u j a r a t i w i t h c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h a r e r e a l i s e d i n t h i s way; i t i s w r i t t e n o n l y i n a few S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s . 3 - S e e b e l o w ,Ch. 3 , 2 . U. See b e l o w , 3 . i . b . 5. See b e l o w , 2 . i i .

Ho e-glide,

GUJARATI

SECTION c o n s i s t i n g of, or b e g i n signs. realis

b e f o r e t b e a d d i t i o n of s u f f i x e s

n i n g w i t h , a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h one of t h e vowel For g u i d a n c e i n r e a d i n g , f i n a l

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

ed w i t h z e r o - v o w e l a r e t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h o u t

o , and m e d i a l okar c o n are

s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l or w i t h an o - g l i d e transcribed thus: i. k' , t' , p' .


1

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e v o r g i i y group (ct?!^^. ) . The f i r s t g r o u p o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s c o n s i s t s of twentyfive consonant ct^^L

c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g s y l l a b l e s w i t h an i n i t i a l p l o s i v e f o l l o w e d by t h e v o w e l ( v e r g ) , or c l a s s e s , a . These c h a r a c t e r s f a l l into five of

according to the f i v e p o s i t i o n s

articulation.

ko-vorg ke

H
khe g
9

ghe

-ne

ce-vorg

];'-verg

H d
CO

>>
che jhe
-jie

6
the

v S
de

ahe

-n.o

te-verg

pe-vorg

d H
te po

H
the

A
is

phe ^ .

be

H (H H
dhe no bhe mo

ii

An o l d e r form o f Q

1.

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i . 2 . C h a r a c t e r s w h i c h do n o t o c c u r i n i t i a l l y a r e shown by a hyphen p r e f i x e d t o t h e s y l l a b l e i n t h e roman t r a n s c r i p t i o n .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY The c h a r a c t e r s . 06


a n d

141

e written thus:
c

36

<D

3
36

$
6

*
S

*L
6

The okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e f e r r e d t o , a s f o r i n s t a n c e i n spelling, thus: g , >&^L ( k e k k o ) , \$ and ct CITHX ( t e t t o ) , and s o o n


0

The c h a r a c t e r s

do n o t o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i w o r d s , h u t

they are w r i t t e n , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , i n some S a n s k r i t loanwords i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e . & are r e a l i s e d m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y as The c h a r a c t e r s re and r h e and

in certain

words. Examples o f t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n a r e g i v e n l a t e r , a f t e r t h e vowel s i g n s a r e d i s c u s s e d . l Reading e x a m p l e s


2

1 . One c h a r a c t e r words. words: -t ^9

Pour o f t h e v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r a s V < ! zero-vowel. V6 YvS

2. Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h Qrl :*bd H L Hv5


3

d H *4.d

H V d6

*M.vS UvS

H6

#d <dd

CH^L $d

Hl

3 . Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l

characters r e a l i s e d with HHd &Hd $d6 d d H d>LS

zero-vowel. =>Otd U6d

<Hfri U6v5
<HHvS

^vSH dHfc

Hfcfc *<.H6

CHYd

U. Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h or w i t h an e - g l i d e ; f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h

zero-'vowel

zero-vowel. H Y ^ t

%VAl

(HdS^t

=M.H$

lySdHd

<HAV

1. See b e l o w , under 2 . i i . 2. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 8 .

i 2
4

GUJARATI

SECTION )
1

ii.

C h a r a c t e r s o f t h e o n t o s t h group ( ^ H r T l ^ ^ i There a r e f o u r G u j a r a t i characters

in t h i s group, as

in

the

same group of S a n s k r i t

characters.

H
ye they occur m e d i a l l y ,

a
le and in p o s i t i o n s

^
re ol

l
ve or m e d i a l l y When characters semi-

When t h e c h a r a c t e r s M.

occur i n i t i a l l y ,

realised with a following vowel,

they are r e a l i s e d as c o n s o n a n t s . i n which ekar consonant

are r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

or f i n a l l y ,

they are r e a l i s e d as

2
v o w e l s , f o r m i n g d i p h t h o n g s w i t h t h e v o w e l of t h e p r e c e d i n g e.g. UVt otH W4. #t yejen ven bhey jev Reading examples3 characters o c c u r s as a word. zero-vowel. syllable.

1 . None of t h e o n t e s t h 2.

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l

characters realised with

*U
*w.
3.

M3.

H a

ik

W
^a

*t
=mm

LH
w . yh
zero-vowel.

&h

w.

^>(rt

CLR.

Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l

characters r e a l i s e d with

Vtt?. a^LQi

ab^l

CNAS

<=OHct

* R

rl^A

m f m

n a n h ^ h ch^l
zero-vowel

k. Pour c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h or w i t h an e - g l i d e ; final characters realised with

zero-vowel.

&ctt
1. 3.

&H(H?l

UvSctt

(dbSSqi

cttrtY

^ftdA
realisat

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i i . 2 . F u r t h e r e x a m p l e s of t h e i o n of t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n b e l o w , under 2 . i i . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 8 .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY iii. C h a r a c t e r s o f t h e uusm group ( (3l"tH. )


X

4 :

These c h a r a c t e r s a s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n a r e w r i t t e n in t h e Hindi s t y l e . The G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e :

U
J"o The c h a r a c t e r X

H
so so

< *
ha

o c c u r s o n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and when i t i s often r e a l i s e d as

w r i t t e n i n words i n common u s e i n G u j a r a t i , Jo e x c e p t i n formal


2

reading.

Reading e x a m p l e s . 1 . None of t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s g r o u p o c c u r s a s a word. 2 . Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l characters r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel.

*U

*16

m.

&L H*l ^

<SH * t d
zero-vowel.

3 . Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l

characters r e a l i s e d with

a^uat

*iu*i U H H ^ I H
characters r e a l i s e d with zerocharacter

U. Pour and f i v e c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l

vowel, second c h a r a c t e r i n f o u r c h a r a c t e r words, t h i r d

i n t h e f i v e c h a r a c t e r w o r d , r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l or w i t h an o-glide.

3iHYl

U W d . ?&SZ

^U^d

c&Sd

<dWl

The l a s t c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

i n the Gujarati syllabary i s o .

, ~T,o r e a l i s e d a s a r e t r o f l e x l a t e r a l c o n s o n a n t w i t h
2

Reading e x a m p l e s .

#t

m.

m.

owjo

H<<t 3H<a

HR.<=L^I

mste

1.

See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.2,1. i i i .

2.

For

transcription,

see

p.l68.

3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i . V e d i c

character.

144

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

The two c h a r a c t e r s

*Q and

, each r e p r e s e n t i n g

syllables often

c o n s i s t i n g of two c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d b y t h e v o w e l

o , are

p l a c e d a t t h e end of t h e s e r i e s of c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s m a l a , b u t t h e y do n o t p r o p e r l y b e l o n g t o t h e s y l l a b a r y , discussed later . 2 2 . Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s , i. Vowel Characters.


1

i n t h e vori^oand t h e y a r e

The vowel c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g G u j a r a t i c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the vowel c h a r a c t e r s rr , 1 and 11 i n S a n s k r i t though t h e forms d i f f e r . Syllabic are

do n o t o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i ^ . in the vornomala.

The v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s

usually placed f i r s t

>i
a e, , syllabic i syllabic r The c h a r a c t e r

ii oy okar, akar,

S
u 0,0**

S i
uu ov Sanskrit characters

r , o c c u r s o n l y i n a few The vowel

loanwords, used mainly in the l i t e r a r y language. are r e f e r r e d to as

i k a r , u k a r , and s o o n . kar c o n s o n a n t characters

I n a l l r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s which f o l l o w ,

which o c c u r i n words h a v i n g vowel c h a r a c t e r s or vowel s i g n s s h o u l d b e r e a l i s e d according to the general rules already given, unless n o t e s a r e added. special

1 . See b e l o w , C h . 3 . C l a s s e s 2 . and U. 2 . For t h e u s e o f vowel c h a r a c t e r s and vowel s i g n s , s e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i . 3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i . h. See a b o v e , C h . l . The r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e s e vowel c h a r a c t e r s a s e or e , and a s o or o , i s d i s c u s s e d below under i i . Vowel S i g n s .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY Reading e x a m p l e s


1

145

1. Vowel c h a r a c t e r s o n l y . 2. Vowel c h a r a c t e r s w i t h okar characters.

^It ^

SlH

*>tlU

^Ld

^1*

5>tl6

^6

H@

<* fesP utf aT

fcsftV
to

&$$t
e x c e p t 3>-C represent the ,

i i . Vowel s i g n s . Vowel s i g n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o e a c h v o w e l c h a r a c t e r , are added t o t h e okar form o f t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g of an i n i t i a l vowels a to . 1kii ev .

c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by one of the

The v o w e l s i g n s a r e g i v e n h e r e added t o

character

si &
ka ki

f
ku

^
kuu

4
kr

^
ke,ke

^
key

&
ko,ko kov is in

The o r d e r of s t r o k e s

i n w r i t i n g c h a r a c t e r s w i t h vowel s i g n s

i n g e n e r a l t h e same a s t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . Some of

t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e m o d i f i e d i n form added. the

when c e r t a i n of t h e vowel s i g n s a r e

a. The u p r i g h t s t r o k e of a c h a r a c t e r i s w r i t t e n w i t h o u t r o u n d i n g f o o t when t h e vowel s i g n s f o r u or uu are added:

gu b. Special forms:

guu

pu

puu

su

suu

KI
ja

fir <!, ^
ji jii ju juu

^
nu see ru p. 168, ruu

$
dr

3
J*r

$
hr

1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , 2 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i i .

146

GUJARATI

SECTION and i n s p e l l i n g , the up to and

In t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g i n s c h o o l s , r i g h t s t r o k e of a c h a r a c t e r , t h e c h a r a c t e r s *D\X ,^\X and

and of t h e v o w e l s i g n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g are r e f e r r e d to as L H l (kano),

the diagonal superscribed s t r o k e s a s i n 5^ , , ^


d n d s y

i n t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s ,
e

tl

>

r e f e r r e d t o a s HL^LL ( m a t r a ) . .^ct ^ (hrosv i) and and

The

vowel s i g n s f o r ^1^1 $

and $

are c a l l e d

(diirgh i i ) ,

and t h e vowel s i g n s f o r (diirgh uu) . 'akar', 'ukar',


1

(3^ a r e

called vowel

^ ^ 0 ^ ^ ( h r o s v u) and s i g n s are d e s c r i b e d as Reading 1. examples


2

Characters having and s o o n .

'ekar'

One c h a r a c t e r

words.

2 . Words of two or more i6 $iy L&

characters. ai^ *(taf &$> fed oiH

aid ^IMX <3t(L PL^L&L *bfo %iX

dfe *b<i <tute ^lA ^Udl

Mk

Ufcft oiteT

(L(Hl eflA HL

S^l

^ dlAuCl
and

^al
^.lALHlCL

OX

Svi^d

SplRl

( H l ^ d t A

Realisation of

the vowels

These v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s ,

and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o w e l s i g n s , quality. The v o w e l character

each

r e p r e s e n t two v o w e l s o f d i f f e r e n t

and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n a r e r e a l i s e d i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f words e , b u t i n some words a s ponding s i g n are r e a l i s e d 1, 2. e ; the vowel c h a r a c t e r i n t h e m a j o r i t y of words a s and t h e

as

corres in

o , but

hrosv, 'short' ; d i i r g h , 'long'. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 8 .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY some words a s o . The r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a s e and

147 o

i s d e s c r i b e d by G u j a r a t i grammarians a s

C^jt ( v i v r t , e er
a s 0

'open').

Some

p a i r s of w o r d s , w r i t t e n i n t h e same w a y , a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n meaning only by t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l ^ yX or a s o . Some words vowels

in frequent use i n which t h e s e v o w e l s are r e a l i s e d as 'open' are g i v e n b e l o w ; a f u l l e r dictionary ' Narmakosh'


1

list

o f s u c h words i s g i v e n i n t h e G u j a r a t i ' J o d n i k o s h ' 2 words i n

, and i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y

which t h e ' o p e n ' v o w e l s o c c u r a r e s p e c i a l l y Words i n which

noted. i s r e a l i s e d as e :

, or t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n ,

^LH

^61
^

s\-

*s
?IH

~h?> ISH " M l \%i <^Uu \ v <^-t


3

i& ^ o&*t ^u^Htt

&LCL

>-t

^ t*%>Ut

^ 6 o

"l6S
r

\ & *&ct

U>1 <i\ ^MlSL


the

d^C-lL
i s r e a l i s e d as

Words i n which tyX. >

corresponding sign,

o :

*HXV16

al6
HIH U&ytl

=t y H ^iu^- SlMfct Anc-tl^ lual * > X SL^L sia^iX slCa^X >tvi


*4l( Hi

ril lvs- ileo


Ml^tl
6

^X^i- -tXs^ -iX^X


MXdluti HU&U'l MX^

l. d ^ U sils
n a s a l i s a t i o n known a s t h e a n u s v a r ^ ,
1.

^Cl ^Ci^ 4they are r e a l i s e d as 'open' vowels.

When c h a r a c t e r s w i t h t h e s e v o w e l s a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e mark of

n4sl$.l , narmako;, pub. 1 8 7 3 . 2. WUrCl *&vS$tUstfU s a r t h a g u j o r a t i i jodjanii k o / , p u b . l 9 U 9 . The ' o p e n ' r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e vowel c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s d i c t i o n a r y by i n v e r t i n g t h e matra. 3 . The words w r i t t e n w i t h a hyphen a r e verbal b a s e s . L. I n t h i s and l a t e r words i n which t h e r e a r e two okar c h a r a c t e r s , i t i s t h e f i r s t w h i c h i s r e a l i s e d w i t h o . 5. S i m i l a r l y a l l words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e i s al , ' f o u r ' . 6. S i m i l a r l y o t h e r words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e i s "Hist > ' l e s s a quarter'. 7 . See b e l o w , u n d e r 3 . M o d i f i e r s , i . o n u s v a r .
-

148 Some words w h i c h a r e of as 0 go\, or a s


1

GUJARATI

SECTION realis

d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n meaning o n l y by t h e 0 : gol, khol, 'treacle' 'oil-cake' 'book'

round'

khol , ' e n q u i r y ' copop i i , 'smeared'

coporii,

kon,, ' a n g l e ' colli , sol, 'bodice'

kon^, 'who' colii, sol, (name of a v e g e t a b l e ) 'stripe'

'sixteen'

'weal',

R e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n words w i t h vowel c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s a. in c e r t a i n positions, in a three character it is

When a m e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , w o r d , i s f o l l o w e d by a f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel s i g n , or w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

usually r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel, s e m i - v o w e l s r e p r e s e n t e d by and

and t h e the

form d i p h t h o n g s w i t h in

vowel of t h e p r e c e d i n g s y l l a b l e ,

as

^d<ai
e^'lo

v&<+CL
cor'bii

H^iil
men/ko phay'do

>c&
chev'"(;e than

The r e a l i s a t i o n o f m e d i a l okar c h a r a c t e r s i n words of more

t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n i n e a c h word of t h e c h a r a c t e r s w i t h vowel s i g n s . I n compound w o r d s , the

r e a l i s a t i o n d e p e n d s upon t h e form of the words j o i n e d i n t h e compound. The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e in such words. or w i t h an Yl-LctR, jan'vor o-glide: the r e a l i s a t i o n of

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

Second c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , $lct&<l Jet'korii

"&daiS
keflak

^6HL-t nuk'san

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY Other c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , or w i t h an o - g l i d e :

14

dL"t6rCl<d
dukan'dar b. tabod^'tob

6U6<dl9
kopa );'ba j i i
-

UM-MPCl
par'van'gii

When a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a noun or pronoun, or t o a v e r b a l b a s e , character, this f i n a l w i t h an o - g l i d e , e n d i n g i n an okar c o n s o n a n t or

character i s r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel, examples:

as i n t h e s e

HtR-Cl
gam-no

d^A
tom-ne

^dX
kor-to

"iiadi
bol-va

<au>ul
lag-Je

When s u c h s u f f i x e s

a r e added t o v e r b a l b a s e s of t h r e e or more and p r e - f i n a l consonant characters in

c h a r a c t e r s , o f which t h e f i n a l

are o k a r , t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e p r e - f i n a l the way i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g

character varies

examples:

^&HY
somoj sem'jii

UHYdt
somoj-va

UHVlddl
som'jav-va

therok Reading examples" " 1.


1

thor'ke

thorok-to

thor'kav-vo

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e a.

lS5l HlU<tfl
2.

*HH$l YHjd

<d6l UlHfc^ &d*=Cl

d6Ul 6l6*ll<< U66

Hln^tl ^Y^lctl SU^d^lA

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e b .

dd*

US6dl HiaeCl Hl&a<=&

HUCIA
1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e

HU^CI

p.168.

150

GUJARATI R e a l i s a t i o n of m e d i a l and f i n a l The c h a r a c t e r \$


1

SECTION ^ and as a

i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d m e d i a l l y or f i n a l l y

flapped consonant, p w i t h the onusvar .

p o , e x c e p t when p r e c e d e d by a c h a r a c t e r

written

I n some w o r d s , h o w e v e r , i t

i s always r e a l i s e d

as

a s t o p , q . The c h a r a c t e r

i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d a s a s t o p , c|h , In some words t h e realisation in

and s o m e t i m e s a s a f l a p p e d c o n s o n a n t . as a s t o p i s c o n s t a n t . frequent use in which

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s a r e some o f t h e words and d are always r e a l i s e d as s t o p s ^ : .

5 d i 3 l Sieu.V*tl

u Hiil ntst ml =HL<SL *Hl4l<*t 1 6 - 1 6

rCU
&L&

^5-&us

<*$L
vS as

*=tL6c| or

These c h a r a c t e r s a r e a l w a y s r e a l i s e d as s t o p s a f t e r

nasalisation.

I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s o f words t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of as r i s n e c e s s a r y f o r d i s t i n c t i o n of m e a n i n g :
padjD,

'male b u f f a l o '

paro, jaru^, vo^o, and ' l o n g '

'neighbourhood' 'jaw' 'elderly' vowels. applied in writing the

Ybj
CUSL

jad/u^ ", ' t h i c k '


vodjD,

'cancelled' 'short'

Orthography o f t h e

The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l r u l e s a r e u s u a l l y vowel c h a r a c t e r s signs, a. ^ ^ , $ and (3 , (L

> and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g vowel occur, final

though p r a c t i c e v a r i e s , and numerous e x c e p t i o n s

, and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n , a r e u s u a l l y w r i t t e n i n or i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g a f i n a l

characters, 1. 3.

kar c o n s o n a n t

See n o t e i n l . i . a b o v e . 2 . See b e l o w , under 3 i . nusvar. See N o t e s on G u j a r a t i P h o n o l o g y , T . N . D a v e , B u l l e t i n of t h e S c h o o l of O r i e n t a l S t u d i e s , V o l . V I . p . 6 7 3 f f . h. For t h e mark of n a s a l i s a t i o n on t h e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of t h i s w o r d , s e e b e l o w , under 3 . i . n u s v a r . 5 . P u l l e r n o t e s on G u j a r a t i o r t h o graphy a r e g i v e n i n ' J o d n i k o s h ' , I n t r o d u c t i o n , p . 3 0 f f .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY character, unless this i s a conjunct character ;


1

151 e.g.

laii ff)

korii

panii

n i

ik

ciij

geriib all

, and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n ,
2

are u s u a l l y w r i t t e n in

other p o s i t i o n s ;

e.g.

CrLHd divos tikhe-J;

PtatSl
bilad^ii

&GX*UA
hojiyar

ed&U.ui ghod^iyaT,

Some e x c e p t i o n s :

biijo h. (t

hokiikot

liidhe

kiidho

Jiikhiine

and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n , a r e u s u a l l y w r i t t e n i n a akar c o n s o n a n t

medial p o s i t i o n when i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g a f i n a l character, unless this i s a conjunct character;

e.g.

uu^h

duudh

hhuukh

phuul

mejuur

(3 and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n , a r e u s u a l l y w r i t t e n i n o t h e r p o s i t i o n s , though many words o c c u r i n . G u j a r a t i t e x t s w r i t t e n w i t h


2

e i t h e r the ' s h o r t ' una^o dukan

or t h e

'long' suthar

vowel

; e.g. varu al/su

Some e x c e p t i o n s : uucok uupar uubho

^Ll
kuuvo

SJjHsuujhloan-

The S a n s k r i t o r t h o g r a p h y i s u s u a l l y p r e s e r v e d i n S a n s k r i t words; e . g . QiXl hit bhiiti Lj^U purus ^(>l bhuumi *>t<f bohu

1 . See b e l o w , Chapter 3 2 . For t h i s vowel w r i t t e n with, t h e o n u s v a r , s e e b e l o w , under

3.i.

152 3. Modifiers.

GUJARATI

SECTION

The m o d i f i e r s > ^H^^Ll^. the Devanagari s c r i p t , i. onusvar.

(onusvar)

and

(^^i^C

( v i s o r g ) , used
1

in

are both used in w r i t i n g

Gujarati.

The o n u s v a r i s a mark r e p r e s e n t i n g n a s a l i s a t i o n , in Gujarati i n t h e form o f a d o t above a c h a r a c t e r ,

and i s

written

thus:

oil)

am

irrj

urrj

err)

orrj

karg

kiirj

kurrj

kern

korrj

The o n u s v a r i s p l a c e d a t t h e r i g h t s i d e of any s t r o k e , and i t

superscribed stroke,

i s w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r a f t e r e v e r y o t h e r
2

as i n the Devanagari

script. anusvar. the

R e a l i s a t i o n of the a.

The a n u s v a r i s r e a l i s e d i n some words a s t h e n a s a l i s a t i o n of vowel of t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h w h i c h i t is written. This

realisation vowels

o c c u r s u s u a l l y when t h e o n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n w i t h any of t h e to , except i n some S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s .

The o n u s v a r Examples:

r e a l i s e d i n t h i s way o c c u r s i n many g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s .

h$
koii

HI
ma

#6
11\

^
tu

SlH
uuc

*t
me"

U&X
pohoc

Midi
povva

Grammatical f o r m s :

nuiA
chokorS bodhae fcj The ' l o n g ' v o w e l s

%q
kelu and (1

HU?
maru

Vl(3
jau

*Hld^
av-vu, characters

are u s u a l l y w r i t t e n i n

w i t h t h e o n u s v a r when i t r e p r e s e n t s n a s a l i s a t i o n of a v o w e l , 1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . and i i . 2 . i b i d . , n o t e on c a l l i g r a p h y of t h e o n u s v a r .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

153

e x c e p t i n g r a m m a t i c a l forms d e s c r i b e d a s ' n e u t e r s i n g u l a r ' , w h i c h are always w r i t t e n w i t h t h e ' s h o r t ' vowel; e . g .

e(M
viichii

ettct
bhiit

StvSt
uucjo

HIS?
maru

<#>i
liibu 'short'

t
uuc|u vowels. signs,

Some words a r e w r i t t e n w i t h e i t h e r The vowel c h a r a c t e r s are r e a l i s e d w i t h t h e o n u s v a r a s

or ' l o n g '

, and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g and 0 ; e.g.

khec-vu b.

bhs

sop-vu

pehoc-vu

The onusvar w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g one of t h e v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s may be r e a l i s e d a s t h e n a s a l c o n s o n a n t of t h e same c l a s s as the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r , the c o - v o r g . or as n b e f o r e a character of

This r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e nusvar o c c u r s m a i n l y i n When t h e nusvar i s r e a l i s e d a s a kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , t h e


1

reading Sanskrit loanwords.

n a s a l consonant b e f o r e a f i n a l

f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an - g l i d e .

Examples:

knj;h

Janti

jsntu

ssmbha"!

smbndh representing later.

As i n S a n s k r i t , t h e r e i s an a l t e r n a t i v e method of nasal consonants in t h i s c o n t e x t . The ' s h o r t ' forms o f t h e v o w e l s $

T h i s method i s d e s c r i b e d and

are u s u a l l y w r i t t e n

w i t h t h e nusvar r e p r e s e n t i n g a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t ; e . g .

ling

cinta

sundor

kumbhar

1 . See a b o v e , l . b . R e a l i s a t i o n o f kar c o n s o n a n t 2 . See b e l o w , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 2 . i i .

characters.

154 c.

GUJARATI

SECTION

When the o n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g an o n t o s t h or an uusm c h a r a c t e r , a s i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s and l e a r n e d words it i s r e a l i s e d in various ways, conson

used in the l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e ,

a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n of a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g ant. The r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e o n u s v a r i n t h e s e c o n t e x t s hy

speakers section .
1

in v a r i o u s p a r t s of I n d i a i s d e s c r i b e d i n the S a n s k r i t The u s u a l G u j a r a t i p r a c t i c e nusvar b e f o r e nusvar b e f o r e (j^ i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e s e y 1 , as in ^i^l, , as i n

examples: > soyyog


5

, r e a l i s e d as , r e a l i s e d as

*^C^l l

> Polling realised

nusvar b e f o r e a l l as v ; e.g.

o t h e r n t s s t h and uusm c h a r a c t e r s ,

sfcttygl
sevrskssi]
2

< tA =A = <l
varsvvar

*HXi
vj

^G^Ll
hivsa sivh

Reading examples-^ 1. onusvar r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e a.

*]

5$

(HtH

\ b

%l

ULY

(LH

*bl HtJSt ZHPil <=Ct<>i

tiH *>U-l&
ii.

DMJM.

clt'lV
<m<

HL M.6

H&X

2 . nusvar r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e s b . and c .

Vci

visorg This m o d i f i e r , d e s c r i b e d i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n * , d o e s n o t o c c u r s m e d i a l l y i n a few S a n s k r i t


4-

occur

in Gujarati words, but i t

loanwords in

and i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d o u b l i n g of t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t , a s

%g*H. dukkh ( a l s o w r i t t e n

^"l^

, dukh) and

^H,rti^ft^l

> ntskksr^.

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . e . 2 . $1 r e p r e s e n t s k - j o i n e d w i t h -s . See C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s U. i . b . 3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 . U. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 i i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY U. The Complete The t r a d i t i o n a l Syllabary. order of the characters i n the s y l l a b i c series

155

i s shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g

table^-:

=^1

n
H d H H
V 6

H d

(H

<
4.
u 6

The vowel c h a r a c t e r -sfe i s n o t u s u a l l y

included in the (except

table.

The t a b l e i n which t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s m o d i f i e r s added t o t h e c h a r a c t e r

) , and t h e

, a r e p l a c e d a t t h e head of a

s e r i e s of columns c o n s i s t i n g o f e v e r y c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i n t h e kar form, w i t h each of t h e v o w e l s i g n s and e a c h o f t h e m o d i f i e r s , the 'twelve is

c a l l e d in Gujarati the ^L^.l'^ivSl > b a r a k h o d i i , This t a b l e i s

characters'.

o f t e n r e c i t e d i n s c h o o l s by c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d .

1. Cf.

Devanagari t a b l e

i n S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , U.

156

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

These two t a b l e s show t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r s a r e p l a c e d a s i n i t i a l c h a r a c t e r s o f words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s , w h i c h i s t h e same a s the order i n S a n s k r i t , e x c e p t t h a t words b e g i n n i n g w i t h characters

w i t h t h e o n u s v a r a r e p l a c e d a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e same character without the onusvar, as i l l u s t r a t e d Sanskrit: Gujarati: 5. a a ai ai arrjy ak arrjje arrjho ako as below: ... arrjk airjkh ...

akho ah

akh . . .

Numerals.

The G u j a r a t i n u m e r a l s a r e w r i t t e n t h u s :

A
1 6.

^
2

3
3 4

Y H \
5 6 7

V3
8

Hp
10

Punctuation. t h e same s y s t e m of p u n c t u a t i o n i s u s e d as in

In p r o s e w r i t i n g , English prose. Sanskrit

The s y s t e m u s e d i n G u j a r a t i v e r s e i s t h e same as t h e

system.^

1.

See

Sanskrit,Ch.2,6.

C H A P T E R CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Consonant c h a r a c t e r s may b e combined, t o r e p r e s e n t

two or more vowel.

c o n s o n a n t s which a r e t o be r e a l i s e d w i t h o u t an i n t e r v e n i n g C h a r a c t e r s formed by j o i n i n g o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s (soyyuktaksor) by G u j a r a t i g r a m m a r i a n s or are c a l l e d

tL^BciL^R. in

*$tv5L^L^ ( j o q a k s e r )

t h e t e a c h i n g of w r i t i n g i n s c h o o l s . of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s Sanskrit s e c t i o n .
1

The c o n s t r u c t i o n and

calligraphy the

in the Devanagari s c r i p t

i s described in

Gujarati conjunct

c h a r a c t e r s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d by

s i m i l a r methods, w i t h t h e s e i. Some c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

modifications' a r e f o r m e d by w r i t i n g two s e p a r a t i n g space, as in characters , kko. upright first part

together, without the usual i i . When c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s s t r o k e of t h e f i r s t

a r e f o r m e d by o m i t t i n g t h e

character^,

t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t of t h e than the f i r s t bbo.

c h a r a c t e r i s o f t e n w r i t t e n on a l o w e r l e v e l of the s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r , 1. as in

, gg , Q U O ^ , in Gujarati.

C o n t e x t s of C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s i. In G u j a r a t i w o r d s ,

occur i n Gujarati

in the f o l l o w i n g

contexts or

t h a t i s , w o r d s n o t borrowed from S a n s k r i t e.g.

from modern l a n g u a g e s ;

vSl^
qahyu bsccu

H^l
nkkii 2. ibid.,

&l
ci-|;t
n i i

1.

See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.3,1.

Ch.3,1.ii.

158

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

ii.

In S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e i t h e r words u s e d commonly i n or l e a r n e d words u s e d o n l y i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e ;

Gujarati, e.g.

pustok iii.

petr

iijvor e.g.

I n l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ;

rosto

gard^

s^e/on Gujarati. consist

2 . R e a l i s a t i o n of C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s i n

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s are r e a l i s e d i n r e a d i n g as s y l l a b l e s i n g o f two or more c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by a v o w e l .

When an okar c o n it is usual


1

j u n c t c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of a w o r d , l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an o - g l i d e , as in , jenm'

, %tX|J^^ ,

Jastr'.

The r e a l i s a t i o n i n modern G u j a r a t i of okar c o n s o n a n t with zero-vowel of s p e l l i n g . in certain positions i n words g i v e s r i s e

characters t o a problem

For i n s t a n c e , when a f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e b e g i n n i n g w i t h final realised is

a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e e n d i n g i n a okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , with zero^vowel. the f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e i s

T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e c o n s e c u t i v e c h a r a c t e r s Similar

s i m i l a r to the r e a l i s a t i o n of a conjunct c h a r a c t e r .

problems realis

a r i s e i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s , where an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s

ed w i t h z e r o - v o w e l b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , and i n compound words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t p a r t ends i n an okar c h a r a c t e r and t h e s e c o n d p a r t b e g i n s w i t h a c o n s o n a n t consonant character. of

Examples of s u c h words a r e g i v e n below w i t h t h e v a r i o u s c l a s s e s conjunct characters.

1 . See a b o v e , C h . 2 , l . a . and b . This g l i d e i s not r e p r e s e n t e d i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of words t o w h i c h t h i s r u l e a p p l i e s .

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS 3 . C l a s s e s of Conjunct C h a r a c t e r s in Gujarati.

159

The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g G u j a r a t i a r e

classified in

i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n t h e same way a s t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .


1

C o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s of a l l t h e c l a s s e s o n l y a few of t h e

occur

i n G u j a r a t i , hut i n some of t h e c l a s s e s are u s e d .

characters

Those which a r e u s e d i n w r i t i n g G u j a r a t i a r e shown by t h e in

examples g i v e n i n e a c h c l a s s , w h i c h i n c l u d e some S a n s k r i t loanwords f r e q u e n t u s e . Some of t h e r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t

sect

ion occur i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s a s l e a r n e d l o a n w o r d s , and t h e s e may be transcribed without d i f f i c u l t y Class 1 . Two s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s in Gujarati joined.^ this written characters.

Most of the c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e G u j a r a t i s y l l a b a r y o c c u r i n c l a s s , as 'doubled' c h a r a c t e r s . as The c h a r a c t e r f o r r-rre is

, the superscribed s t r o k e r e p r e s e n t i n g

preceding another

consonant-3, A c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g an a s p i r a t e d c o n s o n a n t i s n o t usually but


a n <

w r i t t e n as t h e f i r s t p a r t of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s c l a s s ; in Gujarati w r i t i n g the c h a r a c t e r s ^Jd^ , dhdho are o f t e n u s e d . , khkho , ^ -nno , "(; t and


n n 9

^ are

The c o m b i n a t i o n s

-mmo

r e p r e s e n t e d i n some words b y w r i t i n g t h e nusvar o v e r t h e preceding or ^ ; e.g.

character

sommoti

snnidhi

but

nn

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e consecutive consonant c h a r a c t e r s , 1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . 3 . See b e l o w , C l a s s 3 . i i i - a .

G u j a r a t i words i n which two realised

t h e f i r s t b e i n g kar, are Sanskrit,

2 . Cf.

Ch.3,3.Class 1 .

i6o

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

i n o r d i n a r y s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

characters:

^WllvSl
H

niHHl
P

OUA^
%

<Hkddl
?

ag-gaq^ii R e a d i n g examples^'i/sSi
@ c l

gam-ma

bhav-vu-'

behen-no

^tb>iX ygt ^ CHL H-*

a ^ j >

d A

eSWi

^e>l

u ^ v s

P*L.

H>S&L ftbrut w C^Hd


joined.

^Q*

(fedl
Sanskrit

Class 2.

Two v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s

The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s o c c u r f o r t h e most p a r t i n and o t h e r l o a n w o r d s .

Those w h i c h a r e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n w r i t i n g given

G u j a r a t i a r e g i v e n "below, i n t h e same g r o u p s a s t h e c h a r a c t e r s in the Sanskrit


u

section^.

6rl
-kto -tko

M
-pt

cH
-tp -bd in

ii.

Most of t h e c h a r a c t e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h o s e o f t h i s group t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n , under i i . a . , a r e w r i t t e n i n l i t e r a r y rati, r e p r e s e n t i n g homorganic n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s .

Guja

T h i s method of is

representing nasal consonants preceding v o r g i i y characters

g e n e r a l l y u s e d o n l y i n w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s . An a l t e r n a t i v e method, r e p r e s e n t i n g n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s of e a c h c l a s s by w r i t i n g t h e nusvar on t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r , h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ^ . Of t h e c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n under i i . b . , , jn and <?!,, - i n occur i n G u j a r a t i . The c h a r a c t e r often only ^

i s not c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y 1. i+. is 6.

a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r and i s

Compound word. 2 . Noun w i t h s u f f i x . 3 . Verbal form. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 9 . 5. The s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s e words formed from t h e D e v a n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r f o r d ; C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i . . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 2 . 7. See a b o v e , C h . 2 , 3 . i . b .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS included i n the s y l l a b a r y . In Gujarati

161

d i c t i o n a r i e s words b e g i n . ^jL i s

i n g w i t h 5[L a r e p l a c e d a f t e r w o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h o f t e n r e a l i s e d as iii. gye . of t h i s group occur in S a n s k r i t

Some of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

loanwords:

-kmo iv.

-gno

-ghn

-tmo

-dm

-pn though in

Of t h i s g r o u p , o n l y v^pi-L , -rjm? a literary

, -nm , o c c u r s i n G u j a r a t i ,

and l ^ H , , -nm text.

may o c c u r i n l e a r n e d l o a n w o r d s

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s

illustrate is

the r e a l i s a t i o n kar,

of

consecutive

consonant c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t junct c h a r a c t e r s :

i n t h e same way a s c o n -

UCfel
Jskti

SlScCl
Jsk-tii
1

^Vt
gupt

^Udl
ap-to
1

Reading examples^

(Ml&t

ctcSia UHc8lR. ^ V t ctrM*.

31c^>

A&L

Class 3 . Characters i.

joined w i t h ntsth M.

characters, . syllabary, except ^S* and forms

Characters j o i n e d w i t h f o l l o w i n g All the characters

of t h e G u j a r a t i Many o f t h e
a

>L occur in t h i s c l a s s . ^(X

characters

occur in verbal

i n which the s u f f i x

> n d other forms

of t h i s s u f f i x ,

a r e added t o final

t h e v e r b a l b a s e by j o i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e .

of the s u f f i x with the

1 . Verbal form. 3 . See S a n s k r i t ,

2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , Ch.3,3.Class 3 i .
M

see

p.169.

i6z

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

Reading e x a m p l e s ^ Q&AL ^fe ^>cMl cHL *IL*J

v^iej

dJ.Wl
^dHL GfclL

ai^i
16^ HvSHl H**l

*foi
6ltfl

HlrMl

%^
OU<>*4
ii. ^cu*4. xClW H-i^l Characters joined with f o l l o w i n g

^
8 ^ .2

6mJ
Hm^

iLeMl
Cl6i/rft

5H<S^l

Only a few o f t h e G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e combined w i t h these occur only i n S a n s k r i t loanwords.

, and

The r e a l i s a t i o n o f a f i n a l

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i n some compound words formed w i t h t h e words ^LUill 9 v a l a and cJJA , v a r , i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f c o n s e c i s o k a r , i n t h e same way a s

u t i v e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t conjunct c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s ; e . g . U&=Ll-*L pokvann Reading examples-^ ^6cllCs*i o^h'vad^iyu cjak'vala

* & H < m

J^Ll budh'var

som'var

iii. a.

Characters

joined with preceding


v

or f o l l o w i n g

preceding another

character.5

These c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e formed by p l a c i n g a s t r o k e known^ a s r e p h , above t h e c h a r a c t e r b e f o r e w h i c h i s t o be r e a l i s The p l a c e of

ed a s t h e f i r s t

o f two o r more c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t s .

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 9 . 3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 9 . see Sanskrit, C h . 2 , 1 . i i i .

2. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.3j.3-CI.3. i i . U. For t h e c h a r a c t e r * C , f , 5. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i i *

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

163

t h i s s t r o k e on G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s , w h e t h e r a k a r or w r i t t e n w i t h vowel s i g n s , corresponds with the p l a c e characters, of t h e s t r o k e on t h e Devanagari with


1

and t h e o r d e r o f w r i t i n g

the s t r o k e s of c h a r a c t e r s i n the Sanskrit i n Gujarati are

reph i s t h e same a s t h e o r d e r d e s c r i b e d The c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e r e a d i n g examples g i v e n below.

section . illustrated

The f o l l o w i n g words i l l u s t r a t e consonant c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t

the r e a l i s a t i o n is okar,

of

consecutive con

i n t h e same way a s

junct c h a r a c t e r s w r i t t e n w i t h r e p h a r e

realised:

6dl
korta

6*.dl
kor-ta^

^LH
dharm ghar-m3

dt
varn.

P&l^Ct
nisar'nii

Reading examples**"

dS

<H?t

*dOfd

H*tl

oUit-t

\ d

<=td-t

*H&

b.

f o l l o w i n g another

character. stroke

These c h a r a c t e r s a r e f o r m e d b y w r i t i n g a s h o r t , d i a g o n a l either a g a i n s t the u p r i g h t s t r o k e c h a r a c t e r . 5 Two c h a r a c t e r s similar of a c h a r a c t e r ,

or b e l o w a rounded are for class

t o t h e Devanagari c h a r a c t e r s ^ for do , and > i .

used i n forming t h e s e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s : Jo .6 The examples g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e

the characters of t h i s and E n g l i s h

which o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i , m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t Reading e x a m p l e s 7

loanwords.

#i
V)i 1. 3. 5. 7.

Sid
W&l *H1?A&

V U S d *Ut d*l

Jty URlL

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 - C I . 3 . i i i . a. C a l l i g r a p h y . 2 , Verbal form. Noun w i t h s u f f i x . L. F o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 . Cf.Sanskrit,Ch.3,3.CI.3.iii.b. 6. i b i d . , C h . 2 , 1 . i . and i i i . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 .

164

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

i v . Characters with preceding

or f o l l o w i n g

.1 Gujarati

The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s w h i c h a r e u s e d i n w r i t i n g are i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e r e a d i n g examples g i v e n below. a. preceding. Characters with preceding Q e x c e p t i n a few S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s .

are not u s u a l l y w r i t t e n in Gujarati Some words a r e w r i t t e n e i t h e r w i t h ,

a conjunct c h a r a c t e r or w i t h s e p a r a t e c h a r a c t e r s , such as bolke , or <H<&>-t>al'ke. In r e p r e s e n t i n g c o l l o q u i a l s p e e c h forms i n modern G u j a r a t i , character for b. i s s o m e t i m e s w r i t t e n f o r (^J^ , a s , loher , and o t h e r s i m i l a r w o r d s . in

the

following. C h a r a c t e r s combined w i t h f o l l o w i n g Q occur mainly i n S a n s k r i t

and E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s . The f o l l o w i n g w o r d s i l l u s t r a t e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s class: the r e a l i s a t i o n of consecutive

i s o k a r , i n t h e same way a s c o n

bil'kul Reading e x a m p l e s
2

voT/gonii

bod'lii

am'lii

ftti*t ae-L-ii
Me^is

ate&
&AI

*<=ieu vsaiu ^euu

Kie-i

1 . Cf. S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l . 3 . i v . a . 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 .

and b .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS C l a s s U' v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s characters. i. a. vorgiiy characters $X > H


o r

165

j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g uusm

joined with

>

*H. ^

preceding a vorgiiy

character. in

The c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i , m o s t l y

S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w . The f o r m a t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s is similar t o the f o r m a t i o n of the Deva ^ for ^ 3 . 1 , and

n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s , u s i n g t h e form " C ^ 3 f b. ^ or ^
o r

u s i n g t h e form

5^

when c o m b i n e d w i t h character.

following a vorgiiy

Only a few of t h e G u j a r a t i which occur a r e i l l u s t r a t e d

characters

occur i n t h i s c l a s s .

Those

i n the examples below.

The c h a r a c t e r often

> kso , i s not c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e G u j a r a t i vornomala.^placed i n Gujarati d i c t i o n a r i e s

a c o n j u n c t c n a r a c t e r and i s

Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h i s a r e .

a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h the realisation is akar of

The f o l l o w i n g words i l l u s t r a t e consonant c h a r a c t e r s , conjunct c h a r a c t e r s :

consecutive

when t h e f i r s t '

, i n t h e same way a s

HlUdX
nuk'san The c h a r a c t e r
n a s - t o 5

'lftwl_
bhs-no6

fedUHl
dives-ma? represent

is written

i n some words for^RQS t o o f s u c h words a s

the p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n modern G u j a r a t i a n d ^ Y , sahej (^Y).

(d

S 9 n e l

1 . Cf. S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s k . i . a . and b . 2. i b i d . , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i . 3. i b i d . , C h . 2 , l . i . ca-vargah, U. G f . n o t e on $t under C 1 . 2 . i i . b . 5.. Verbal form. 6. Noun w i t h s u f f i x . 7 . Noun w i t h p a r t i c l e .

i66

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

Reading examples^

y^<a
W l
fe-H^L ii. a.

W l

3I

<t*d,

R.*rtl
Wfcd
g^t

*U3*l

**Cl

SkCd

GttfcSUl

^ H ^ L

^L^rd

(^Hil

preceding-or f o l l o w i n g onunasik ( ' n a s a l ' ) preceding. Two c h a r a c t e r s occur with preceding

characters .

(6 , i n the Sanskrit l o a n s

words CtyUl brahmon, , and p j . ^ , c ihn b. following. The characters which occur with f o l l o w i n g tbe examples given below. The c h a r a c t e r s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n and V( are sometimes

w r i t t e n t o represent t h e tendency t o a s p i r a t i o n i n some words i n c o l l o q u i a l speech. Reading examples 3

-<*l%

U L ^ [*U&]

d ^ [tih]

Gujarati prose passaged

5*1 t*i <tR r l d l cl^lDl

*dtWU M l VLv^d

&

rld^

*Y, ^iRdL

cldl

#ldl,

^ Y d R l - H

^ d r l Gdl^ld UeT y l R , ^ l C d l R l - f l vlvS^Cl <d^l A

^ I d ^ U s

^ L L ^ =dil^ ctl i ^ d l M V

U&4%A

&

dfe;

"ideOA

<dl<tdRt

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 . 2. C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s U. i i . 3. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 7 0 . k Sarpha Jodnikosh, by Maganlal Prabhudas Desai, Uth e d . 19U9, p . 1 6 , pub. Navajivan Prakashan Mandir, Ahmedabad.

C O N J U N C T

CHARACTERS

167

*k

(k^vSl

ctU^-Cl >.
fcQA

rL VCVIHL

W t d d

d R l \<=Udl

rlLC^lHR l 4 l

<H*Adl H^l.

SidlA

cHL 9lvS^dHL * d U Y 5 d l
YtvS^d ^HdHL-H fctftUH @<Hvl

*d5to

(RlRlAl

*4J& %ii &, AMI


^ ( A

Vto^QAl ^IL^iclHL
<=LR

<dA Rd**U

e>.
Ufc/l

5HUVrLLHl4l

HfcF

R e T aAdik

^UAL-il

Vldl&

Hl-H

(A^eildl ^HH^ (A&fcHt

HUieiHl

V Y tR "ORI

d&l

e>.
3d

=i>id *UR

Y d ! e>

(AHIH!

*td-d

9ui>d
d * d A

<=txk
d l M ^ l HO d .

^HAHl-M-

d M ^ & l A

=*l(dlA

^LaU^bd

H f c f Y L H >

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f R e a d i n g Examples Chapter 2. 1.1. ghon jho-j; bdn jomer^ no pg gho<^ pk4 beged^ ch nakh dhon
jo dho

tok

cec[ thed^ mdd dhemek

me^h dom cmn depe^ Dhe-fpo ];


-

kkh ben phs^sk tenekh

hh.Qi{

ph1;
teged^ bhejen
-

ch-|;h jed^

cjheg pen_

jhecjep nogod

gomen peahen

dhod^'por^ l.ii. lecek reved^ kel'ter 1. i i i . lese^


s e m
1

bho-Ji'kon

cek'mek lekh char ghor jhol jheror^ yeven

bed^'che !; rej kol vekhet pelokh tor'tej dej yoj rev cay

gej'ken leg bher vey joy

roth yov

per loy

khol ver

bor red^

cheler vered

veredh leger;

bherec[ corek led^'ken^

reten peven

;tereph bhereri

leg'bheg res helek Je"|;h seres

poster sedh

deph'ter ser heren^


1

Jon,

hes Jepeth

Jet phenes

herekh

semey her'kot kernel

j e n _

J e r ' b e t

sar'ke-j; ba^ad ao ap
e

.kes'ret dhevel eo e<]h ri^ e v s e d h ogh geii jeiie Da ghii

veket ser per'vel . hel'ke-j;

p h e X

d e l

h&\.

2.1. is uucek 2.1i.

a uun iya"t mau ke

e ek uu~J;h leii sev


n i i k

d e i i

aj ubheq deiie te ca

ev^h iijf leiie je bhuu dho jii

che

Jejh roj t duudh lok ruup ciij drdh hit jay god lav nehi behu mehe pechii aje uubho uge apo rsi rtu seve teo bhaii chiie juo boyrii golo varu peyso iriuke rajii pelo divo krpa vise nijale ujanii ruupiyo tabedarii hojiyarii bhaioe P.1U9. pay'Iii cheter peser ek'tha ap'ne jem'rukh c h e f re pes'riine bek'rii pay'del nek'jo pog'lii al'su ko^'val guj ratii
f

kos'bii koseb'cor

cheter-vii pesor-vii

peked^ pek'cjo pekecj-vo mok'lii mokal-vii

TRANSCRIPTION 3.i. ii. pa badh anand hu kii bhoy ph:k khc sSj jhakh tevaj madu. pehoc vl^ii jsntu vssant msr^ endor uugh thau" slic llba gmba

169 bhes somp

kenjus

Chapter 3 Glass 1 . nokkii lokk&d^ cokkho l a g g u v s c c e beccu i c c h a goccho S9jj9d_ ujjhotli chu-J;t tt citt khsd^o p i t t g T , p o t t h g r muddgl buddhi oddho grins cgppu bebbe h i m m 9 t reyygt chello hSliii hisso
D h 9 i i h i i

Class 2.
l 9 g n

bhgkti rukmir^ii sembgndh jpan Class 3 - i -

jukti

t 9 t k a l j 9 n m

C 9 m 9 t k a r

rgrjg

gupt sundgr

t 9 t p a r

pgnth

Jebd argmbh

ygtn pgrgntu

kyare / 9 k y o khyalu fiakhyo lagyu sughyu slicyo puchyo jyare k h o j y u suujhyu chu^yo uuthyu p9d_yo kadjiyo bher|yo jiityo tya athyu vidya / o d h y o medhye manyo nyay p y a r e apyfl haphyo dgbyCf t h o b h y u gamyu s u u r y kgryo b o l y o avyu bhavyu 9V9/y piir'syu monusy kshyu" rnelyu n i k g l y o 9drJ"y Class 3 . i t . settv svgpn prthvii dve/ serv dhvgni ii/vsr tottvsjjian vi/vas sv9bhav

Class 3 i i t a. trk muurkh vidyarthii n i r b. krom from


d 9 y

vorg srjit g e r j s n a v e r n o n puurr^ v a r t s n 9 erdhu rpgr^ d h s n n d 9 r m i y k h e r v puurve hors prarjii trsri irjgrejii n 9 m
r

r t h

r a t r cgndr sgmudr prem Jravar^ agreh trabu

triiju Jukrovar prsmane bhramor

Class 3 - i v . phalgun k 9 Jlok klej* Class U.i. a/cory dust P ?t pustgk Jastr s t r i l stheT, rast
krs:q
9 p s 9 r a
s s

l p g n a

klas

kolha glas

k 9 l h 9 i i

sv^lp

Jilp

pralhad

slet

a. m e / k a r l i paj"cim ce/ma pejcattap p u s k 9 \ duskorm r a s t r vostu rssto sthiti tiroskar sgrrjskrt smeror^ b. p o r i i k s a
r 9 k s 9 r ^

Qksar

Igksmoi;

insaph

170 Class nhavu U.ii. samhe ( s a m e ) passage

GUJARATI

SECTION

tamhe

(tome)

Gujarati prose

jod^onii J a s t r o p u u t h o y , b o h o T i i J i s t ruuq^hine bodhu jeflu

e n u s e r o t i i hoy, jevii

e hoy

a v o j y o k c h e tefrCL j , e'thova t e n a k a r ' t a y e , thaii

t e v i i poi\ jocjanii behujonomany one n i j c i t che. a j e ongre j i i b h a s a n i i

j a y , e vodhare

avojyok

joc|onii bodhii r i i t e

J a s t r o j u d d h che em che.

to kehevayo j n e h i ; k e f l i i y e

b a b o t - m a e cjhangadhacja. v a g a r - n i i

pan_ t e p r o j a - m a sanga-|;han t a t h a t a l i i m ' b a d h a t a hovane l i i d h e jocjonii-ma a r a j a k a t a p h e l a v a pamii n a t h i i . sarvamany t h a i i c u k i i c h e , lakhan_ jad^ii ave c h e . gaii e f l e thaii tethii angrejii bhasanii

ty jod^anii

jod^aniinil b a b e t - m a badhe ekMharu' vyavastha utpann thaii

ek v a r a r a j a k a t a - m S t h i i

p a c h i i s u d h a r a k a r v a j h o y t o t e kam prama^-ma ghanu s a h e l u

jay che. sudharano p r a v a h a many v i k a l p o n i i moryada-mg j v a h i i Joke c h e .

vakhot

j a t a v i k a l p o - m a amuk j a t - n i i

jod^anii j vadbare ruud^h t h a y che

ane b i i j a v i k a l p o avamahy na hoy topan_ v a p a r a j - n e abha've k a l a g r a s t thaii j a y che ane k h a r i i pacje c h e .

BENGALI
PREPARED IN

SECTION
WITH

COLLABORATION

MISS G. M. SUMMERS
formerly Lecturer in Bengali in the Studies School of Oriental University and African of London

1.

C H A P T E R ! ARRANGEMENT OP THE SYLLABARY

The B e n g a l i s c r i p t ,

a s a w r i t i n g s y s t e m , i s "based on t h e same The c h a r a c t e r s of the

s y l l a b i c system as the Devanagari s c r i p t .

s y l l a b a r y are a r r a n g e d i n t h e same w a y , and t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s seem a t f i r s t s i g h t t o be very d i f f e r e n t i n l i n e and recognis-

form from t h o s e of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t , a b l y of t h e same o r i g i n .

some o f them a r e

The same s y s t e m o f n o t a t i o n i s u s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n f o r t h e s c r i p t i o n of t h e B e n g a l i s c r i p t a s t h a t u s e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t and i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e modern l a n g u a g e s w h i c h a r e w i t h t h e Devanagari s c r i p t . As i n t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t ,

tran

section,

written each

c h a r a c t e r of t h e B e n g a l i s c r i p t r e p r e s e n t s a s y l l a b l e

consisting vowel of the

e i t h e r of a vowel or o f a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d b y t h e f i r s t vowel s e r i e s . This v o w e l , in Bengali as in Sanskrit, 'inherent' vowel.

is usually

refer to

red t o i n E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s a s t h e

In r e f e r r i n g the

a consonant c h a r a c t e r o f t h e B e n g a l i s y l l a b a r y ,

or i n r e c i t i n g

s y l l a b a r y , the inherent vowel i s , h o w e v e r , t h e vowel which i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e p h o n e t i c symbol 'o'. In order to p r e s e r v e

usually uniform

i t y i n t h e s y s t e m a t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s work t h e symbol
T

i s used in t h i s s e c t i o n to r e p r e s e n t

t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l , and a s sounds

t h e r e are v a r i o u s o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s

i n t h e q u a l i t y of vowel

used i n r e a l i s i n g t h e B e n g a l i c h a r a c t e r s , t h e s y s t e m a t i c

transcription

174

B E N G A L I

S E C T I O N

i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s accompanied, both i n the examples g i v e n in t e x t and i n t h o s e g i v e n f o r p r a c t i c e i n r e a d i n g , by a p h o n e t i c scription. The p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n i n b r a c k e t s t o

the tran dis

t i n g u i s h i t from t h e s y s t e m a t i c roman t r a n s c r i p t i o n . I n t h e roman s y l l a b a r y g i v e n b e l o w , t h e s y l l a b l e s a r e in the table i n the systematic t r a n s c r i p t i o n used in the syllabary. For t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n a l represented Sanskrit

characters phonetic All-India

w h i c h do n o t o c c u r i n t h e S a n s k r i t s y l l a b a r y , transcription,

and f o r t h e

the f o l l o w i n g symbols, not included in the section:-

Roman N o t a t i o n , a r e u s e d i n t h i s i. S y s t e m a t i c roman n o t a t i o n .

po and ph , f o r t h e r e t r o f l e x f l a p p e d c o n s o n a n t s , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e s c r i p t b y m o d i f i e d forms of t h e c h a r a c t e r s to 4 and cjh .


1

in

corresponding

y , f o r t h e m o d i f i e d form of t h e c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o 2 and r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s w a y s , d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter nj , f o r t h e m o d i f i e r r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e ii. Phonetic notation. nusvar.3 2.

y ,

( o ) , f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e i n h e r e n t vowel i n most (as) , f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n , in certain contexts,

contexts. tran in

of t h e v o w e l

s c r i b e d i n roman n o t a t i o n a s special contexts,

a ; and f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n , e .

of the vowel t r a n s c r i b e d as

(")', s u p e r s c r i b e d t o vowel symbols, t o r e p r e s e n t (*), to represent

nasalisation. medially,

t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l , o r a s z e r o - v o w e l , "in c e r t a i n ibid., l.ii. ntsth y.

a s an - g l i d e , 1 . See C h . 2 , l . i . 2.

positions. 3 . See Ch.2,3.ii.

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY B e n g a l i S y l l a b a r y i n Roman N o t a t i o n 1 Velar ka kha 2 Palatal ca cha


J
9

75

CONSONANTS w i t h Voiceless

Retro flex t
9

Dental ta tha da

5 Labial pa pha ba bha ma va**

Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated

C Q C D > H C Q O

tha

o
H O >

$
dha
2 1

H
P H

Aspirated

gha

Jha (p-o)
3

dha na la sa

Nasal Semivowels Fricatives Aspirate VOWELS MODIFIERS i

ya-' jfa ha ii

ra sa^

uu

ay

av

N a s a l - nj and

Aspirated - h table:

Notes on t h e s y l l a b l e s marked 1 - 6 i n t h e above

1 . The c h a r a c t e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e two s y l l a b l e s a r e m o d i f i e d to represent the medial and f i n a l as f l a p p e d s o u n d s , w r i t t e n a s pa r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e s e characters

and pha i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n .

2. The c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s y l l a b l e i s n o t w r i t t e n a s a s i n g l e character i n B e n g a l i , b u t only i n combination with c h a r a c t e r s , i l l u s t r a t e d b e l o w i n Chapter 3. other

176

B E N G A L I

S E C T I O N

3.

As t h e c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s y l l a b l e

i s always

realised

i n t h e same way a s t h e c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o form o f i t i s used to represent character, y

j , a m o d i f i e d The u s e and t r a n

in certain contexts.
!

of t h i s m o d i f i e d

r e f e r r e d t o a s 'ntsth y ,

s c r i b e d i n t h i s work a s h.

y , i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter

2.2.ii. the

The c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s y l l a b l e character corresponding to the s y l l a b l e b .

i s t h e same a s

5.

The c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s y l l a b l e Sanskrit loanwords. syllabic r

occurs only

in

6.

This v o w e l ,

, occurs only in Sanskrit

loanwords. same used

The c h a r a c t e r s

of t h e Eengali s c r i p t

are arranged i n the

groups as the s y l l a b l e s

g i v e n i n t h e above t a b l e ,

and t h e t e r m s and t h e i r

by B e n g a l i grammarians i n d e s c r i b i n g

the characters

realis

a t i o n in reading are s i m i l a r to those given in the Sanskrit These t e r m s a r e S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , ing, t h e same c o n v e n t i o n s

section. read

and when t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d i n

a r e o b s e r v e d a s t h o s e u s e d i n modern somewhat d i f f e r e n t

Bengali from are

r e a d i n g from a t e x t . the Sanskrit terms, p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e , examples i l l u s t r a t e sets

They s o u n d , t h e r e f o r e ,

t h o u g h when t h e S a n s k r i t and t h e B e n g a l i t e r m s t h e y are r e c o g n i s a b l e as loanwords. the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s The

following two

between the

of t e r m s , i n s c r i p t ^T^TR" lo) \m*.

and i n s y s t e m a t i c

and p h o n e t i c ksr,, viram vrg

transcription: (okkhor) (biram)

Sanskrit

ksrm viramoh

B e n g a l i ^SJ^^f v|

(borgo) (ontostho)

^FcT^ST ^^"{T
5 2

ontshsth uusman

vs>| ^"^J ^5$*7

antastha uusm

(u/J"8)

T ^ R

vyajijanam

vyejijsn (been j on)

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY Bengali Calligraphy. ordinary pens are

177

In t h e modern t e a c h i n g o f B e n g a l i w r i t i n g , g e n e r a l l y u s e d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y l i t t l e

a t t e n t i o n i s paid to the b a l Formerly, however,

ance or d i r e c t i o n of t h e b r o a d and t h i n s t r o k e s .

w r i t i n g was t a u g h t w i t h a b r o a d p e n s u c h a s t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . position of t h e b r o a d and t h i n s t r o k e s


1

Though t h e

relative

i s n o t s o s t r i c t l y adhered t o the general notes. each

in w r i t i n g Bengali as i n w r i t i n g the Devanagari s c r i p t ,

d i r e c t i o n of them i s t h e same a s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h o s e There i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l character? the f i r s t order of w r i t i n g the strokes i n

s t r o k e i n w r i t i n g m o s t of t h e

characters

b e g i n s a t t h e t o p l e f t hand s i d e and t h e l a s t s t r o k e b r i n g s t h e p e n t o the t o p r i g h t hand s i d e s o t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p a s s s t r a i g h t on I f a c h a r a c t e r has a h o r i z o n at

t o the b e g i n n i n g of t h e n e x t c h a r a c t e r .

t a l h e a d - s t r o k e , or i s c o m p l e t e d w i t h a s h o r t h o r i z o n t a l s t r o k e t h e top r i g h t hand s i d e , t o the f i r s t

t h i s s t r o k e i s w r i t t e n l a s t and c a r r i e d on

s t r o k e of t h e n e x t c h a r a c t e r i n a word; when s u c h a hand s i d e of the c h a r a c t e r , 'matra'. it is written

s t r o k e i s p l a c e d on t h e l e f t first.

This h e a d - s t r o k e i s r e f e r r e d t o as the

The pen s h o u l d consecutive if the ruled

be l i f t e d as r a r e l y a s p o s s i b l e

i n w r i t i n g a c h a r a c t e r , or

characters. A l l the c h a r a c t e r s are w r i t t e n below the l i n e , paper i s u s e d , and t h e r e g u l a r a l i g n m e n t i s by t h e t o p of characters.

The p r i n t e d forms of t h e c h a r a c t e r s , g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e s Chapter 2 , are n o t u s u a l l y u s e d i n m a n u s c r i p t .

in

The c o r r e s p o n d i n g are g i v e n below the

c u r s i v e forms of t h e c h a r a c t e r s , u s e d i n w r i t i n g , 1 . See S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n , Introduction.


N

178

B E N G A L I

S E C T I O N

p r i n t e d f o r m s , w i t h n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y when n e c e s s a r y . g i v e n "below i l l u s t r a t e characters,

The e x a m p l e s the

the g e n e r a l order of s t r o k e s i n w r i t i n g

some t y p i c a l f o r m s , and t h e s m a l l "but i m p o r t a n t

differ of

e n c e s t o he n o t e d b e t w e e n c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h have some s i m i l a r i t y form.

i \5

>
V
v5

& m

C H A P T E R CHARACTERS OP THE

2 SYLLABARY

The B e n g a l i c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t l j i s c h a p t e r under same h e a d i n g s a s t b e D e v a n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r s in the Sanskrit

the

section:

Consonant C h a r a c t e r s , Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and S i g n s , and M o d i f i e r s . * 1. Consonant C h a r a c t e r s . The c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e a r r a n g e d i n t h r e e g r o u p s : ( b o r g i y o ) c h a r a c t e r s , ntssth ( o n t o s t h o ) characters. vorgiiy

c h a r a c t e r s , and uusm(uj*j6) syllabary, consonant

In t h e form i n w h i c h t h e y a r e g i v e n i n t h e c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l

they are r e a l i s e d a s s y l l a b l e s

f o l l o w e d by t h e f i r s t v o w e l o f t h e v o w e l s e r i e s , r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e roman t a b l e a s that i s , . The c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d a s 'kar' (okar), syllable for

' e n d i n g i n ' . Each c h a r a c t e r i s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e '-kar';

which i t r e p r e s e n t s , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c l e example, k-kar, t - k a r , p - k a r .

When a c h a r a c t e r i s t o b e

realised the the

without the inherent vowel, t h a t i s ,

a s t h e c o n s o n a n t e l e m e n t of i s w r i t t e n a t t h e f o o t of

s y l l a b l e only, a short diagonal s t r o k e character. This mark i s c a l l e d

'hsnt' ( h o / o n t o ) is

, and c h a r a c t e r s 'k-e h o s s n t ' In

w r i t t e n w i t h t h i s mark a r e r e f e r r e d t o t h u s : ^5 (ko-e ho/onto)^, 9^ is ' g - e hsnt


!

( g o - e h o / o n t o ) , and s o on.

r e a d i n g w o r d s , kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s

1. Compare S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n , C h a p t e r 2 . 2 . ' e n d i n g i n a c o n s o n a n t ' . Cf. S a n s k r i t C h . 2 . 1 . v i r a m e h and hlnt. 3 . 'hsssnt i n k'. See a l s o b e l o w , u n d e r i .

180

BENGALI

SECTION

c o n t e x t s with z e r o - v o w e l , hut the hosonto i s not u s u a l l y w r i t t e n with such c h a r a c t e r s i n modern B e n g a l i , a s i t i s assumed t h a t t h e reader characters the zero-

can r e c o g n i s e from a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e w h i c h a r e t o b e r e a l i s e d i n t h i s way. In some v e r b a l forms

, however,

hosonto i s o f t e n w r i t t e n w i t h c h a r a c t e r s t h a t are r e a l i s e d w i t h v o w e l , and i t i s used in writing Sanskrit texts in Bengali

script. how with

The a b s e n c e o f t h e h o s o n t o i n a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r c a n n o t , e v e r , b e t a k e n t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t o be r e a l i s e d

t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l . A l t h o u g h t h e w r i t i n g s y s t e m o f B e n g a l i h a s much i n common w i t h t h e S a n s k r i t w r i t i n g s y s t e m , owing t o i t s o r i g i n , t h e u s e of a system so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the S a n s k r i t system f o r w r i t i n g a modern s p o k e n l a n g u a g e makes n e c e s s a r y a number o f c o n v e n t i o n s b o t h o f s p e l l i n g and of r e a l i s i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n r e a d i n g . Some of these The are

c o n v e n t i o n s c o n c e r n t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s . Bengali consonant c h a r a c t e r s , as they are given i n the s y l l a b a r y , realised, a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , i n t h e same way a s t h e S a n s k r i t

charact

e r s . When t h e y o c c u r i n w o r d s , h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s ways: as consonants w i t h the inherent vowel, as consonants w i t h v o w e l , or a s c o n s o n a n t s w i t h a g l i d e - v o w e l . Further, the zero-

inherent realis realis of first

v o w e l , r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s y s t e m a t i c roman n o t a t i o n by o , i s ed i n some c o n t e x t s a s ( o ) and i n o t h e r s a s ( o ) . This varying

a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s depends upon c e r t a i n f a c t o r s which a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n i s g i v e n i n the n o t e s f o l l o w i n g the t a b l e o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s - ^ and i n s p e c i a l n o t e s i n t h e

discussion

1 . These v e r b a l f o r m s a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , under i i . 2 . R u l e s r e c o g n i s e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e w r i t i n g of t h e h o s o n t o a r e g i v e n i n t h e B e n g a l i d i c t i o n a r y 1^4*1 ( c o l o n t i k a ) , a p p e n d i x , page 3 8 , s u b - s e c t i o n 1+. 3 . See b e l o w , u n d e r i . , R e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s .


t

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY of vowel c h a r a c t e r s and vowel s i g n s ! . k t


u

181 text

reading a Bengali

the r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n many words c a n b e o n l y by a knowledge o f t h e s p o k e n i. language.

determined

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e v o r g i i y g r o u p ( This group c o n s i s t s o f t w e n t y f i v e consonant characters represent

i n g s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l

p l o s i v e c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by into five classes, The t a b l e of

the i n h e r e n t v o w e l . These c h a r a c t e r s f a l l vorg3, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f i v e p o s i t i o n s

of a r t i c u l a t i o n .

of t h e s e f i v e c l a s s e s may be compared w i t h t h e S a n s k r i t t a b l e vorgiiy consonant characters.

Jko-vorg^ k kh g

1
gh c ch 3"
9

5 c-vrg jh -ji

I *f t-vrg

ft

i
th th

u
a ;
<th -n
9

t-vrg t
M p-vrg * f

*r
d dh n

*r
P

\
b bh m

ph

1 . See b e l o w , under 2 , i i . l.i. 3. (borgo).Cf. S a n s k r i t ,

2. ( b o r g i y o ) . C f . S a n s k r i t , Ch.2. Ch.2,l.i. U. ( k o - b o r g o , e t c . ) .

182

BENGALI

SECTION printing.

The c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h i s t a b l e a r e t h o s e used, i n The c o r r e s p o n d i n g c u r s i v e f o r m s , u s e d i n h a n d w r i t i n g ,

are g i v e n below.

The c u r s i v e forms d i f f e r from t h e p r i n t e d forms m a i n l y i n an a d a p t a t i o n of t h e o r d e r and d i r e c t i o n of s t r o k e s t h a t makes i t p o s s i b l e to

j o i n e a c h c h a r a c t e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r by means of a s m a l l head-strokel. The o r d e r o f s t r o k e s i s g i v e n w i t h any c h a r a c t e r in itself.

w h i c h t h i s o r d e r i s n o t e v i d e n t from t h e form of t h e c h a r a c t e r ko-vorgo: ce-vorge: to-vorgo: ta-vorgo: po-vergo:


Calligraphy ko jhe dho ~| < ^ of % characters: <^ cho

a*
6

<5

r
b
f

So

\S
V

Xho
IVf
or < ^

6
3V
C5

pe

<f

Calligraphy

of words :

f7

*fv5

T=f

Characters w r i t t e n w i t h the hosonto: The h o s o n t o i s n o t w r i t t e n w i t h

, k-

v J , Q t-

Tjf , m- . without referred

\*) , t o . The c o n s o n a n t ^ to). 2.


2

a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l i s r e p r e s e n t e d as to as 1. '^fCS khr]c}a teCkhoijcjo Ch.l.

. This c h a r a c t e r i s

See n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y ,

( k h o ^ o t o ) , 'broken

to'

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY The c h a r a c t e r m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y the h o s o n t o . The c h a r a c t e r combination w i t h o t h e r The c h a r a c t e r , jia , o c c u r s o n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , characters^. in $ rja , d o e s n o t o c c u r i n i t i a l l y , b u t i t

183

occurs

i n a few B e n g a l i words and i s o f t e n w r i t t e n w i t h

"| , n e , i s r e a l i s e d a s ( n o ) , e x c e p t when i t 2
8 _ V 8 r

is

combined w i t h c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e t l o a n w o r d s , and n e v e r The c h a r a c t e r initially.

I t occurs only in Sanskrit

3J , pho , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d a s a b i - l a b i a l it i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d as a p l o s i v e .

f r i c a t i v e . When s t r e s s e d , The c h a r a c t e r \5

, bho , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d a s a p l o s i v e when final. initially. These

i n i t i a l , b u t a s a b i - l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e when m e d i a l or The two c h a r a c t e r s \5" , cLo and Jy , djio

occur only

Modified forms of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s

o c c u r m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y .

cjo-e Juunyo po- . They a r e u s u a l l y p l a c e d a t t h e end o f t h e b e i n g r e g a r d e d a s s e p a r a t e c h a r a c t e r s from v5 and ]jf .

vornomala,

R e a l i s a t i o n of t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l i n akar c o n s o n a n t

characters. k

The r e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n v a r i o u s w a y s , according to the p o s i t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r i n a w o r d , and i n special

phonetic c o n t e x t s , f o l l o w s c e r t a i n g e n e r a l r u l e s .

Some of t h e s e c o n

t e x t s can be d e f i n e d o n l y by a d e t a i l e d p h o n e t i c s t u d y of t h e spoken l a n g u a g e , and numerous e x c e p t i o n s occur. The r u l e s s t a t e d below reading. will,

however, g i v e some g e n e r a l g u i d a n c e f o r

1. See Ch.3,3*Class 2 . i i . b . 2 . i b i d . , Class 2 . i i . a . 3. (dja-e /unno p o ) , ' i n 40 a d o t , p a ' , i . e . t h e pa w r i t t e n by adding a dot t o 40 . U. F u r t h e r n o t e s on t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of okar consonant c h a r a c t e r s i n s p e c i a l c o n t e x t s a r e g i v e n b e l o w , under i i i . , and under 2 . i i .

184 a. Initial akar c o n s o n a n t

BENGALI

SECTION

characters. i s usually r e a l i s e d with , kob(kob) , u n l e s s the when (o), the

An i n i t i a l vowel

akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r sf^

( o ) , as i n

, g o c ( g o c ) , ^j^f

character

i s f o l l o w e d hy a f i n a l

n a s a l consonant c h a r a c t e r ,

the i n i t i a l

okar c h a r a c t e r i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h t h e v o w e l

as i n \ g p ^ , jan( j o n ) . b. Medial akar c o n s o n a n t i. characters.1 characters, vowel

M e d i a l akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n words o f t h r e e is

.of w h i c h t h e f i n a l (o), ii. a s i n "^STpSl

akar, are u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h the > nagad(nogod) .


2

, kadam(kodom) , ^ f l ^

M e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r o f a or w i t h

four character word, are often r e a l i s e d with z e r o - v o w e l , an o - g l i d e , a s i n ^^SXJ^? , ckmk(cok'mok)3.

Two c o n s e c u t i v e the

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s vowel ( o ) . . . c. P i n a l akar c o n s o n a n t i.

are not u s u a l l y b o t h r e a l i s e d w i t h

characters. with

P i n a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n many words as i n "x ^* , ct(co{) , , kb(kob).5

zero-vowel, ii. Pinal

kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n some words (o). This r e a l i s a t i o n o c c u r s i n words of certain

w i t h the vowel 1. 2. 3. 1+. 5.

T h i s n o t e r e f e r s t o w o r d s c o n s i s t i n g of kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s o n l y ; f u r t h e r n o t e s a r e g i v e n b e l o w , under 2 . i i . , f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n words i n w h i c h v o w e l s i g n s o c c u r . See S . K . C h a t t e r j i , v3t^t5J^K "^hftcTf <T5t^ T bhasapreka/ bangala vyaksrsn, p p . 3 2 f f . ; pub. C a l c u t t a U n i v e r s i t y , 1939For t h e method u s e d i n t h e p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f m e d i a l and f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s i n words t o w h i c h t h e s e n o t e s r e f e r , s e e a b o v e , C h . l . , and b e l o w , a f t e r n o t e c . For t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f kar c h a r a c t e r s i n compound w o r d s , s e e n o t e c. below. Final c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel are not u s u a l l y w r i t t e n w i t h t h e h e s s n t . T h i s mark i s u s e d i n n o t e s a. and b . t o s i m p l i f y the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of examples o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e the r e a l i s a t i o n of final characters i s discussed.
r

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY grammatical c a t e g o r i e s , s u m m a r i s e d later-*-; and i n c e r t a i n other

185

w o r d s , u s u a l l y words o f two c h a r a c t e r s , w h i c h c a n be o n l y by a knowledge o f s p o k e n B e n g a l i , \S"5[ e . g . ^S"\5

recognised

, kote(koto).

, teme( t o m o ) . When s u c h w o r d s o c c u r a s t h e f i r s t p a r t of a character, t h o u g h m e d i a l i n t h e compound


2

compound word, t h e f i n a l

word, i s s t i l l r e a l i s e d i n t h i s

way.

The word TF^ , mote , i s r e a l i s e d i n two w a y s , t h e same w r i t t e n form r e p r e s e n t i n g two w o r d s o f d i f f e r e n t meaning i n t h e spoken l a n g u a g e : ^ r \ 5 and TT\5 , (moto), > (mot), 'idea', 'like*. vowels also 'opinion ,
1

or

'purpose',

'similar',

As t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s w i t h t h e

( o ) and ( o ) v a r i e s n o t o n l y i n t h e c o n t e x t s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , b u t

i n some o t h e r c o n t e x t s w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d l a t e r 3 , and some w h i c h c a n not be d e f i n e d by any g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t , the f o l l o w i n g system i s used

i n t h e p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s i n t h i s work: a) I n i t i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h ( o ) with ( o ) , according t o n o t e a. above. with or

b) Medial akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s a s y l l a b l e the inherent vowel are t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h (o) according to note b. w i t h an e - g l i d e or w i t h (.0) ,

above; t h o s e r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel (k'),(p').

or

are t r a n s c r i b e d t h u s :

c) P i n a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l t r a n s c r i b e d as f i n a l

are

c o n s o n a n t s ; t h o s e which are r e a l i s e d w i t h

t h e vowel (0) a r e t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h ( o ) , a c c o r d i n g t o n o t e c.^" 1 . See b e l o w , under i i i . 2 . For e x a m p l e s o f s u c h compound w o r d s , s e e b e l o w , under i i . R e a d i n g e x a m p l e s . 3 . Further n o t e s on t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n b e l o w , under i i i . and u n d e r 2 . i i . Vowel S i g n s . 1+. V a r i a t i o n s from t h e s e g e n e r a l r u l e s may o c c u r i n c e r t a i n w o r d s , b u t such v a r i a t i o n s are o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e of t h i s work.

186 Reading examples-*1.

BENGALI

SECTION

One c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , r e a l i s e d a s c o n s o n a n t s w i t h t h e v o w e l ^ ^ 1 *t

(o).

Tf

T>

*t

*t

2.

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s . 1. Final characters r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel:

n?
ii.
^ 5 T 3 ^ " v 5

^
.

tjfe
vSfvJ
" ^ T T s

ts^
T 5 " v 3

Final characters r e a l i s e d with ( o ) :

Spl

rfl>

s f v s

iii.

Initial

c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h (o),> f i n a l w i t h

zero-vowel:

3.

Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e b . i .
T F 1 > 3 5

and

c.i.

^T5?p

TSf^T^

*T&3?

2+. Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e b . i i .

and

c.i.

F&'fTj

^*sj>
5f\5Si\5

?FF^E
W&^T

*tT>*tT>
W W

ii.

C h a r a c t e r s o f t h e o n t o s t h group( ^

There a r e f o u r c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s g r o u p , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o u r t h e vrg, a s shown i n t h e roman s y l l a b a r y ^ .

of

They may b e compared w i t h

t h e D e v a n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g group**.

y Cursive forms: Words: pf ^

?r
Zf^Jf

*r

1. 3.

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 6 . 2. (ontostho). See roman t a b l e , C h a p t e r 1 . U. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY The c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d as ( j o ) . TJ , t r a n s c r i b e d i n t h e roman n o t a t i o n a s It corresponds, Z[ as the f i r s t character in yo , this

187

group, t o t h e o n t e s t h o c h a r a c t e r

, y , i n t h e S a n s k r i t

syllabary. it

It i s r e f e r r e d to as ' o n t o s t h o y o ' ( o n t o s t h o from v5f , jo , r e f e r r e d t o a s 'vorgiiy

j o ) , to distinguish

j'(bo.rgiyo j o ) . If |J

The s e m i in

vowel c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e S a n s k r i t c h a r a c t e r B e n g a l i by a m o d i f i e d form o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r .

i s represented

, r e f e r r e d to as

' o n t s s t h y o ' ( o n t o s t h o o ) . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s ways a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p o s i t i o n and p h o n e t i c c o n t e x t , and i s d i s c u s s e d in a special note^. ^ , t r a n s c r i b e d i n t h e roman n o t a t i o n a s as the fourth character i n , vo , i n t h e S a n s k r i t vo , this syllabary. order is later

The c h a r a c t e r r e a l i s e d as ( b o ) .

It corresponds,

group, t o t h e o n t o s t h o c h a r a c t e r I t i s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s work a s to d i s t i n g u i s h i t , po-vergo, in discussion,

' o n t o s t h o v o ' ( o n t o s t h o bo) i n from t h e t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i n and

the

' v o r g i i y b ' ( b o r g i y o b o ) . A l t h o u g h v o r g i i y b the

antssth v a r e t h e same i n f o r m and i n r e a l i s a t i o n ,

character ntssth

i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s y l l a b a r y i n b o t h t h e vorgiiy' and t h e

g r o u p s , and S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s w h i c h a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e D e v a n a g a r i script with i n i t i a l <| , v , a r e p l a c e d i n B e n g a l i d i c t i o n a r i e s , 1 . A know in

a separate s e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g words w i t h i n i t i a l

l e d g e of S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s i s n e e d e d i n o r d e r t o r e c o g n i s e w h i c h words are t o be found among w o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h v o r g i i j f e b and which among t h o s e b e g i n n i n g w i t h ntsth v . I n t h e more modern B e n g a l i d i c t i o n a r i e s t h e t e n d e n c y i s t o p l a c e a l l words b e g i n n i n g w i t h c h a r a c t e r i n one s e c t i o n , a f t e r w o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h 1 . See n o t e on ntsth y , u n d e r 2 . i i . below. , ph . this

188

BENGALI

SECTION from v a r g i i y a ha

a n t a s t h a va i s , h o w e v e r , r e c o g n i s e d a s d i f f e r e n t when i t Reading 1. 2. i s combined w i t h a n o t h e r examples


2

character.

Of t h e o n t o s t h a c h a r a c t e r s , Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s . i.

only

o c c u r s a s a word.

Pinal characters r e a l i s e d with

zero-vowel:

wm
ii.

*pr

^
r e a l i s e d with

TO.vr*\
(o):

Pinal character

3.

Three c h a r a c t e r

words.3

<jt??t ^^3"^
iii.

sr^rif words.^

*t*R

i|. Pour c h a r a c t e r

^F^J^S?r

3^1^
^"SJ )5 as

C h a r a c t e r s o f t h e uusma group( T h i s group o f c h a r a c t e r s

includes three characters r e a l i s e d and one c h a r a c t e r

fricative

c o n s o n a n t s w i t h t h e vowel ( o ) ,

realised with

a s an a s p i r a t e w i t h t h e v o w e l ( o ) .

The c h a r a c t e r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d c
0

f o u r o f t h e v a r g a , a s shown i n t h e roman s y l l a b a r y . pared w i t h the Devanagari c h a r a c t e r s Jo Cursive forms: Words: 1. 3. *Wf


1!S

They may b e com

o f t h e same g r o u p . ^ and ha

sa

sa

T^f

See C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i . 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 6 . See a b o v e , n o t e s b . i . and c . i . U. See a b o v e , n o t e s b . i i . and c . i . and i i . ( c o m p o u n d s ) . 5. ( u j / o ) . 6. See C h . l . 7 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY The t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s "*f , ^ and ^ are r e a l i s e d , a s (jo),

189 ex other

c e p t when t h e y a r e combined i n a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r w i t h c e r t a i n charactersl. They a r e d e s c r i b e d , for instance, in spelling, as

' t a l o v y o J"e'(talobbo J o ) , ' m u u r d h a n y a s o ' (murdhonno Jo) and ' d o n t y a (donto J o ) . TJ o c c u r s o n l y i n S a n s k r i t F , ho , i s loanwords. Bengali

so

The c h a r a c t e r syllabary.

t h e l a s t c h a r a c t e r of t h e ^ , kso and ^

Two o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ,

, jjia , e a c h r e

presenting s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g

o f two c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by t h e the consonant characters in the

vowel ( o ) , are o f t e n p l a c e d a f t e r okseromala.

They do n o t , h o w e v e r , p r o p e r l y b e l o n g t o t h e

syllabary, classes

and i n t h i s work t h e y a r e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , of c o n j u n c t characters .


2

in the appropriate

Reading examples-^ 1 . Of t h e uusma c h a r a c t e r s o n l y 2 . Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s . i. Pinal character r e a l i s e d w i t h zero-vowel; "*f o c c u r s a s a word.

*r
ii. *TV5 3. "SR

t?-*t

*r*r
(o):

Pinal character r e a l i s e d w i t h "$\5 "SIT

Three c h a r a c t e r words** ^\5F

^H**

^f*P

If. Pour c h a r a c t e r words"^

ii.

*r^F3

"SRvs^

^ ^ ^ ^

^FT^Sp ^ T ? ^ ?

1 . See C h . 3 . 3 . C l . U . i . a . 2 . i b i d . C 1 . 2 . i i . b . and C l . U . i . b . 3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 6 . k - R e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e s b . i . and c . i . a b o v e . 5 . Words i n l i n e i . r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e s b . i i . and c . i . ; words i n l i n e i i . r e a l i s e d a s n o t e c . i i . ( c o m p o u n d s ) .

190

BENGALI

SECTION forms. in

R e a l i s a t i o n of okar consonant c h a r a c t e r s i n v e r b a l The r e a l i s a t i o n o f m e d i a l and f i n a l c e r t a i n grammatical c a t e g o r i e s given below.

akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

i s made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g e n e r a l

rules all

No c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a t e m e n t can b e made w h i c h c o v e r s

c a t e g o r i e s , b u t t h e s e r u l e s g i v e some g u i d a n c e i n r e a d i n g from t h e script. The o n l y c o m p l e t e g u i d e i s a k n o w l e d g e of t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e , character.

a. Verbal b a s e s e n d i n g i n an kar c o n s o n a n t i. Verbal b a s e s w i t h o u t The f i n a l suffixes.

kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r of a v e r b a l b a s e i s e.g.

real

ised with zero-vowel;

^7?T
bl(bol)

35-3
kr(kor)

F^T
cl(col)

?RS
baka(bok) 'second is

The form o f t h e v e r b d e s c r i b e d g r a m m a t i c a l l y a s t h e person s i n g u l a r of the present imperative, w r i t t e n i n t h e same way i n f e r i o r form'

a s t h e b a s e , and r e a l i s e d i n t h e same often writ

way. The f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of t h i s form of t h e v e r b i s ten with the h a s a n t a ; e.g.

b a l a or b a l ( b o l ) ii. Verbal b a s e s w i t h

k a r a or k e r ( k o r ) suffixes.

beka or b a k ( b o k )

When a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g w i t h , or c o n s i s t i n g o f , c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e , the f i n a l

a consonant the of

c h a r a c t e r of

b a s e i s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l o r w i t h an a - g l i d e . t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n a r e g i v e n b e l o w , under n o t e b . The g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s d e s c r i b e d a s t h e simple present t e n s e ' perative'

Examples

'Second p e r s o n of

the im

and t h e ' s e c o n d p e r s o n o f t h e p r e s e n t

a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e same way a s t h e v e r b a l b a s e ; b u t

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e "base i n r e a d i n g a l o u d hy t h e a t i o n of t h e f i n a l , bala(bolo) , c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e vowel ( o ) . ^SjtJ , k a r a ( k o r o ) , ^|"^ , realis

191

Examples:

poro(poro) verbs

This r e a l i s a t i o n o c c u r s w i t h s i m i l a r g r a m m a t i c a l forms o f a l l which have o n l y okar c h a r a c t e r s of the ' f u t u r e imperative' in the base. In the

'second person' is

in which the f i r s t character , boss

okar c h a r a c t e r

realised with ( o ) , s i g n of o' .


L

the f i n a l

i s w r i t t e n w i t h the vowel character <^3?[ , in

In the verb

, the i n i t i a l

b o t h grammatical forms i s r e a l i s e d w i t h ( o ) ; e . g . The r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e i n i t i a l w i t h t h e vowel ( o ) the c h a r a c t e r ,

(bojo). base

akar c h a r a c t e r of a v e r b a l

i s s o m e t i m e s shown by w r i t i n g t h e mark * a f t e r <5J 3$ k a r e ( k o r i o ) , ^CS^T k a r o ( k o r o ) ! . c o n s i s t i n g o f akar c o n s o n a n t ^5 , t a ( t o ) , , ba(bo) and characters. cT ,


2

as i n

b . Verbal forms w i t h s u f f i x e s The v e r b a l s u f f i x e s la(lo)

a r e added t o v e r b a l b a s e s t o form v a r i o u s

'tenses' ,

In realis

t h e s e v e r b a l forms t h e f i n a l ed as d e s c r i b e d i n n o t e a . i . ,

akar c h a r a c t e r of the base i s and i f the base c o n s i s t s

o f two akar with

consonant c h a r a c t e r s t h e i n i t i a l the vowel ( o ) . Examples:

character also is realised

^^\5
koro-bo(kor'bo) kara-ta(kor'to)3

35^5*1
kara-la(kor'lo)^

1 . See b e l o w , 2 . i i , n o t e a . i i . 2 . S u f f i x e s of t h e t e n s e s d e s c r i b e d a s ' f u t u r e s i m p l e ' ( b o ) , ' p a s t h a b i t u a l ' ( t o ) and ' p a s t i n d e f i n i t e ' ( l o ) . 3 . In c o l l o q u i a l B e n g a l i t h e s e q u e n c e T^f^T , - r l - , a r i s i n g from t h e a d d i t i o n of a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g w i t h e?| , or t h e s e q u e n c e 7 t K 5 * - r t a r i s i n g from t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g w i t h \ 5 , t o a v e r b al base ending i n ^ , a r e r e a l i s e d r e s p e c t i v e l y a s ( - 1 1 - ) and ( - t t - ) , as i n t h e v e r b a l forms ^S^cTf , ( k o l l o ) and ?|5j5"t5 , ( k o t t o ) . This r e a l i s a t i o n w o u l d b e made i n r e a d i n g from a B e n g a l i t e x t w r i t t e n i n t h e c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e . S e e f u r t h e r n o t e s on t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of v e r b a l forms under 2 . i i , and l a t e r i n C h . 3 3 . C l . l .
N

192

BENGALI

SECTION

2 . Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s . Vowel c h a r a c t e r s a r e w r i t t e n i n B e n g a l i , a s i n S a n s k r i t , to are an

r e p r e s e n t s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f a v o w e l o n l y , and v o w e l s i g n s

added t o c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s t o r e p r e s e n t s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by one o f t h e v o w e l s i n t h e s e r i e s below. These c h a r a c t e r s may b e compared w i t h t h e D e v a n a g a r i section. given

vowel

c h a r a c t e r s and v o w e l s i g n s , g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t i. Vowel C h a r a c t e r s .

ii

- uu

r2 Cursive forms:

5
e

ey

^
^ ^ %*T
i n g from t h e matra and w r i t i n g u p w a r d s .

^ <J 3 a S
o ' av

v3

&

v3Si
start

The s u p e r s c r i b e d s t r o k e s i n t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e w r i t t e n l a s t ,

The c h a r a c t e r s "^f , a , and 5 j j , a , a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s ^|<^ s v a r i i a ( J o r i o) and ^5f| , s v a r i i a (.fori

\5f

a)->. The o t h e r v o w e l

c h a r a c t e r s are r e f e r r e d t o as the vowel which each r e p r e s e n t s . The c h a r a c t e r s 'short', diirgha^, ^ and v ^ are d e s c r i b e d as and ^5 and t h e , hrasva**, , in

and t h e c h a r a c t e r s 'long'. The ' s h o r t '

a r e d e s c r i b e d a s y^^J

'long' vowels are r e a l i s e d

reading with very l i t t l e

d i s t i n c t i o n o f q u a l i t y , b u t c e r t a i n words r ' ; see Ch.l.Vowels. a ' . For t h e r e a l i s a t contexts, see special 5. ( d i r g h o ) .

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i . and i i . 2 . ' s y l l a b i c 3. svora, ' v o w e l ' ; s v a r i i a , 'vowel-character ion of the f i r s t vowel c h a r a c t e r i n c e r t a i n n o t e s under i i . b e l o w . U. ( h r o j f o ) .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY are always w r i t t e n w i t h t h e 'short


1

193 the

v o w e l s and o t h e r s a l w a y s w i t h is

' l o n g ' v o w e l s . Examples of p a i r s o f w o r d s o f w h i c h t h e meaning d i s t i n g u i s h e d hy t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e 'short' or t h e 'long' vowel,

and

i n which a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s t i n c t i o n m u s t h e made i n r e a d i n g , given later.


1

are

The vowel

, syllahic r

, o c c u r s o n l y i n some S a n s k r i t , s y l l a h i c rr ,

loan

words. The vowel c h a r a c t e r s ^

<fo , s y l l a h i c 1 , and

, s y l l a h i c 11 , a r e u s e d i n p r i n t i n g S a n s k r i t t e x t s i n B e n g a l i The c h a r a c t e r 4 I
s

script.

r e a l i s e d as

(ri). varies

The c h a r a c t e r

e , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d as ( e ) , hut

i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w , under Vowel S i g n s . The c h a r a c t e r the c h a r a c t e r \^ tip , y , i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d i p h t h o n g ( o i ) , (ou). and

, v , i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d i p h t h o n g

Reading examples2 1 , Vowel c h a r a c t e r s W| ^ only ^ 4 i?

\3

2 . Vowel c h a r a c t e r s and kar c o n s o n a n t i.

characters

Pinal characters r e a l i s e d with, z e r o - v o w e l :

^rr&

^
^ 1 > * T

^mi
^SH
v ? T 5 N ^ < 1

\s?i

^TpF

V 3 v 5 ^ f

ii.

Pinal characters r e a l i s e d w i t h

(o):

^"*T

VSv5

V3^T
\3^f

v^-q

^T5

^sf

1 . See b e l o w , under i i . Vowel S i g n s , R e a d i n g e x a m p l e s . 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 2 2 7 . o

194 ii. Vowel S i g n s .

BENGALI

SECTION

Vowel s i g n s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s , a r e h e l o w added t o t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r . As t h e v o w e l

given is in corres the

i n h e r e n t v o w e l of e a c h o f t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e form which t h e y are g i v e n i n the s y l l a h a r y , ponding t o the vowel c h a r a c t e r \5f . t h e r e i s no v o w e l s i g n

ka

ki

kii

ku

kuu

kr

ke

koy signs:

ko

kv

S p e c i a l forms o f some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s w i t h v o w e l

gu

*P
ru

?
ruii

J*u

^
hii , , ^

^
hr and ^ and <^> . consonant the ,

The vowel s i g n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s ^ used in w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t , added t o ^ , are <^

Vowel s i g n s w h i c h a r e p l a c e d on t h e l e f t

s i d e of t h e

c h a r a c t e r w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e t o he r e a l i s e d a r e w r i t t e n h e f o r e consonant c h a r a c t e r ; o t h e r s i g n s a r e added a f t e r the consonant in

character has heen w r i t t e n . c h a r a c t e r s w i t h vowel s i g n s

The o r d e r of w r i t i n g t h e s t r o k e s is i l l u s t r a t e d in these cursive

forms:

(5T

TV

*PnT

gfl"
^trzfm

C*C ^rc-rcr

Of

C*fr
z m o s

3Tr ejpf

cWl~

^nrw

Characters w i t h vowel s i g n s are r e f e r r e d t o i n s p e l l i n g C^* , ( k o - e e k a r ) , ' t h e s i g n of v) i n ^5 '; The s i g n of s y l l a h i c r ^

thus: ukar).

, (go-e hroj/o or

i s r e f e r r e d to as ( r i k a r )

(riphola).l

1 . For e x a m p l e s o f s p e l l i n g w o r d s , s e e h e l o w , end o f C h . 3 .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY Reading examples

i9S

\S^g

*Nfa

^rfC^t

Tftvs

CF^

3 #

f ^ t

$?P

c^rfSr f*ra

?jm

^tc^r

^f*r

ftf^

^fl

c^t^t

c^rr^ #f%^t
characters in s p e c i a l

f^tft
contexts.

YWWf%r

wrrf^*rr fSnF*rrfV
and c e r t a i n vowel

R e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s ,

In r e a d i n g B e n g a l i words from t h e s c r i p t ,

t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n w o r d s w h i c h have v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s or vowel s i g n s p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s ; and t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f contexts, syllables.

some of t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s v a r i e s i n s p e c i a l

such as t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n o t h e r v o w e l s i n f o l l o w i n g

The n o t e s g i v e n b e l o w p r o v i d e some g e n e r a l g u i d a n c e i n r e a d i n g from the s c r i p t , but a k n o w l e d g e o f B e n g a l i p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o r r e c t r e a l i s a t i o n of s u c h w o r d s . a. R e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t characters.


2

i . When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r of a t h r e e c h a r a c t e r word p r e c e d i n g a f i n a l sign, e. g. amora(am'ra) badale(bod'le) jhagara(jhog'ra) c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel or w i t h an a - g l i d e ;

i t i s usually r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,

J;ukari( t u k ' r i )

mamala(mam'la)

J"amane( Jam'ne)

1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 7 . 2 . These n o t e s c o m p l e t e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s ; s e e a b o v e , n o t e s g i v e n on p p . 1 8 3 and 1 9 0 .

BENGALI When t h e f i n a l

SECTION

c h a r a c t e r o f s u c h words i s o k a r , t h e m e d i a l The

character i s r e a l i s e d as described in previous notes .

f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n a f t e r an i n i t i a l character w i t h a vowel sign:

vSl^S
bhare.t ( b h a r o t )

f^\s*T
pitele(pitol)

QFtFf
kebola(kebol)

When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s i n a word o f f o u r o r more characters, o-glide, i t i s r e a l i s e d with o , w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , o r w i t h an with

according t o i t s p o s i t i o n in r e l a t i o n to characters

vowel s i g n s . The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a r y i n g i s a t i o n of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n d i f f e r e n t contexts:

real

kamobe/(kom'be/)

g o l e j o g e ( g o l jog)

m a r o p i { o ( m a r 'pi-j;)

J"atokara( J o t ' k o r a ) ii. The r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l

same j o d a r o ( Jomo j ' d a r ) okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r of v e r b


1

a l b a s e s h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . The f o l l o w i n g v e r b a l f o r m s a r e further i l l u s t r a t i o n s of this realisation:

*rr?re
parebe(par'bo) The s u f f i x e s J*unele( J u n ' l o )

wfsre
aseteCaJ"'to) i n t h e s e f o r m s may be w r i t t e n w i t h t h e o k a r ; e . g .

parebo(par'bo)

Junelo(Jun'lo)

asato(aj'to)

S i m i l a r l y t h e forms i n which the f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e are r e a l i s e d w i t h ( o ) may b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e forms i n w h i c h

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY the f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l b y w r i t i n g character with the okarj e . g . koro(kor) koro(koro) koro(koro) kore(koro) this

197

koro(koro)

maro(mar)

maro(maro)

maro(maro)

lekho(lekho)

lekho(lekho)

i i i . When two words o f d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e same way and d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n l y b y t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of one o f t h e words w i t h ( o ) , t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by w r i t i n g t h e o k a r , a s i n t h e s e p a i r s : 'time', head', okar often

<3*tc7f ( k a l ) , (bhal) , ' f o r e

^5"pf \^\e?f

(kalo)

or or

^f(j^ft \5tG*Tf

(kalo) , 'black'; (bhalo) , 'good'.

\5fc*f

(bhalo)

b . The r e a l i s a t i o n o f c e r t a i n v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s i s by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f o t h e r v o w e l s i n f o l l o w i n g i. The c h a r a c t e r syllables.

affected

n3J , o r t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l o f an akar c o n s o n a n t

c h a r a c t e r , i s r e a l i s e d a s ( o ) when i t i s f o l l o w e d by one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , or c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n s , for i , ii , u or uu .

e.g.

\5ff3
ati(oti)

*pf|dhonii( dhoni)

^3njc?I
atula(otul)! J"abu ja( J o b u j ) however, the negative prefix,

When t h e c h a r a c t e r "^3f r e p r e s e n t s

the u s u a l r e a l i s a t i o n o f i t a s ( o ) i s n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e o c c u r rence o f one of t h e s e v o w e l s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e ; e . g .

^3T^7J,
iii.

adhiira(odhir) , S\

^3f\JpT

, atula(otul) .

The c h a r a c t e r

, or t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n , i n i n i t i a l i t i s f o l l o w e d by a

p o s i t i o n i s of t e n r e a l i s e d a s (ae) u n l e s s 1 . A proper name. 2.

'incomparable'.

198

BENGALI character with the vowels i

SECTION , u or uu ; e . g .

, ii

h e l a ( h s 3 l a )

nekFa(neek'pa)

emn(eemon)

emeni(em'ni)

ek(eek) The v e r h a l

ekta(sek \a)

ek-|;ii( e k ' f i )

ek-J;u( e k -j;u)

formOfC^fis r e a l i s e d i n two w a y s . When i t r e p r e s e n t s


third person'

t h e form d e s c r i b e d g r a m m a t i c a l l y a s ' s i m p l e p r e s e n t ,

i t i s r e a l i s e d a s (dsskhe). When i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e form d e s c r i b e d as 'past p a r t i c i p l e ' , it i s r e a l i s e d as (dekhe). above.


1

Reading e x a m p l e s , i l l u s t r a t i n g 1. i.

the notes given

F i n a l kar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h fo-q p #f*t cft^t c^r ii. F i n a l kar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h f%\5 *tt*ta C^tfe

zero-vowel

*jsrr*r
(o) CTffi

^^fC^
C*ft\5 a.i. 0 ? ^

. ^ S st^Ti

YF

c^rT^r
c*M.

2 . M e d i a l kar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s d e s c r i b e d i n n o t e *ITf*r

3.

Verbal f o r m s , r e a l i s e d a s d e s c r i b e d i n n o t e a. i i . (7W *IT^ *Th vgrt^ vsffq f^3fv5 %v5^ Tg*R b.i. fl5F3CTt

Wv5

WCSt

^BftfST

^ft^rC^Tt

U. kar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s d e s c r i b e d i n n o t e

?t

^ft

ift

^f^R

^*j?r 1.

^j^s p.227.

TpTj^r

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , s e e

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY R e a l i s a t i o n of the m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r The c h a r a c t e r , r e f e r r e d t o as , 'ontostho yo'.


1

*99

' o n t o s t h y ( o n t o s t h o o) 1J , y . This

is

a m o d i f i e d form of t h e ntsth c h a r a c t e r

modified

c h a r a c t e r has b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e B e n g a l i s c r i p t as a g r a p h i c d e v i c e f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g s o u n d s w h i c h c a n n o t h e r e p r e s e n t e d hy t h e ntssth c h a r a c t e r s and , since i n modern B e n g a l i ntsth y j and ntsth v i s real

i s r e a l i s e d hy t h e same sound a s v o r g i i y i s e d hy the same sound a s v o r g i i y h.


2

The c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h t h i s c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s , and t h e of i t i n r e a d i n g , are i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a. As the c h a r a c t e r notes,

realisation

< J i s r e a l i s e d i n modern B e n g a l i a s ( j o ) , a means y which

of r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e B e n g a l i e q u i v a l e n t of t h e s e m i - v o w e l occurs i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y . which are w r i t t e n i n t h e D e v a n a g a r i Sanskrit

loanwords ZJ"_,

s c r i p t with the character

y , are w r i t t e n i n B e n g a l i w i t h ntsth y, and t h i s is realised in various ways, below-^: i, r e a l i s e d a s an i n t e r s y l l a b i c vocalic glide, as

character given

i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e examples

in

^tf^RS
mayiko(mayik)

*rh|3r
mayur(mayur) niym(niyom)

TftSPP
dayk( dayok)

deya(doya)

maya(maya)

ayojn(ayojon)

1. See a b o v e , under l . i i . ntsth c h a r a c t e r s . 2 . For a h i s t o r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s c h a r a c t e r , s e e S . K , C h a t t e r j i , The O r i g i n and Development of t h e B e n g a l i L a n g u a g e , pub. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a . 3 . A d e t a i l e d p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s i s o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e o f t h i s work, and t h e r e f o r e t h i s v o c a l i c g l i d e , t h e q u a l i t y o f w h i c h may v a r y according to the vowels p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g i t , i s r e p r e s e n t e d in the phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n by ( y ) i n the examples g i v e n i n n o t e s a . , b . and c.

200 ii. as ][J in jy(;joy)


<9

BENGALI realised finally

SECTION g l i d e o f an e - l i k e quality,

as a v o c a l i c

smy( Jbmoy)

visy(biJoy)

tf^r

^tn
daye(day) as in

311 57
kays(kay)

atn
rays(ray) inherent

pricy(poricoy)

or r e a l i s e d a s an i n t e r v o c a l i c vowel r e a l i s e d as ( o ) ,

g l i d e f o l l o w e d by t h e

om
deyo(deyo)
1

(Tin
neyo(neyo)
1

c^tti
peyo(peyo)

(%n
dheyo(dheyo)

q jeyo-(o j e y o )

komoniiyo(komoniyo)

vorgiiyo(borgiyo)

b.

ontostho yo i s w r i t t e n t o r e p r e s e n t the B e n g a l i e q u i v a l e n t certain diphthongs

of and

i n l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r modern l a n g u a g e s , to represent the

i s used in combination with other characters Bengali e q u i v a l e n t such i. loanwords:of i n i t i a l characters

combined w i t h

y2

in

The r e a l i s a t i o n (oi).

i n modern B e n g a l i o f t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r i n which the the with with Deva

ey , i s

Loanwords from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s of t h i s diphthong o c c u r s , y

nagari e q u i v a l e n t

or i n w h i c h

character representing

in these languages i s r e a l i s e d

the p r e c e d i n g vowel as a diphthong, are w r i t t e n i n Bengali ntssth y, a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w .

1. 2. 3.

Compare t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n w i t h t h e words w r i t t e n i n t h e same way i n note c . i i . below. The c h a r a c t e r <f\ r e p r e s e n t s - r g - . See C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i i . a . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s , C l a s s 3 . i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY 3>J , o k a r , r e a l i s e d m e d i a l l y e-like quality, as in as a front v o c a l i c g l i d e w i t h an

20I

\SrtsrsiT
kayada(kayda) jayga(jayga)

<

payesa(payj) , ekar, r e a l i s e d m e d i a l l y g l i d e , as in a s an i n t e r s y l l a b i c vocalic

kayedo(koyed) ii.

ayesa(aye/) i n some E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s a s a pronunciation of t h e diphthongs

o n t o s t h o y i s w r i t t e n a l s o

means of r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e E e n g a l i i n such words a s iii. 'chair' ,

CS^Jl^

( c e y a r ) , and ' c a r e ' (,^Kj|^f ( k e y a r ) . initial as

When t h e c h a r a c t e r

T[

, y , i s combined w i t h an character^, it

consonant c h a r a c t e r zero.

in a conjunct

is realised

Some l o a n w o r d s u s e d i n m o d e r n B e n g a l i a r e w r i t t e n i n H i n d i , with i n i t i a l conjunct characters of y .

i n the Devanagari s c r i p t , Class 3 i . j that i s ,

combined w i t h

the character representing are w r i t t e n in Bengali

Such w o r d s , as l o a n w o r d s w i t h an i n i t i a l

in Bengali,

script in

e k a r c h a r a c t e r f o l l o w e d by ntssth y, as

t h e s e w o r d s : C?fV] | ffj c.

p e y a l a ( p e y a l a ) , C^jSJt^f p e y a r s ( p e y a r ) . writing of

ntssth y i s w r i t t e n i n some w o r d s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a vowel c h a r a c t e r i n a m e d i a l or f i n a l position.

This use

ntssth y o c c u r s i n words and i n g r a m m a t i c a l 1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.3,3.Class 3 . i . , and b e l o w ,

forms. 3.i.

Ch.3,3.Class

BENGALI i.

SECTION glide

JJ i n w o r d s , r e a l i s e d a s an i n t e r s y l l a b i c v o c a l i c

f o l l o w e d by t h e i n h e r e n t vowel o r t h e vowel r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e vowel s i g n , as OTOI meye(meye) koyeko(koyek) photuya(photuya) in

Jiyoro( Jiyor) ii.

J*iya(jiya)

poyalo(poyal) is written medially when

i n grammatical forms, i n which i t

w i t h a v o w e l s i g n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e vowel o f a p a r t i c l e ,

a p a r t i c l e c o n s i s t i n g o f a vowel o n l y i s added t o a word e n d i n g i n a v o w e l . The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e t h i s u s e of H V e r b a l forms i n w h i c h f i n a l as an i n t e r s y l l a b i c "J 5 , akar or e k a r , i is '

realised

v o c a l i c g l i d e a f t e r t h e vowel

and a f t e r (o);

the i n h e r e n t v o w e l , which i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s r e a l i s e d as a s i n t h e s e forms w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d g r a m m a t i c a l l y a s participles', o c c u r r i n g in the l i t e r a r y language -

'past

boliya(boliya)

dekhiya( dekhiya)

J"uiya( J u i y a )

giya(giya)

and i n t h e s e c o l l o q u i a l f o r m s , d e s c r i b e d i n t h e same way -

giye(giye)

diye(diye)

hoye(hoye) "^1

Juye(juye)
i s

peye(peye)

Verbal forms i n w h i c h f i n a l g l i d e w i t h an e - l i k e

r e a l i s e d as a v o c a l i c

q u a l i t y , a s i n t h e s e forms w h i c h a r e d e s 'present tense, third person' -

c r i b e d grammatically as

nsyo(noy)

royo(roy)

payo(pay)

janaye(janay)

beroye(beroy)

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY The v e r b a l forms ($fj$ and C^t^T a r e r e a l i s e d r e s p e c t i v e l y a s and (neey).


1

203 (deey)

Noun forms i n w h i c h t h e

'genitive

suffix

vi}<J , e r e ( e r )

is in

added t o nouns e n d i n g i n a v o w e l , which t h e ' l o c a t i v e ' after a final suffix

and noun and pronoun forms

v} , e ( e )

i s w r i t t e n as o n t o s t h o yo -

vowel; o n t o s t h o yo r e a l i s e d as a v o c a l i c g l i d e

*rtan*
mayero(mayer)

f%oj?r
jhiyer(jhiyer)

^fcsra
buyer(bouyer)

i%<m
duiyer(duiyer)

^ru
payo(pay) d.

srr^mr
thanayo(thanay) <| , vo

wr^srm
amayo(amay)

g&kui
tomay(tomay) i n modern <| ,

As t h e o n t o s t h o c h a r a c t e r Bengali,

, i s r e a l i s e d a s (bo)

t h a t i s , i n t h e same way a s t h e v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r

b , a g r a p h i c method o f r e p r e s e n t i n g word s t r u c t u r e the semivowel vo i n loanwords becomes n e c e s s a r y .

involving semivowel \3 , o , used

This

i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n B e n g a l i by w r i t i n g t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r

f o l l o w e d by ntssth y. T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s i s in the f o l l o w i n g examples of l o a n w o r d s , as a back v o c a l i c g l i d e , i n which is

realised (-v)

t r a n s c r i b e d here p h o n e t i c a l l y as

haoya(haova)

poya(poova)

d.akoyala( c|akovala)

deoyali (deovali) in

This method of r e p r e s e n t i n g a b a c k v o c a l i c g l i d e i s u s e d a l s o v e r b a l forms i n w h i c h a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g with (a) as in

i s added t o a

base c o n s i s t i n g of one c h a r a c t e r ,

hooya(hoova)

yaoyan(jaovano)

paoya(paova)

1 . Compare t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e f o r m s w i t h t h a t of t h e two words w r i t t e n i n t h e same way, g i v e n a b o v e i n a . i i .

204 3. Modifiers.

BENGALI

SECTION

Three m o d i f i e r s a r e u s e d i n w r i t i n g B e n g a l i .

These a r e marks syllable

added t o c h a r a c t e r s t o r e p r e s e n t some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e it represents. The f i r s t

two m o d i f i e r s r e p r e s e n t n a s a l i s a t i o n , and t h e These m o d i f i e r s may be compared w i t h t h e script .


1

third represents aspiration. corresponding modifiers i.

of the Devanagari

T>3f-f^P5. > c e n d r o - b i n d u , and a. cendro-bindu


VI/
2

v5pJ^f?T onus v a r a ,

When t h e mark

i s w r i t t e n above a c h a r a c t e r , t h e v o w e l of

the

s y l l a b l e which t h e c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s i s r e a l i s e d w i t h

nasalisation. is

T h i s mark c o r r e s p o n d s i n f o r m , t h o u g h n o t i n t h e way i n w h i c h i t r e a l i s e d , w i t h t h e mark c a l l e d e n u n a s i k e i n S a n s k r i t , c e n d r e - b i n d u added t o v o w e l characters:

vsrr
e a

f
I

^
Ii

T5
u

W
uu

a
e

i?
ey

^3
6 ev

c e n d r e - b i n d u added t o t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

w i t h vowel s i g n s :

w
ke ka

w
ki

w t
kii

^
kii

^ o ^ ^ o ^ r c ^ T
KUU

ke

key

ko

kev spelling

Characters w r i t t e n w i t h cendre-bindu are r e f e r r e d to i n thus: ( j o r i a-e c o n d r o b i n d u ) , ( k o - e condrobindu h r o j J o Reading examples-^ ikar).

I* "Ss
^5 ^

ft 5tE

ft C^F

dr f$*r

r
C7lt&

% ctr
f Tpf

f*
C?C*f

T5t v5

^sfw

editor

-^tffen

fr^rfe

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . and i i . 3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e page 2 2 8 . realised with zero-vowel.

2. (condro-bindu). F i n a l ekar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY b. nusvar! t o r e f e r t o t h e mark , or m e d i a l l y , w r i t t e n a s an \ , no . These

205

The term a n u s v a r a i s u s e d i n B e n g a l i r e a l i s e d as ( n ) . I t may o c c u r f i n a l l y ,

a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e h o s o n t o form o f examples i l l u s t r a t e the w r i t i n g of

the character the onusvar:

ehorrj(ebon)

sim(jin)

arrjti( an-J;i)

irrjraj( i n r a j )

sarrj(jan) :

Some words may he w r i t t e n e i t h e r w i t h t h e o n u s v a r or w i t h

rorrj(ron) or

ran(ron)

barrjla(banla)

or

banla(banla)

The nusvar o c c u r s i n many S a n s k r i t er of the ntssth or t h e uusm g r o u p , have the S a n s k r i t p r e f i x w r i t t e n

loanwords preceding a c h a r a c t and e s p e c i a l l y


Tflq

i n words w h i c h , sm . The

i n Devanagari as as -n

r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e nusvar i n B e n g a l i , t h e v a r i o u s ways of r e a l i s i n g

, may he compared w i t h in

t h e nusvar of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t
p

the same S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Examples:

India. smrag( Jonrag) r J( on Jo) r) sirrjh( J i n h o )

^f^C^jT^t
^f^^tf Sfo'Sff^

srrjyog( Jon j o g ) smyad( Jonhad) smsar( Jon J a r )

"ST^T^f

v5f5"Sf f%^

Reading examples^

'Tv

fes

its

^rtr
*TT$33

*f$H*r
T^^T-

*rs^rr

fefo
^ ^ 3 ^

"SR^KS

1. ( o n u j j o r ) . In t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , i n roman n o t a t i o n , t h e nusvar i s t r a n s c r i b e d a s rr) i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from t h e character ^ , transcribed as n . 2 . Cf. S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . c . 3. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 2 2 8 .

2o6 ii. "f^^^T, visarg.


1

BENGALI

SECTION

The s i g n g w r i t t e n a f t e r a c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s a s p i r a t i o n i n g t h e v o w e l of t h e s y l l a b l e w i t h w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r is

follow

realised.

I t o c c u r s m a i n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and i s w r i t t e n i n a few Bengali exclamations with a f i n a l syllable. t o e x p r e s s e m p h a s i s . When t h e v i s a r g e i s it i s r e a l i s e d as a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r it the written final

character,

When i t

occurs medially,

i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d o u b l i n g of . duhkhe(dukkho).

the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r , Examples:

a s i n TJg^T ,

bah(bah)

uh(uh)
2

punah(punoh)

n i h j e ^ a ( n i J J*e J") "

atahpara( otoppor)

Reading e x a m p l e s

*f*T8

^TS

fto^T

^STWRT

*f\5ffs

^wp? f^rg^ran ^f%gc*m


U. The Complete

^C5\5tg

wfrm

ijg^Ti ?rrgw? t^g^m^f ijg^


order, is , "^Jj order shows

Syllabary. arranged i n the t r a d i t i o n a l

The c o m p l e t e s y l l a b a r y , g i v e n on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e . and ffc


a r

The S a n s k r i t v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s This t a b l e , w i t h the

i n c l u d e d in the s y l l a b a r y .

o f c h a r a c t e r s w i t h v o w e l s i g n s g i v e n above under Vowel S i g n s - 5 , the order i n which the c h a r a c t e r s are p l a c e d as the i n i t i a l of words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s .

characters the

Characters w i t h the onusvar p r e c e d e and b o t h p r e c e d e

same c h a r a c t e r s w i t h t h e c a n d r a - b i n d u ,

characters consonant

w i t h o u t t h e a n u s v a r or c a n d r a - b i n d u b u t f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r character. 1 . ( b i j o r g o ) . Cf. S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i i . 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 8 . 3.

See a b o v e , under

2.ii.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

^1

5f
5. Numerals The B e n g a l i numerals a r e w r i t t e n thus:

"i
1
6.

*
2

U
3

8
4

tt

Kb
6

<l
7

lr
8

fc>
8

io
10

Punctuation

In B e n g a l i p r o s e w r i t i n g t h e e n d o f a s e n t e n c e i s marked hy an u p r i g h t s t r o k e of t h e same h e i g h t a s t h e u p r i g h t s t r o k e o f a c h a r a c t e r . This mark i s r e f e r r e d t o a s "Cfff^j , d a r i . marks are u s e d as i n E n g l i s h . Other p u n c t u a t i o n

This system i s i l l u s t r a t e d in the


1

prose p a s s a g e a t t h e end o f t h i s s e c t i o n .

The s y s t e m o f

punctuation
2

used i n B e n g a l i v e r s e i s t h e same a s t h a t u s e d i n S a n s k r i t , h u t i n much modern v e r s e t h e p r o s e s y s t e m i s used.

1 . See end of C h . 3 .

2 . See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.2,3.ii.

Reading e x a m p l e s .

C H A P T E R CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Consonant c h a r a c t e r s may be combined t o r e p r e s e n t two or more c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h a r e t o b e r e a l i s e d c o n s e c u t i v e l y , w i t h o u t an i n t e r vening vowel. Bengali as 1. C h a r a c t e r s formed i n t h i s way a r e r e f e r r e d t o in

^SrPF.^

yuktak^orol. Characters. by in

C o n s t r u c t i o n of Conjunct

B e n g a l i c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o some e x t e n t

t h e same m e t h o d s a s t h e D e v a n a g a r i c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s , d e s c r i b e d 2 t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . These methods v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e form o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s t o be i. combined.

The c h a r a c t e r w h i c h i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e s e c o n d c o n s o n a n t may b e subscribed to the f i r s t character; e.g.

^
kko ii.

^
nta

3
pte

^
hmo consecutively,

The c h a r a c t e r s t o b e j o i n e d may b e w r i t t e n without the usual i n t e r v e n i n g space; m ngha echo *m dgo e.g.

m dhvo of

iii.

If the f i r s t

c h a r a c t e r h a s a s t r o k e w h i c h c a n be u s e d a s p a r t t h e c h a r a c t e r s may be j o i n e d a s i n *5f ddo bde See S a n s k r i t , ndo Ch.3. 1 . bjo these

the second c h a r a c t e r , examples:

1.

(juktakkhor).

2.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS i v . The form of e i t h e r t h e f i r s t

209

o r t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r may "be m o d i t h e w r i t i n g of t h e two c h a r a c t e r s to

f i e d i n o r d e r t o make p o s s i b l e as one c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r .

These m o d i f i c a t i o n s vary according e.g.

the form of t h e c h a r a c t e r s t o be j o i n e d ;

tto v. The c h a r a c t e r s \5

ttho > T\

kto , and

Jlt^

^t*

18

, h a v e s p e c i a l forms w h i c h are e.g. ^ kro

u s e d when t h e y a r e combined w i t h o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ;

3*
tko
1

^
tpo kya

\^
tyo

4 rko

v i . I f any c h a r a c t e r s c a n n o t b e c o m b i n e d by any o f t h e s e m e t h o d s , t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of them w i t h o u t an i n t e r v e n i n g vowel i s ed by w r i t i n g t h e f i r s t c h a r a c t e r w i t h the hosonto. indicat

The m o d i f i e d forms of some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , w r i t t e n a s t h e second p a r t of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r , which t h e f u l l c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s ( p h o l a ) ; e . g . TfTp^ft" are r e f e r r e d t o as the and t h e p a r t i c l e <Hj5TT , , syllable , phola

*|ir
, 55|

, yo-phola( jophola) , Tf

vo-phola(bophola). <S| , used i n

The m o d i f i e d forms of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

forming c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s , a r e a l s o r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s w a y . ^ 2 . C o n t e x t s and R e a l i s a t i o n o f C o n j u n c t Characters. contexts:

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s i n B e n g a l i o c c u r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g i.

In B e n g a l i w o r d s , t h a t i s , w o r d s n o t b o r r o w e d from S a n s k r i t or from modern l a n g u a g e s ; e.g.

ba<^o(boa$o) 1.

potton(potton)

mui^a(mur]DJ3)

See a b o v e , C h . 2 , l . i . khan^o t o . f e r r i n g to conjunct c h a r a c t e r s ,


p

2 . For s p e l l i n g terms used i n r e s e e e n d of t h i s c h a p t e r .

210 ii.

BENGALI

SECTION or

I n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e i t h e r words u s e d commonly i n B e n g a l i , words u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e o n l y ; e.g.

n^r
pontha(pontha) J*ebde( Jobdo)

3T>
ra^-J;re(ras"l;ro)

I n t h e c l a s s e s o f c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n b e l o w , under 3 . , conjunct c h a r a c t e r s are included which are used o n l y i n w r i t i n g Sanskrit. Some o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s do n o t o c c u r i n B e n g a l i texts,

t h o u g h words i n c l u d i n g them a r e f o u n d i n B e n g a l i i i i . I n l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ; khaji j a r a ( k h o n j o r ) e.g.

dictionaries,

ma^-(;ara(ma^-j;ar)

carbbi( corbbi)

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d a s s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g of two or more c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by a v o w e l . The r e a l i s a t i o n of ekar c o n the rules In

junct characters i n v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s f o l l o w s i n general

a l r e a d y g i v e n f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of e k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s . d e s c r i b i n g the r e a l i s a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s , the inherent

vowel i s p h o n e t i c a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d as ( o ) , as i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n the c h a r a c t e r s of the syllabary. characters i n words

of

The r e a l i s a t i o n i n modern B e n g a l i o f ekar c o n s o n a n t with zero-vowel, or w i t h an e - g l i d e ,

in certain positions

g i v e s r i s e t o a problem of s p e l l i n g .

T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n of s u c h

charact

e r s i n words of t h r e e o r more c h a r a c t e r s , and i n v e r b a l b a s e s w i t h suffixes a d d e d , h a s b e e n i l l u s t r a t e d above^-. The r e a l i s a t i o n of i n such c o n t e x t s often ekar

consonant c h a r a c t e r s w i t h zero-vowel

results the

i n t h e s p e a k i n g o f two c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t s i n a way s i m i l a r t o r e a l i s a t i o n of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r . 1 . See a b o v e , Ch.2.2.ii. Examples of B e n g a l i words in

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS which t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of s e p a r a t e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i s s i m i l a r t h a t of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n b e l o w w i t h t h e v a r i o u s 3. C l a s s e s of C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s i n B e n g a l i . are arranged i n t h i s chapter in

211 to

classes".

The B e n g a l i c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

the same f o u r c l a s s e s a s t h e D e v a n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e Sanskrit s e c t i o n . A l l the c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n in the Sanskrit have e q u i v a l e n t s i n t h e B e n g a l i s c r i p t , section in

and a l l t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n The r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s

t h a t s e c t i o n can be w r i t t e n i n B e n g a l i s c r i p t .

g i v e n w i t h each c l a s s of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s i n c l u d e some l e a r n e d loanwords which may be f o u n d i n l i t e r a r y C l a s s 1 . Two s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s joined.


1

texts.

These c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t s y l l a b l e s consonant f o l l o w e d b y a v o w e l .

c o n s i s t i n g of a

'doubled'

-kko

-kkha

-ggs

-ggho

-cca

-echo

-JDS

-3

jho

t
-tt* -ttha -q.dha
-tto -ttho -ddo -ddha

-nna

ft

-ppo

-ppho

-bba

-bbho

-yyo

-lis ?j

-J Jo

-ssa is ,

The c h a r a c t e r

i s r e a l i s e d as (nno).

The c h a r a c t e r TJ3

r e a l i s e d as ( j j o ) , or when i t

i s a k a r , a s ( j j e e ) . The c h a r a c t e r >|>J i s r e a l i s e d as (sso).

which o c c u r s o n l y i n l o a n w o r d s ,

1 . Compare S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 . 3 .

Class

1.

212

BENGALI When a s u f f i x w i t h an i n i t i a l

SECTION c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a the r e a l i s a t i o n of

verbal base with a f i n a l

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,

t h e c o n s e c u t i v e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e v e r b a l form i s s i m i l a r t o t h e i s a t i o n of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s . <P"^"v3 , korota(kotto) ,


2 T

real

Examples:
1

fT^TT'^|

, parolama(pallam).

Reading e x a m p l e s

i f ^ t r i ? ^9fv5 Sttr \STsfhf *w?P3

^rasr
a

f ^rfB^r ^rnr

ceK

C l a s s 2 . Two vorgiiy^o c h a r a c t e r s

joined.^ The series section,

These c h a r a c t e r s occur mainly i n S a n s k r i t loanwords. of Devanagari c h a r a c t e r s

of t h i s c l a s s , g i v e n in the S a n s k r i t

i n c l u d e s many c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e j o i n i n g o f words i n com p o u n d s , i n p h r a s e s and i n s e n t e n c e s i n a S a n s k r i t t e x t . The c h a r a c t e r s recognis this this text

o c c u r r i n g i n a S a n s k r i t t e x t p r i n t e d i n B e n g a l i s c r i p t c a n be ed w i t h a k n o w l e d g e o f S a n s k r i t ; b u t i t work t o i n c l u d e a l l class. i. -kto ii. -tpa -tpho -pto -tko -tkho i s beyond the s c o p e of in

t h e p o s s i b l e combinations of c h a r a c t e r s

The c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n b e l o w may o c c u r i n a B e n g a l i l i t e r a r y

sir
-gdo -dg -gdho

W
-dgha

f
-dbo -bda

"5
-dbhe

If
-bdh

1 . These forms a r e sometimes* w r i t t e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n d i a l o g u e , w i t h c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s . Cf. n o t e s i n C h . 2 , 1 . i i i . 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 8 . 3 . Cf. Sanskrit,Ch.3,3.CI.2.i.-iv.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

213

ii.a. -nke -rjkh

^1
-rjgh -J1C9

-jichg

2?

-P-j

-jijh

3?

f
-iit 9
-mp

% -nt

nj
-ri^h -nt9 -nth9 -mbs -mbh

*T
-nd9 -ndh9 S p e c i a l ukar form

hs

*f

-mph

ntu group a b o v e , The c h a r a c t e r

The n a s a l c o n s o n a n t o f t h e k-vrg, i n t h e f i r s t may be r e p r e s e n t e d a l t e r n a t i v e l y b y t h e o n u s v a r . <p (n-).


1

, joined with a character of the co-vorgo, i s r e a l i s e d as The c h a r a c t e r <f , j o i n e d w i t h a c h a r a c t e r of the

[o-vergo, i s r e a l i s e d as (n_-).

-cjio

jjio

-tn

w
(jacinga).

w
-dne

The c h a r a c t e r

o c c u r s o n l y i n t h e S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d "SjnEfef or a s

yacjia, r e a l i s e d a s ( j a c n a ) The c h a r a c t e r ^

i s r e a l i s e d i n i t i a l l y a s ( g o ) ; and m e d i a l l y

as ( g o ) , w i t h n a s a l i s a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g v o w e l , a s i n
T^jpy

jjiano(gsen) , and ^ j

\o&f

, ajna(aggse).

This

character often

i s n o t c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r , and i t i s included i n the oksoromala a f t e r in. the consonant

characters^.

^
-kma The c h a r a c t e r

?f
-gno ^

*U
-gmo

^
-ghn

If
-tmo

^
-dm

^
-pn nasal

, tm, i s r e a l i s e d a s ( t t o ) , as in

often with

i s a t i o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g v o w e l , The c h a r a c t e r T\f

"^TTlfl" , a t m a ( a t t a ) .
nasalisation

, dm, i s r e a l i s e d a s ( d d o ) , w i t h

1. See a b o v e , C h . 2 , 3 . i . b . 2. Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r are p l a c e d i n d i c t i o n a r i e s a f t e r w o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h O^f .

214

BENGALI of t h e f o l l o w i n g v o w e l , "*i>V| , pedmo(podd6,

SECTION

e x c e p t i n words i n common u s e , s u c h a s

poddo). **T -nmo -mno the r e a l i s a t i o n of consecutive

l v

<SJ
-nmo The f o l l o w i n g

^ -nmo

examples i l l u s t r a t e

c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t realisation V e r b a l forms of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s ^Pr^T kadebe(kad bo) Other words


t

i s ekar,

i n a way s i m i l a r t o t h e

of t h i s

class: ^SFTOT*? Junetame( J"un'tam)

^ftvS kapete(kap' to)

*|'MWf^b
1 1

^TFS^rT
1

^Tv5^Tf^
1

panemeric e ( p a n m o r i c ) p a t e k u y a ( p a t k u y a ) h a t e c h a n i ( h a t c h a n i ) Reading examples

i- " 1 % ^T^fT^

Tg^^R

%WTv5 ^^TT

^Rgv5 5 * ^ 3

n^i

T^^T

F^i

^*JTv3

^ f e ^

ii.-^jsfTO

^-^f

^vfT^

TSf^cff

*rr^rr

*rni

*rsr

flr^n"

*r^t

*rtffe

Class 3 . Characters i. Characters All except

joined with entesthe

characters, .2 class

joined with following

the. c h a r a c t e r s V . ne and fi

of the Bengali s y l l a b a r y occur i n t h i s , no . These c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

a r e formed t o another , /ye .

by a d d i n g t h e s t r o k e character, 1. thus: ^

$ , referred to as yephela(jophola) , k y e ,\*>^ , t y e ,^(3 s e e p.228. , p y e , **f$

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

2. Cf. S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.33.Class 3 . i .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s may h e f o r m e d h y c o m h i n i h g t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s ; t ktyo, ntyo, , ndhyo, , tmyo.

215 e.g.

Characters w r i t t e n with y o p h o l a are r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s ways; and the o c c u r r e n c e o f a c h a r a c t e r c o m b i n e d w i t h y o p h o l a i n c o n t e x t s a f f e c t s t h e q u a l i t y o f some o f t h e a. R e a l i s a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s w i t h yophola. vowels. certain

When an i n i t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s w r i t t e n w i t h y o p h o l a i t i s r e a l i s e d a s as z e r o - y o p h o l a and t h e v o w e l o f t h e s y l l a b l e , e.g.

nyuuno(nun)

dhyey(dheyo) character

jyotiso(jotij) i s written with yophola, the

When a m e d i a l or a f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d o u b l i n g of t h e c o n s o n a n t by the c h a r a c t e r w i t h w h i c h y o p h o l a i s written.1; e . g .

represented

vakkyo(bakko)

rajyo(rajjo)

puny-o(punno)

b . R e a l i s a t i o n of v o w e l s a f f e c t e d b y y o p h o l a . An okar c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g a c h a r a c t e r w i t h y o p h o l a i s with the inherent vowel as ( o ) , e.g. realised

^TO
onye(onno) I f an i n i t i a l

M\53
sobhyo(Jobbho) kolyo(kollo)
2

vsr^ra
talvy(talobbo) real

c h a r a c t e r w i t h yphla i s kar, t h e vowel i s

i s e d a s (ee) , u n l e s s t h e kar c h a r a c t e r i s f o l l o w e d by an i k a r or an i i k a r c h a r a c t e r , when i t i s r e a l i s e d as ( e ) 3 ; e.g.

vyotha(b8etha)

vythii(bethi)

v y s j i jn(bien jon)

vytiit(betito)

1 . For examples of m e d i a l c h a r a c t e r s , s e e b e l o w , under n o t e b . 2 . Cf. t h e v e r b a l form ^5^?f , k r l ( k o l l o ) , Ch. 2 , 1 . i i i . n o t e b . 3 . Cf. n o t e on r e a l i s a t i o n of v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s , C h . 2 , 2 . i i . b .

216

BENGALI

SECTION

I f a c h a r a c t e r w i t h y o p h o l a i s a k a r , t h e vowel i s r e a l i s e d a s (ee) ,

nyayoCnsey)- -

dhyane( dhsen)

vyakhyane(bffikkheen)

kenya(konnee)

In t h e word^C^T^T > u d y o g o , a S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d i n w h i c h t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r a r i s e s from t h e j o i n i n g o f t h e p r e f i x , ut- , w i t h t h e word C^ft^T > y o g a , the medial character i s r e a l i s e d as (djo) ,
2

t h e word b e i n g r e a l i s e d a s ( u d j o g ) .

T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n may b e c o n

t r a s t e d w i t h t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h y o p h o l a i n f<Pf5T, v i d y a ( b i d d e e ) . N o t e a l s o "Sf?^ , s o h y o ( Jo j jho). R e a d i n g examples-^ <TT^ ^Tv5 C^rfnS\5t gSv5 C5otf3 CS^Jt S

yc&n

fs^T

^raft

^rero

qsrr

oth

ii.

Characters with f o l l o w i n g

"?f .h combined joined occur

This c l a s s of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s c o n s i s t s of c h a r a c t e r s

w i t h o n t o s t h o v o , c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h t h e Devanagari c h a r a c t e r s with the ontostho character o n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s . When , vo . These c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s <^ , o r i t s m o d i f i e d f o r m ,

occurs

as t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r , vophola(bophola). form, dhvo, 1.

i t i s r e f e r r e d to as

I t i s w r i t t e n w i t h some c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e f u l l ,

j o i n e d t o t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r by t h e m a t r a , a s i n iffi

, hvo ; or i n t h e m o d i f i e d f o r m , added t o t h e f o o t of a

Cf. t h e v e r b a l form r e a l i s e d a s (neey) i n t h e n o t e on o n t o s t h o y e on p . 2 0 3 . 2 . Also r e a l i s e d as (uddog). 3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 9 . U. C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS character, as i n character <f f , kv , , tv , , jv . The form of iii.a.

217 the

, rvo , i s d i s c u s s e d , l a t e r , under

The f o l l o w i n g are e x a m p l e s o f c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s formed hy com bining three characters: ^ , ttvo , , ddhv , ^ , ktvo. re

In t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s , n t s s t h v i s

garded as a s e p a r a t e c h a r a c t e r f r o m v o r g i i y b, a l t h o u g h i n t h e s y l l a b a r y t h e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e t h e same. Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h an i n i t i a l conjunct character of t h i s c l a s s are p l a c e d in dictionaries

a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s formed by c o m b i n i n g a consonant c h a r a c t e r w i t h a f o l l o w i n g . character, it is real

When v o p h s l a i s w r i t t e n w i t h an i n i t i a l i s e d as zero.; e . g .

^t^t
svamii(jami) jval(jal)

w
tvkt(tokto)

w r
dvadJ( d a d o j ) character, it

When vphla i s w r i t t e n w i t h a m e d i a l or a f i n a l i s r e a l i s e d as the f i r s t p a r t of

the conjunct character doubled, with examples:

z e r o - r e a l i s a t i o n of vphla, a s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g

nvh(onnoho)

iiJvr(iJJor)

viJv(biJJo)

konv(konno)

The c h a r a c t e r "5^" , hv , i s r e a l i s e d a s a v - g l i d e f o l l o w e d by a b i l a b i a l a s p i r a t e , as i n pj^qcTf , bihvl(bivvhol). Bengali,

In S a n s k r i t w o r d s , u s e d a s l e a r n e d l o a n w o r d s i n l i t e r a r y

a p r e f i x ending i n a hsnt c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r may be added t o a word w i t h i n i t i a l ntssth v s . In t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r which joining

r e s u l t s , and i n t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h a r i s e from t h e

2*8

BENGALI

SECTION

o f two words i n a compound, v o p h o l a i s r e a l i s e d a s ( b - ) ; e . g .

udvigno(udbigno) The words t^^ff*^

sodvyevohare(/odbebohar)

rgvedo(rigbed)

, udvano(uddan) , and f ^ ^ l , v i d v a n o ( b i d d a n ) rule.

are e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l

The r e a l i s a t i o n , o f v e p h o l a , i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e above e x a m p l e s , r e s u l t s i n a s i m i l a r i t y o f r e a l i s a t i o n o f two o r more words w h i c h a r e t h e same i n t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e and d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n l y i n w r i t i n g ; e.g. , d h a n i i , and $fl<jp| , d h v a n i , r e a l i s e d a s ( d h o n i ) ,^

f*r3^T?T *fJ

J i k a r o , and ^Wj.^ , s v i i k a r e , r e a l i s e d a s ( j i k a r ) ,

, J"oro,

'^n<r

, s o r a , and

, svoro , r e a l i s e d as ( / o r ) 5

Reading examples^-

iii. a.

Characters joined w i t h preceding ^ preceding another *s character.5

or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s a r e formed b y w r i t i n g a s t r o k e r e f e r r e d t o a s ( < ^ , r e p h s ( r e p h ) , above t h e c h a r a c t e r b e f o r e w h i c h ,jp < J i s t o be r e a l i s e d . T h i s s t r o k e i s p l a c e d a t t h e r i g h t hand s i d e o f a n y o t h e r s u p e r s c r i b e d s t r o k e , and i s t h e l a s t s t r o k e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r t o b e w r i t t e n .


e,g

^
-rko

-rco

^
-v\o

\ s
-rto
T ,

Y
-rpa
p

a4 -rkii
, s

cf
-rkov and ^

-rke

The c h a r a c t e r s

>F>\Sl 3,

F,^f,

T,^I

1 . ' m a s t e r ' and ' s o u n d ' , 2 . ' h u n t i n g ' and ' a g r e e m e n t ' . 3 . ' a r r o w ' , ' c r e a m ' and ' v o i c e ' . U. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 9 . 5. C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i i . a .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS are o f t e n w r i t t e n i n t h e i r d o u b l e d f o r m w i t h r e p h l ; , rtto, , rggo, *zf , rmmo, , e.g. rvvo of okar

219

In some w o r d s , i n c l u d i n g v e r b a l f o r m s , consonant c h a r a c t e r s w i t h z e r o - v o w e l r e a l i s a t i o n of j^" before

the r e a l i s a t i o n

in certain positions

leads to

the

a n o t h e r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i n a way as i n t h e s e examples:^sf^<f

similar

t o the r e a l i s a t i o n of r e p h e ,

Verbal f orms: *Pf|"<<p3 p a r o t a ( p a r ' t o , p a t t o ) , Other words : T f ^ ^ j " ^ Reading examples*r , derobaro( dor'bar) ,

, mar 2v( m o l l o) , s e r o k a r o ( Joir'kar)

^f^^t^f

\54

*j*f

^T*T

^ifi

^jt^

?fl^v5
b.

^pft
character.3 class

f%M*f

stfrta

following another Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s

of t h i s

a r e formed by s u b s c r i b i n g to a consonant character.

the The

stroke r e f e r r e d to as r o p h o l a ( r o p h o l a )

characters with rophola which occur i n B e n g a l i , mostly in

Sanskrit

l o a n w o r d s , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w . The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r s illustrate the calligraphy of charact charact

e r s w i t h r o p h o l a , w i t h some s p e c i a l e r s formed by j o i n i n g t h r e e

f o r m s ; and some c o n j u n c t

characters:

kro

gro

jro

tro

dro

pro

bhro

Jr

hr

5
dru 1.

dhruu

*
Jru

5
tru

-3T
-r)gr

"5
-ndr

W
-ktr

1
-ndhr be

The r u l e s of o r t h o g r a p h y o f B e n g a l i d i c t i o n a r y T>*jf!^ , discontinued. 3*. C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 .

C a l c u t t a U n i v e r s i t y , given in the p . 5 9 7 , recommend t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e 2. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 3 0 . iii.a.

220

BENGALI

SECTION

Reading e x a m p l e s !

srm

cm

^
^ 1

t$

5 ^

a t m

fSs

fsv5
iv. a.

tfrsfar

^t3
c5|

^1*3
c*f .
2

Characters with preceding cv| preceding another

or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

character. *J a r e formed hy w r i t i n g or b e l o w , *f the

Characters joined w i t h preceding

second character e i t h e r immediately a f t e r , % , Iks , f[ , lgs , ^ , lp , ^

, thus:-

, lm . Only a few of of\ , and t h e s e are

the Bengali c h a r a c t e r s occur with p r e c e d i n g i l l u s t r a t e d below i n the reading examples. b. c?J following another character.

These c h a r a c t e r s a r e formed by w r i t i n g c h a r a c t e r a f t e r which i t ^ , kl , i s t o be r e a l i s e d , , $ , pi , f < $

5 f at the f o o t thus , ml , -

of

the

, gl

$f

, Jl .

The but ,

character

i s not combined w i t h

in a conjunct character, thus

t h e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e w r i t t e n c o n s e c u t i v e l y , or a m o d i f i e d form of i t ,

When f *

i s added t o a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r a s t h e i t i s r e f e r r e d to as

second

p a r t of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r ,

laphala(lophola). loanwords.

Only a few of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r , m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t

Those w h i c h o c c u r a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b e l o w i n t h e r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s . The r e a l i s a t i o n first of c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e i n a way s i m i l a r t o t h e real these

i s kar and i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s ,

i s a t i o n of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n 1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 3 0 . 2 . Cf. S a n s k r i t , Ch. 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i v . a .

and b .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS words : f^T<pYf

221 matglgbgdnot'lob).

b i l 9 k u l 9 ( b i l

'kill) , " ^ p 3 c ^

Reading examples-*-

3Fte

c s w

s r m

a m

csrr^

^sffa

^rr?

Class U. v o r g i i y g c h a r a c t e r s
u u s m 9

j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g or

following

characters, "*]" , ^ or "9\


2

i. a.

C h a r a c t e r s combined w i t h p r e c e d i n g *]" , or "f 5 preceding another

character. "*f :-

C h a r a c t e r s which o c c u r w i t h p r e c e d i n g

-Jc9

-Jch9

-Jna

Jmo :-

Characters which occur w i t h p r e c e d i n g

-^ko

~?t

~?t

n s

"~ l

sr

~^P

-sph9 - s m 9

Words w i t h c u r s i v e

forms:

The c h a r a c t e r except with

combined w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s as (so). (jno).

of t h e \9-vorg9 f( ,

, 'no , i s r e a l i s e d

When combined w i t h The c h a r a c t e r s "i" Sp

the conjunct character sko , "^^j" (jpho) (spho) , sp9 , and

i s r e a l i s e d as

, spho a r e r e a l i s e d as (Jko) , ( j p o ) (spo)

and and

i n o r d i n a r y s p e e c h , b u t may b e r e a l i s e d a s ( s k o ) , i n formal s p e e c h .

"*J , Jno , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d as

(sno).

1.

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

see p.230.

2.

Cf.

Sanskrit,

C h . 3 , 3 , C l a s s h. i .

222

BENGALI

SECTION "Sf
N

Characters which occur w i t h p r e c e d i n g

:-

^
sko skho The c h a r a c t e r

^
st

^
sth

^
sn

f
sp

"tr
sph sm is of t h e t-vrg , stu or . akar, are

combined w i t h c h a r a c t e r s

r e a l i s e d a s ( s ) . N o t e t h e form of t h e c h a r a c t e r The c h a r a c t e r s realised initially (josru) as , Jm , and ^ (J5) , sm , kar

and (J"a) , a s i n t h e words ^Cf^f These two c h a r a c t e r s ,

, JmJ*ru and ^ ,

and ^fjSJ^S , smark( J a r o k ) .

sm , a r e r e a l i s e d m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y a s ( / J o ) , a s i n t h e words '^'"Q' , uusm(uJ".fo) and \3~*t\ , bhsm(bho j Jo) . Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s c e d i n g uusm c h a r a c t e r s , ^ , -stv , of C l a s s e s 1 . , 2 . and 3 . may o c c u r w i t h such a s , -t
r s

pre

> If

-str

, -stv

The f o l l o w i n g words i l l u s t r a t e

the r e a l i s a t i o n of is

consecutive in

c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t a way s i m i l a r t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n

kar i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s , , of t h i s

of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

class:

" rr^|v5
Reading examples
2

!:3:

> asstsCaT'to)

f>*f*Tt

> cJ"ma ( c o J"'ma)

b.

Characters

joined with following

"5J or

"J . 3 S loanwords: Bengali

Three c h a r a c t e r s ^ 1. 3. , ks , Verbal form. Cf. S a n s k r i t ,

occur in t h i s group, i n Sanskrit

, - t s and

, -ps . I n w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t i n see p.230.

2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , Ch.3,3.Class k.i.b.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS s c r i p t , however, c h a r a c t e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s given i n the Sanskrit s e c t i o n a r e u s e d . occurs i n E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s . Cursive forms i n words ^ n * r f * w r w r w l < N > ( w f r f a

223

The c h a r a c t e r

"^J" , - k s o ,

The c h a r a c t e r

i s not c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y

a conjunct

character,

and i t i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e s y l l a b a r y a f t e r characters.

t h e consonant

I t does n o t , h o w e v e r , b e l o n g p r o p e r l y t o t h e s y l l a b a r y ,

as i t r e p r e s e n t s a s y l l a b l e c o n s i s t i n g o f two c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d b y the vowel o . W o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r are p l a c e d i n ^ , kvo . I t i s r e a l i s e d a s ( k k h o ) . The r e a l i s a t

d i c t i o n a r i e s a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h

i n i t i a l l y a s ( k h o ) and m e d i a l l y a n d f i n a l l y ion o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s these examples:

, k s r j o , and "^f , ksmo , i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n

3j^r
kgnuto(khnuto) tiiksno( tikkhno) suuksmo( Jukkho) ^* , t h e i n h e r e n t ^ vowel is When an okar c h a r a c t e r i s f o l l o w e d b y i s r e a l i s e d a s ( o ) , a s i n Jff^T

, J l o k s n o ( J l o k h n o ) j and i f

a k a r , t h e vowel s i g n may b e r e a l i s e d a s (se) , a s i n t h e s e words <f^t , r e k s a ( r o k k h a , rokkhse) , "SJ^JT > yok^ma( jokkhss).

Reading examples 2

^nra

*rftftre

xs^fht^

*j*r

*t*&?t

1. Cf. n o t e on 3 under Clas-s 2 . 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 3 0 .

above.

224 ii. ^

BENGALI

SECTION characters .
1

j o i n e d w i t h nunasik ( ' n a s a l ' )

Three o f t h e nunasik c h a r a c t e r s a r e j o i n e d w i t h JT ^ -hn ^ and -hn -hm

The c h a r a c t e r s

a r e r e a l i s e d a s ( n h o ) , and t h e

c h a r a c t e r " J i s r e a l i s e d a s (mho). 5f Reading e x a m p l e s


2

Bengali prose passage^

^*rc*rt

w(7Tt

^cafe
^c?rfi

^rrftvsi

^c*r gc*r ^ * r r ^ c s ^sf^rcafu


*ri$ i

^rrms csffisrar ^c?rfSi *m?r etches i

smosh

^srar f N n ^ ^c?rm^cs?

*Trf%c3ra

^n*rr

xsrera ^ c ^ r qc=?

^ f f a s -ft^ ^cafSt s s w ^ r f ^ - ^faft

ewer

t%^re3

* n f 5

of^ra

vb ( s f t ^ ^ t a*RTS "R^TSOSWSiS
^ m t -

f^Tra IW
# r

HJ*flN
& t ^ ! ^

C^TQ3
C^t\5S

^PT, v3*R

G5T<5ft ^3

\5T3 Tftft

TOUTS ^ <
^ r r c ?

TO^TO

^f%v5

fq&Cv5 FIT! ^TT I


* r e f 5

gsiws

c * r 5

*?ttow

1 . C f . S a n s k r i t , Ch. 3 , 3 . CI. ii. 2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 3 0 . 3 . R a h i n d r a n a t h T a g o r e , g i k s a n a V i k i r a n a , an a d d r e s s on u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , puh. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a , 1 9 3 3 .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

225

TO,

fl^f CT-^rtCT

c%5u

<7r^rf(7T

^^QJTT

^re^m

Examples of B e n g a l i s p e l l i n g t e r m s , ( p o , goe g o , cjoe Junno po) (hoe h r o j j o i k a r ,

including conjunct

characters:

d o n t o Joe h o j o n t o ,

donto

Joe akar)

( t o e h r o j j o i k a r , b o e b o p h o l a , khor]c(o t o ) ( t a l o b b o J o , koe t o t a t e h r o j j o ( b o r g i y o j o e jioe a k a r , donto no) ikar)

(borgiyo j o , donto noe mophola) (c|hoe h r o j j o u k a r , murdhonno n o e djho t a t e h r o j j o i k a r , (joe jopholae condrobindu t a t e akar) akar) to)

TO

( d o n t o J o , d o n t o n o e dhoe (dirgho i ,

jophols., tate reph ro)

t a l o b b o Joe b o p h o l a , joe reph)

( j o r i a, ontostho

( d o n t o J o , boe b o p h o l a t a t e ( h r o j j o u , coe c h o e r o p h o l a , ( t a l o b b o Joe l o p h o l a t a t e (donto Jo, o n u j j o r , donto

reph) ontostho ko) r i p h o l a , to) 0) 0)

okar,

Joe ko t a t e

(noe h r o j j o i k a r ,

talobbo

Joe e o , o n t o s t h o ikar)

( d o n t o Joe t o e r o p h o l a t a t e d i r g h o ( t a l o b b o Joe h r o j j o i k a r , k h y o e

akar)

( g o e r o p h o l a t a t e d i r g h o i k a r , murdhonno Joe mophola)

226

BENGALI

SECTION

T r a n s c r i p t i o n of R e a d i n g E x a m p l e s Chapter 2. l.i. ngdg nod kgtg koto bong bon phe-(;gkg phojjok ce^opg^g cof'P !
0

kg ko

che cho ngkhg nokh

ng no T ^ -|;ok ghong ghono mans mon kotgkg kotok ko^eke^ kof'kof gepeggp gor'gop
9 9

pg po

dg do

cjhg c|ho khgrg khor gotg goto

t
DO

tg to gh"]; ghof

kho kho pgthg poth

thg tho tg^g to{

pgdg pod pet pofo

jhoro jhop poto poto

bofo boro jene jon

joro joro

ngtg noto

tgtg toto

kene kon jeget jogot kgcgmgco koc'moc ^gpg^opg


TP'TP

ghg-j;gkg ghofok cjhekemeke djiok'mok tgkgtgkg tok'tok bglg bol rgkg rok khg^gkhg^g kho-fkhot dhopgdhgpg dhop'dhop dglg dol rgthg roth phol phol

thekothgk thok'thok l.ii. kglg kol joto joto bodolg bodol kheretoro khorotor l.iii. Jovg Job Jgtg /oto sohgrg Johor

ghgrg ghor

malg mol

pgrg por

golgdo golod

mlj moloj pholgkgrg pholokor sgbg Job sgmg Jomo sohoj Johoj

nggorg nogor kglgrgvg kolorob dojg doj hgtg hoto sgrglg Jorol

gglong golon

sgkhg Jokh hgrg horo holgphg holoph

1 . B r a c k e t s a r e o m i t t e d i n t h e p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n o r d e r t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e t h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w e a c h word in the systematic t r a n s c r i p t i o n .

TRANSCRIPTION khoskhs kho/'kho/ 8hocore /ohocor 2.i. at *t is i/ elm elora ii/o i/o it ito it it tsts to/'toj smtl Jomotol i i ut t l l am am tltl tol'tol ghnrs ghonoro/ e e rn rin cjhlcjhl d h o l ' dhol ghnkph ghonokoph oy oi uun un mdkt modokof v ou er er or orjelsksr jolokor

227

iid id

itlo itol otsn oton op r opo oro ib ibo ca ca rsi ri/i /i/u /i/u thu thu alo alo

itr ist utr udk ett itor i/ot utor udok etot evssdh vrt vsn oujodh ou/on ourot p ogh iit ot g en vm ito opo ogho oto ogo eno oumo ut uto go go dao dao yui jui mane mane kumarii kumari duur dur niil nil kuu ku yk oiko jhi jhi c|heu djieu hrdi hridi dagabaji dagabaji cokh cokh olo olo os 0/0 mv mou krpa kripa hur i i huri nr nri guru guru novka nouka nirupadhi nirupadhi motaleb motaleb mrt mrito chi chi

ukh ukho se /e

2.11.
otu otu mot a raofa godhuli godhuli p. 198. jut juto caker cakor tomora tom'ra lekh lekh /unot /un'to bi boi

m
/i ruti rufi niiti niti

ruupa rupa

jiivilca jjbika tin tin dudh dudh guurh gurho sahss Jaho/ tukra fuk'ra lekh lekho /unto /un'to ki koi khi khoi

kopotika kopotika megho megh /rgal Jrigal sol /olo

tit tito

mrg chot dr^h mvn m r i g o c h o t o d r i p h o mouho pather pathor kamera kam'ra cuppi cup pi
1

dhsvt dhouto

pagol pagol mucoki muc ki


f

kv/l kou/ol talpat tal'pat jitob jit'bo

devr dehor ggnbhela gogon'bhela jitobo jit'bo /unol Jun'lo so-lil /olil

thak thak

thak thako

jan jan jagolo jag'lo ydi jodi

jan jano b h i jt bhij'to ysti joti

jagsl jag'lo nodii nodi

tulb tul'bo besi bo/i

boli boli

228

BENGALI SECTION sahito Johit ptu pofu era er tusa tuf dari dari b. nam nor) jamidara jomidar marut morut ha ha ci ci co
C O

calita col i t polu polu 3 . i . a. yui jui jaka jaka

abhidhana obhidhan baluka boluk t^ \v. d^ar^a djar poci/o pocij" damJana donjon
sutararrj Jutorarj

galita golito phatura photur ta ta dha dha ghota ghof hakapi hakapi Jarrjsa Jorjja

palita polito bahut bohut ro ro bhui bhui bedhe bedhe

madhura modhur ora or thai thai khopa khopa t ] t J


3r s n

Ska ak

caca cac

cheka chek

kudala kudol

dhudhula dhudhul gam gan pamju parjju arrjja onJo

^ J i 9 r r j t ; h srrj t 9t^
h o o n

vamjo arjJo

samghata Jorjghat sarrjyamana Jorj jomon ii. aruh oruh

samvit Jorjbit

avatarrjsa o b o t o n Jo sairjghatika Jarjghatik nihsukha niJJukh

narrjjuka norj Juk karrjsaha korj Joha atahpara otoppor

vamJadhara borj Jodhor sarah Joroh nabhahsad nobhoJJod havih Jesa hobijjej

samjodhana Jorj Jodhon pun ah punoh acetah ocetah sahah Johoh

Jatayuh Jotayuh ' nihkarana nikkaron

duhsamaya dujjomoy

bahsadana bajJodon duhsaha dujJoho

vanavkah bonoukah

nihkasana nikkajon

Chapter 3 Class 1. pakka pokko that t a thatt


a

kakkhata kokkhof udjLiina ucJdJLn

paggara poggo sar^r^avata Jonnoboto ummeda ummed saddara Joadar udgamana udgomon utphulla utphullo

kaccara koccor uttara uttor Joyya Jo 0 d tibbat tibbot udghata udghat utpanna utponno utthana utthan phulla phullo

iccha iccha cavdda couddo

l a j ja l o j ja Juddha Juddho

kujjhatika kuj jhofika kanna kanna hissa

chappara choppor visani\a bi-Jonno

c h a b b i Ja chabbiJ sahayya Jahajjo

manajjanti monoj'janti

hissa hijja,

paricchanna poricchonno adbhuta odbhut camatkara comotkar Jabda Jobdo

vrddha briddho utpatha utp.oth

citta citto dagdha dogdho satkorja Jofkon

Class 2. i . J a k t i - vagdana J o k t i bagdan gupta gup t o utkara utkor

utkhata utkhat

TRANSCRIPTION ii. lankar olonkar J"nkh /onkho ssngst Jorjgoto kon^ha kor^fha ssnghstsn /onghofon jicsl oncol Janti /anti lanchsna lanchona panthii ponthi jijsli onjoli ninda ninda

229

jhQjijhato jhonjhaj; ndha ondlio


iii.

kon^okii konjjoki

parjcja. a^hur|dhitg panc^a c]hur]c{hito sgmbhgvg Jorabhob pna pna

sompgdg /ompod
/9kma

lgmphg lompho sonlsgn Jorjlogno jonm jonmo

gmbgrg ombor atma attS

jpang gsen vagmn baggi vanmey banrjoy

jijjiasa pgtnii jiggee/a p o t n i

pgmkti ponkti

Jokka i v . unmogn unmogno Class 3 . i vaky bakko thyan bhrtyer bhritter nyuune nun vyonjsn bsenjon Class kvocit kocit iiJvoro iJJor khyat kheeto qhyaqa

nimnokt nimnokto

ssnmas JonmaJ"

yogyota joggota pur]y punno

cygvgng cobon ygtyacarg jottsecar dyumgni dumoni

cyutg cuto

jyoti joti

jyetha jeatha sgtyg /otto dhyey dheyo nyay ntsy

gtyuttgmg ottuttomo gbadhyg obaddho myao meeo

gtygyg ottoy dbyang dheen kglyano kolleen sgndhya /ondhss

mitthya mitthes upsnyas uponnse/ /yam J8 m *=

ggdyg goddo pyang peen

rsvpy rouppo syoda Jod

gbhyasa obbheaj

talovyg talobbo sonkbyeyo Jonkheyo

monusyo monuJ"/o

s s h y udyana J o j j h o uddsen

3.ii. pokvo pokko svocche Joccho ucchvaso ucchaj* jval jal tvsra tora tottvo totto sorosvotii /oro//oti dhvonsa dhonfo /vaso /a/ vilvo billo jihva jibha

nvesr[ onne/on

svode/e /odej

Class 3 i i i . a. terk torko muurkhe murkho vorgiiyo borgiyo diirghg dirgho varcc barcco muurcchong raurcchon s a r j j u vrn / o r j u borno korttgvyg kortobbo podarthg podartho kerdd-]; rddh durnam kordot ordho durnam ssrp /orpo smrpn dhrm /omorpon dhormo msryyada morjseda durlgbh durlobh

230 vghirbhutg bohirbfruto iii.b.

BENGALI s s r v v a mgr/gng /orbo mor/on gramg gram msrssr^a mor/on

SECTION ggrhgrjg gorhon putrg putro aryyg arjo drgvyg drobbo visgrgg biJorge prg:qamg pronam vrgtg brot sgrddarg Jordar priyg priyo Jrii sri sgrjgrghg /orjgroho

kruddbg kruddho vyggrg beegro

ghreyg ghreyo

vajrg bojro

bhrgmgrg bhromor hrita hrito Class ulka ulka klanta klanto

a/rayg asroy

sgmra-J;g J"omra{ andhrg andhro

srutg sruto

srmi sm

vgdhrg bodhro

g/ru osru 3.iv. vglgita bolgito

prarthgna prartbona

ucchrgyg ucchroy

sarjkrantg /orjkranto

paktrg poktro

phalgurjg phalgun plavong plabon

ul-|;a ulfa

gglpg golpo

gulpbg gulpho mlang mlan

prggglbhg progolbho Jlokg Jlok

gulmg gulmo

ulbg ulbo hladg hlad

glepgng glepon

tablakg toblok

gjliilg o/lil

C l a s s U. i . a. p o / c a t pojcat nip^n-urg ni/fhur ni/ceyg nijcoy krsng krijno n i / c h i d r g a/cgryg nijchidro a/corjo ni^pgtti nifpotti nisphglg ni/phol p r a j n g n i s k r t g ngs"tg p r o s n o n i / k r i t o noJ-J;o grii^mg grij/o skgndg skondo jyesthg jeJ"t
n o

skhglitg skholito spor/g spor/o

stgbdba stobdho smgrgr^g Joron svasthg Jostho snano snan snigdhg snigdbo spgs"J;g spoT^o sphu-J;itg sphutito smrti srlti b. gksarg okkhor pariksitg porikkhito tgtksgrjat totkhonat suuk^mg Jukkho

vismgyg bi/Joy strii stri rasjro rajfro vipsa bip/a k^viiirjg khinno

arksg mgtsgrg arkkho m o t / o r gpsgra op/ora khinng khinno

C l a s s U. i i . gpgrahng oporanho ahnikg anhik cihng cinho mgdhyahng moddhanho brghma bromba prahr]g pranho puurvvahng purbbanho

TRANSCRIPTION Bengali prose passage ekedine epeksakrte elpeveyase sekdin opekkhakrito olpoboyje y e k h a n e amare J e k t i j o k h o n amar Jokti chile chilo

231

tekhene tokhon amare amar imreji inreji vastuta hostuto

kekhane kekhene i m r e j i s a h i t y a mukhe mukhe bamla k a r e J u n i y e c i . kokhono kokhono i n r e j i J a h i t t o mukhe mukhe h a n l a k o r e J u n i y e c i . Jrotara srotara imreji inreji janetene s a v a i . jan'ten Jobai. tavu tohu tara tSra s i ikar a karecena fikar korecen

s a h i t y e r a v a n i i bamlabha^aye t a d e r e mahe s e h e j e s a r a p e y e c e . Jahitter hani banlabhajay tader mone J o h o j e Jara p e y e c e . adhunika / i k ^ a i m r e j i h h a s a v a h i n i i adhunik Jikkha i n r e j i h h a / a b a h i n i tara tar anekakhani onek'khani mara y a y e . mara j a y .

h a l e i amadera manera p r o v e J e p e t h e h o l e i amader moner p r o b e J ' p o t h e " aharera aharer ja^ila joj;il debara debar takhana tokhon

i m r e j i khanara { ^ b i l e i r j r e j i khanar -j^elslXe emana b a i p l i i r e gemon b a n a l i r

paddhati yara a b h y a s t a nay poddhoti j a r i o b b h o s t o noy

chele b i l e t e pari chele b i l e t e papi

pathe p i encjo o k o m p a n i i r a c j i n a r e kameray pothe p i end^ o kompanir acinar k a m ' r a y

yakhana k h e t a b a s e jokhon k h e t e b o j e

bhojyo o r o s o n a r o modhyapathe ka"|;a c h u r i r a d e v t y e b h o j j o o r o / o n a r moddhopothe k a f a c h u r i r doutto

t a r a pekpe badhat a r pokkhe b a d h a je"|;herere d a v i i jo{horer dabi s e i daj*a, Jei doja, ache ache e e

g r a s t a b o l e i bheropuuro b h o j e r a m a j h a k h a n e o k s u d h i t e grosto b o l e i bhor'pur bhojer majh'khaneo khudhito sempuurne mi"|;0te c a y e n a . Jompurno m i f ' t e c a y n a . amadera amader Pik^ara b h o j e o fikkhar bhojeo

s a v a i o t h e c a majhepathe a n e k a k h a n i Jobi o t h o c o m a j h ' p o t h e o n e k ' k h a n i k e l e j i yejjiere kotha, k o l e j i jogger kotha,

epeceye haye yaya. opocoy hoye jay.

e ya b a l e c i e ja b o l ' c i neye. noy.

amara a j a k e r a a l o c y a amar a j ' k e r alocco Jiksa Jikkha

vi^aya e niye bijoye e niye

amare visoye"|;a s e r v v e s a d h a r o n e r e amar b i / o y | ; a J orb o / a d h a r o n e r

niye. niye.

Jiksare jalera Jikkhar j o l e r

kala. kol

c a l a n o r o k o t h a n o y e , p a i p a y e k h a n e p a v c h a y e na s e k h a n e calanor kotha noy, paip j e k h a n e p o u c h o y na Jekhane vyavasthara kotha. bsebosthar kotha. Jest na h e y e t e v e J o s t o na hoy t o b e

paniiyera paniyer

matrbhasaye s e i vyavastha yadi gospedere ceye p r o m a t r i b h a j a y J e i beebostha jodi gojpoder ceye proe i v i d y a h a r a d e j e r e m e r u v a s i i menere upaye hobe k i i e i biddashara d e j e r m o r u b a j i moner upay hobe k i .