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# Unit -1 1. (a) The petrol used in an engine may be approximated to hexane (C6H14).

The percentage of dry exhaust gases by volume at a particular load and speed of the engine are as follows: CO2 =8.5%, CO=7.8% and N2 (by difference) = 83.7%. Find the: i) Air fuel ratio required for chemically complete combustion and ii) Estimate the mixture strength (A: F ratio) in the test as a percentage of the chemically correct mixture (A: F ratio). (16) Or (b) The petrol used in an engine contains 84% C and 16% H2. The air supply is 80% of the theoretically required for the complete combustion. Assume that all H2 is burned and that C burns partly to CO and partly to CO2 without any free carbon, find the volumetric analysis of dry exhaust gases. Also find percentage of the gross calorific value of the fuel lost due to incomplete combustion. (16) 2. (a) i) Explain the phenomenon of pre-ignition. How pre-ignition leads to detonation and vice-versa. (8) ii) Explain the effect of engine design and operating variables on flame velocity. (8) Or (b) i) Obtain the stoichiometric air fuel ratio for Diesel and ethanol on mass basis. (8) ii) Explain chain reaction theory. (8)

3. (a) Discuss the effect of dissociation on: i) Temperature ii) Power (16)

Or (b) A petrol engine was supplied with fuel having the formula C6H14. Analysis of exhaust gases by volume was 12% CO2, 4% CO and 84% N2. Calculate the percentage by which the air supply was greater or less than the theoretical minimum required for complete combustion. (16) 4. (a) A hydro carbon fuel of composition 84.1 percent by mass C and 15.9 percent by mass H; has a molecular weight of 114.15. Determine the number of moles of air required for stoichiometric combustion and the number of moles of products produced per mole of fuel. Calculate the (A/F), (F/A) and the molecular weight of the resultants and the products. (16) Or (b) Briefly explain the following: i) Combustion stoichiometry. (6) ii) Theoretical flame temperature. (5) iii) Chemical equilibrium. (5) `

5. a) i) Briefly explain the basics of combustion in SI and CI engines. (6) ii) Give a comprehensive account of characteristics of flames as applicable to I.C. Engines. (10) Or (b) i) Explain clearly Pre-flame reaction. (6) ii) Explain briefly Chemical reaction rate and effect of turbulence on flame propagation. (10)

Unit -3 1. (a) Factors which tends to reduce detonation in S.I. engines increase knocking in C.I. engines Discuss in detail with suitable examples. (16) Or (b) What do you mean by delay period in diesel combustion? What are the factors affecting delay period in diesel engines? Explain. (16) 2. (a) i) Discuss different types of open combustion chambers in diesel engine with neat sketch. (16) Or

ii) Factors which tends to reduce detonation in S.I. engines increase knocking in C.I. engines Discuss. (16)

3.

a) i) Explain the various stages of Combustion in CI engines with the help of P- diagram. (10) ii) Discuss the effect of at-least four factors that influence ignition delay. (6) Or (b) Explain briefly the following: i) Spray formation. ii) Swirl measurement. iii) Diesel knock iv) Pre-combustion chambers (16)