Sie sind auf Seite 1von 57


Digital camera

A digital camera (or digicam) is a camera that takes video or still photographs by recording images on an electronic image sensor. Most cameras sold today are digital,[1] and digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones(called camera phones) to vehicles. Digital and film cameras share an optical system, typically using a lens with a variablediaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. The diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the imager, just as with film but the image pickup device is electronic rather than chemical. However, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded, and store and delete images frommemory. Many digital cameras can also record moving video with sound. Some digital cameras can crop and stitch pictures and perform other elementary image editing. History Steven Sasson as an engineer at Eastman Kodak invented and built the first digital camera using a charge-coupled device image sensor in 1975.[2][3] He received the National Medal in Technology and Innovation for this invention in 2009.[4] Image resolution
Page | 1

The resolution of a digital camera is often limited by the image sensor (typically a CCD or CMOS sensor chip) that turns light into discrete signals. The sensor is made up of millions of "buckets" that essentially count the number of photons that strike the sensor. The brighter the image at a given point on the sensor, the larger the value that is read for that pixel. Depending on the physical structure of the sensor, a color filter array may be used which requires a demosaicing/interpolation algorithm. The number of resulting pixels in the image determines its "pixel count". For example, a 640x480 image would have 307,200 pixels, or approximately 307 kilopixels; a 3872x2592 image would have 10,036,224 pixels, or approximately 10 megapixels. The pixel count alone is commonly presumed to indicate the resolution of a camera, but this simple figure of merit is a misconception. Other factors impact a sensor's resolution, including sensor size, lens quality, and the organization of the pixels (for example, a monochrome camera without a Bayer filter mosaic has a higher resolution than a typical color camera). Since only a few aspect ratios are commonly used (mainly 4:3 and 3:2), the number of sensor sizes that are useful is limited. Furthermore, sensor manufacturers do not produce every possible sensor size, but take incremental steps in sizes. For example, in 2012 the three largest sensors (in terms of pixel count) used by Canonwere the 22.3, 21.1, and 17.9 megapixel CMOS sensors. Demanding high quality and resolution (e.g. for use in professional photography), this count is an object of manufacturer competition. The highest resolution available on the market for consumer digital cameras is 80.1 MP.[5] This digital camera is partly disassembled. The lens assembly (bottom right) is partially removed, but the sensor (top right) still captures a usable image, as seen on the LCD screen (bottom left). Since the first digital backs were introduced, there have been three main methods of capturing the image, each based on the hardware configuration of the sensor and color filters. The first method is often called single-shot, in reference to the number of times the camera's sensor is exposed to the light passing through the camera lens. Single-shot capture systems use either one CCD with a Bayer filter mosaic, or three separate image sensors (one each for the primary additive colors red, green, and blue) which are exposed to the same image via a beam splitter. The second method is referred to as multi-shot because the sensor is exposed to the image in a sequence of three or more openings of the lens aperture. There
Page | 2

are several methods of application of the multi-shot technique. The most common originally was to use a single image sensor with three filters (once again red, green and blue) passed in front of the sensor in sequence to obtain the additive color information. Another multiple shot method is called Microscanning. This technique utilizes a single CCD with a Bayer filter but actually moved the physical location of the sensor chip on the focus plane of the lens to "stitch" together a higher resolution image than the CCD would allow otherwise. A third version combined the two methods without a Bayer filter on the chip. The third method is called scanning because the sensor moves across the focal plane much like the sensor of a desktop scanner. Their linear or trilinear sensors utilize only a single line of photosensors, or three lines for the three colors. In some cases, scanning is accomplished by moving the sensor e.g. when using color co-site sampling or rotate the whole camera; a digital rotating line camera offers images of very high total resolution. The choice of method for a given capture is determined largely by the subject matter. It is usually inappropriate to attempt to capture a subject that moves with anything but a single-shot system. However, the higher color fidelity and larger file sizes and resolutions available with multi-shot and scanning backs make them attractive for commercial photographers working with stationary subjects and large-format photographs. Dramatic improvements in single-shot cameras and raw image file processing at the beginning of the 21st century made single shot, CCD-based cameras almost completely dominant, even in high-end commercial photography. CMOS-based single shot cameras remained somewhat common.

Page | 3

Types of digital cameras Digital cameras are made in a wide range of sizes, prices and capabilities. The majority are camera phones, operated as a mobile application through the cellphone menu. Professionalphotographers and many amateurs use larger, more expensive digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) for their greater versatility. Between these extremes lie digital compact cameras and bridge digital cameras that "bridge" the gap between amateur and professional cameras. Specialized cameras including multispectral imaging equipment and astrographscontinue to serve the scientific, military, medical and other special purposes for which digital photography was invented. Compact digital cameras

Compact cameras are designed to be tiny and portable and are particularly suitable for casual and "snapshot" uses. Hence, they are also calledpoint-andshoot cameras. The smallest, generally less than 20 mm thick, are described assubcompacts or "ultra-compacts" and some are nearly credit card size.[7] Most, apart from ruggedized or water-resistant models, incorporate a retractable lens assembly allowing a thin camera to have a moderately long focal length and thus fully exploit an image sensor larger than that on a camera phone, and a mechanized lens cap to cover the lens when retracted. The retracted and capped lens is protected from keys, coins and other hard objects, thus making it a thin, pocketable package. Subcompacts commonly have one lug and a short wrist
Page | 4

strap which aids extraction from a pocket, while thicker compacts may have two lugs for attaching a neck strap. Compact cameras are usually designed to be easy to use, sacrificing advanced features and picture quality for compactness and simplicity; images can usually only be stored usinglossy compression (JPEG). Most have a builtin flash usually of low power, sufficient for nearby subjects. Live preview is almost always used to frame the photo. Most have limitedmotion picture capability. Compacts often have macro capability and zoom lenses but the zoom range is usually less than for bridge and DSLR cameras. Generally a contrast-detectautofocus system, using the image data from the live preview feed of the main imager, focuses the lens. Typically, these cameras incorporate a nearly silent leaf shutter into the lens but play a simulated camera sound [8] for skeuomorphic purposes. For low cost and small size, these cameras typically use image sensor formats with a diagonal between 6 and 11 mm, corresponding to a crop factor between 7 and 4. This gives them weaker low-light performance, greater depth of field, generally closer focusing ability, and smaller components than cameras using larger sensors. Some cameras have GPS, compass, barometer and altimeter.[9] and some are rugged and waterproof. Starting in 2011, some compact digital cameras can take 3D still photos. These 3D compact stereo cameras can capture 3D panoramic photos for play back on a 3D TV. Bridge cameras

Bridge are higher-end digital cameras that physically and ergonomically resemble DSLRs and share with them some advanced features, but share with compacts the use of a fixed lens and a small sensor.
Page | 5

Like compacts, most use live preview to frame the image. Their autofocus uses the same contrast-detect mechanism, but many bridge cameras have amanual focus mode, in some cases using a separate focus ring, for greater control. They originally "bridged" the gap between affordable point-and-shoot cameras and the then unaffordable earlier DSLRs. Due to the combination of big physical size but a small sensor, many of these cameras have very highly specified lenses with large zoom range and fast aperture, partially compensating for the inability to change lenses. On some, the lens qualifies as superzoom. To compensate for the lesser sensitivity of their small sensors, these cameras almost always include an image stabilization system to enable longer handheld exposures. These cameras are sometimes marketed as and confused with digital SLR cameras since the appearance is similar. Bridge cameras lack the reflex viewing system of DSLRs, are usually fitted with fixed (non-interchangeable) lenses (although some have a lens thread to attach accessory wide-angle or telephoto converters), and can usually take movies with sound. The scene is composed by viewing either the liquid crystal display or the electronic viewfinder (EVF). Most have a longer shutter lag than a true DSLR, but they are capable of good image quality (with sufficient light) while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs. High-end models of this type have comparable resolutions to low and mid-range DSLRs. Many of these cameras can store images in a raw image format, or processed and JPEG compressed, or both. The majority have a builtin flash similar to those found in DSLRs. In bright sun, the quality difference between a good compact camera and a digital SLR is minimal but bridge cameras are more portable, cost less and have a similar zoom ability to DSLR. Thus a bridge camera may better suit outdoor daytime activities, except when seeking professional-quality photos.[10] In low light conditions and/or at ISO equivalents above 800, most bridge cameras (or megazooms) lack in image quality when compared to even entry level DSLRs. However, their larger depth of field due to small size is usually an advantage in snapshots and sometimes in more studied work. A 3D photo mode was introduced in 2011, whereby the camera automatically takes a second image from a slightly different perspective and provides a standard MPO file for stereo display.[11]

Page | 6

19 Precision Optical Instruments 33 Laboratory established 19 Kwanon camera prototype 34 developed Hansa Canon camera introduced

19 36

Hansa Canon 35mm focal-planeshutter camera 19 Precision Optical Industry, Co., 37 Ltd. Founded 19 Japan's first indirect X-ray camera 41 introduced 19 Company name changed to Canon 47 Camera Co., Inc. 19 New York branch office opened 55 19 Sole European distributor, Canon 57 Europa, established Canonet camera introduced

19 61

Canonet Electric Eye (EE) camera 19 Canola 130 calculator introduced 64

Page | 7

Canola 130, the world's first 10key electronic calculator 19 "Cameras in the right hand, 67 business machines in the left."

Page | 8


To know about the different brands of Digital Camera

To know about the customer satisfaction

To know about pricing to Digital Camera To know about market share of Digital Camera

To know about the customers services.

Page | 9


According to Green and Tall A research design is the specification of the methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is the overall operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulates which information is to be collected, from where it is to be collected and by what procedures

This research process based on primary data analysis and secondary data analysis will be clearly defined to meet the objectives of the study.









questionnaire was designed in accordance with our mentor in Digital Camera. I chose a sample of about 30 corporate customers I collected some data from the secondary sources like published Company documents, internet etc. Research Design A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collections and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedures. It is a descriptive cross sectional design .It is the
Page | 10

conceptual structure with in which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. It is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations, thereby making research as efficient as possible yielding maximal information with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. In the preliminary stage, my research stage constituted of exploratory study by which it is clear that the existence of the problem is obvious .So, I can directly head for the conclusive research. Sampling Plan Sampling plan is a distinct phase of research process. In this stage I have to determine who is to be sampled, how large should be the needed sample and how sampling unit is to be selected. Population In my research, I have defined my population as a complete set of customers of Sagar City. Sample Survey As compared to census study, a sample study has been conducted by us because of: Wide range of population, it was impossible to cover the whole population Time and money constraints.
Page | 11

Sample Unit In this survey I took the list of customers from the dealers of Digital Camera Sampling Technique Sampling technique implies the method of choosing the sample items, the two methods of selecting sample are: Probability method. Non-probability method. Probability method is those in which every item of the universe has an equal chance of the inclusion in the sample. Non-probability methods are those that do not provide every item in the universe with known cause of being included in the sample. The selection process is partially subjective. For my study, I employed the Non-probability sampling technique, in which I got the data of the customers from the dealer of Digital Camera.

Page | 12

People always want to keep the prefect moments in their lives. So they invented cameras that the earliest invention which can help people to do that. Nowadays cameras have become a part of peoples lives. Most of families own at least one camera. Wherever there is a party, a picnic, a wedding or something else, we use a camera to save the memories. With the development of technology, there is a new kind of camera which becomes a fashion all over the word. It named digital camera which is short for DC. Digital cameras are different form the traditional cameras. The biggest differentiation between the two cameras are digital cameras do not need films whilst tradition camera need. Compare with tradition camera, digital camera has more advantages for ordinary consumer than disadvantages. But people use the tradition cameras for more than 150 years, will they easily to accept the new camera? How to motivate consumer to buy digital cameras? Can the marketers create such a need to them? For this article, I would discuss the need and motivation of consumers, and show the answer about the questions above.

Page | 13

Needs & Motivation +Marking a test with lots of questions about digital camera to show that what consumers need is, what they want and what motivation cause they to own a digital camera. +Analysing outcomes of the test and summarize it with some theories of need and motivation. +Understanding peoples behaviours and combine them with digital cameras. +Analysing the digital cameras market and find out some strategies of motivation. +pointing out some shortages of digital cameras when compare with traditional ones and gives some advices.

Executive Summary of Main Points and Recommendations Every company wants to understand why people decide to buy its products or others. Firstly, we have to understand why people buy certain kind of product. People buy products because they need them. A need is activated and felt when there is a sufficient discrepancy between a desired or preferred state of being and the actual state. (EngleBlackwell and Miniard. 1995. p407 ) For example, when you feel hungry, what you needs is some food. It is very important for marketer to understand the needs of consumers. All the consumers may have the same needs, but the ways which they satisfy what they need are different. Here is a example, Chinese people would choose rice when they feel hungry, whilst British people may choose bread to satisfy their needs. The specific way a need is satisfied on the individuals unique history,
Page | 14

learning experience, and culture environment. The particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need is termed a want. (Solomon, 1999. p106)

Needs and motivation can not be considered separate. Motivation is activation, an incentive or reason to start or to maintain behavior, motivation determines the strength and direction of behavior. (Antonides and Raaij, 1998. p164) But for businessman, it is about realizing why your consumer do what they do and what they are willing to reach the goal. And then marketers have to satisfy what consumer need put all irons in the fire. Motivation links needs and behaviors (goal). Motivates occur when there is a need, then motivates direct behavior through specific types of activities and reach the goals at last. Motives have been classified, for example, as learned or unlearned, rational or emotional, conscious or unconscious, physical (biogenic) or psychological (psychogenic) and so on (Chisnall, 1994. p51). For instance, a cosmetic may be bought for a lot of reasons: we may choose the cosmetic for some rational motivation, such as reliability and usefulness. After we use the cosmetic, we become more beautiful and confident. Or we may choose the cosmetic for emotion motivation because its brand image fits us.

Consumers sometimes have the same behaviors while they do not have the same motivations. Consumers expend the different efforts to attain goals for different motivation. Here is an example; two consumers have their meals in a restaurant. Ones motivation may be hungry and the others motivation may be social intercourse. The hungry one may wishfully need food whilst the other
Page | 15

may not pay much attention to the food. This kind of situation is about involvement. Involvement refers to the level of perceived personal importance and/or interest evoked by a stimulus (or stimuli) within a specific situation. Involvement is about the aspects of the person, the product, and the situation all combines to determine the consumers motivation to process product related information at a given point in time. (Solomon, 1999. pp111112) for example, a consumer who is going to buy a computer will pay more attention to the information about it. Main report More than 170 years ago, the first camera was invented by a Frenchman named John Niepce. Since that people are far away from the date that people just can keep their memory in mind and are able to use the camera to keep their especial moment in a photograph. As the times go by, the technologies develop at a tremendous pace. In 1981, the Japanese company Sony sale the new camera which is different from the tradition one. It is digital camera. (

Why people need a camera? The answer is quite simple. It is because what we mention above that they want to keep the prefect moment not only in mind. In order to satisfying this need, different people have their own ways. For example, they may draw a picture, take photograph, and use digital vidio and so on. (What this article focuses on is camera, so we just consider the camera). Needs can be divided into 3 categories: biological needs, psychological needs and sociological needs. According to the questionnaire,
Page | 16

82% of people believe that owning a digital camera could make them more fashionable and only 18% of people do not think so. So to some extent, a need of camera belongs to psychological need. Psychological needs are defined that if psychological needs are satisfied, protect and enhance the personality. (McNeal, 1973. p39) Digital cameras are the high-tech product and change with each passing day. So most of the people consider the digital cameras represent fashionable. If a person sees himself as a fashionable man, he will buy digital cameras to indicate that he is fashionable.

Now we know what people need is a camera, and then we turn to the question to what motivates or makes people to buy a digital camera not the traditional one. As the questionnaire above shows that there are 68%of people need a digital whilst only 32% of people think that they do not need a digital camera than the traditional one. We mention above that people have the same behaviours do not mean they have the same motivations. For a marketer, it is very important to understand the different motivation of consumer. So what is the motivation of buying a digital camera? Comparing with the two kinds of camera, digital cameras have a lot of advantages. According to the question in questionnaire, most of people think that they buy digital camera not only for single reason. Fashion, convenience and lots of functions are all the advantages which consumers want to have. To some extent, the advantages of digital cameras are the rational motivation of consumers. Here are some examples. We may choose digital cameras because it is more convenient. Digital cameras do not need the films and easily to learn how to
Page | 17

control it for anyone even a ten-year old child; we may choose it because we are able to check the photo at once after we take. If we do not satisfy with the photo, we can cancel it immediately or perfect it in the computer through using some software; we may choose it because we can save the photo in the computer and the print it out whenever you want, and the photo will never go bad.

Digital cameras have so many advantages which can motivate people to buy. At the moment, marketer should consider about involvement. Consumers who have low involvement act depend on inertia. In contrast, consumers who have high involvement are more fervidly and easily motivated. (Solomon, 1999. p113) So marketers should find out some way to increase involvement. For instance, they can invite celebrity as their spokes models for the digital camera in order to attract attention of there consumers. Or to make the advertisings more attract through using the fit color and music. A lot of theories were created by some researcher of consumer behaviour. Such as instinctive theories of motivation, Freudian theories of motivation. Marketer should utilize some of theories of motivation to help its sell. The incentive theory of motivation recognizes that consumers, for example, are affected not only by their basic tissue needs, but also by the environments in which they live, work, and play. Motivation is not just from within an individual and purely instinctive; behaviour is also guided by factors such as beliefs and attitudes as well as social and group membership. (Chisnall, 1994.p52) According to the outcome of questionnaire, we know that about 70% people
Page | 18

believe that advertising of digital camera will attract them to buy a digital camera. We can make digital cameras more fashionable through the advertisings and high- tech image. And people will be influenced by advertisings or other people who already thought that digital cameras are really cool and popular.


Journey of Canon
Company Profile: Canon Inc. (NYSE: CAJ), headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, is a leader in the fields of professional and consumer imaging equipment and information systems. Canons extensive range of products includes copying machines, inkjet and laser printers, cameras, video equipment, medical equipment and semiconductormanufacturing equipment. Originally established in 1937 as Precision Optical
Page | 19

Industry, Co., Ltd., a camera manufacturer, Canon has successfully diversified and globalized to become a worldwide industry leader in professional and consumer imaging systems and solutions. With over 195,000 employees worldwide, Canon has manufacturing and marketing subsidiaries in Japan, the Americas, Europe, Asia and Oceania; and a global R&D network with companies based in the United States, Europe, Asia and Australia. Canons consolidated net sales for fiscal 2011 (ended December 31, 2011) totaled $46 billion. 3.2 Canon in India Canon India closed the year of 2011 with revenues of Rs.1525 cr and is targeting Rs. 2100 cr in 2012 which is 40% growth over 2011. Canon focuses on multiple market segments of consumer, B2B, Government & Commercial. Canons product portfolio extends over a vast variety of copier MFDs, fax-machines, printers, scanners, All-in-ones, digital cameras, camcorders and multimedia projectors, cable ID printers, semiconductors and card printers. Canon India Pvt. Ltd. is a 100% subsidiary of Canon Singapore Pvt. Ltd., a world leader in imaging technologies. Set up in 1997, Canon India markets over 140 comprehensive range of sophisticated contemporary digital imaging.Today, Canon India is certified for ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001. The company today has offices in 7 cities, warehouses in 13 cities across India and employs over 930 people. Canon has approximately 380 primary channel partners 13 National Retail Chain partners, and over 4000 secondary retail points. Oc distributors in India will now be a part of Canon partner network. Canons service reach extends to over 200 towns with over 200 service Engineers, 4 Master service centers and 34 Canon Care Centers. Canon and Oc products are available with complete service support network. 1.

Products and Services: DSLRs (EF lenses, EOF cameras) Professional camcorders Compact cameras (ixus, Power Shot)
Page | 20


5. 6.

Compact photo printers (SELPHY) Personal camcorders (LEGRIA) Fax machines (Inkjet, Laser) Single function printers (inkjet-pixma, laser-lasershoot)


9. Multifunction printers (inkjet-pixma, laser-imageCLASS) 10. Scanners (document, flatbed, flatbed with film) 11. Consumables (ink, paper & media) 12. Projectors

Page | 21

3.3 Recent Marketing Strategies Canon India closed revenues at Rs. 1257 cr revenues in 2010, with 50 per cent growth over 2009.
o Canon enters cinematography imaging

domain in India in July 2012. Targets Bollywood and broadcast applications with new cinema EOS product line. o Announces 3 models as a part of new range of advanced professional cameras and 11 new lenses for cinema photography image capturing

Canon organized over 75 photography workshops across India.

Launches Canon Professional Services (CPS) for press and media photographers in the country. The service will provide membership for selected media houses (company membership) targeting the regions of Mumbai, Delhi. CPS concept has been established in worldwide Canon group and herein starts with Indian market. This CPS concept starts with selected Press Media and will expand to professional photographers and Professional camcorder user including Cinema EOS System.

Announces the launch of Canon imageRUNNER ADVANCE, the nextgeneration print architecture platform that will revolutionize the printing industry. Canon also announces their alliance with the leading software solutions provider, Microsoft India to create the ultimate document management office.

o Canon plans to inaugurate 95 retail stores in 2011, 100 in the year 2012 and another 100 stores in 2013 taking the count to 300 stores in the next 3 years. Canons unique initiative to tap B, C and D-class cities of the country, Image Express, reached 38 cities in Tier II and Tier III towns. Canon India forayed into retail space with thelaunch of its exclusive brand retail store called"Canon Image Square". o Canon launched Canon Image Express, a

mobilecampaign touching 32 cities in 224 days

Canon launched a television commercial calledMy IXUS, My Style in two languages, Englishand Malayalam.

o o

Canons Original Ink Centers touched 1000 outlets across 176 cities in India. Pioneer of 100% cash back offer on laserprinters under CLAP, Canon LoyaltyAchievement Program.

3.4 Awards Strong commitment to excel" at the CII-EXIM Business Excellence Award

Canon was ranked amongst top 10 employers in India in the Business Today Best Companies to Work for in India in 2009.

Manufacturer of the Year-Smart Photography 2010 Best Camera Company of the Year-SmartPhotography 2010 Best Printer Company of the Year: Inkjet-Smart Photography 2010 Best Professional Printer of the Year-AsianPhotography 2010

3.5 Vision

Simple advanced solutions freeing people tolive their dreams and lead enriched lives at home and at work. 3.6 Mission CanonAustraliaandNewZealandaremarketleadingsuppliersofconsumerandbusi nessimaging solutions. We areaCanon Oceanic ateamcommittedtoour customers ongoing satisfaction through the empowerment and development of our staff. To be the preferred supplier we will be easy to deal with and provide quality, value for money products and services. To ensure success for all stake holders we will deliver profitability, growth, job fulfillment and have a positive impact on the community. The president and CEO of Canons South East Asia regional headquarter Singapore, Fukui Eiji, is confident that India is going to be an important market for Canon. With the upcoming launch of products, its distribution strategy in place, cross-selling opportunities in digital cameras, and competitive pricing, Canon Indias spirits are buoyant. Going forward, two product categories digicams and projectors will be the prime focus areas for Canons consumer strategy. These product categories are vital for it to scale its operations from business communications or automation to IT peripherals to consumer products. Its a big change for Canon, says Alok Bharadwaj, Director and GM, Consumer Imaging & Information Division.

The purpose of this report is to analyze the strategic position of Eastman Kodak Company (Kodak) and discern any sustainable competitive advantages held by the company.Beginning with a discussion of Kodaks industry and commentary on the political, economic,social, and technological environment in which the company operates, the report then narrows tofocus on Michael Porters Five Forces: barriers to entry, threat of suppliers, threat of buyers,threat of substitutes, and rivals. Once a thorough analysis of the industry and its environment iscomplete, it is necessary to detail Kodaks value chain and identify resources and capabilitiesspecific to the firm. Finally, these core competencies are subjected to a VRIO analysis todetermine if they are valuable, rare, and not easily imitable. If the Kodak has the organization inplace to utilize these resources and capabilities, they have a sustainable competitive advantage. The Company Kodak Company was founded in 1880 in Rochester, New York and engages in theimaging technology industry. The company operates in four segments: Digital and Film ImagingSystems, Health, Commercial Imaging, and Graphic Communications. For most of its history,Kodak focused on film technology and became a world leader in film and film camera sales. Inthe mid-1970s, Kodak controlled 90% of the film market. With the advent of and increasingdemand for digital imaging

technology throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, Kodak faceddeclining demand for its film products and decreasing market share in the overall camera market. Industry Yahoo! Finance lists Kodak in the photographic equipment and supplies industry.Kodak is the second-largest player in this industry, with a market capitalization of $8.1 billion,behind Canon ($58.4 billion); however, Kodak competes with other companies not categorizedin this sector, such as Sony and Hewlett Packard.Kodaks 2004 annual report defines the industry as imaging technology, which is abroader, more ambiguous phrase, but it more accurately depicts the field on which Kodak competes. The industry is no longer defined by who can provide the best equipment or supplies.Instead the industry is defined by who has the newest and most innovative technology. It isimportant for Kodak to view itself as a player in the imaging technology business rather thansimply photography. As discussed in the technology section of the following P.E.S.T. (political,economic, social, and technological environment) analysis, digital imaging is seeing growth inareas that traditional photography (point-and-shoot film photography with little versatility) never could have entered. Kodak is in the business of developing, producing, and selling imagingtechnology in whatever form it requires.While Kodak and its competitors operate worldwide, this report will focus on trends inthe digital camera market United States. The company operates in several businesses outside thedigital camera market, which will be discussed as pertinent to the analysis, but the case focusesspecifically on digital cameras. Furthermore some discussion of international opportunities andmarkets is necessary, yet a full analysis of Kodak in a global context is beyond the scope of this

Seed, 3report. Instead, the focus will remain on the political, economic, social, and technologicalenvironment of the U.S.

LG Electronics
INTRODUCTION: LGElectronics (Korea
n:LG, KRX: 066570, LSE: LGLD) is the world's second largest manufacturer of televisions and thirdlargest producer of mobile phones.http://en.wikipedia.or
g/wiki/LG_Electronics cite_note-1 Type
Public Korean: LG KRX: 066570 LSE: LGLD

Founded Headquarters Area served Key people Industry

1958 Seoul, South Korea Worldwide Yong Nam, (Vice Chairman &CEO) Mobile Communication Digital Display Digital Appliance Digital Media

With its headquarters in the LG Twin Towers in Yeouido, Seoul, South Korea, LG Electronics is the flagship company of LG Group, one of the world's largest electronic conglomerate s. 75 The company has subsidiaries


82,772 (29,948 in Korea/ 52,824 overseas) as of 2006

Parent Website

LG Group LG Electronics Worldwide

worldwide that design and manufacture televisions, home appliances, and telecommunications devices. LG Electronics owns Zenith Electronics and controls 37.9 percent of LG Display. LG has been able to craft out in ten years, a premium brand positioning in the Indian market and is today the most preferred brand in the segment.

By 2005, LG was a Top 100 global brand, and in 2006, LG recorded a brand growth of 14%.Now the world's largest plasma panel manufacturer, its affiliate, LG Display, is one of the largest manufacturers of liquid crystal displays. Also in 2006, the company's mobile phone division, LG Mobile, marketed the LG Chocolate phone, changing the company's image of the maker of thick 3G phones. It now focuses on the design and marketing of phones such as the LG Shine, the LG Glimmer and LG Prada (KE850). As a result, the company was picked as "The Design Team of the Year" by the red dot design award in 2006~2007 and is often called the "New Apple" in the industry and online communities.

The company was originally established in 1958 as GoldStar, producing radios, TVs, refrigerators, washing machines, and air conditioners.The LG Group was a merger of two Korean companies, Lucky (from the Korean "Lakhui") and GoldStar, from which the abbreviation of LG was derived. The current "Life's Good" slogan is a backronym. Before the corporate name change to LG, household products were sold under the brand name of Lucky, while electronic products were sold under the brand name of GoldStar (Hangul:). In January 2009 LG was able to buy the

domain name,, placing it among the companies who own their two letter brand's domain name. In 1994 GoldStar gained sponsorship from The 3DO Company to make the first 3DO Interactive Multiplayer. In 1995, GoldStar was renamed LG Electronics, and acquired Zenith Electronics of the United States. LG Solar Energy is a subsidiary formed in 2007 to allow LG Chem to supply polysilicon to LG Electronics for production of solar cells. In 2004, LGEIL also up its second Greenfield manufacturing unit in Pune, Maharashtra that commences operations in October 2004. Covering over 50 acres, the facility manufactures LCD TV, GSM Phones, Color Televisions, Air Conditioners, Refrigerators, Microwave Ovens Color Monitors. In 2008, LG took its first dive into the solar-panel manufacturing pool, as it announced a preliminary deal to form a joint venture with Conergy. Under the deal, set to be completed by year's end, LG would acquire a 75 percent stake in Conergy's Frankfurt solar-panel plant. LG has produced camcorders called ARTCAM and DSLRs.

LG Electronics is pursuing the vision of becoming a true global digital leader, attracting customers worldwide through its innovative products and design. The companys goal is to rank among the top 3 consumer electronics and telecommunications companies in the world by 2010. To achieve this, we have embraced the idea of Great Company, Great People, recognizing that only great people can create a great company.



By capitalizing on theyounger generations technological knowledge and creative potential, Nikon hopes toincrease its market share in the DSLR photography sector in India.The DSLR market is known to attract a slightly more matured and affluent crowd and thecamera are usually perceived as complicated and difficult to use. To engage the younger audience and debunk the misconceptions, Nikon has produced a guide menuto teachconsumers to take great pictures quickly. The advantages marketing the DSLR photography interest to the youth in India:

Debunk the misconception of DLSR photography is only for the older generation.

o o

Increase market share in the DSLR photography sector. Promote creative photography among students.

Business Mission Become a recognized branding for DSLR photography among the youth by promoting affordable, user friendly and creative DSLR photography. Achievements Nikon has led in technical innovationsfor more than 85 years, and theperformance delivered by Nikon products has earned the company and its customersprestige and recognition in a variety of fields. The majority of recent Pulitzer Prizewinning photographers used Nikon equipment to capture the winning image. Nikon Coolpix cameras have received more awards and top rankings than any other consumer digital camera line. Plus, Nikon SLR cameras have been on every manned space flight since the Apollo 15 mission in 1971. As The Eyes of Science, Nikon microscopes enable researchers to make critical breakthroughs, and Nikon instruments have beenat the forefront of discoveries in such areas as AIDS, Alzheimers, cancer, in-vitro fertilization, and genetic research. The Nikon Diaphot microscope was used for the countrys first in-vitro birth, and is still the predominant microscope for assisted reproduction. Additionally, a Nikon microscope was used in the cloning process for Dolly the Sheep, the first successful fully grown mammal clone. The tradition of Nikon

quality pervades the company, extending beyond the excellence of its products. For the third consecutive year, Nikon has earned the distinct honor of receiving the National Association of Photo Equipment Technicians Manufacturer Service Support Award the highest honor for consistent quality service within the industry.

Promotion Pictures are an integral part of our lives, and Nikonhas always known that ultimately it is the photographthat matters most.Perhaps the picture mattersfor creativeexpression and personalfulfillment. Perhaps it matters forincome derived from images, or simply for pleasureand shared memories. The unsurpassed qualityand reliability that result from Nikonsdedication to excellence assure that Nikon equipmentis exactly what you need when the picturematters, which is always. For this reason, the companyhas adopted the platform If the Picture Matters the Camera Matters. This philosophy,or key selling idea, has been crafted to addressNikons various photographic target markets, andused for all branding and promotional pieces.Similarly, Nikons industrial, bioscience, andother products employ direct benefit messages totheir target audiences in their promotions. Forinstance, Nikon Microscopes positioning as theEyes of Science highlights Nikons dedicationto providing the scientific community with thetechnology that enables vision and discovery.Based on a longstanding philosophy that educationis as much a part of the Nikon tradition asthe development and quality of products, Nikonhas developed a comprehensive program of educationaltools and online programs that extend theNikon brand and broaden thecompanys reach in the marketplace.Nikons Web sites, publications,videos, Nikon Schoolclasses, and the Nikon SpiritInitiative are all dedicatedto providing information,inspiration, and support.Nikons educational programsand development initiatives help differentiateNikon from its competitors and underscorethe companys commitment to quality. BRAND VALUES

The Nikon name is equated with extraordinaryperformance, innovation, precision, and opticalquality. The Nikon brand is a well-earned, valuedasset an asset that Nikon will continue to investin by pursuing continual innovation in all businessactivities, from product planning, design, anddevelopment to production, marketing, customersupport, and services. The unique strength of theNikon brand comes from the determinationto deliver quality that customers can trust. Nikon isalways at the Heart of the Image. Strategic objectives

Since, Japan and China contribute 10 per cent each to Nikons revenues, we are targeting 5 per cent revenues from India in the next 3 years as it has a lot of potential given its size and current growth, Nikon India managing director Hiroshi Takashina told Business Standard.

Mr. Tanaka (ex MD) said Nikon would soon launch an aggressive campaign to capture the fast-growing camera market in India. Nikon was aiming a 45 per cent market share in the SLR market, which stands at around 17,000 units a year. Today we have only 10 Nikon Touch Zones in four metros, which would be increased to 40 by the end of this year. We also hope to maintain a growth rate of 35 per cent, he added.

Besides, the company is aiming to increase its dealer network to 1,800 from 1,250 at present. We are now focusing on tier II and III cities for growth as the in smaller centers is more than metros and bigger cities, although the numbers are still small, Nikon GM (sales and marketing) Sajjan Kumar.

o Nikon is aiming to increase its market share in India to 15 per cent this fiscal.

Four Nikon products receive the "red dot award: product design 2012"

Nikon has set up more than 40 D-SLR and COOLPIX zone in India in cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Pune, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Coimbatore, Ahmedabad, Roorkee, Agra, Dehra Dun and Bhubaneswar. 4.7 Mission Performance levels to be achieved on priority issues, such as cost reductionMeasures of success in fulfilling critical mission statement elements, such as "deliveringsuperior customer service"Expected performance in key result areas (those additional areas in which you must getmeasurable results if you are to succeed), including:Expected financial performance standards such as profitability, sales revenue, growth, andcost/expense levelsTargets for performance on strategic measures that drive future financial performance, suchas market share, customer-perceived quality and service, employee satisfaction, organization skills and succession, and innovation

5.1 Overview Mr. Kenichiro Hibi appointed as Managing Director, Sony Indiawith effect from July 1, 2012. Sony India achieved sales of Rs. 6,313 crore in FY11 and aims 30% growth in sales in FY12. India to be 5th Largest Contributor to global sales by FY12. 5.2Category Performance

BRAVIA is No.1 in Flat Panel Market with 18.8% share (In Qty.) in CY11(As

per Display Search)

Cyber-shot is No.1 in Compact Digital Camera market with 34% share in

FY11 (As per Import Data)

VAIO for the first time hit No.1 share of 20% in Q4, 2011 (As per IDC

Report) 5.3 Plan in India

Enhance existing distribution network from 10,400 in FY11 to 12,200 in FY12 Boost after-sales service with 285 service touch points across India in FY12 Allocate marketing budget of Rs. 450 crore in FY12 Plan headcount increase by 500, to take the total no. to 3,800 in FY12

BRAVIA, VAIO and Digital Imaging (Cyber-shot, Handy-cam, Alpha & Photo Frame) have been the growth drivers of the business in India, contributing 35%, 20% and 15%, respectively to the total sales in FY11.

Time period India Global sales ranking (As Single Country)



FY12 (Est.) 5

Cyber-shot With Cyber-shot, Sony retains its No.1 position in Compact Digital Camera market with an unbeatable market share of 34% (In Qty.) in FY11 (As per Import Data), which is much ahead of the nearest competitor. In FY11, Sony sold 11 lakh Cyber-shot cameras, which is expected to go up to 14 lakh units by end of FY12. Not only this, Handy-cam has approximately 90% share of the camcorder market, and Sony is the only player to drive this market in India. 5.4 Brand Equity As per Customer Equity Tracking Study done by Nielsen in March 2012, Sony has been ranked as the No. 1 brand that comes to consumers mind, when prompted with the word General Electronics. Not only this, Sony obtained highest satisfaction scores with the biggest gap noted for Retail Price Stability, from the competition. This is a result of our Dealer Satisfaction Study done by Nielsen, where selected dealers were asked to give an overall satisfaction rating from a scale of 1 to 10 for each company.

5.5 Business Strategy To strengthen its business operation, Sony India follows its core business strategy, comprising of the following strong pillars: 5.5.1 Sales Channel Expansion: Sony has its footprint across all major towns and cities in the India through a very wide distribution network. Currently Sony has 10,400 sales channels including brand shops, national chain stores and distributors. Sony plans to aggressively increase the network to 12,200 channels by FY12.

Time period




FY12 (Est.)

Service Network





5.5.2 Service Operation Enhancement:

Customer Centricity is part of Sonys DNA. Over the years, customer service has evolved from just repairs to providing fast, flexible, affordable and comprehensive solutions to customers. Sony currently has 255 conveniently located service touch-points, which it plans to step-up to 285 by FY12 As per a survey done by Nielsen on Dealer Satisfaction, Sony has gained No. 1 position for after sales support, which is a reflection of Sonys excellent service quality provided to its customer.

5.5.3 Aggressive Brand Promotion

Sony followed a strong brand promotion strategy and invested Rs. 360 crore in FY11. All the brand campaigns were supported with extensive Abovethe-line and Below-the-line activities, including print and television commercial, Web, PR, cinema and shop-front. In FY12, Sony plans to pump up an investment of Rs. 450 crore, which will be in sync with the business growth. Time period FY09 FY10 Rs. 350 crore FY11 Rs. 360 crore FY12 Rs. 450 crore

Investment Amt Rs. 250 crore

Sony India has a very favorable presence over the digital domain as well and the website ( is a ready reckoner for product information, retail outlets and help guide and tutorials for product usage. It receives very heavy traffic throughout the year, with about 3 crore visit in FY11 alone. Sonys Facebook page has more than 6.5 lakh fans and over 5 lakh channel views on YouTube.

5.5.4 Local Talent Development

Developing local Indian talent is a very crucial element of Sonys growth story in India. Sony plans to increase its manpower by 500 employees in FY12, to match the growing business requirement. As per a survey conducted by Tower Watson across Sony Group companies, when compared to other high technology companies in India, Sony India has the highest score based on parameters such as Talent Management, Innovation, Collaboration, Empowerment, Leadership, Values & Objectives etc. Sony India also has a very low attrition rate, which is again a testimony to the fact that employees are comfortable with the work environment. While vacancies are quickly replenished with fresh talent, Sony India works towards creating a strong

career development programme for existing employees which helps limit the attrition. This includes various Sony University programmes that staffs have the opportunity to participate in. 5.6 Outlook for FY12 Sony plans to increase its sales turnover by 30% in FY12 5.6.1 Cybershot

Sony Cyber-shot grew 45% (Qty.) in FY11, higher than the digital still

camera industry growth rate of 40% (Qty.)

Plans to sell 14 lakh (Qty.) units in FY12 as compared to 11 lakh

(Qty.) units in FY11

Introduces 34 new Cyber-shot models with at least 16 models with

High Zoom feature.

Allocates Rs.50 crore to promote incredible zoom. incredible

details campaign with Brand Ambassador, Ms. Deepika Padukone.

Expands channel network to 3,000 in FY12, up from 2,500 outlets in

FY11. 5.7 Distribution Sony believes a robust distribution network is essential to the growth and sales of Cyber-shot cameras and hence plans to strengthen its current channel base to 3,000 counters in FY12, up from 2,500 counters in FY11. The current 2,500 outlets are distributed amongst 300 Brand Shops, 1,200 Photo stores and 1,000 consumer electronic stores including National Retailers. Distribution Sony being the company which positions itself as a seller of durable and high-end products, it is practicing selective distribution of its products from these elective dealers i.e. SONY-World. Apart from this there are grey-markets in India and other countries where a practice of intensive market coverage is practiced, and the products in these kind of markets normally do not possess all the features and benefits which Sony offers e.g. warranty and guarantee. Sony distributes its products in various channels. It uses Zero-level channel, one level channel and two-level channel. In

India, Sony has used the method of one-level distribution channel. This means that, customer buys their Sony product from the retailers recognized by Sony, and these retailers buy the products directly from the company itself.

5.8 Advertising Sony incorporates co-operative advertising in its advertising process. Sony Corporation provides the dealers (e.g. Sony World) with the materials and guidelines to develop ads for print, television or radio commercials. This ensures that message is in line with, what the manufacture wants to communicate. The company and the dealers usually share the media costs and hence, the name cooperative advertising. 5.9 Awards

No. 1 Ranking Camera for 2010 by Cnet Asia's Top 10 Cameras of 2010 Best Imaging Innovation: Sony SLT, Translucent Mirror Technology The 50 Best Inventions of the Year Award DPREVIEW Gold Award 2010 Camera of the Year

5.10 Summary There isnt a wide range of products available under Alpha series,but what makes photography fun and stylish for the youngsters is the ease of software and auto settings. The new Cyber-shot range will be available fromRs. 5,490 to

Rs.27,990 at Sony Center, photo channel outlets, consumer electronic stores and leading national retailers across the country. Sony is also set to launch its multi-media brand campaign across India, touching upon various media vehicles such as Television and Print commercial, shop-front, PR and web activities. Featuring Brand Ambassador Ms. DeepikaPadukone, the incredible zoom. incredible detailscommercial oozes a carnival feel.

Pros and Cons

One Big difference between the companies is the lenses. Nikon is not completely backward compatible with the previous Nikon lenses whereas the Canon cameras are and they areeven compatible with third party lenses. Sony on the other hand has limited backward compatibility issues becauseits fairly new in the market and almost all the lenses are not manufactured by it, because they have partnership with Carl Zeiss.

So how does the difference impact consumers and brand? If in the future one wants to buy a specialty lens, he only has limited options with Nikon, with comparatively higher prices. On the other hand, with the Canon one can get any Canon lenses or buy third party ones which are usually less expensive.

Prosumers is short for Professional Consumers and they are intended for advanced amateurs. One thing that distinguishes this camera from the other is their speed. Most SLRs are able to capture 3 consecutive photos per second, but Prosumers can take up to 21 photos per second. Here Nikon beats the racewith 21fps camera.

PEST Analysis
COMPANI ES Canon POLITIC AL No govt. grant ECONOMIC SOCIAL Most favored brand and 2nd highest brand equity after Sony. Preferred by most new age professionals. Has changed according to lifestyle changes. Highly aggressive policy. TECHNOLOGI CAL High R&D from parent company. Focus on marketing by making quality product. Product life cycles same as Nikon. Rate of technology transfer from Int. market is instant.

Trading agreements to ease shipment costand taxes on importing DSLR cameras willreduce cost for consumers. Comparatively higher and steady growth rate. High consumer confidence. Competitive cost, comparative to Nikon but on higher side.

User friendly, helps beat Complicated device


Nikon School

Trading agreements to ease shipment costand taxes on importing DSLR cameras willreduce cost for consumers. Increasing growth rate

Second most favored brand in SLR and over all the loyalty is high. Preferred by professionals with non DSLR

High R&D from parent company. Focus on selling what they manufacture.

High consumer confidence. Competitive cost, comparative to Canon but lower.

background. Has changed according to lifestyle changes.

Product life cycles same as Canon. Rate of technology transfer from Int. market is instant. Meant for professionals, less user friendly, less outreach to general population.


No govt. grant

Trading agreements to ease shipment cost and taxes on importing DSLR cameras will reduce cost for consumers Competitive cost.
Economic growth rate satisfactory. Very low attrition rate Consumer confidence not that high.

Has started to capture Youth,

with the highest brand equity in consumer market.

Preferred by amateurs. Has started with the current lifestyle.

High R&D from parent company. Focus on selling what they manufacture. Product life cycles not the same as Industry standard. Rate of technology transfer from Int. market is satisfactory. User friendly, general population approving it, but not at all by the professionals.


Sony:All is going according to plan; sales will grow slowly but steadily as the product is progressivelyintroduced to the market. Nikon: Profits which Nikon makes are non-existent atthis stage because of the costs of introducing the product; promotional costs are high in proportion to sales, and costs per unit of output are high because of low volume, but also have adding new functions, creating new market segments, therefore between stage1 and 2.

Canon: The expansion of the market attracts new competitors who have variousmarket-penetration strategies such as adding new functions, creating new market segments,and capitalizing on distribution channels, the price down, and so on, thus Profits may increase in this stage in accordance with the expansion of sales volume.

Competition Porter's (1985) Five Forces' model has been most widely used in the strategic analysis of competition. We shall use this model for Canons competitive analysis relating to thefive different forces (see figure 2)

1. New entrants: threat of entry from other organizations. (Example: Samsung and Sony entering the DSLR market. They currently have a share in the compact digitalcamera markets only.)

2. Substitutes: availability and competition from substitute products. (Example: Mobile phones and video cameras which can match the DSLR technology in photography.) 3. Buyers: bargaining power of buyers. (Example: Distributors are able to increase sales by providing convenient and reliable services, built on Canons Image Square.) 4. Suppliers: bargaining power of suppliers. (Example: Trained specialist and advanceequipment required by Canon India to meet increasing demands.) 5. Existing competitors: rivalry among existing competitors. (Example: Nikon and Olympus jockeying for position in the youth DSLR market.) Strategic Issues Analysis Despite there being no anticipation of any significant decline in consumption in the digitalcamera market, we expect consumer behavior and exchange rates will remain unclear infuture and that intensification of competition with competitors and downward product price trend will continue. The Nikon Group is committed to strengthening its manufacturing competitiveness constantly to meet the expectations of its customers. The entire industry is thus striving to improve competitiveness in terms of speed and cost as well asquality.In digital SLR cameras and interchangeable lenses, sales were down due to deterioration of product prices brought about by the effects of a strong yen and changes to the salescomposition ratio by price range. The Company was, however, able to increase its salesvolume at the same level, led by sales of their new models.

Do You have knowledge about these product ?


Yes No


Are You satisfied with these product


Yes No.


From where do you have got knowledge about this product

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Print Media Electronic Media Face to Face Comm


which product you like most

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sony Kodak Conan LG Nikon Series1

What is the reason becuase of which you prefer this product.

25% Quality Price 50% 25% Product

Do retailers provide paid repairing and services even after warranty on their own?

80 60 40 20 0 Series1




Due to lack of time I was not able to cover many customers. Answer given by the customers may be brand one. Simetime cooperation from respondents was missing.


Good quality products should be provide Products should be made available to the cosumers. They should increase the sales. The company should give more concentrate on the advertisement. They should improve the advertisement polices.

Canon must have necessary changes made to the display schemes and techniques as suggested by the respondents so that attractive display is there. Also the cameras must be provided to the retailer to give live demonstrations and help the retailers to make it as effective and convincing as possible. Service by the retailers was also demanded by the respondents who found it hard to find a company service station. Having uniformity in the display of cameras also helps a lot to create an image of the company. Canon can also carry out workshops wherein interested people can participate and know about the cameras and some nice photography pointers. Canons retail-company relations are also very good as the company gives a good support for carrying out promotional activities to retailers.

Q.1 Do you have knowledge about these product ? (a) Yes Q.2 (b) No.

Are you satisfied with these product (a) Yes (b) No.


From where do you have got knowledge about this product (a) Print Media (b) Electronic Media (c) Media


Which product you like most (a) NIC (b) LiC (c) HDFC (d) AVIVA (e) Reliance


Do you like the quality of this product


What is the reason becuase of which you prefer this product

(a) Quality (b) Price (c) Product Q. 7 Do retailers provide paid repairing and services even after warranty on their own? a. Yes b. No.

Q. 8 Any Suggestions: