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Volume 16,1 April 2003 A Subject and Author Index of Dissertations and Theses

Kinesiology Abstracts
(Continuation of Health, Physical Education and Recreation,

Exercise and Sports Sciences Microform Publications Bulletin: A Subject and Author Index of Dissertations and Theses including Abstracts)

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR SPORT AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE


AND

KINESIOLOGY PUBLICATIONS

UNIVERSITY OF OREGON Eugene, Oregon

Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

PUBLISHER:
International Institute for Sport and Human Performance
and Kinesiology Publications

1243 University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403-1243 , USA

MICROFICHE CHARACTERISTICS
Reduction ratio: Fiche type: Polarity: Replacement Policy: 24:1; 98 pages; NMA #1 format Silver halide, polyester base,meets pH and ANSI standards for archival purposes Negative Guaranteed if fiche is defective

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

KINESIOLOGY PUBLICATIONS

GENERAL INFORMATION
Kinesiology Publications, formerly known as Microform Publications of Human Movement Studies, is a component of the International Institute for Sport and Human Performance at the University of Oregon. Since its inception in 1949, Kinesiology Publications (KinPubs) has been providing a service to the academic community worldwide. Its focus is on the dissemination of graduate research of national and international significance. In addition, KinPubs provides access to scholarly books, journals, and meeting proceedings now out of print. The collection of KinPubs, which contains almost 10,000 titles, covers more than fifty years of graduate research in full text. KinPubs collects studies from a multifaceted field in which movement or physical activity is the intellectual focus. This field includes health as it relates to physical activity, physical fitness, activities of daily living, work, sport and athletics, recreation, dance, and play. The populations these studies include are children, adults, and the elderly; individuals with disabilities, injury or disease; and athletes. The research, which focuses on the causes and effects of physical activity, employs knowledge and methods of inquiry from arts and sciences as well as humanities; physiology, biochemistry, biomechanics, motor control and development, psychology, sociology, sports medicine, measurement and kinanthropometry, and also pedagogy, history, philosophy, and, more recently, sports marketing.

the index is forwarded to Sport Information Resource Centre (SIRC) of Canada, the world's most authoritative sports information service. The new titles are incorporated in SPORTDiscus, a CD-ROM database, and in SPORTDiscus Detective, a SIRC Internet access service. In addition to the collection of KinPubs, both include a broad range of exercise physiology, biomechanics, and sport medicine topics covering research, clinical, and lay publications.

KINESIOLOGY ABSTRACTS 16, 1


This publication is the first bulletin under the name Kinesiology Abstracts. It is a continuation of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Exercise and Sports Sciences Microform Publications Bulletin: A Subject and Author Index of Dissertations and Theses including Abstracts. This is issue 1 of volume 16 and represents microfiches published in April 2003. In the past, bulletins were published every 5 years, except for bulletin 7, which covers two and a half years. Beginning with bulletin 8, there are two issues (nos 1 and 2) per annual bulletin. Each issue includes a section of theses and dissertation titles and abstracts, as well as a section of keywords. Kinesiology Abstracts 16, 2 will be published in October 2003.

PRICE AND CATALOGING


The price of each title in this bulletin is indicated in parentheses at the end of the title listing. The price includes the library catalog card for the title. All titles have proper catalog headings, including both Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress classification numbers, as well as subject headings chosen from the Library of Congress Subject Headings.

HOW TO FIND US
The collection of full-text documents on fiche is indexed in bulletins such as this one. The collection is accessible with help of a search engine on KinPubs homepage on the Internet (http:// kinpubs.uoregon.edu). In addition, twice a year,

HOW TO ORDER
The following two order plans are available for purchasing microfiche:

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

1. STANDING ORDER SUBSCRIBER PLAN


The Standing Order Subscriber Plan automatically provides the institution semiannually with newly completed studies preserved on microfiche. Under this plan, the institution is billed at a 30 percent discounted rate. An additional 10 percent discount is given if payment is made within sixty days of initial billing. The current semiannual subscription for a standing order subscriber consists of 220 microfiches priced at $4.20 per microfiche for a total cost of $924 ($831.60 with 10% early payment discount) every six months.

INDIVIDUAL TITLE PURCHASE


Individual title purchases are suggested if an institution or individual prefers to make specific selections. The costs are according to the list price ($6 per fiche). Individual title orders totaling $500 or more will receive a 10 percent discount if payment is made within sixty days of initial billing. Clients, ordering individual titles, may find certain studies available as pdf files. Electronic file availability for a specific study can be checked on the search page of the Kinpubs web site at http://kinpubs.uoregon.edu

Volume Discounted Price of Microform Titles to-Date


OCTOBER 1949 - APRIL 2003

Volume 1 (Oct 1949 - Mar 1965) 1125 Books 5107 Fiche $21449.40VolumePrice HE 177 77 Books 385 Fiche PE 1657 657 Books 3239 Fiche PH 1136 136 Books 429 Fiche PSY 1196 196 Books 740 Fich RC 159 59 Books 314 Fiche Volume 2 (Oct 1966 - Apr 1972) 1284 Books 4951 Fiche $20,794.20 Volume Price HE 78147 70 Books 271 Fiche PE 6581332 673 Books 2724 Fiche PH 137346 207 Books 681 Fiche PSY 197467 280 Books 1024 Fiche RC 60114 54 Books 251 Fiche Volume 3 (Oct 1972 - Apr 1977) 1108 Books 2151 Fiche $9,034.20 Volume Price HE 148228 81 Books 168 Fiche PE 13331827 495 Books 1050 Fiche PH 347514 168 Books 257 Fiche PSY 477770 294 Books 520 Fiche RC 115184 70 Books 156 Fiche Volume 4 (Oct 1977 - Apr 1982) 1120 Books 2141 Fiche $8,992.20 Volume Price HE 229308 80 Books 166 Fiche PE 18282384 557 Books 1107 Fiche PH 515680 166 Books 267 Fiche PSY 7711001 231 Books 412 Fiche RC 185270 86 Books 189 Fiche

Volume 5 (Oct 1982 - Apr 1987) 1224 Books 2186 Fiche $9,181.20 Volume Price HE 309407 99 Books 193 Fiche PE 23852924 540 Books 1008 Fiche PH 681935 255 Books 383 Fiche PSY 10021238 237 Books 413 Fiche RC 271363 93 Books 189 Fiche Volume 6 (Oct 1987 - Apr 1992) 1181 Books 2200 Fiche $9,240.00 Volume Price HE 408498 91 Books 173 Fiche PE 29253310 386 Books 758 Fiche PH 9361211 276 Books 464 Fiche PSY 12391584 346 Books 635 Fiche RC 364445 82 Books 170 Fiche Volume 7 (Oct 1992 - Oct 1994) 599 Books 1100 Fiche $4,620.00 Volume Price HE 499538 39 Books 75 Fiche PE 33113503 192 Books 367 Fiche PH 12121369 158 Books 250 Fiche PSY 15851762 178 Books 340 Fiche RC 446477 32 Books 68 Fiche Volume 8 (Apr 1995 - Oct 1995) 262 Books 440 Fiche $1,848.00 Volume Price HE 539552 15 Books 27 Fiche PE 35043580 77 Books 136 Fiche PH 13701449 80 Books 110 Fiche PSY 17631836 74 Books 141 Fiche RC 478493 16 Books 26 Fiche

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

Volume 9 (Apr 1996 - Oct 1996) 258 Books 440 Fiche $1,848.00 Volume Price HE 553571 19 Books 26 Fiche PE 35813681 101 Books 177 Fiche PH 14501515 66 Books 97 Fiche PSY 18371903 67 Books 128 Fiche RC 494498 5 Books 12 Fiche Volume 10 (Apr 1997 - Oct 1997) 264 Books 440 Fiche $1,848.00 Volume Price HE 572600 29 Books 48 Fiche PE 36823784 103 Books 167 Fiche PH 15161565 50 Books 77 Fiche PSY 19041972 69 Books 120 Fiche RC 499511 13 Books 28 Fiche Volume 11 (Apr 1998 - Oct 1998) 280 Books 440 Fiche $1,848.00 Volume Price HE 601624 23 Books 39 Fiche PE 37853892 107 Books 157 Fiche PH 15661631 66 Books 95 Fiche PSY 19732044 72 Books 122 Fiche RC 512523 12 Books 27 Fiche Volume 12 (Apr 1999 - Oct 1999) 276 Books 440 Fiche $1,848.00 Volume Price HE 625650 26 Books 39 Fiche PE 38934023 131 Books 209 Fiche PH 16321678 47 Books 59 Fiche PSY 20452105 60 Books 108 Fiche RC 524535 12 Books 25 Fiche

Volume 13 (Apr 2000 - Oct 2000) 277 Books 440 Fiche $1,848.00 Volume Price HE 651-683 33 Books 47 Fiche PE 40244166 143 Books 228 Fiche PH 16791724 46 Books 66 Fiche PSY 21062152 47 Books 83 Fiche RC 536543 8 Books 16 Fiche Volume 14 (Apr 2001 - Oct 2001) 204 Books 440 Fiche $1,848.00 Volume Price HE 684-706 23 Books 35 Fiche PE 4167-4272 105 Books 232 Fiche PH 1725-1735 11 Books 20 Fiche PSY 2153-2208 56 Books 132 Fiche RC 544-552 9 Books 21 Fiche Volume 15 (April 2002 - Oct 2002) 228 Books 440 Fiche $1,848.00 Volume Price HE 708-740 33 Books 49 Fiche PE 4273-4388 116 Books 234 Fiche PH 1736-1759 24 Books 35 Fiche PSY 2209-2257 49 Books 105 Fiche RC 553-558 6 Book 17 Fiche Volume 16,1 (April 2003) 138 Books 220 Fiche HE 741-762 22 Books 32 Fiche PE 4389-4462 74 Books 119 Fiche PH 1760-1778 19 Books 23 Fiche PSY 2258-2277 20 Books 41 Fiche RC 559-561 3 Books 5 Fiche

$924.00 Volume Price

Key to the price chart


HE PE PH RC Health Education Physical Education Physiology and Exercise Epidemiology Recreation and Leisure

PSY Psychology

Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

STANDING ORDER SUBSCRIBERS


ALABAMA
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KANSAS
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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

Montclair State University, Upper Montclair

UTAH
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OHIO
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OUTSIDE USA: AUSTRALIA


University of South Australia, Underdale Victoria University, Melbourne MCMC, VIC

OREGON
Oregon State University, Corvallis Portland State University, Portland University of Oregon, Eugene

CANADA
University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB McMaster University, Hamilton, ON Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, ON University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON University of Western Ontario, London, ON York University, North York, ON Universit de Montreal, Montreal, QC Universit de Quebec, Montreal, QC University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK

PENNSYLVANIA
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KOREA
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TEXAS
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TAIWAN R.O.C.
Unifacmanu Trading Co. Ltd., Taipei

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

Contents
Part I: Titles and Abstracts ...................................................................................................................... Page Physical Education and Athletics ........................................................................................................... 1 Administration .................................................................................................................................... 1 Coaching and Training ...................................................................................................................... 4 History and Philosophy ..................................................................................................................... 5 Measurement and Evaluation ........................................................................................................... 5 Pedagogy and Curriculum ................................................................................................................ 6 Sociology and Cultural Anthropology ............................................................................................ 6 Sports Marketing ................................................................................................................................ 9 Dance ........................................................................................................................................................ 10 Biomechanics ........................................................................................................................................... 12 Sports Medicine ....................................................................................................................................... 20 Physiology and Exercise Epidemiology .............................................................................................. 24 Health and Health Education ................................................................................................................ 30 Recreation and Leisure ........................................................................................................................... 38 Psychology ............................................................................................................................................... 39 Motor Learning and Control ................................................................................................................. 43 Social Psychology .................................................................................................................................... 44 Part II: ............................................................................................................................................................. 47 Methods and Statistics .................................................................................................................................. 48 Keywords ........................................................................................................................................................ 49 Author Index .................................................................................................................................................. 60 School Index ................................................................................................................................................... 61 Additional Items Available from Microform Publications ..................................................................... 63 Order Form ..................................................................................................................................................... 65

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

PART I: TITLES AND ABSTRACTS


The abstracts are reproduced as provided by the authors in their dissertations. They were not edited for uniformity of style.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND ATHLETICS


ADMINISTRATION
Garrett, David M. The effectiveness of NCAA Division I athletic program leadership in assuring Title IX compliance, 2000. Ed.D., Northern Arizona University (William F. Wright and David M. Whorton). (202pp 3f $18.00) PE 4457 The purpose of this research study was to determine if NCAA leadership has been effective in insuring Title IX compliance by NCAA Division I-A and I-AA institutions. Determining effective leadership was aided by the evaluation of three key research question: 1. Are the sports programs of NCAA Division I colleges effectively responding to Title IX? 2. Are compliance guidelines and procedures provided by the NCAA and other bodies proving effective in meeting the requirements of Title IX? 3. And, does leadership aid in improving Title IX compliance? To answer these questions, both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were used. Qualitative research approaches used dissertations science, articles, court cases, and surveys to focus on the first two research questions. The third research question was addressed through a quantitative analysis developed from a survey of 30 NCAA Division I conference office directors and 70 individual institution athletic directors or senior womens administrators. The research concluded that potentially less than half of NCAA Division I institutions were effective in meeting Title IX compliance. In regards to question 2 it was concluded that Division I institutions are not effectively responding to Title IX policies, procedures, and guidelines developed by the OCR, NCAA and other governing bodies. Although problems related to confusion over rules and clarity of procedures, concerns over commitment also existed. Leadership could assist in improving compliance. Critical elements of leadership have not been demonstrated. For example, an explicit NCAA vision (goal) to gain compliance was not established until NCAA 1997. Effective leadership would have resulted in greater use of progressive policies and procedures for addressing compliance. Conference directors and athletic directors, as associates of the NCAA, revealed a lack of confidence in the NCAA s leadership ability to meet Title IX compliance.

And, the mailed survey demonstrated that Division I-A and I-AA football institution administrators unanimously agree that better leadership would improve Title IX compliance. Halverson, Kara S. A comparison of student attitudes toward physical activity in a traditional and block scheduled physical education curriculum in four Wisconsin high schools, 2002. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (J. Steffen). (82pp 1f $6.00) PE 4403 This study was designed to determine the impact of traditional versus block scheduling of physical education on high school students attitudes toward physical activity. The subjects surveyed were Wisconsin public high school students (N=487) enrolled in physical education. The sample included 2 schools from a block schedule (n=174) and 2 schools from a traditional schedule (n=313), which consisted of a total of 253 males and 234 females. The questionnaire consisted of 6 demographic variables, 26 five-point Likert-type scale statements, and 8 open-ended questions. Subjects completed the questionnaire to examine current attitudes about student experiences in physical education, choices offered in the physical education curriculum, and the expectations students had for their participation in physical activity. Mean scores in relation to attitudes toward physical activity were 3.952 for males and 3.709 for females. Mean scores were found not to be statistically different. Results of a two-way ANOVA indicated no significant difference (p=.916) between the traditional and block scheduled program. However, the results indicated a significant difference (p=.001) between males and females involved in a traditional and block scheduled physical education program. Pack, Simon M. An assessment of the educational background and job responsibilities of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III directors of athletics, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Edgar Shields, Jr.). (96pp 1f $6.00) PE 4416 The purpose of this study was to determine the importance and performed frequency of certain job responsibilities of Directors of Athletics at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III institutions. The 27 job responsibilities used in the questionnaire fell under six categories: Labor Relations, Financial Management, Marketing,

Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

Personnel Evaluations, Public Relations, and Administration. Of the 93 surveys returned, the typical Division III Director of Athletics is: a male age 35 to 39, has been employed by his current institution, in any capacity, either less than five years or between ten and fourteen years, and has served as Director of Athletics at his current institution for a period of less than 10 years. Division III Directors of Athletics have also earned a graduate degree in physical education (42.4%), sport administration/sport management (23.9%), or another discipline, and rank Administration as the most important job responsibility category. Demographics had very little effect on the ranking of the six job responsibility categories. Administration ranked first in all cross tabulations. Job responsibilities included in the category of Administration were: scheduling events and facility use, interacting with professional associations, using motivational techniques, reading architectural blueprints in regards to facility construction, and establishing and implementing insurance coverage. Thomas, Troy R. An examination of perceptions of gender equity as reported by athletic administrators of Kansas coed high schools, 2001. Ph.D., University of Kansas (James LaPoint). (102pp 2f $12.00) PE 4438 The purpose of this study was to identify and describe how perceptions of gender equity in high school athletics vary or coincide among athletic administrators of Kansas coed high schools. The subjects of the study included athletic administrators of Kansas 366 coed high schools. Four member schools were eliminated from the study. Three of the four schools were left out of the study because they were not coed schools. The fourth school was a magnate school and did not support school athletic teams. The instrument developed by Besnette (1994) was modified for high school athletics. The instrument consisted of 12 profile questions and 30 close-ended questions based on a Likerttype scale. The questionnaire was then mailed to the 366 athletic administrators. The return rate was 72.13% of the population. Once the data was collected, descriptive statistics were conducted for each of the 42 items. The data collected from the study were described for each item on the questionnaire. Results of the study were described using means, percentages, and patterns. Profile information was used to further describe the findings regarding the perceptions of Title IX. Overall, athletic administrators believed that their programs were gender equitable. Administrators were willing to look beyond the current structure and model of high school athletics in order to find ways to achieve gender equity. The provision of separate-but-equal boys and girls teams, as opposed to coed teams was agreed to be the best way to achieve gender equity. Administrators did not believe that football and other revenue producing sports should be excluded from the gender equity equation. Quantifiable information was not considered the best means to assess gender equity.

Athletic administrators indicated that athletic opportunity doesnt have to be in proportion to the male/female ratio of the student body. In the end, athletic administrators did not want to reduce boys programs in order to expand girls programs. White, Benjamin J. Readability of waiver liability forms used in collegiate intramural and recreational sports programs, 2002. M.S., Oregon State University (Bradley J. Cardinal). (40pp 1f $6.00) PE 4393 Properly written waiver-of-liability forms can be effective tools in decreasing injury liability of intramural and recreational sports programs. In order for a waiver to be effective (i.e., held up in court), participants must not only read and sign the waiver, but they must understand it as well. Readability, the ease with which text can be read and understood, is an important part of a well-written waiver. Waiver-of-liability forms should be written at a reading level consistent with that of the intended audience. On average, students read three grade levels below the last grade they completed in school. The highest grade level at which waiver-of-liability forms should be written for use in college settings is the 9th grade. The main goal of this study was to assess the reading level of intramural and recreational sport waiver of liability forms, and compare them to the 9th grade level. Nine NIRSA member schools and nine non-NIRSA member schools from each of the six NIRSA regions were randomly selected for inclusion in this study. Following multiple mailings, the forms received were scanned into a computer, and readability was assessed using the Readability Calculation software (Micro Power & Light, Dallas, TX) for McIntosh. A one-sample ttest was performed to compare the forms to the 9th grade reading level. Forms were written significantly higher than the 9th grade level (t[26]=14.53, p<.0001). An analysis of variance was performed to assess possible moderating variables (e.g., NIRSA membership status and involvement of a risk management team in writing the waiver). No significant differences were found. Font size was also measured, and forms were found to have been printed in significantly larger than the recommended 12 point font (t[28]=-2.88, p<.01). This study brings into question the efficacy of waiver-of-liability forms used in many collegiate/university intramural and recreational sports programs in the U.S.

COACHING AND TRAINING


Abel, Mark G. Effect of heavy resistance training on performance variables in endurance athletes, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (T. McBride). (60pp 1f $6.00) PE 4400

Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of heavy resistance training on performance variables in endurance athletes. Thirteen healthy male endurance athletes (age=23.65.1 year, ht=178.86.6cm, wt=76.0 8.2kg) were assigned to either a heavy resistance training group (HRT; N=7) or a control group (N=6). No changes in peak VO2 or body composition occurred in the HRT group. Significant increases (p<.05) in one repetition maximum (1 RM) bench press and squat strength occurred in the HRT group (3.9% and 10% respectively). The HRT group experienced significant reductions (p<.05) in blood lactate accumulation at four of the seven treadmill stages. These findings indicate that HRT does not affect peak VO2 or body composition, but does increase 1 RM strength and may decrease blood lactate accumulation at high running intensities in endurance athletes. Bradney, Debbie. Attitudes of coaches regarding eating disorders, 2002. D.P.E., Springfield College (Samuel A. Headley). (157pp 2f $12.00) PE 4389 The current study was designed to confirm the models proposed by Ross (1995) related to contributing factors to an eating disorder and to examine attitudes regarding eating disorders according to the level of coaching (high school or college) and the gender composition of the team (male, female, or mixed gender). A 2X3 independent groups factorial multivariate design was used to assess attitudes from the Survey of Coaches: The Contributing Factors in the Onset of Eating Disorders (SCCFED; Ross, 1995). The three dependent variables were Predisposing Factors, Reinforcing Factors, and Enabling Factors. The interaction between level and gender composition was significant, v=.92, F=2.24, p<.05. A stepwise discriminant function analysis was computed separately for high school and college data. No functions were significant (p>.05) for college data. For high school coaches, one function was significant (p<.05) and coaches of female teams reported Reinforcing Factors were stronger contributors to eating disorders than coaches of mixed gender teams and male teams; furthermore, coaches of mixed gender teams reported Reinforcing Factors were stronger contributors than coaches of male teams. Higginson, Brian K. Effect of exercise intensity on shooting performance in the sport of summer biathlon, 2002. M.S., Montana State University (Daniel P. Heil). (75pp 1f $6.00) PE 4447 The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of running intensity on shooting performance in summer biathletes by comparing shooting scores immediately following bouts of exercise at four different intensities in an effort to determine if running intensity can be maintained, or increased, without a subsequent decrement in shooting performance. Each subject (seven elite and three

novices) was required to shoot five shots at paper targets immediately following bouts of exercise at four different intensities. Exercise intensities included shooting with a resting heart rate (INT1), slowing to 75% of race pace (INT2), maintaining race pace (INT3), and sprinting (INT4). All subjects began testing by shooting five shots prone and five shots standing at INT1. All subsequent conditions were counterbalanced for intensity and position. A one kilometer loop was run between shooting bouts with changes in exercise intensity (INT2-INT4) occurring 50 meters prior to entering the range. Measures of shooting performance included the number of shots hit (SH), shooting accuracy (SA), and shooting precision (SP). As intensity increased from lNT2 to INT4, there was a significant decrease (p<.001) in 50 meter run time prior to entering the range (12.52 s vs. 8.96 s, respectively), with no difference in one kilometer run times (p=0.50). Although an increase in exercise intensity was associated with a decrease in SH for both the prone and standing position, there was no significant difference in SH for the elite subjects (N7), or all subjects as a group (N10), as a result of position (N7: p=0.64, N10: p=0.86) or intensity (N7:p=0.10, N10: p=0.12). A significant interaction effect was found in N7 for the SA measure of shooting performance (p=0.005), as well as a significant difference in both position (p<0.001) and intensity (p=0.008) for the SP measure. SA for N10 was significantly different for both position (p<0.001) and intensity (p=0.009). There was no difference between N7 and N10 for the SP measure of shooting performance. These preliminary findings indicate that race times may be decreased in the sport of summer biathlon by as much as 7.12 seconds in a 5 km race without a subsequent compromise in shooting performance. Milligan, Patrick E. The effects of random versus blocked practice schedules on underhand basketball free throw performance measures, 2002. M.S., Brigham Young University (Ronald L. Hager). (68pp 1f $6.00) PE 4459 This study examined the effect of a random practice versus a blocked practice schedule on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of the underhand free throw for males enrolled in university intermediate-level basketball classes. During practice sessions, the random practice group (n=26) performed twenty trials in ten groups of two shots each. Each pair of trials alternated with trials of other basketball skills. The blocked practice group (n=27) performed twenty trials in two groups of ten shots each during practice sessions. Results were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures on one factor. The Group x Time interaction was not significant, F(2, 102)=0.17, p=0.85. The main effect of group, also, was not significant, F(1,51)=4.03, p=0.05. This analysis revealed a significant effect for time, F(2, 102)=3.17, p=0.04. Post-hoc contrasts found that, while post-test scores were not significantly higher than pre-test scores, transfer scores were significantly higher (p<0.05).

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Both groups increased in shooting accuracy, and both retained and transferred their underhand free throw skills to a real-game setting. Both groups, also, experienced considerable interference due to practice sessions being held only twice a week. Perhaps, practice sessions should span a number of consecutive days to find differences between random and blocked practice schedules in skill acquisition, retention, and transfer. Pizzi, John. Measuring leadership styles and success of college basketball coaches, 2002. M.S., Springfield College (Cathie Schweitzer). (141pp 2f $12.00) PE 4392 The study was designed to determine the relationship between coaching leadership style and win/loss percentage. Gender differences in coaching leadership styles, and the relationship between win/loss percentage and the discrepancy scores between the self-report of leadership behavior by the coaches (n=51) and the report for the coaches by the Director of Athletics (n=51), were also examined. The Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS; Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980), which measures leadership styles across five dimensions, was used to determine and measure the self-reported leadership styles of coaches. Win/loss percentage and overall number of years as a head coach did not correlate to coaching leadership behaviors of male and female Division III college basketball coaches in the New England region. A significant (p<.05) negative relationship was found between years at the present institution and Training and Instruction behavior. Female coaches exhibited significantly (p<.05) greater Positive Feedback behavior and Training and Instruction behavior than male coaches. The win/loss percentage for basketball coaches did not correlate to the discrepancy scores of leadership behavior coaches and the Directors of Athletics. Terrell, Sara L. Neuromuscular training modalities as a preventive for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: a study of coaches attitudes and perceptions, 2002. M.S., Eastern Michigan University (W. Jeffrey Armstrong). (215pp 3f $18.00) PE 4444 Preventive training may increase knee stability for female athletes (Hewett et al., 1996), but the implementation of such modalities by high school coaches remains suspect. This study examines the educational and coaching background as well as the implementation of preventive training of ninety-four coaches of high school girls basketball, volleyball, and soccer in southeast Michigan. A thirty-two-item questionnaire was used to examine the aforementioned areas. A significant difference existed between implementation of strength training during the season and the sport coached (p<0.004). No significant difference existed between the time devoted to preventive training modalities in the sport season or during the off

season versus gender, age, competition level, years in the coaching profession, and an athletes injury history. Coaches working with female athletes need formal education regarding preventive conditioning methods that may minimize the incidence of female ACL injury. Thompson, Christian J. Effects of an eight-week conditioning program on improving fitness, club head speed, and perceptions of fitness and golf-related ability in older, male recreational golfers aged 55-79 years, 2001. Ph.D., University of Kansas (Wayne Osness). (180pp 2f $12.00) PE 4429 This investigation examined the effect of an eight-week conditioning program on fitness measures, the golf-related parameter of club head speed, and perceptions of fitness and golf-related performance in older, male recreational golfers aged 55-79 years. Additionally, this investigation determined which fitness parameter(s) related most directly to club head speed. Thirty-one older, male recreational golfers (M age=65.1 years) participated in a controlled study during the Winter and Spring of 2001. The experimental group consisted of 19 golfers and the control group consisted of 12 golfers. The 8-week program was attended at least 3 times per week by all 19 golfers. Each exercise session consisted of: (a) 15 minutes of treadmill walking or stationary cycling at 60%-80% of maximal predicted heart rate for cardiovascular endurance; (b) Weight training consisting of 1 set of 12 repetitions using approximately 80% of measured 10-RM strength on 10 separate Universal weight machines; (c) Flexibility training including 8 static and 2 dynamic stretches; and, (d) Swinging of a weighted golf club 10 times slowly. This study demonstrated that an 8-week conditioning program resulted in improvements for all ten measurements of muscular strength, range of motion improvements for most upper body and trunk measurements, but not those measuring the hip, and cardiovascular endurance, as measured by estimated VO2max. In addition, the 8-week conditioning program elicited an improvement in maximal club head speed. The results did not support an improvement in perceptions of physical function or golf-related performance as measured by the Physical Function Scale, the Golf Performance Scale, or the Golf-Related Pain and Soreness Scale. In addition, this study determined that the club head speed of older, male recreational golfers is most influenced by cardiovascular endurance, upper and lower body strength, and magnitude of trunk rotation. Van Wychen, Shana L. Monitoring training in elite athletes: comparison of coaches intentions and athletes experiences, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (C. Foster). (51pp 1f $6.00) PE 4408 The structure of training programs is of interest to athletes desiring peak performance. Ideally, the athletes experiences should be equivalent to the coaches intentions.

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Based on previous studies, it was hypothesized that athletes would not execute the program designed by coaches. Members of the U.S. Speedskating team (n=11) completed a daily training log during the course of a training/competitive season (7 months) in which athletes and coaches recorded their intensity (session Rating of Perceived Exertion) and duration (time) of training. Although there was a good correlation for training duration (r=0.60), intensity (r=0.63) and calculated load (intensity x duration) (r=0.59), comparisons of the mean values for duration, intensity, and load for sessions the coach intended to be easy, moderate, and hard, revealed significant differences. Athletes were training harder on coach-intended easy days (load=106 vs. 8 units), about as intended on coach-intended moderate days (load=424 vs.416 units), and easier on coach-intended hard days (load=883 vs. 970 units). These data suggest that athletes are not taking recovery days as intended by coaches. These findings may provide an explanation for some undesired training outcomes and for the high incidence of overtraining syndrome in elite athletes. Wulk, Erica A. A comparison between standardized strength training and underwater strength training to determine the effects of strength, power, and injury rate on children ages 14-18, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (R. Pein). (41pp 1f $6.00) PE 4410 Ten high school students participated in an 8 week strength training program. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a standardized strength training group (WT) or an underwater strength training group (UT). The strength training program for both groups consisted of performing six exercises carefully chosen to ensure similar execution between the two groups. An isokinetic, unilateral knee extension/flexion test was conducted before and after the testing on a Biodex machine. Peak torque (PT), time to peak torque (TPT), and average power (AP) were calculated at 90, 150, and 180 degrees per second. Statistically, results show that the UT group significantly increased in strength (peak torque), while the WT group increased in power (time to peak torque, and average power). Significant increases were found at 90 deg/sec for peak torque and average power at p.05. At 150 deg/sec, significance was found for time to peak torque and average power at p.05 and at 180 deg/ sec significance was found for average power at p.05. The results of this investigation show that, when performed correctly and safely, strength and power do improve in both methods of strength training, without occurrence of injury.

HISTORY
Gaddie, Toni. The making of a champion: a constructed reality, 2001. M.A., University of South Africa (F. J. A. Snyders). (150pp 2f $12.00) PE 4439 This dissertation explores the construction and experience of the sports champions reality. In studying reality and its construction, I became familiar with the post-modern perspective of reality and with theories such as systems theory, cybernetics, radical constructivism, and social constructionism, which fall under the post-modern epistemological umbrella. The dissertation gives an exposition of my journey through this maze of theories, from a position of knowing how champions are made towards a more complex position of uncertainty and possibility. This is followed by an account of the qualitative research that I undertook, within a social constructionist framework, in which I used thematic discourse analysis. Finally, I interpret the discourses emerging from the analysis in order to demonstrate their operation or effect in the construction of a champions reality

MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION


Keller, Christopher P. Validation of the 1-mile walking test in young adults at maximal and submaximal walking intensities, 2002. M.S., Montana State University (Daniel P. Heil). (89pp 1f $6.00) PE 4449 The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether the generalized equations developed by Kline et al. (1987) and Dolgener et al. (1994) for the one-mile walk test provide accurate estimates of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2MAX) in young adults, and (b) to determine whether submaximal walking intensities could provide equally accurate estimates from the respective equations. VO2MAX was measured using a treadmill graded exercise test on 40 volunteers (20 males, 20 females) between the ages of 18 and 29 years. On subsequent visits, one-mile walk tests were performed at maximal, moderate, and low walking intensities. Two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparisons were used to examine relationships between estimated and measured VO2MAX values. Under maximal intensity walking conditions, estimates of VO2MAX from the Kline equation (50.106.84 mlkg-lmin-l) and from the Dolgener equation (47.205.14 mlkg-lmin-l) were significantly less than actual VO2MAX (53.298.50 mlkg-l min-l) (P<0.01). Systematic underestimations were also found with the submaximal walking intensities (P<0.01). Estimations of VO2MAX were considered to be acceptable if within 4.50 mlkg-l min-l. Thirty-five to fifty percent of predictions from the Kline equation were acceptable, while approximately thirty percent of the Dolgener predictions were acceptable. The VO2MAX values

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of subjects in the current study were above those observed by Kline et al. (1987) (36.510.6 mlkg-l min-l) and by Dolgener et al. (1994) (40.36.49 mlkg-l min-l). Regression analysis was performed to adjust for these differences. Following regression analysis, estimations from the Kline equation for maximal and moderate intensity tests were no longer significantly different from adjusted VO2MAX (P=0.9673 and P=0.5034). However, regression analysis could not account for differences from the low intensity walk test (P=0.045). For the Dolgener equation, regression analysis did not account for difference between actual and predicted VO2MAX (P<0.01). The findings of this study show neither the Kline nor the Dolgener equations provide acceptable estimates of VO2MAX in young adults. Following adjustments for fitness level, the Kline equation was able to provide acceptable estimates of VO2MAX at maximal and moderate walking intensities.

Petitgout, Michelle. Content development comparisons between middle-school physical education classes and basketball practices, 2001. M.S.Ed., Northern Illinois University (Connie Fox). (70pp 1f $6.00) PE 4427 This study was designed to compare aspects of content development used in middle-school physical education class and basketball practice settings. Five teachers/ coaches participated in this study to determine if significant differences were apparent in the percent of time provided for informing, refining, extending, and applying across each setting. An adapted version of the Observation Instrument for Content Development in Physical Education (OSCD-PE) was used to code the duration of time spent on each aspect of content development. Total time in seconds was then calculated to compute the percentage in each area. Results suggest that a greater percentage of time was spent on informing (37.44 class, 53.37 practice) and refining (10.55 class, 15.07 practice) than on extending (1.85 class, .95 practice) and applying (6.29 class, 2.56 practice) in both settings. Participants spent the greatest percent of time introducing new skills to students/players in both class and practice. Cues were provided more readily in practice, but teachers varied the difficulty level of activities more often during class. Students in physical education classes, primarily with lower abilities and less knowledge of the sport, were also offered more competitive opportunities but were informed less frequently of the proper techniques and skills used to play the game.

PEDAGOGY AND CURRICULUM


Pelletier, Deborah J. Incorporating portfolio assessment into elementary physical education, 2001. M.S., Springfield College (Deborah Sheehy). (129pp 2f $12.00) PE 4390 The investigation was designed to assess the effects of portfolio assessment in elementary physical education. A 6-week volleyball unit, summative assessment, and portfolio items were developed. Participating in the study were two fourth-grade and two fifth-grade classes (N=56) taught by the same certified physical education teacher. One fourth- and one fifth-grade class were randomly assigned to the portfolio assessment group (n=29), and to the traditional assessment group (n=27). All participants were exposed to identical volleyball content. The traditional assessment group took part in brief question and answer sessions at the conclusion of each lesson, whereas the portfolio assessment group completed assigned portfolio documents. Participants completed the volleyball summative assessment during lesson six. A 2x2 independent groups ANOVA was used to analyze the summative assessment scores. No interaction (p=.099) was found between assessment group and grade level. In addition, no differences (p=.256) in summative assessment scores were found between the portfolio assessment and traditional assessment group, and no differences (p=.141) in summative assessment scores were found when compared by grade level. The multi-activity curriculum may not have been conducive to documenting measurable improvement. Small sample size and lack of student acceptance of writing in physical education may be possible reasons for the findings.

SOCIOLOGY AND CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY


Frerking, Brian C. Analysis of factors influencing college selection by prospective elite high school basketball players, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Edgar W. Shields, Jr.). (55pp 1f $6.00) PE 4413 The purpose of this study was to identify the most important factors influencing college selection by elite high school basketball players. In addition, the researcher compared the responses of African-American and Caucasian elite basketball players. Twenty-six elite basketball players from all parts of the United States responded to a questionnaire. The survey consisted of 39 college selection factors pertinent to the recruitment of high school basketball players on a Likert Scale from one to seven. The investigator determined that selection factors concerning the coaching staff were the most important to the ultimate decision of the elite basketball player. Additionally, he concluded that African-American elite players perceived early playing time and television exposure to be more important than Caucasian elite players. He also found that coaches must be able to adjust to what are the most influencing factors of the current time.

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Grotenhuis, Jeff A. Comparison of effort levels of middle school male basketball players in physical education classes and athletic team practices, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (J. Steffen). (53pp 1f $6.00) PE 4402 Heart rates were recorded on a sample of 37 middle school male athletes, ranging in age from 12-14, during physical education classes and basketball team practices. Each subject was measured during three physical education classes and three basketball practices. Each lesson and practice session lasted 45 minutes. The physical education class consisted of 10-12 minutes of warm up followed by 30-35 minutes of instruction and skill development. The basketball team practice consisted of 12-15 minutes of warm up followed by 30-35 minutes of drill and practice. Using Polar Vantage XL and Accurex IIa heart rate monitors (HRM) the subjects heart rate was measured for the duration of each session. A paired t-test was used to determine if significant differences existed between the two activities. No significant difference was found between the physical education class and the basketball team practice. The data indicate that there is no difference in effort levels of middle school male athletes in athletic team practices compared to physical education classes. Further investigations of different populations are needed to broaden the scope of this study. The primary goal of physical education is to establish an understanding of the body and develop an appreciation for exercise. Mani, Mark J. Effects of Special Olympics participation on community integration among school-aged participants with mild to moderate cognitive disability, 2002. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (P. DiRocco). (51pp 1f $6.00) PE 4405 The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of community integration between an experimental Special Olympics participant group and a control group comprised of non-Special Olympics participants. Fifteen school-aged (8-18) subjects (7M, 8F) made up the experimental group and fifteen subjects (6M, 9F) made up the control group. The Special Olympics group was equally matched with the non-Special Olympics group in regards to sex, age, and intellectual characteristics. The comparisons were based on measures from a thirty-minute interview devised by Malik, Ashton-Schaeffer, and Kleiber (1991). The Malik et al. interview examined general recreation, as well as physical and social community integration. The Special Olympics group participated in a supervised year around Special Olympics program. The control group did not participate in any Special Olympics games or events. Both groups were from the greater La Crosse, Wisconsin, area. A chisquare test showed no significant difference in the amount of community integration between the experimental and control groups (p<.05). In summary, not participating in Special Olympics was found to be as effective as participating in Special Olympics in terms of increasing community

integration. Therefore it may be other factors that dictate the amount of community integration as opposed to participating in a Special Olympics program. Rampersaud, Ravinand. A qualitative needs analysis of participants in team sports, individual sports, and adventure education, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (J. Steffen). (52pp 1f $6.00) PE 4406 A questionnaire was administered to 323 physical education students at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. The students were classified as freshmen (18.57%), sophomores (21.36%), juniors (24.45%), and seniors (35.62%). Activity courses were divided into three categories and consisted of 14 separate activity classes (4 team sports, 5 individual sports, and 5 adventure education activities). Students ranked 29 objectives (needs) on a four-point Likert scale (1=not important, 2=somewhat important, 3=important, and 4=very important). Descriptive statistics indicated the highest ranked objectives were: having fun (M=3.69), keeping in good health and physical condition (M=3.37), and releasing stress through the means of physical education (M=3.30). The lowest ranked objectives were: providing vocational preparation (M=2.18), preventing, detecting, and correcting physical defects (M=2.37), and taking risks (M=2.42). A one-way ANOVA was conducted to illustrate significant difference (p<.05) between type of activity and 5 factors (Self-Worth, Physiological Parameters, Allied Objectives, Lifetime Use, and Social Affiliation). Results indicated significant differences among students in their ranking of the 5 factors. Team sport participants favored the Self-Worth factor more than did adventure education participants (p<.05). Individual sport participants ranked Physiological Parameters higher than adventure education participants (p<.05). Team sport participants and adventure education participants favored Allied Objectives more than did individual sport participants (p<.01). Team sport and adventure education participants ranked Social Affiliation higher than individual sport participants, with identical significant difference (p<.001). A two-way ANOVA was also conducted with the 5 factors as dependent variables and grade and gender as independent variables. Significant differences and interaction effects were noted among grade levels and gender for 2 of the 5 factors. No significant differences were found between grade, gender, or interaction for Self-Worth, Lifetime Use, or Social Affiliation factors. Sophomores ranked Physiological Parameter higher than did seniors (p<.05); juniors also ranked Physiological parameter higher than did seniors (p<.05). Males favored Allied Objectives more than did females (p<.01). Freshmen ranked Allied Objectives higher than did seniors (p<.05). In addition, juniors ranked Allied Objectives higher than did seniors.

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Reigstad, Ann C. Physical education and recreation in special education transition programs, 2002. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (M. Felix). (49pp 1f $6.00) PE 4407 PL 105-17 guarantees a free and appropriate public education to individuals with disabilities ages 0-21 years. Further, the law mandates that transition goals programs be provided to ensure a successful transition from public school to post-school life. Transition is a coordinated set of activities in instruction, related services, community experiences, the development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives, and, if appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational evaluation. Unfortunately, leisure and recreation services are often overlooked in many transition programs. Addressing recreation in the transition plan can provide the skills necessary to engage in life-long physical activity and proper use of leisure time. Furthermore, engaging in recreational activities within the community provides avenues for building friendships with individuals with and without disabilities. The purpose of this critical analysis is to: (1) review pertinent legislation that directly influences educators with regards to special education and transition; and (2) discuss the benefits of leisure education. In this critical analysis there are guidelines to identify community programs, to develop goals, to determine present levels of performance, to design a statement of transition service needs, to determine services needed for transition, and to develop annual goals and short-term objectives or benchmarks. Talsky, Kathleen A. Consensus analysis of high school students perceptions of high school athletes, 2002. M.S., University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (J. Patrick Gray). (232pp 3f $18.00) PE 4461 This thesis uses a combination of ethnographic research and systematic data collection to compare the cultural knowledge of a high school in 2002 to the results of a 1948 ethnographic study by Herve Varenne. Varennes research indicated the existence of a unified American High School student culture. Since 1948 a number of changes have occurred within the structure of high schools, including continued growth in the importance of sports in American culture, and the passage of legislation guaranteeing equal opportunity in sports to female participants. This study explores whether Varennes concept of a unified American High School student culture has remained in existence in spite of these changes. The study focused on the subject of athletics, seeking consensus in this single domain of knowledge, and seeking to determine if there was consensus in high school students perceptions of athletes. Questionnaires were developed with questions covering subjects such as personal habits, sportsmanship, grooming, attitude, talent, and the treatment of athletes by nonathletes and staff. The answers to the questions were then

analyzed by the ANTHROPAC computer program and interpreted to provide quantitative data on the existence and degree of cultural consensus within the domain of the athlete. The absence of overall consensus in the identification of the habits and behavior of athletes was significant, and undermines the possibility of a single unified high school culture on the subject of athletics. However, Caulkins model of Consensus Analysis allowed for further interpretation of the data and revealed consensus in multiple sub groups. The data suggest that athletes and non-athletes, and females and males, have different cultural knowledge concerning the perception of high school athletes. Members of these groups tend to agree among themselves on the role of athletes, though in many cases their knowledge tends to be the opposite of those of other groups. Such disagreement may be due to historical trends, such as the traditional role of males in athletics, or to a different level of experience in high school athletics. Future study on the data gathered in this thesis could lead to further determination of the composition of subgroups within high school culture and the social stimuli that create differences in high school students cultural knowledge. However, this study makes it clear that Varennes observation of a single unified high school culture has been affected by the passage of time, and in at least this instance is suspect. Willming, Cynthia L. Leisure-travel behaviors of collegeeducated African Americans and perceived racial discrimination, 2001. Ph.D., University of Florida (Stephen Anderson). (175pp 2f $12.00) PE 4399 This study examines the leisure-travel behaviors of African Americans, perceptions of racial discrimination, and the influence of social class, gender, and life stage on leisuretravel behaviors. A questionnaire was developed and mailed to 800 African Americans who had attended the University of Florida. Of the 800, 131 African Americans were included in the study; 43.5 percent were male and 56.5 percent were female; 47 percent were aged between 17 - 45 years (Early Adulthood) and 47 percent were aged between 46 - 65 years (Middle Adulthood); 44 percent had completed a masters degree or had some work on an Ed.D., Ph.D., J.D., or M.D., 29 percent had a bachelors degree or some graduate work, and 25 percent had an Ed. D., Ph.D., J.D., or M.D; 47 percent had a family income above $85,000, 33 percent had a family income between $55,000 to $84,999, and 16 percent had a family income below $54,999. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression. The findings of this study indicate that collegeeducated African Americans are active participants in the travel and tourism industry. Unfortunately, some African Americans perceive racial discrimination in the travel services and activities that they use or participate in the most during their leisure travel. Even though some African

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Americans perceived racial discrimination in certain travel services and activities, they rarely changed their leisuretravel behaviors. Gender was somewhat useful to understand the relationships between perceived racial discrimination and activities, and income was the strongest indication of the accommodation and activity travel behaviors of African Americans. The collective influence of education, income, gender, life stage, and perceived racial discrimination accounted for some of the differences among the accommodation and activity travel behaviors of African Americans. To disregard the reality of perceived racial discrimination in the leisure-travel experiences of African Americans is to exclude African Americans from the same rights and privileges that are available to whites during their leisure travel. While perceived racial discrimination is a sensitive and challenging issue, further research is needed to understand this phenomenon, and preventative measures are needed to eradicate this serious qualityof-life issue.

Whitfield helped newsmakers to produce news that was attractive to audiences, and maintained circulation, viewership, and ad ratings, strengthening the media audience commodity (Sparks,1992). Interviews with marketers revealed that Whitfield was commercially attractive because the meanings associated with his media image could be attached to brands through the endorsement and sponsorship process in order to improve brand equity, the value that consumers attribute to a brand of product or service (Keller,1993). Results support a model of celebrity product endorsement based on the transfer of meanings from endorser to product, and subsequently to consumer (McCracken,1989). Overall, results suggest intertextual linkages between media production and marketing as they relate to celebrity athletes in Canada. Whitfields positive media image was understood to have an impact on his marketability and to contribute to a vortex of publicity (Wernick,1991) by linking stages along the promotional chain. Rosaaen, Kirsten R. A case study in sport sponsorship and relationship marketing: a resource-based view, 2002. M.S., University of Memphis (John Amis). (135pp 2f $12.00) PE 4418 To present research on relationships and trust in sport sponsorship as resources capable of conferring a sustainable competitive advantage, this paper summarizes the literature on networks, relationship marketing, trust, and intangible resources leading to distinct advantages. Semistructured interviews provide an in-depth analysis of the relationship between a sporting entity and a corporate partner, examining how a relationship is actively managed, the importance of trust, and how a relationship can be a strategic asset. These research findings, along with numerous supplementary documents received from both organizations, demonstrate how a long-term partnership with frequent communications can lead to a successful sponsorship that greatly benefits both organizations. Thomas, Troy R. A comparison of the marketing techniques used by National Football League franchises with the marketing techniques used by the National Basketball Association franchises, 1996. M.S.E., University of Kansas (James LaPoint). (121pp 2f $12.00) PE 4437 It was the purpose of this study to compare marketing techniques used by National Football League (NFL) franchises during the 1994 season to techniques used by National Basketball Association (NBA) franchises for the 1994-95 season. A secondary purpose was to determine the priority of marketing techniques used to promote attendance at NFL and NBA home games. Marketing directors of 28 NFL franchises and 27 NBA franchises were asked to respond to the Marketing Technique Questionnaire (Hambleton, 1987). The questionnaire consisted of 22

SPORTS MARKETING
Darnell, Simon C. The media construction of Simon Whitfield: producing a Canadian Olympic champion, 2003. M.A., University of British Columbia (Robert Sparks). (142pp 2f $12.00) PE 4455 This thesis analyzes the media coverage and marketing of the Canadian Olympic athlete Simon Whitfield. Whitfield, a 25-year-old from Kingston Ontario, won the first ever gold medal in the Olympic mens triathlon at the 2000 Sydney Games. The victory propelled him to the status of Canadian celebrity and afforded him increased commercial opportunities including corporate sponsorships and product endorsements. This research combined two methodologies: 1) a textual analysis of Canadian media coverage of Whitfield, with a keyword search of the coverage, and 2) interviews with five Canadian sports journalists who covered Whitfield and four marketing representatives from companies that sponsored Whitfield or employed him as a product endorser. Whitfield was also interviewed to provide an athletes perspective on the media production and marketing processes. Results revealed thematic consistencies in the Canadian media coverage of Whitfield, particularly with respect to Canadian national identity, the value of an Olympic gold medal and Whitfields status as a Canadian hero. These results support previous research that found recurring themes of athletic heroism and myths of Canadian nationalism in the production of Canadian sports media (MacNeill,1996, Gruneau,1989). Interviews with journalists confirmed the observed elements of the Whitfield storyhis Canadian identity, gold medal victory, heroic performance, as well as other features (genuine personality, athletic good looks) that made him newsworthy. Covering these attributes of

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statements regarding marketing techniques used to promote home game attendance. Levels of agreement concerning the effectiveness of the marketing techniques were determined using a five point Likert scale. Priority rankings were established using the means for each item. Statistically, t-tests were used to determine significant differences between the NFL and the NBA for each marketing technique. The top three techniques for the NFL were: season ticket option, business sponsorships, and good public relations. The techniques at the top for the NBA were: business sponsorships, season ticket option, and radio advertising. Significant differences between the NFL and the NBA were found for three marketing techniques: used pricing strategies, utilized televised games as spectator incentive, and used magazine advertising. No statistically significant differences were found for the remaining marketing techniques. Turano, Cara. A qualitative analysis of fund raising in womens intercollegiate athletics, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Barbara Osborne). (77pp 1f $6.00) PE 4452 This study provides a qualitative analysis of fund raising in womens intercollegiate athletics around the country and across all three N.C.A.A. competitive divisions. Areas highlighted by this study include how funds are solicited for womens athletic teams, who raises the funds for women athletes, the demographics of donors to womens athletics, and the winning team myth as it applies to womens college sports. In addition, booster club support was examined to determine which womens athletic team receives the most support. Finally, recommendations were given to help improve the area of fund raising for womens intercollegiate athletics. The results of this study reveal that college athletic department administrators are working hard to raise funds for women athletes and are aware of the Title IX implications should they fail. Overall, institutions are providing female athletes with fund raising support thirty years after Title IXs enactment. Wirakartakusumah, Daryl N. Prospects of fantasy sports as a profitable sport marketing media [sic], 2002. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (R. Mikat). (65pp 1f $6.00) PE 4409 One hundred-and-fifty sport Web sites (75 offering fantasy sports (FS) and 75 not offering fantasy sports (NFS)) were asked to complete an 18-question on-line survey to determine the impact that hosting fantasy sports had on the total profit generated by sport Web sites. Of the 150 sport Web sites contacted, 34 (22.7%) completed the survey instrument. Results revealed that FS and NFS Groups were operating more than 3 years, had common marketing strategies and generated significant revenue, despite not considering generating revenue as their most important goal. Both groups differed on revenue models used and

pricing models used for banner advertisements. Pearson Product Moment correlation revealed that the amount of money spent by FS Group was significantly correlated to the amount of revenue generated (r=.907), whereas NFS Group only showed little, if any, correlation between these variables (r=.044). ANOVA revealed that both groups also differed significantly on revenue generated (p=.025) and profit obtained (p=.026), regardless of having no significant difference in money spent (p=.365). FS Group revealed trends of having a small base of memberships mostly subscribing for free, and offering 1 or 2 fantasy sports with football, baseball, and basketball as the most common. Even though Spearman rank correlation indicated a low correlation between profit obtained and number of fantasy sports offered (rS=.027), FS Group has planned to expand its offerings and services by adding fantasy sports and providing on-line statistical data. These results suggest that sport Web sites have recognized fantasy sport as a profitable sports marketing medium, but have not yet found appropriate marketing approaches to fully take advantage of its potential.

DANCE
Andrzejewski, Carey E. Conquering the high wire: balancing internal dialogue in the making of solo dances, 2002. M.A., Texas Womans University (Penelope Hanstein). (34pp 1f $6.00) PE 4420 This study emerged out of interests in dance-making practice and phenomenology. In an attempt to develop a holistic picture of how student dance artists make selfperformed solo dance works, a task that is frequently assigned and yet poorly understood, nine graduate student dance-makers were asked to contribute accounts of their experiences in this particular dance-making context. Artistic process journals were collected, and focus group discussions were conducted. From my efforts to understand and make meaning from the experiences of the participants, a metaphor emerged. Her name is Helen; she is a high wire artist, and she serves as a composite of the nine participant dance-makers whose success is also dependent on balance. I envision Helen confronting her reflection before each and every performance, and this confrontation serves as a symbol for the first of three themes that were discovered about making solos: the struggle to reconcile what is perceived with what is known about the self as body and as artist. I then picture her summoning the courage to mount the ladder up to the first platform at the beginning of performances. Again, this act is a symbol for the sense of power needed by dance-makers to counteract what would otherwise be paralyzing fear. Lastly, I imagine Helen walking the tight rope, taking one step at a time. She proceeds cautiously on the journey from one platform to the other in a display of superb balance,

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

the kind of balance dance-makers, in the process of creating self-performed solos, must strike between the role of dance-maker as choreographer and the role of dancemaker as performer. I now understand these themes as unified by the thread of internal dialogue. Grover-Haskin, Kim. Put your mother on the ceiling: feminist dance making as a worldmaking process of three women choreographers, 2001. Ph.D., Texas Womans University (Penelope Hanstein). (205pp 3f $18.00) PE 4423 Richard de Mille (1967) considers personal invention crucial in comprehending and shaping socially constructed realities. Intrigued by what a womans reality brings to the creative process and how these experiences become movement and embody meaning, I imagined what the reality of choreographing a dance entitled Put Your Mother on the Ceiling would unveil. Dance making provided the opportunity to study a womans lived reality. The purpose of this study was to investigate what a feminist perspective contributed to dance making as a social construction of reality and, subsequently, the development of theory. Through the metaphor of worldmaking, premised on Nelson Goodmans (1978) idea of worlds and worldmaking originally applied to art criticism, dance making as a worldmaking endeavor illuminated the diversity of a womans dance-making process and what that process revealed. Qualitative research methodology and a worldmaking taxonomy of three components, the world-in the-making, the world-inview, and performing the world, provided for an in depth investigation into three distinct dimensions related to the dance making process. The world-in-the-making revealed the artists creative process and how each woman perceived and created her work. The world-in-view unveiled the dimensions of how the body, as a resource for worldmaking, shaped identity and influenced artistic invention. Performing the world focused upon the performing experience revealing self, process, and transcendence. A series of in-depth interviews with three selected women revealed a woman choreographers world and work socially influenced and shaped by the world at large. A reverence for uncertainty, mobility in resistance, and a complexity of consciousness emerged as elements for the development of theory. Continually re-entering the dance making process the artist seeks complexity, transcending what is expected to construct, experience, and implement the possible, thus evolving for the future. In their dance making, women are models of evolutionary praxis. Their created worlds of possibility and change speak a womancentered agency, activism, voice, and autonomy. Womens voices continually refine and redefine dance making as a feminist artistic practice with future visionary application for critical pedagogy and curriculum development. As a consequence, women worldmakers, making a difference in the classroom and curriculum, become educational strategists for the future.

Hawkins, Christina M. A compilation and analysis of the origins of the foxtrot in white mainstream America, 2002. M.A., Brigham Young University (Catherine Black). (48pp 1f $6.00) PE 4440 This literature analysis compiles seven different versions of the origin of the Foxtrot, then divides and analyzes them according to two perspectives: Caucasian and AfricanAmerican. The Castles and Harry Fox are most commonly credited as the originators of the Foxtrot. However, analysis of sources reveals a pattern of appropriation of African American dance material by white mainstream America during the first half of the 20th century. This revelation, supported by a quote by Vernon Castle, suggests that the Foxtrot was included in this appropriation pattern. Hopefully, more evidence will surface about specifics of African-American contributions to the genesis of the Foxtrot, so that due credit can be given to those who deserve it. Kim, Kyehee. Exploring the complexity of perception and its relationship with Laban movement analysis, 2002. M.F.A., Texas Womans University (Penelope Hanstein). (26pp 1f $6.00) PE 4424 This paper is an exploration of the phenomenon of movement perception. As a complex process involving many variables, perception becomes problematic when the credibility and accuracy of ones perception is the foundation for movement interpretation. Some of the variables that make movement perception complex are the non static nature of movement as an object of perception, the subjective nature of the perceiver, and the diverse intentions behind observation. Laban Movement Analysis provides a theoretical framework that assists the perceiver in describing and analyzing movement, as well as accounting for personal biases. LMA offers a way to explore movement from numerous points of view, thereby enhancing credibility. Ultimately, movement analysis reveals as much about the perceiver as it does about the movement. Ozmun, L. M. C. R. E. A. T. E.: a performance process model, 2002. M.F.A., Texas Womans University (Mary WillifordShade). (35pp 1f $6.00) PE 4426 What makes some dancers better performers? Since performance instruction is lacking in most traditional dance curricula, how may a dancer learn to hone his or her performance ability? This research derives from the authors quest for a personal performance process and for a tangible, concrete model by which to help dancers mentally assume the roles they portray through their movement This paper examines the problem of a lack of dance resources available to dancers for creating a performance, clarifies and defines interdisciplinarity within the context

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of searching for outside knowledge to enhance the dance performance, establishes a need for a dance performance process, and stresses the role of imagination in creating a dance performance process. Using Todd Silers book, Think Like a Genius, this paper proposes a transdisciplinary model under the rubric Connecting, Relating, Exploring, Analyzing, Transforming, and Experiencing (C.R.E.A.T.E.). Applying the C.R.E.A.T.E. model, dancers learn to draw associative links between ideas, relate those ideas to the dancers life experience, examine the various facets of those links through such exploratory tools as improvisation and the application of multiple intelligence theory, use that examination to gain insight into the dance work change the performance based on that insight, and then reflect on the changes experienced in the performance. The C.R.E.A.T.E. model is one tool that may empower the dancer to craft his or her personal performance process, thus enabling the dancer to become a thinking, questioning performer who can create an engaging an enlightening performance. Scott, Andee. Dialoguing dance: a personal narrative of discovery, 2001. M.F.A., Texas Womans University (Penelope Hanstein). (32pp 1f $6.00) PE 4428 This professional paper uses personal narrative as a mechanism for creating meaning and generating theory about the nature of developing an artistic process in dance. By examining the progression of her own artistic development over time, Scott outlines various phases of the artistic process: learning process, performance process, choreographic process, and pedagogical process, as well as concepts such as exploration, choice-making, interpretation, and style. Scott uses language and discourse analysis to provide a working framework for understanding interpretation and creating style in modern dance. Drawing parallels between the building blocks of dance and language through an investigation of syntax provides a basis for examining dance through the lens of discourse analysis. Concepts in discourse analysis, such as repetition, interruption, interpretation and improvisation, can be used to explore and generate new movement material, in addition to fulfilling the movement potential of existing material. A dancers artistic process is a never-ending process of learning and sense-making. Each individual dancer must find her or his own framework for organizing and assimilating information based on personal experience and reflection in order to create a teaching model that provides students with the tools to develop their own process. Creating a working understand of process in students creates pathways for self-motivated learning, exploration, and art-making. Sneddon, Rachel B. Dance and the body in early Christianity: philosophical views of glorification and condemnation, 2002. M.A., Brigham Young University (Catherine H. Black). (66pp 1f $6.00) PE 4443

This thesis considers the philosophy of the body according to Platonism in the writings of the early Christian Church Fathers during the 2nd through 8th centuries A.D. Philosophical statements by the Church Fathers were gathered regarding their views on the body and its relationship to the sacred dance of the Church and secular dance of the theater in the Roman Empire at this time. Particularly, it analyzes the effect these dances had on the body and soul and their glorification or condemnation according to the adopted philosophy of Platonism by the Church Fathers. It summarizes the educational system in the Empire at the time and its relationship to Christianity, Platos Doctrine of Forms, and the Fathers views on sacred and secular dance. Research was taken primarily from secondary sources including translations of the writings of many Church Fathers, Plotinus, and the works of Plato. This study found that the Church Fathers permitted dance in the sacred Christian prayer circles because of the belief that the soul was united with God on high, while they condemned the secular dance of the Roman theater because emphasis on the physical bodys passions and desires was the primary objective.

BIOMECHANICS
Benson, Michael E. The muscle activation of the erector spinae during hyperextension on a variable angle Roman chair with and without the pelvis restrained, 2001. M.S., University of Texas, El Paso (Darla R. Smith). (87pp 1f $6.00) PE 4453 The purpose of this study was to determine if pelvic restraint during hyperextension on a variable angle roman chair (VARC) would increase the muscle activation of the erector spinae musculature. Seventy males and females ranging in age from 18 to 35 years volunteered. Each participant performed hyperextension exercises on the VARC with and without the pelvis restrained. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure the muscle activation in the erector spinae muscle at the third lumbar vertebra (L3). The EMG activity was normalized to a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). The EMG data were analyzed with a Multivariate Hotellings T2 test and univariate t-tests were performed to see where any significant differences occurred. The data collected from a post-test questionnaire were used for further analysis using McNemars test. Alpha was set at the .05 level of significance. All of the univariate t tests showed that the mean differences were significantly different (p<.01) from zero for all three independent variables. The mean differences were all negative which indicated that the erector spinae were more active in the unrestrained condition. However, according to the questionnaire, the participants felt the lumbar extensors worked harder with the restraint than

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without the restraint and the hamstrings and gluteals worked harder without the restraint than with the restraint. Birkelo, Jamie R. Effects of prolonged overhead throwing on three-dimensional scapulohumeral rhythm in baseball pitchers, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Darin Padua). (128pp 2f $12.00) PE 4411 The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged overhead throwing on three-dimensional scapulohumeral rhythm and assess strength assessment of the scapular protractor, retractor, and depressor muscle groups. Thirteen healthy baseball pitchers underwent a prescribed bout of prolonged overhead throwing. Following prolonged overhead throwing the scapula underwent less angular displacement, moving into less external rotation (protraction) and less upward rotation during maximal internal rotation from the 90to 90position. Additionally, strength of the scapular protractor, retractor, and depressor muscle groups all decreased significantly post-exercise. Thus, prolonged overhead throwing results in altered scapular kinematics and strength deficits. Based on these findings, prolonged overhead throwing and the associated scapular kinematic alterations may increase the risk of shoulder injuries such as impingement and muscle failure, due to decreased subacromial space and increased eccentric load on posterior shoulder musculature and biceps during the deceleration and follow-through phases of throwing. Bobick, Thomas G. The effects of lifting height and asymmetry on maximum acceptable weight of lift, average heart rate, and estimated biomechanical loading to the lumbar spine, 1997. Ph.D., West Virginia University (Terrence J. Stobbe). (208pp 3f $18.00) PE 4394 Epidemiological studies have indicated that work that involves lifting heavy objects or lifting and twisting with moderate weights can impose increased compressive, shear, and torsional stresses on a workers lumbar spine. A variety of biomechanical models have verified these results. Current statistics indicate that musculoskeletal sprains and strains account for more than 40% of the 2.2 million and 2.0 million lost-time work-related injuries that occurred during 1994 and 1995. Considering direct and indirect costs, lost-time musculoskeletal injuries can cost U.S. industries about $70 billion to $80 billion annually. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of lifting symmetrically and asymmetrically from knee height to chest or eye height on the (a) psychophysically selected weights lifted, (b) average heart rate over two 30-min lifting sessions for four test conditions, and (c) estimated compressive loading to the L5/S1 intervertebral disc for each test condition. Also, the weights lifted were compared to the Recommended Weight Limits that result from an

analysis of the lifting task characteristics using the revised NIOSH lifting equation. Eight West Virginia University engineering students volunteered as test subjects. Paired comparison t-tests indicate that there was a significant difference in the average weight lifted between chest and eye heights for the symmetrical lifts (p<.01) and for the asymmetrical lifts (p<.02). However, there was no significant difference in the weights lifted for twisting versus no twisting at either chest or eye heights. There were no significant differences in average heart rate or average estimated biomechanical loading to the lumbar spine for any of the four comparisons: symmetric versus asymmetric lifting at chest height, or at eye height, or for all symmetric lifts (chest and eye together) versus all asymmetric lifts, or for all chest lifts (both lift types) versus all eye height lifts (both lift types). There was, however, an indication (p.10) that the average heart rate was higher for the symmetrical lifts at eye height than for the asymmetrical lifts at eye height. There was also an indication (p.10) that the average back compressive force when lifting asymmetrically at eye height was less than the average back compressive force when lifting symmetrically at eye height. When using the revised NIOSH lifting equation to analyze the requirements of the experiment and then evaluate the weights lifted by the subjects, there was a significant increase (p<.001) in the weights selected versus the Recommended Weight Limits calculated by the revised NIOSH equation. Caster, Brian L. The evaluation of strategies used to accommodate additional loads during landing, 1989. M.S., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (126pp 2f $12.00) PE 4430 The purpose of the study was to assess strategies used by subjects to accommodate added loads during landing. Four males performed three conditions (C) of 25 landings from a 60 cm height on each of two test days. Additional masses (1024 g and 1800 g) were attached to each leg for C2 on each test day. Ground reaction force data for fore (Max 1) and rearfoot (Max 2) impact and EMG data from five lower extremity muscles were used in the analysis. Strategies used to accommodate loading and unloading were assessed using group and single subject analyses of variance (ANOVA) and simple and multiple regression techniques. The group ANOVA results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of a between subjects design for accurately assessing response strategies, indicating that all subjects performed equally under all conditions. Single subject ANOVA results, however, demonstrated differential response strategies with respect to load, impact force, and loading/unloading. Simple (load only) and multiple (load plus EMG) regression analyses for predicting Max 1 and Max 2 generally supported the individual ANOVA results and the specific nature of the response strategies employed.

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Davidson, Karen. A comparison of selected kinematic variables between intermediate and advanced level gymnasts in the hurdle step, round-off, and tucked back somersault in womens gymnastics, 2001. M.S., Slippery Rock University (Nelson Ng). (52pp 1f $6.00) PE 4422 The purpose of this study was to compare selected kinematic variables between intermediate and advanced gymnasts during the hurdle step, round-off, and tucked back somersault in womens artistic gymnastics. A group of nineteen female gymnasts served as subjects. Ten girls made up the intermediate level and nine girls constituted the advanced level. Each subject performed four consecutive trials of the tumbling sequence hurdle step, round-off, and tucked back somersault and three trials were selected for investigation. Kinematic data were collected by using the Peak Motion Video Analysis System. Data were collected in order to analyze the horizontal velocity and center of gravity positioning for various phases of the hurdle step and round off. In addition, the angle of takeoff for the somersault was analyzed for each gymnast. Finally, relationships were discovered between the horizontal velocity and center of gravity at takeoff and the maximal height of center of gravity positioning during the tucked back somersault. Results revealed significant differences in horizontal velocity during certain phases of the tumbling sequence. A significant relationship was also found between the center of gravity position at takeoff and the maximal height reached during the back somersault. No other significant differences or relationships were discovered. Derrick, Timothy R. The analysis of time-series data using correlation techniques, 1991. M.S., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (56pp 1f $6.00) PE 4456 The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Pearson product-moment correlation procedure as an evaluation technique for the analysis of biomechanical time-series data. The effectiveness of this correlation coefficient as a descriptor was evaluated under a variety of conditions, and questions concerning its use as an indicator of temporal similarity were addressed. Computer generated data, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) data, and hybrid data (constructed by combining features of computer generated and VGRF data) were used to investigate the influence of timing and amplitude differences on the correlation coefficient. It was determined that the correlation coefficient is easy to use and can be used to evaluate the entire curve, as opposed to discrete data points. Its usefulness is jeopardized, however, since it is influenced both by timing and by amplitude differences, as well as by the type of curve being analyzed.

DeVita, Paul. A kinetic analysis of the effects of time on running performance, 1984. M.S., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (119pp 2f $12.00) PE 4431 Shoe testing and evaluation have been a primary interest of researchers in recent years. However, no one has studied the effects of time on ground reaction force (GRF) parameters within shoe conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three training times and two shoe conditions on selected ground reaction force parameters. The training times were: short term (less than 100 m), intermediate (1609 m), and long term (25 to 40 km); shoe conditions were a common shoe and a shoe worn regularly by each subject. Intra- and inter-day reliabilities were evaluated to aid in the identification of differences among the training times. Twelve healthy males running 25 to 40 km per week volunteered as subjects. The experimental set-up consisted of a Kistler force platform interfaced to a Tektronix 4052 Graphics Calculator and a photoelectric timing system to monitor running speed (3.700.13 m/s). Each subject performed 10 successful trials for each condition and all trial data were stored on hard disk for later processing. Adequate time was allowed between trials and conditions to minimize any fatigue effects. Data processing consisted of the evaluation of 20 parameters for each trial. Trial parameter values were entered into individual within subject statistical analyses to identify condition differences. Data reliability was assessed with one way ANOVA and Model Statistics procedures, and training time and shoe condition effects were evaluated with Multiple Regression and Model Statistics techniques. Statistically significant differences (p<.05) were obtained in both reliability analyses and among the training times. Intra-day reliability was acceptable (70 to 90%), but interday reliability was not (40 to 50%). These results indicated that the evaluation of the effects of different shoes should be based on data obtained during a single test session. Differences among the training times indicated that subjects had accommodated the shoe conditions over time. Accommodation was greatest over the long term training condition. Vertical force parameters exhibited the largest accommodative effects between the short and intermediate conditions whereas all three component force parameters responded similarly after the long term training period. DeVita, Paul. Intraday and interday reliability of ground reaction force data, 1986. Ph.D., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (154pp 2f $12.00) PE 4432 Researchers have used ground reaction force (CRF) data to quantify the effects of shoes on running performance. However, few researchers have tried to establish the reliability of the GRF data over time and its effect on testing procedures. The primary purpose of the study was to investigate intra- and inter-day reliability of selected GRF parameters for seven sample sizes ranging from 3 to

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50 trials. The results of the reliability evaluation were used to establish the number of trials and test days needed to produce stable mean GRF parameter values. These later results were then used to evaluate the differences between two running shoes. Six healthy male runners volunteered as subjects for each phase of the study. The experimental setup consisted of a force platform interfaced to a Tektronix 4052 Graphics Calculator and an infrared timing system to monitor running speed (4.290.2 m/s). Data processing consisted of the evaluation of 21 parameters for each trial. Trial parameter values were evaluated using an individual within subject statistical technique (Model Statistics). Statistically significant differences (p<.05) were obtained for both reliability analyses and between the two shoe conditions. Intra-day reliability ranged from 94 to 75% for samples of 3 to 25 trials, respectively, with a decrease in the mean absolute differences (MADs) between samples as sample size increased. Inter-day reliability results ranged from 79 to 39% for samples of 3 to 50 trials, and exhibited decreases in mean absolute differences. A sample size of 25 trials was identified as the minimum number of trials necessary to adequately describe the true population parameter values. The shoe comparison study identified 59% of the observed differences as statistically significant (p<.05), but only 37% of the differences were greater than the MADs obtained in the reliability analyses. The results of the reliability analyses suggest that the evaluation of different running conditions be based on data obtained from within day comparisons performed on different days. Foggiano, Patrick H. A comparison of muscular endurance capacity of the finger flexor muscles utilizing the Tri-Bar Gripping System and the traditional grip in college men, 2002. M.S., Slippery Rock University (Gary S. Pechar). (60pp 1f $6.00) PE 4412 The purpose of this study was to compare the muscular endurance capacity of the finger flexor muscles using the Tri-bar Gripping System and the traditional grip in college men. The subjects included 32 male volunteer undergraduate students at Slippery Rock University who were 19-24 years of age, classified as low risk, had at least six months of prior resistance training experience, and had no history in the past year of any upper body musculoskeletal injuries. Muscular endurance capacity of the finger flexor muscles using the Tri-Bar Gripping System and the traditional grip was examined using a straight arm hang test and a one hand endurance test. The data were analyzed using a paired samples dependent t-test. There was a significantly greater muscular endurance capacity score (hang time) using the Tri-Bar Gripping System bar as compared to the traditional grip bar among college males (p<.05). There was also a significantly greater muscular endurance capacity score (time to grip failure) using the

traditional single grip cable handle as compared to the TriBar Gripping System single grip cable handle among college males (p<.05). Harter, Rod A. Kinetic and temporal characteristics of selected judo hip throws, 1985. Ph.D., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (145pp 2f $12.00) PE 4445 Judo, a martial art/sport over 100 years old and practiced world-wide, has drawn limited research attention from biomechanists. The purposes of the study were 1) to measure the ground reaction forces (GRF) of two judo hip throws, 2) to describe the activity through the use of selected parameters determined from the ground reaction force-time curves, and 3) to identify any kinetic and/or temporal patterns that were present. The experimental setup consisted of a force platform interfaced via an A/D converter to a laboratory computer and both a high speed super 8 mm movie camera and a 35 mm SLR camera. Four highly skilled judo players performed 10 trials of haraigoshi (sweeping hip throw) (HG) and uchi-mata (inner thigh throw) (UM) using the same uke (opponent) (72.4 kg). Force data were sampled at 200 Hz and the activity was filmed at 150 frames per sec. Selected parameters were evaluated using a repeated measures ANOVA (p<.05) design. Cinematographic data were used to assist in the interpretation and analysis of the GRF data. A consistent tri-modal pattern was observed for the vertical ground reaction force-time curves of all subjects on both throws, giving identity to three distinct phases within HB and UM. At least two different strategies for unbalancing the uke are possible for successful execution of HG and UM. Three subjects used a pull-push-pull strategy, while one subject used a push-pull strategy to initiate the throws. Maximum vertical BRF values for both throws averaged 2.46 times-body weight (BW). Maximum braking force values averaged .36 BW, while the mean maximum propulsive GRF was .26 BW. Between subjects differences were considerably greater than within subjects differences, as might be expected, suggesting that subjects developed different styles of throwing based upon their individual capabilities and morphological characteristics. Significant differences between HG and UM were observed for nine of 25 parameters describing the two throws; however, overall kinetic and temporal patterns were more statistically and behaviorally similar than dissimilar. Hunt, Michael A. The effect of an anterior cruciate ligament deficiency on steady-rate cycling biomechanics, 2002. M.S., University of British Columbia (David Sanderson). (137pp 2f $12.00) PE 4395

It is known that individuals missing a functional anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in one limb exhibit changes in the walking biomechanics in that limb during mid-stance (10-

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30% of the gait cycle). Specifically, they exhibit reduced activation of the quadriceps muscle group and increased activation of the hamstring muscle group, resulting in a decreased net knee joint extensor moment and increased knee joint flexion. These compensations have been called a quadriceps avoidance strategy. It is not known whether these compensations are the direct result of the injury, or whether compensations made early in the rehabilitation process play a role in these changes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the lower limb biomechanics of ACL deficient individuals during a common rehabilitation exercise for this injurystationary cycling. Ten individuals with a unilateral ACL deficiency and ten age- and gender matched controls performed six randomized bouts of stationary cycling for approximately one minute at intensities resulting from the combination of two cadences (60 and 90 rpm) and three power outputs (75, 125, and 175 W). It was found that, similar to during walking, ACL deficient individuals exhibited decreases in the magnitude of the quadriceps muscle activation in the injured limb. When combined with no change in hamstrings muscle activation, this resulted in a decreased net knee joint extensor moment in the injured limb. However, in contrast to walking, where increases from the hip or ankle extensors compensate for the decreased output from the knee joint extensors, ACL deficient individuals in the present study decreased output from the entire injured limb, resulting in a limb avoidance. This limb avoidance was manifested by decreases in the magnitude of muscle activation from the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and gluteus maximus, as well as decreases in the amount of force applied to the pedal. It was concluded that these compensations occurred in order to reduce anterior tibial translation in the injured limb. These results may suggest that a quadriceps avoidance strategy may be due in part to a limb avoidance strategy learned early during rehabilitation. Ingram, Steven G. Evaluation of regression modeling for development of transfer functions to predict ground reaction forces in sprinting, 1989. M.S., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (116pp 2f $12.00) PE 4441 The use of a regression statistical model to predict ground reaction forces (GRF) from cinematographic data was evaluated. One male subject performed 27 sprint trials while simultaneous force (600 hz) and film (200 hz) data were collected. Regression equations generated from the recorded GRF (RGRF) and center of gravity acceleration (CGA) histories were interpolated to 100 points. Modeled GRF (MGRF) curves, generated from the 100 regression equations and the CGA data, were compared to the corresponding RGRF curves. The following results were demonstrated: (a) the model predicted the RGRF more accurately than traditional methods of calculation, (b) the anthropometric model used to generate CGA data did not

affect model accuracy, and (c) greater model accuracy was achieved using lower cut off frequencies during data smoothing. It was concluded that the method could be of assistance in identifying causes of GRF patterns during specific phases of the support period of many movements. Karduna, Andrew R. The causes and effects of translation at the natural and prosthetically reconstructed glenohumeral joint, 1995. Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania (John L. Williams). (177pp 2f $12.00) PE 4434 The human glenohumeral joint exhibits a delicate balance between allowing small translations during normal ranges of motion, yet preventing extreme translations leading to dislocation. Studies of glenohumeral kinematics report conflicting results regarding the magnitude of these translations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative importance of the factors controlling translations and examine some consequences of translations after shoulder arthroplasty. Glenohumeral kinematics were studied using an active and passive cadaver model. Joints were positioned from maximum internal to external rotation at various planes and elevations. Passive translations were two to six times larger than active translations. These differences were due to a 40 percent larger range of motion achieved passively. When the same ranges of motion were considered for both models, no translational differences were found. Joint conformity was shown to be important in controlling translations during active motions, while ligamentous constraints helped control translations during passive motions. Similar experiments were conducted on specimens before and after joint reconstruction at one plane and elevation for component radial mismatches from zero to five millimeters. The effects of muscle forces and ligamentous constraints on reconstructed joints were similar to those for natural joints. Translations were found to linearly increase as joint conformity decreased for active motions. On the average, reconstructed joints with less conforming articulations best reproduced natural joint translations during active motions. After removal of muscles, ligaments and labrum, natural and prosthetically reconstructed joints were tested for anterior/posterior joint stiffness. Joint stiffness dramatically increased with increasing component conformity, and decreased with increasing medial loads. The minimum forces necessary for dislocation were independent of joint conformity. Rosette strain gages at the glenoid keel mid level revealed that component loading in this fashion leads to fully reversible cyclic keel strains. The highest compressive strains occurred with the head centered in the glenoid, and were larger for non-conforming joints. These strains became tensile just before rim loading and were greater for conforming joints. Although peak strains are below the yield point for polyethylene, cyclic loading of the component in this fashion may ultimately lead to fatigue failure and component toggling.

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Karduna, Andrew R. Transverse stiffness and constitutive laws for elastomers and fiber reinforced elastomers, 1991. M.S., Johns Hopkins University (Frank Yin). (114pp 2f $12.00) PE 4433 The concept of using myocardial transverse stiffness measurements as an index of in-plane properties seems promising, since there is currently no reliable method of accurately measuring the stresses inside of these tissues. Before this technique can be accepted, though, a more thorough understanding of the underlying mechanics is needed. The problem is that the material properties of soft biological tissue have not been well characterized because of their complex structures. The goal of this thesis was to study the transverse stiffness of a much simpler material. Unreinforced and nylon reinforced rubber specimens were fabricated in the laboratory. Constitutive laws based on strain energy functions were obtained using a biaxial stretching apparatus. The results from the isotropic case were employed in finite element simulations designed to test the effects of stretching and various boundary conditions on measurements of transverse stiffness. Experimental indentation tests were also performed to compare with these simulations. There is excellent agreement between the experimental and simulated data on the effect of thickness on the transverse stiffness of rubber. Simulated data concerning the effects of indentor radius, indentation depth, and in-plane dimensions were also studied. In addition, preliminary experimental results indicate that the anisotropy of our composite material has an effect on the transverse stiffness. While the technique for determining the strain energy function of our isotropic elastomers has been used before, its application to fiber reinforced specimens is new. The results from these studies indicate that this methodology may prove very useful for obtaining constitutive laws for these types of materials. Since it would be very difficult to determine the effects of various boundary conditions on transverse stiffness for biological tissue, man-made composites offered an attractive alternative. Simulated and experimental results for an isotropic material indicate that this approach has merit. For a transversely isotropic material, the fact that the fibers contribute to the transverse stiffness indicates that the effects of fiber density and boundary conditions, like specimen thickness and unequal in-plane loading, need further study. Kindling, Leslie A. Effects of quadriceps fatigue on running mechanics, 1998. M.S., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (65pp 1f $6.00) PE 4450 The current study was conducted to gain information on the effect of quadriceps fatigue on running kinematics. One participant was selected from a previous study. The participant initially ran for 3 minutes on a treadmill at his

preferred running speed (8 minute-mile pace). After performing three sets of approximately 11 repetitions of maximum effort, concentric quadriceps contractions, the participant returned to the treadmill and ran for another 3 minutes at 8 minute-mile pace. Video of the participant running was digitized to determine joint locations. Digitization was completed on every 4th stride starting with the 5th stride after handrail release, for a total of 24 strides. Joint position data was smoothed and interpolated to 100 points. Then, segment and joint angles were calculated. The participant had a faster stride rate in the fatigue condition (83.80 strides/min) compared to the non fatigue condition (80.75 strides/min, p<0.01). Also, during fatigue the thigh angle was decreased prior to toe off to beyond the end of forward swing. This occurred along with an increase in hip extension for the majority of the same time period. Thus, as the effectiveness of the quadriceps is reduced, their ability to act as a hip flexor is compromised. Knutzen, Kathleen M. The influences of two knee brace applications on the biomechanical characteristics of the surgically repaired knee, 1982. Ph.D., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (216pp 3f $18.00) PE 4435 The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two different knee braces on lower extremity function in individuals who had a documented history of knee instability. Six subjects, aged 20 to 28, participated in the study. All subjects were selected based upon the following criteria: 1) have had knee surgery for the reduction of knee instability, 2) have had at least ten months of rehabilitation, 3) have a healthy contralateral knee, and 4) have previously worn a specific de-rotation brace. The biomechanical characteristics of the healthy limb, the surgical limb, the surgical limb fitted with an elastic support brace, and the surgical limb fitted with a de-rotation brace served as conditions for comparison. The data were collected using three testing apparatus which allowed the following measurements: 1) tri-planar range of motion evaluation at the knee during overground running, 2) ground reaction force evaluation during the support phase of running, and 3) torque and tibial rotation evaluation during a fixed-foot clinical setting. Variables selected for processing included 12 force variables (6 medial/lateral, 3 vertical, 3 fore/aft), 4 electrogoniometer variables (maximum flexion in support and swing, internal and external rotation), and 4 isokinetic variables (maximum torque and rotation for internal and external rotation). Analyses of variance with repeated measures were conducted to determine significant differences across conditions. Planned comparisons were carried out on all data sets. Statistically significant differences were found in ground reaction force curves and electrogoniometric values across knee conditions (P<.05). The de-rotation brace significantly reduced knee flexion as well as internal and external rotation of the tibia during overground running. There were also significant differ-

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ences in medial/lateral force components between healthy limb and the surgical limb conditions. No significant differences were found in the isokinetic or vertical and fore/aft ground reaction force components. Results suggest that a de-rotation brace effectively reduced movement parameters at the knee. Results also support the existence of a medial/lateral ground reaction force asymmetry between healthy and surgical limbs. Lander, Jeffrey E. Comparisons between selected parameters describing an isotonic and isokinetic bench press, 1982. M.S., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (174pp 2f $12.00) PE 4442 Although isotonic and isokinetic performance have been examined separately, little direct comparative information is available. The present study measured and compared parameters describing selected performance characteristics of an isotonic and isokinetic bench press in order to quantitatively evaluate similarities and differences between the two activities. Parameters describing the isotonic condition were generated from cinematographic data (150 fps) for five trials each at 90% and 75% of the subjects performance. Isokinetic data were obtained from an instrumented Cybex Power Bench Press at two speeds of rotation based upon total time of performance for the isotonic condition. Selected position, temporal, and force data were compared for the four conditions. The two activities were found to be similar during the middle portion of the movement, while differences existed in the beginning and end. These data suggest that a temporal method of equating performance be used when comparing the two modes of training. McIntyre, Kelli. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of basketball players during a functional jumping task, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Darin Padua). (102pp 2f $12.00) PE 4415 Female basketball athletes are more likely to suffer serious knee injury than males. Identification of knee injury risk factors for female basketball athletes is necessary due to increased injury incidence in this sport. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of lower extremity kinematics on peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) when performing a single leg lay-up take-off (SLLT) and to identify differences in lower extremity movement patterns between genders. Subjects consisted of 17 female and 18 male college-aged basketball athletes. A force platform measured peak VGRF and an electromagnetic motion analysis system collected kinematic data during a SLLT. Results identified knee valgus, hip, and ankle flexion angles as significant predictors of peak VGRF and significant gender differences for knee flexion and valgus angles. Intervention strategies that alter lower extremity kinemat-

ics may reduce VGRF. The altered lower extremity movement patterns demonstrated by females may predispose them to knee injury. Myers, Renee L. Electromyographic analysis of the gluteal muscles during closed kinetic chain exercise, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Darin Padua). (124pp 2f $12.00) PE 4451 The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CKC stepping exercises [side step left (SSL), side step right (SSR), high knees marching (HKM), and diagonal forward stepping (DFS)] with no shoes (NS) and balance shoes (BS) on gluteus medius (Gmed) and gluteus maximus (Gmax) activation amplitude of the stance leg during the preparatory response (PR) and loading response (LR) of the gait cycle. Nineteen healthy college students performed exercises in both shoe conditions. Average RMS EMG of the Gmed and Gmax were recorded. The type of exercise also influenced Gmed/Gmax activity. Gluteal activation was proven to increase during the LR of exercises with the balance shoes during exercise. It was determined that HKM muscle activation was greater than that of DFS and SSL. Thus, balance shoes effectively increased Gmed/ Gmax activation in comparison to no shoe conditions. Based on these findings, the use of balance shoes during CKC stepping exercises is recommended to promote gluteal activation. Peterman, Wilma A. Effects of incremental load on the mechanics and muscular activity of rising to erect stance, 2001. M.S., Springfield College (H. Joseph Scheuchenzuber). (137pp 2f $12.00) PE 4391 The current study was designed to evaluate the differences in the mean change of selected mechanical and electromyographic variables during rising to an erect stance from a full kneeling position across incremental loads. Each load was calculated as a percentage (35%, 40%, 45%, and 50%) of the lean body weight of each subject. Right leg dominant females (N=9) participated in the current investigation. One-way repeated measures ANOVA procedures were used to evaluate the mean change in all variables. No significant (p>.05) difference existed across incremental loads for all biomechanical variables. The temporal ratio of the erector spinae demonstrated a significant (p<.05) difference in the mean change across incremental loads. Post hoc analysis revealed a significant difference existed between the 35% and 50% lean body weight loads. Further research is needed in order to evaluate the effects of incremental load on the muscular activity and mechanics of rising to an erect stance. Sadeghi, Heydar. Gait asymmetry in able-bodied subjects using biomechanical data, 1998. Ph.D., University of Montreal (Paul Allard). (213pp 3f $18.00) PE 4419

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Walking, as one of the most universal of all human activities, is of interest and is applicable to sports, clinical evaluations, diagnostic, rehabilitation, and artificial limb designs, as well as to robotics. Understanding of different aspects of gait function has been increasing with availability of sophisticated and advanced instruments, and the involvement of other areas of science, as well as with the application of advanced statistical methods. Traditionally, symmetry between lower limb has been assumed for simplicity in gait analysis. The general purpose of this study was to examine symmetry assumptions by means of identifying the three-dimensional muscle powers and associated mechanical energies and to determine which of these gait parameters were related to propulsion and support. Furthermore, this research focused on how propulsion and control tasks are performed by each limb and how these tasks are managed between the lower limbs. In this regard, we postulated that limb propulsion is mainly associated with the interaction of a number of muscle power bursts developed throughout the stance phase, while control actions are mainly achieved by the contralateral limb through different power burst interactions. Moreover, we hypothesize that the power activities of a limb are related to those of the contralateral limb. Simultaneous bilateral three-dimensional data of nineteen young, healthy, right handed and leg dominant male subjects was assessed using an eight camera video-based system synchronized to two force plates. The muscle powers and their related mechanical energy were calculated at each joint and in each plane of the lower limbs by means of the inverse dynamic technique. The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to reduce and classify 54 gait parameters for each limb. Students ttest for paired data was applied to determine significant differences between the identified gait parameters and the Pearson correlation method was used to determine the interaction among each limb data set. Furthermore, Canonical correlation analysis was used to determine the interactions between the right and left lower extremity gait data sets. The limb that had a propulsion function was characterized by a strong third hip power at push off. Most of the parameters identified by the PCA were associated with the hip, and were mainly in the sagittal plane. These parameters were concentrated during push-off. Gait propulsion was an activity initiated by the hip shortly after heel-strike and maintained throughout the stance phase. There was a secondary support function that occurred during midstance. Control was the main task of the left limb as evidenced by the power absorption bursts at the hip and knee. The contralateral limb power generations were generally secondary to control activities and were possibly involved in correction adjustments of the other limbs propulsion. These results do not support the hypothesis that the ankle was a major contributor to forward progression. Inter-limb interaction further

emphasized the functional relationship between forward progression and control tasks developed by each limb and highlighted the importance of the frontal and transverse plane actions during gait. Sawhill, James A. Biomechanical characteristics of rotational velocity and movement complexity in isokinetic performance, 1981. Ph.D., University of Oregon (Barry T. Bates). (194pp 2f $12.00) PE 4460 The purpose of this study was to design and operate a micro processor controlled system for the collection, analysis and interpretation of isokinetic performance data. The system included an instrumented Orthotron isokinetic dynamometer interfaced through a TransEra analog-todigital signal converter to a Tektronix 4051 graphics calculator. A comprehensive collection of software programming was written to facilitate the calibration of this equipment, and subsequent collections and analyses employed this system. The first experiment examined leg extension and flexion motions of contralateral limbs for ten male and ten female subjects through eight rotational velocities (50-to 400 degrees/second). Peak torque ratios for leg antagonist muscle groups and leg orientations for the occurrence of these peak torques were computed for all movements. Subjects exhibited bilateral symmetry for both of these measures at all movement speeds. Significant increases in peak torque ratios of hamstrings to quadriceps muscle groups were observed, and revealed that these antagonist muscles became more balanced in their torque productions with increased speeds of rotation. Peak torque joint positions changed significantly and converged upon a common 63 degree angle of knee flexion as speeds of rotation increased. The second experiment examined multiple trials of all possible combinations and permutations of leg extension and flexion motions for preferred limb movements of five male subjects at three rotational velocities (200, 300, and 400 degrees/second). No significant differences were observed for antagonist muscles peak torque ratios with either changes in movement speeds or movement tasks. Peak torque joint positions changed significantly for all leg extension and flexion movements through speeds, and changed for flexion movements through movement tasks. Throughout both movement directions, all torque, position, and temporal measures were significantly related to all other measures of the same kind. Due to inherent biological variability, an average of 3.23 trials were required to collect stable performance data with speeds of motion and movement tasks emerging as necessary considerations for examining performance variations.

SPORTS MEDICINE

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

Cimbalnik, Amy M. Relationship among indices of training and the incidence of illnesses and injuries in elite athletes, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (C. Foster). (66pp 1f $6.00) PE 4401 Members of the U.S. Speedskating Team (n=5, 1 male, 4 females) were monitored during training in order to evaluate the relationship between training characteristics and the incidence of illnesses, injuries, and complaints. A daily training log-questionnaire along with questions regarding illness, injury, muscular aches and pains, and state of mental well-being was completed. Training load, training monotony, and training strain were computed using the session Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) method. The product of the weekly muscular aches and pains and weekly state of mental well being defined the complaint index. A low incidence of illnesses was found in relation to training load or strain. A general relationship between training load and the complaint index with weak to moderate correlations (r=0.35-0.71) was found. There was no evidence for a threshold effect of the complaint index in relation to either training load or strain. The present data suggest that prospective studies with good data recovery might be a productive process in terms of evaluating negative training outcomes. Comstock, Rae D. Patterns of injury among female rugby players, 2002. Ph.D., University of California, San Diego (Richard Shaffer). (288pp 3f $18.00) PE 4454 Rugby, a full contact sport played recreationally by men and women, exposes participants to a high risk of injury. This cross-sectional study explored patterns of injury among female rugby players in the U. S. and investigated several potential risk factors. A convenience sample of 364 females playing rugby in the U.S. was surveyed. Players had a mean age of 25.7 years. The majority of players (83.0%) had sustained an injury within their most recent 3 months of play. The general patterns of injury, reported as prevalence rates, indicated the most commonly injured body site was the head (28.3%), followed by knee (27.5%), fingers (27.5%), shoulder (26.4%), neck (21.4%), and ankle (21 .2%). The types of injuries reported included strains/ sprains/tears (37.4%), concussions (11.5%), fractures (6.9%), and dislocations (5.5%). Patterns of injury were also investigated in terms of a strict study definition of injury. When only considering injuries sustained within the most recent three months, and which caused players to seek professional medical attention or prevented participation in rugby activities or normal work/school activities for seven days, 159 of the 364 players (43.7%) were classified as injured. Among these 159 individuals, the sites most often injured, reported as prevalence rates, were shoulder (24.8%), followed by knee (22 9%), ankle (15.3%), and head (13.4%). Types of injuries sustained included strains/ sprains/tears (60.0%), fractures (16.1%), concussions

(12.3%), and dislocations (11.0%). Over a third of the injured players reported sustaining injuries to more than one site (37.6%) and injuries of more than one type (33.6%) at their most recent injury event. The tackle was the phase of play most commonly associated with injury. Additionally, 12.7% of the injured players believed they had been injured as the result of foul play. Multivariate analyses found that while unpenalized foul play was significantly associated with injury, the use of protective equipment, warming up prior to playing, alcohol use, and a willingness to take risks were not associated with injury. The result of a comprehensive examination of injury in U.S. female rugby players had not been previously reported. Thus, this study fills a unique position. Cutler, Amy J. The effects of acute magnetic exposure on circumference measurements of the elbow flexors following an exercise-induced muscle injury, 2001. M.S., Slippery Rock University (Daniel G. Drury). (79pp 1f $6.00) PE 4421 The subject group in this single blind investigation was comprised of 24 females attending Slippery Rock University during the spring and summer semesters of 2001. Undergraduate and graduate students not currently participating in a regular resistance training program voluntarily participated. The effect of magnet therapy on post muscle injury swelling was examined. Data were analyzed using an independent measures t-test. The following conclusions appear warranted within the limitations of the study. There was no significant difference in the amount of swelling when comparing those participants who were exposed to magnet therapy versus those who received placebo therapy. The magnet therapy pads of 1200 Gauss intensity were ineffective in treating swelling after an eccentric exercise induced muscle injury. Hammond, James. Perceptions of artificial turf regarding the effects of football playing surfaces on injury rates, 2002. M.S., State University of New York, Brockport (Robert C. Schneider). (55pp 1f $6.00) PE 4458 The perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III college football coaches (based on their interactions with interscholastic and intercollegiate football players) regarding the effects of football playing surfaces on athlete injury was investigated. The subjects were all (237 total) NCAA Division III football coaches. Based on the existing literature and input from a panel of expert Division III coaches, a questionnaire was formed. Results showed that 48% of the coaches surveyed strongly agreed, or agreed, that artificial turf poses a greater risk of injury than does natural grass.

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

Harter, Rod A. Long term evaluation of knee stability and function following surgical reconstruction for anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency, 1987. Ph.D., University of Oregon (Louis R. Osternig). (262pp 3f $18.00) PE 4446 Current evaluative parameters of knee stability and function in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed knees have not gained universal acceptance. Clinical test results have commonly been given more value than a patients subjective evaluation of surgical outcome. The present study was designed to identify specific knee stability and function variables which were most predictive of a patients rating of knee function following one of two combined (intra and extra-articular) ACL reconstruction procedures at two postoperative periods, and to measure the interrelationships among those variables. An additional purpose was to evaluate individual measures of knee stability and function between types of surgery and lengths of postoperative period, as well as between contralateral surgical and nonsurgical limbs. Fifty-one subjects were evaluated on a battery of tests at an average of 48.0 months postsurgery (range = 24 to 101 months). All subjects possessed a normal contralateral knee for comparative purposes. Eleven variables were identified from the following evaluative measures: (a) patients subjective rating; (b) instrumented knee laxity testing; (c) proprioceptive testing; (d) orthopedic examination; (e) isokinetic strength and work capacity; and (f) activity level. Results indicated that variables selected were not highly correlated with, nor could effectively predict, the patients evaluation of surgical knee stability and function. No significant differences were observed between the ACL reconstructive procedures for any of 11 variables selected for analysis. Analyses also revealed no significant differences between lengths of postoperative period for l0 of 11 variables. Statistically significant differences (p <.00l) between surgical/nonsurgical knees were found for 9 of 11 variables analyzed. Eight of the nine significant differences represented surgical knee mean absolute differences (deficits) of less than l5 percent. Data suggest that subjects perceptions of postoperative knee status were independent of the results of static and dynamic clinical tests commonly used to assess knee function and stability. Postoperative deficits of up to 30 percent between the surgically-reconstructed and normal contralateral knees on specific measures of knee function and stability may not greatly influence patients perceptions of knee function. Development of more specific dynamic tests may be necessary before stronger relationships between clinical test results and patients subjective evaluation of knee status in the ACL-reconstructed knee can be realized. Kastberg, Lee S. The comparative effects of a hydrocollator pack and thermal ultrasound on the transcutaneous delivery of topically applied dexamethasone, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (William Prentice). (64pp 1f $6.00) PE 4448

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of three different methods of dexamethasone administration on serum levels of the drug. Thirty subjects (17 females, 13 males) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. All subjects were treated with the topical application of 0.4% dexamethasone sodium phosphate. One group was the control group treated with only the drug. The second group was treated with 3-MHz thermal ultrasound. The third group was treated with a hydrocollator pack. Serum levels of dexamethasone were analyzed in baseline blood samples and in samples taken 24 and 48 hours after the treatments. None of the 90 samples contained any detectable amount of the drug, indicating no evidence of the drug in the bloodstream. However, serum levels of the drug taken in this particular time frame may not accurately reflect the local effects of these treatments. Kearney, Mindy M. Perception of athletic training education by certified athletic trainers who work with disability sports, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (P. DiRocco). (53pp 1f $6.00) PE 4404 This study looked at the perception of athletic training education by certified athletic trainers (ATCs) who work with disability sports. A questionnaire was used to gather information about how prepared ATCs felt using skills that might be needed if they provided medical coverage for athletes with disabilities. Surveys were sent to ATCs who were identified by the medical director of the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) as having work experience with disability sports. Each survey asked subjects to rate on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 representing strongly disagree and 5 representing strongly agree, how their educational experience prepared them for thirty different skills they may need if working with athletes with disabilities. Nineteen respondents completed the survey. Overall, the subjects did not feel prepared to work with athletes with disabilities. Overall, ATCs averaged 2.60 on the complete list of skills that they could potentially be asked to perform. In addition, those skills that were universal to all athletes were perceived as being better prepared for than those that were specific to athletes with disabilities. ANOVA was used to determine if demographics was a factor in how ATCs perceived their education. No main effects were found in the results concerning gender, past Paralympic experience, and type of athletic training program and the perception of education. There was a mild correlation between the length of time trainers were certified as ATCs, and their perception of their education. Further investigations of athletic training within disability sports are needed to determine the educational needs for student athletic trainers.

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Kuipers, Nathan T. The effect of acute stretching of the plantar flexors, hip extensors, and knee extensors on anaerobic power output, 2001. M.S., Slippery Rock University (Gary S. Pechar). (66pp 1f $6.00) PE 4425 The subject group in this study was comprised of fifteen college-aged males. The subjects were selected from physical education classes at Geneva College during the spring of 2001. The effect of acute stretching of selected major musculature of the lower body on anaerobic power was examined. Subjects were required to participate in two testing sessions. During one testing session the subjects performed three trials of the Margaria power test, three trials of the vertical jump test, and two 20-meter dashes. The subjects then sat for ten minutes and then were readministered three trials of the Margaria power test, three trials of the vertical jump test, and two 20-meter dashes. During the second testing session instead of sitting quietly the subjects were required to stretch their plantar flexors, hip extensors, and knee extensors. A dependent ttest was used to compare the change in power output for each of the three anaerobic power tests between the two treatment conditions. The results of the study showed no significant differences in the change in anaerobic power output following either the quiet sitting or the acute stretching-treatment conditions. It appears that stretching the plantar flexors, hip extensors, and knee extensors once before performance for a duration of thirty seconds and to a point of slight discomfort before performance does not significantly influence an untrained males ability to generate anaerobic power. Leszun, Carrie N. The effects of post eccentric injury magnetic exposure upon delayed onset muscle soreness among college-age females, 2001. M.S., Slippery Rock University (Daniel G. Drury). (80pp 1f $6.00) PE 4414 The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of post eccentric injury magnetic exposure upon delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) among college age females. Twenty-four females between the ages of 19 and 26 who had not been participating in regular strength training of their upper body voluntarily participated in the study. DOMS was measured by the use of a visual analogue scale and a doliometer. The subjects performed three sets of ten repetitions of eccentric contractions of their biceps in order to induce DOMS. In a random and double blind fashion, subjects were placed in either a magnet or a placebo group in which they wore the treatment for five days. The subjects returned to the lab 24 hours, 72 hours, and 120 hours post-exercise in order to have their soreness measured by the use of a visual analogue scale and a doliometer. The data were analyzed utilizing independent multiple t-tests. There were no significant differences in visual analogue scores or medial doliometer scores between the magnet and the placebo treatment conditions.

However, there were significant differences in lateral doliometer scores between the magnet and placebo groups, which indicated that the magnets helped alleviate the perception of discomfort related to DOMS. Lock, Heather A. Comparison of various methods of assessing body composition in adolescent males, 2002. M.S., Purdue University (Darlene Sedlock). (54pp 1f $6.00) PE 4396 The purpose of this study was to compare various methods of assessing body composition in adolescent males. Fortyfive adolescent males aged 12-15 yr volunteered to be a part of this study in which dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measure for the assessment of percent body fat. Comparison methods included Underwater weighing (UWW), skinfold thickness (SFT), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and air displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod). SFT was the only method that did not significantly differ from DXA, whereas BIA and Bod Pod were significantly higher and UWW was significantly lower than DXA (p0.05). Linear regression analysis indicated that SFT had the lowest R2 value (0.17) with a slope and intercept that was significantly different from 1 and 0, respectively (p0.05). Bod Pod (R2=0.83) and UWW (0.70-0.74) had the highest R2 values and slopes that did not differ significantly from 1 (p0.05). The intercept for Bod Pod, but not UWW, was significantly different from 0 (p0.05). All pairwise correlation coefficients were statistically significant (p0.05). When choosing which body composition method to use for this population, it is important to consider the setting (laboratory, clinical, field) and the purpose behind the testing. McCafferty, Jaime E. Genu valgum: can observable or symptomatic changes occur with an exercise protocol in collegiate women?, 2002. M.S., Montana State University (Daniel P. Heil). (132pp 2f $12.00) PE 4417 Genu valgum, or knock-knees, is a structural deformity that results in knee adduction. Genu valgum and increased quadriceps (Q) angle are synonymous and lead to an increase in lower extremity injuries and painful symptoms. Women typically have larger Q angles than men, and are therefore at an increased risk for injury. There is no known exercise protocol to correct the genu valgum deformity. The primary goal of this study was to implement an exercise protocol in collegiate women who have genu valgum and to measure changes. The secondary goal was to decrease symptomatic afflictions associated with genu valgum. Eleven collegiate women volunteered to participate in the study and were divided into either a treatment (n=6) or control (n=5) group. The treatment group participated in a six-week exercise protocol meant to strengthen the hip flexors, internal and external rotators, hip abductors and adductors, and knee flexors and extensors. Lower

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extremity digital photographs were taken of the subjects prior to the study and following each week of treatment. Tibial Femoral Angle (TFA) and Q angle were the variables measured from the photographs. Strength measures of the targeted muscles were taken prior to the study, following week three, and at the conclusion using a Manual Muscle Tester (MMT). Subjective data were documented in the form of Visual Analog Scales (VAS). The results of the study noted decrease in the treatment group Q angle, with more change occurring in the right leg. The TFA also improved in the treatment group, and more change was present in the right leg as well. Strength increased in the subjects performing the exercise protocol, and those who completed the protocol reported a decrease in symptoms. In conclusion, it is reasonable to expect that a longer exercise protocol would yield greater changes in Q angle and TFA in collegiate women with genu valgum. It is likely that the strength gain experienced by the subjects was the factor in the decrease of Q angle, TFA, and symptoms. Therefore, this protocol proved to be a beginning step to correcting the appearance of genu valgum and decreasing associated symptoms in collegiate women. Oosthuizen, Jan J. Inferences about change-points in rehabilitation on the outcome of a knee arthroscopy as a result of patello femoral pain syndrome in sport, 2001. M.A., University of the Free State (Bertus Pretorius). (152pp 2f $12.00) PE 4397 In many experiments, data are collected over time or space, on a number of subjects or sites. In rehabilitation experiments, for example, it is often of interest to know if the introduction of an intervention, such as a training modality during the process of rehabilitation, affects the distribution of a certain variable(s) recorded over the course of the trial. In such investigations, each patient generates a sequence of data that may or may not contain a point in time where the sequence reaches stationarity, i.e., no gradual change in the variable. Hence, the Biokineticist will want to know what the position and distribution of this Change-Point is, as well as the corresponding value of the variable at this point. In some future study of the same injury, he/she will then know in advance, when to expect no further change in the observed values. This will have a significant effect on the time and cost of the rehabilitation program. We motivate and explain our ideas by outlining a clinical study involving Patello Femoral Pain Syndrome where the methodology can be effectively employed. The methodology, models and results are presented in a very simple form, and the 0.05 and 0.01 levels of significance are applicable throughout the study. Ryan, Michael B. Vancouver Sun Run In Training clinics: an ordinal severity outcome measure and model of associated risk factors for running related pain, 2002. M.S., University of British Columbia (Jack E. Taunton). (72pp 1f $6.00) PE 4398

This study determined the feasibility of implementing a severity outcome measure for the classification of running related pain, in addition to constructing a multivariate model of associated risk factors for injury in novice runners. Throughout the Greater Vancouver Metropolitan Area (British Columbia), 421 participants responded in 29 separate In-Training clinics. Subjects, on average, selfselected their running experience as limited with average physical fitness, average competitive motive and at least vestigial symptoms from a previous injury. Participants in this 13-week training program were surveyed during the 6th and 12th week of the In-Training clinics 13-week duration. Questionnaire items included a VAS scale for indication of degree of rehabilitation from prior injury, physical fitness, competitive motive, weekly distance, running frequency and running experience. The Training Function Score is designed to quantify, using an ordinal scale, function limitations that result from running injuries. Subjects also indicated whether they were currently experiencing an injury as a result of injury. Overall, 36.1% of subjects experienced an injury during the training program. Univariate regression showed degree of rehabilitation, physical fitness, competitive motive and weekly distance as significantly associated with injury. Multivariate results, however, indicate only degree of rehabilitation while physical fitness accounts for 25.4% of the explained variation in the severity outcome measure. Pratt analysis further shows that 90.1% of that explained variation is accounted for by degree of rehabilitation only. Initial psychometric characteristics demonstrate outcome measured ability to discriminate injured from non-injured (uninjured = 82.91, injured = 64.56, and clinically injured = 46.29; significant difference p<.001) and evaluate severity (significant [p<.011] regression association with severity outcome measure and increasing subjective definition of injury scale). Moderately sedentary individuals commencing a running program for the first time should be cautious of the effect prior history of injury has toward re-injury. This study suggests that an outcome measure for generalized running injuries is possible with respect to discriminating injured from non-injured runners, as well as evaluating the severity of those injuries. While such an outcome measure for general running injuries is feasible, proper validation procedures and methodology must be established before such a scale is used formally. St. John, Wendy E. A study of the body composition of female, college-age swimmers, 1978. M.Ed., University of Cincinnati (Forrest A. Dolgener). (87pp 1f $6.00) PE 4436 This study was designed to determine the body composition of nine college-age female swimmers, and to compare the results of a multiple regression analysis of the anthropometric measurements with those found by Young et al. (45), Sloan et al. (34), and Katch and Michael (20). A descriptive approach was used to determine percent body

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fats from body composition measurements. Specifically, the following tests were administered to each subject: skinfold, girth, and diameter measurements; and underwater weighing. The college-age female swimmers had significantly lower percent fat than the college-age females of the studies of Young et al. (p<.001), and Katch and Michael (p<.01), but not significantly different from the females of the study of Sloan et al. when using either the formulas of Brozek and Keys or Siri to compute percent fat, but they were significant when using the formula of Rathburn and Pace (p<.05). Anthropometric measurements such as skinfolds, girths, and diameters can be used to predict body density with an accuracy of 0.07602, the standard error of the estimate. It must be remembered, though, that equations are population specific and should only be used on subjects drawn from the same population. Taylor, Ian W. The relative contribution of vitamin D receptor (VDR), collagen type 1, [alpha]-1 (COL1A1), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), polymorphisms, physical activity, and bone mineral-free lean mass to bone parameters in children, 2002. M.S., University of British Columbia (Sylvie Langlois, Ross MacGillivray, and Jack Taunton). (185pp 2f $12.00) PE 4462 This study sought to investigate the relationship of physical activity (PA), dietary calcium and 3 candidate gene (VDR, COLlAI and TNFR2) genotypes on bone mass in children (n=327, age 10.330.65). The study also sought to investigate the effect of PA and genotype on bone mineral-free lean mass (BMFL). Finally, the relationships between bone mass and BMFL and PA, BMFL and genotype and PA and genotype interactions were investigated. Anthropometric data (height, sitting height, and weight) were determined using standard techniques. Bone mass, and BMFL were assed using total body DXA scan using a Hologic QDR 4500. Dietary calcium, PA, and maturity were assessed using previously validated questionnaires. VDR FokI and VDR BsmI genotypes were determined by standard restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. COLlA1 genotype was determined by a novel TaqMan technique and TNFR2 genotypes and haplotypes were determined by a novel automated sequencing protocol. Association between PA or candidate gene genotype and either BMFL or bone mass was first controlled for inter-subject differences in body size and maturity. PA was significantly associated with BMFL in boys (p = 0.038). PA score was associated with a 3-5% difference in proximal femur BMC, femoral neck BMC, and femoral neck aBMD, but not lumbar spine BMC in boys, as well as a 4% difference in femoral neck aBMD in girls. Average dietary calcium intake was not associated with differences in bone mass in children. VDR BsmI and VDR FokI genotype did not have a relationship to bone mass or BMFL in children. COL1A1 Ss or ss genotype is associated with 4.8% higher femoral neck BMC in boys but not BMFL

in either sex. TNFR2 A593G gg genotype was associated with a 3.8% higher BMFL in boys (p=0.038) and a 3.4% higher femoral neck BMC in boys (p=0.045). Girls with a TNFR2 T598G tg genotype had a 3.3% higher femoral neck BMC (p=0.029). TNFR2 G593-G598/G593-T598 haplotype was associated with a 10% higher femoral neck BMC in girls. For boys, when the BMFL by PA interaction term was added to the model, it explained significantly more (2.53.9%, p=0.004) of the variance in femoral neck BMC, femoral neck aBMD, and lumbar spine aBMD than the main effect for PA alone. When the BMFL by VDR FokI genotype interaction was added to the model, the main effect of the VDR FokI genotype became significant where boys with the FF genotype had a 1.4% greater femoral neck aBMD than boys with the Ff or ff genotype. For girls, significant interactions between TNFR2 haplotype and BMFL changed the model such that girls with the G593G598/G593-T598 haplotype had a 10-11% greater femoral neck BMC or aBMD than girls with other TNFR2 haplotypes. Girls with the Ss or ss genotype had a 4% greater femoral neck aBMD after a significant interaction between COLIA1 genotype and PA was accounted for. High levels of PA are associated with increased BMFL and bone mass. TNFR2 genotypes are associated both with lean mass and with bone mass in a complex fashion, suggesting that the TNFR2 genotypes and interactions between BMFL and TNFR2 genotypes affect and moderate a combined lean mass/bone mass effect. COLIA1 Ss and ss genotypes are associated with high bone mass particularly in girls with high PA.

PHYSIOLOGY AND EXERCISE EPIDEMIOLOGY


Anning, Jonathan H. Plasma volume shifts during exercise: role of exercise mode and training status on hydrostatic and oncotic forces, 2001. Ph.D., University of Toledo (Amy Morgan). (103pp 2f $12.00) PH 1770 Running and cycling were performed to assess the influence of mode and training status on plasma volume (PV). Intravascular hydrostatic and oncotic forces were examined in six trained and six untrained (treadmill VO2peak=59.5 vs. 44.2 mL/kg/min) males (20-31 yr) during submaximal running and cycling. All subjects had lower (p<0.05) peak VO2 (mL/kg/min) and peak HR responses during cycling compared with treadmill exercise. Forty-minute submaximal exercise sessions were performed at a relative intensity equivalent to ~53% treadmill VO2peak. These exercise sessions were preceded by a resting protocol, which consisted of supine rest (30 min) followed by a posture equivalent to the exercise mode in stature as well as arm position (20 min). Heart rate, blood pressure, and venous blood samples were obtained with the subject in

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the supine and resting posture prior to exercise. Additional hemodynamic recordings and blood samples were collected during minutes 5, l0, 20, and 40 in both modes of exercise. Submaximal exercise sessions were executed in a randomized fashion and separated by at least 72-hours for each subject. Subjects were normally hydrated at the onset of the submaximal exercise sessions, and the ambient temperature was ~22.3C (rh=51.3%). PV changes at rest decreased more in the standing (-11.91.1%) than the sitting (-8.30.5%) posture. During the exercise session, another significant decrease in PV was observed the first 10 minutes of exercise for both modes of exercise. The PV loss was significantly greater during cycling than during running at 20 and 40 minutes of exercise. Significant contributors to these PV shifts were identified with multiple regression analysis. Primary contributors included HR, serum osmolality, potassium, and total protein. The specified posture in this study indicated protein may be important in PV retention during running when preceded by training. Bolles, Jeffrey R. Aerobic power, OBLA [onset of blood lactate accumulation], and running economy as determinants of 5kilometer running performance in female distance runners, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Robert G. McMurray). (45pp 1f $6.00) PH 1778 The purpose of this study was to determine which of three parameters, VO2max, OBLA, and RE best predicts 5kilometer (5-K) running performance in females. Ten recreational to competitive female runners were tested for VO2max, OBLA and RE using a discontinuous VO2max test in the laboratory. The collected data were then compared to a 5-K time trial performed on an outdoor track. Significant correlations to 5-K running performance were found between running speed at OBLA (r=-.879), BMI (r=.819), and running speed at 2 mmol of lactate (r=-.705) and VO2max (r=-.652). Multiple regression defined OBLA as the strongest determinant of 5-K running performance, accounting for 77% of the total variance. It was concluded that while OBLA is most closely associated with 5-K running performance, the relative contributions of different physiological variables may affect changes in different race situations and at different race distances. Brucker, Lindsy. Effect of competitive distance on utilization of anaerobic capacity, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (C. Foster). (52pp 1f $6.00) PH 1761 In view of published models that assume that anaerobic capacity is expended much earlier in a high intensity event, this study evaluated patterns of aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditures during simulated cycling time trials. Five competitive cyclists performed 500m, 1000m, 1500m, and 3000m cycling time trials on different days on a racing bicycle. Power output was recorded using a dynamometer

connected to a windload simulator that was attached to the racing bicycle equipped with a heavy flywheel. VO2 was measured by open circuit spirometry. Outcome variables were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. There was no significant difference in VO2peak among the four distances. A significant difference in total joules and aerobic joules with all comparisons was found. No significant difference was found among any comparisons for anaerobic joules. The results deviate from the prediction model in previous studies, and suggest that anaerobic capacity is not used up before the end of an event. Our results are consistent with a pacing strategy for expending anaerobic capacity, showing that the rate of anaerobic energy expenditure decreased rapidly after the first seconds of exercise. Technical limitations, subjects athletic background, and training experience may have been limiting factors in the present study. Exploring the results of additional distances may bring about better understanding of the limits of anaerobic capacity in athletes. Burns, Steve. The effects of exercise on endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease, 2001. Ph.D., University of New Mexico (Len Kravitz). (100pp 2f $12.00) PH 1773 Although there is no direct link between endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery disease, there is evidence that the loss of normal endothelial function may contribute to the pathophysiology of coronary ischemia and the development of atherosclerosis. Despite the clear association between exercise and the reduction of coronary artery disease, the mechanism responsible for the reduction has not been elucidated. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise, typical of most cardiac rehabilitation programs, on endothelial-dependent vasodilatation in patients with coronary artery disease. An additional goal of this study was to determine if there is a level of intensity and/or duration of exercise necessary to cause an enhancement in endothelial function. Finally, this investigation attempted to explain the molecular cause of the increase in vasodilation as a chronic response to exercise. Participants completing this study were 14 males and 2 females (mean age 59 yrs, range 44-79 yrs) with no prior history of regular exercise. Each of the participants began this 12-week study after undergoing an angiogram that confirmed the presence of coronary artery disease. Following recruitment, participants came to the study testing site for determination of their baseline endothelial function. Endothelial function was determined by measuring the brachial artery vasoreactivity following 5 min of upper arm ischemia. This measurement was done noninvasively using ultrasound. Vasodilation following upper arm occlusion was expressed relative to the average of three measurements at rest. Subjects began a monitored exercise program following their baseline measurements in which they were encouraged to exercise 3 times per week. Subjects had exercise prescribed each day they trained that

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was equal to a RPE of 3 (moderate) on the modified Borg RPE scale. Modalities used were treadmills, bikes, and recumbent stepping machines. Exercise was continuously monitored by exercise technicians trained in cardiac rehabilitation. To elucidate the cause of vasodilation, it was of interest to determine nitrate levels as participants progressed through the study. Nitric oxide, a strong vasodilator, is synthesized in the body by the enzyme eNOS. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase acts on the substrates molecular oxygen and arginine to produce NO and citrulline. For the analysis of levels of nitric oxide, urine was collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks and stored at 70 C. To test the hypothesis that endothelial function improves with exercise a one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted. For this analysis, maximum percent change in brachial artery diameter, post blood pressure cuff release following 5 min upper arm occlusion, served as the dependent variable and exercise served as the independent variable. Time served as the within subjects factor. No significant difference in the change in the brachial artery diameter was observed. These results suggest that brachial artery reactivity to increased blood flow was not altered by exercise as typically prescribed in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Daly, Will. The association between stress hormones and testosterone, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (A. C. Hackney). (72pp 1f $6.00) PH 1767 Pharmacological and pathological studies have hypothesized that testosterone levels are negatively influenced by elevations in stress hormones (i.e., cortisol and prolactin). The purpose of this study was to determine if a negative association existed between exercise induced states of hypercortisolemia and hyperprolactinemia with testosterone. Twelve endurance-trained males ran until fatigue (83.8916.12 minutes) at nearly equal to 73% VO2max. Blood samples were collected at pre-exercise rest; fatigue; 30, 60, and 90-minutes into exercise recovery; and 24-hours post-rest. Significant increases from rest (p<0.001) in testosterone, cortisol, and prolactin were observed at fatigue through 90-minutes into recovery. Bivariate regression analyses between the stress hormones and testosterone on absolute hormone levels and percentage change from rest detected no significant negative associations (r0 50; p>0.05). It was concluded that the negative associations found in prior pharmacological and pathological studies do not exist in the physiological state following a run to fatigue. Donahue, Marc D. Physiological responses to submaximal workloads on four exercise ergometers, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (J. Porcari). (36pp 1f $6.00) PH 1762

To allow for accurate exercise prescription, relationships needed to be drawn between four common exercise ergometers often found in a cardiac rehabilitation setting. The StairMaster upright (UP) and recumbent (SR) cycles, NuStep recumbent stepper (NU), and Schwinn Airdyne (AD) were compared against one another with six male and six female volunteers (age 23 3.5 years). Ss completed three submaximal exercise bouts (50, 100, 150 Watts) on each of the four ergometers tested. Each stage was five minutes in duration and VO2, HR, SBP, DBP, Kcal, and RPE were recorded at the end of each stage. Testing sessions were randomized and performed one week apart. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. Results showed that the UR cycle elicited the highest VO2, HR, SBP, Kcal, and RPE, compared to the remaining three modes at any given power output. Both the SR cycle and the AD showed the next highest values, with most stages revealing equal responses to exercise. Finally, the NU produced the lowest physiological responses to exercise of all four modalities. For exercise prescription purposes, the ergometers that create less of a physiological response at a given workload must be modified in order to attain equal amount of cardiovascular benefits. Fredrick, Dario. Validation of a new maximum steady state protocol for cyclists, 2002. M.A., San Francisco State University (Frank Verducci). (37pp 1f $6.00) PH 1775 The purpose of this study was to validate and test reliability of a new maximum steady state (MSS) protocol for trained cyclists. Subjects (n=33) were trained cyclists divided into four groups: elite males (EM), elite females (EF), competitive males (CM), and competitive females (CF). Each subject performed three trials: the new protocol two different times, followed by a 20km time trial (TT). A minimum of four days separated each trial. Heart rate (HR) and workload (WL) data from Trial 1 were used to predict the criterion score: Trial 3 average HR and WL (MSS). Trial 1 HR and WL correlated highly to Trial 3 HR and WL (R=.956, .982 respectively). Both variables were highly repeatable between Trials 1 and 2 (R=.942, 988). Trial 1 Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was not predictive of HR or WL in Trial 3, except for WL in the EM group. RPE also showed low repeatability (R=.59) between Trials 1 and 2. We conclude that this new protocol is highly valid and reliable when using HR or WL data to predict these variables in a 20km TT performance. RPE showed little significance in its reliability or predictive value. Garner, Dena J. P. Cellular mechanisms of muscle weakness and fatigability in individuals with multiple sclerosis, 2002. Ph.D., Oregon State University (Jeffrey J. Widrick and Jeffrey A. McCubbin). (89pp 1f $6.00) PH 1760

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Muscle weakness and fatigue are debilitating symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Approximately 50% of muscle weakness and fatigue have been attributed to deficits within the peripheral nervous system, specifically mechanisms residing in the muscle. The goals of this study were to identify the cellular mechanisms of contraction within the muscle cell, which could contribute to the muscle weakness and fatigue in MS. Whole muscle assessment of knee extensor strength revealed that subjects with MS (N=6) were 48% weaker than subjects without MS (N=6). Pedometer results revealed that MS subjects were 68% less active on a daily basis than controls. Using an in vitro single fiber preparation obtained from the vastus lateralis, cross-bridge mechanisms of contraction were tested to understand their role in muscle weakness and fatigue. Peak Ca2+-activated force was 13-44% lower (p<0.05) in type I, I/IIa, IIa/IIx, IIx fibers from MS subjects. The force deficit was attributed to the 14-32% smaller (p<0.05) cross sectional area (CSA) of type I, I/IIa, IIa, IIx fibers and to a 6% lower specific force (p<0.05) in type I fibers from MS subjects. While there were no differences found between groups for fiber unloaded shortening velocity, peak absolute power in type I fibers was 11% lower (p<0.05) in MS subjects. Skinned fiber preparations were also used to test peak Ca2+=-activated force at varying concentrations (0-30 mM) of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and at different pH (6.2-7.0). Force declined with increases in Pi concentrations, with a greater reduction of force in type I fibers (66%) versus type IIa fibers (40%) at 30 mM (p<0.05). In contrast, reductions in force at pH 6.5 (17%) and 6.2 (24%) were similar for type I and IIa fibers. Assessment of the myosin heavy chains (MHC) revealed that MS subjects had 33% fewer type IIa fiber than controls, and there was a trend towards increased numbers of type IIa/IIx and IIx fibers in MS subjects. The results of this study revealed that a portion of the muscle weakness in individuals with MS is due to deficits at the level of the muscle cell and crossbridge. Hagobian, Todd A. The effects of a pre-exercise meal and supplement on trained athletes, 2002. M.A., San Francisco State University (Marialice Kern). (47pp 1f $6.00) PH 1776 The effects of different pre-exercise meal compositions and a supplement during exercise on metabolic and cardiovascular-related variables were studied. Nine competitive cyclists were studied on two occasions following a 10-hour overnight fast. Subjects were given randomly two preexercise meals: 1) a high carbohydrate (HC) meal consisting of 80% CHO, 6% F, 14% P, and 2) a high fat (HF) meal consisting of 26% CHO, 62% F, 12% P, in a counter balance design. Two hours after consumption of the meal, subjects exercised at 60% of VO2max for 30 minutes. The subjects were given a carbohydrate supplement consisting of 0.2g/ kg at minute 0 and minute 20 of exercise. The HC compared with the HF resulted in significantly greater RER

(P=0.003) and CHO oxidation (P=0.003) values. Fat oxidation was significantly higher following the HF, compared to the HC (P=0.003). Blood glucose was significantly higher in the high fat compared to high carbohydrate (P=0.03). Results suggest that the composition of a pre-exercise meal will alter RER, carbohydrate and fat oxidation, and blood glucose. Halliwill, John R. Cardiovascular regulation after acute dynamic exercise, 1995. Ph.D., Virginia Commonwealth University (Dwain L. Eckberg). (104pp 2f $12.00) PH 1772 While cardiovascular regulation during exercise has been studied extensively, cardiovascular regulation after dynamic exercise has received little attention in the past. Since aerobic exercise is a putative treatment for cardiovascular diseases, research directed at understanding cardiovascular regulation after acute exercise is necessary to understand the mechanisms through which chronic exercise may ameliorate these conditions. The research presented here investigated the effects of acute, dynamic exercise on several integral aspects of cardiovascular regulation. Specifically, baroreflex regulation of heart rate, sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow, and vascular resistance were studied. One hour of moderate-intensity dynamic exercise produced prolonged vasodilation that resolved by two hr post-exercise, augmented the responsiveness of carotid baroreflex regulation of heart rate during the first hr of recovery, but did not alter tonic cardiac vagal tone (estimated by spectral analysis of R-R interval variability). The increased responsiveness of baroreflex heart rate regulation is likely to oppose rather than contribute to the reduced arterial pressure observed post-exercise. The persistent vasodilation appeared to be mediated in two ways. First, baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow was altered such that sympathetic outflow was less at any arterial pressure. Second, transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance was altered such that vascular resistance was less at any level of sympathetic outflow. These findings indicate that postexercise arterial pressure reductions are mediated by a persistent vasodilation resulting from both neural and vascular phenomena. Thus, acute, dynamic exercise produces dramatic changes in cardiovascular regulation on several levels. Karlsdottir, Arna E. Left ventricular function during aerobic and resistance exercise, 2000. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (C. Foster). (71pp 1f $6.00) PH 1763 Resistance exercise (RE) has become an important component of cardiac rehabilitation programs. However, the potential for exaggerated blood pressure (BP) responses during RE raises concerns about the stability of left ventricular (LV) function during RE. To address this, we studied healthy controls (HC) (N=12, 8M/4F), patients

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with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) (N =12, 11M/lF), and patients with stable heart failure (CHF) (N =12, 7M/ 5F). Ss were studied during upright cycling at 90% of ventilatory threshold and during 1 set of 10 repetitions of RE (leg press, shoulder press, and biceps curls) in the upright posture. Left ventricular function was measured by echocardiography, BP was measured by auscultation, and HR by radiotelemetry at rest and peak exercise. Despite significant hemodynamic changes from rest to peak, the LV function remained stable with no significant changes from rest to peak in LV ejection fraction, end systolic and end diastolic dimensions, or systolic and diastolic wall thickness. There was no interaction between exercise type and group; all groups showed fundamentally similar behavior patterns during all exercises. This suggests that RE is as safe as aerobic steady-state exercise in these patient groups and may be included in their cardiac rehabilitation programs. Lanigan, Eamonn. A comparison of metabolic parameters during a graded cycling rest performed on a Computrainer or Monark cycle ergometer, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Ed Shields). (52pp 1f $6.00) PH 1768 This study compared the physiological and perceptual responses to a graded submaximal cycling test on the Computrainer and Monark ergometers. Thirteen male cyclists (24.54.7yrs, 77.96.0 kg) completed a submaximal cycling test on both a Monark and Computrainer ergometer. Cadence was held at 90 rpm for six three-minute successive stages at 90, 135, 180, 225, 270, and 315W. Heart rate and VO2 were significantly higher for the Computrainer trial at workloads of 225, 270, and 315W by an average of 3 .0 and 5.8% respectively. Respiratory exchange ration was significantly higher for the Computrainer only at 315W, and rating of perceived exertion was not significantly different between ergometers at any workload. The results may be influenced by calibration fluctuations or true power inaccuracies in one or both ergometers. Further research into the accuracy and reliability of the Computrainer cycling ergometer is recommended to help validate it as an alternative laboratory ergometer. Miller, Meredith R. The effects of a pre-exercise meal and supplement on trained athletes, 2002. M.A., San Francisco State University (Marialice Kern). (61pp 1f $6.00) PH 1777 The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a high fat pre-exercise meal versus a high carbohydrate preexercise with the addition of CHO supplementation on endurance performance. A high fat or a high carbohydrate meal was given three hours prior to exercise and a carbohydrate supplement was given every 20 minutes during a 40km time trial. There was no difference between trials in time to complete the 40km time trial, average speed, power

output, RPE, or heart rate. VO2 and RER were also similar between trials except for HF vs. HC RER at 40km. Thus, we conclude that a high fat pre-exercise meal provides no further advantage in performance over a high carbohydrate. Murphy, Owen F. Validity of a stationary cycling protocol for tracking changes in uphill cycling time-trial performance, 2001. M.S., Montana State University (Deborah King). (97pp 1f $6.00) PH 1771 The ability to accurately quantify and predict endurance performance is imperative when assessing the effects of training interventions, dietary regimes, equipment modifications, and/or alterations in athlete position or technique. Due to the invasive nature and excessive costs of traditional physiological and biomechanical determinants of endurance performance, performance-based determinants of performance are receiving considerable attention. The purpose of the present study was to determine the reliability and validity of a scaling-derived cycle ergometer protocol (SDP) for tracking changes in uphill time-trial (TT) cycling performance. Phase I of the study assessed the reliability of the Scaling Derived Protocol (SDP) via the administration of three SDP protocols within a ten-day time period. Phase II of the study determined the ability of the SDP to track longitudinal changes in uphill time-trial performance. Local competitive cyclists participated in either two or three testing periods separated by a minimum of ten weeks (May, July, September 2001). Each testing period consisted of an outdoor uphill TT (5-km, 8% grade) followed within ten days by a laboratory-based SDP. Longitudinal inter-trial changes in average TT speed (m/s) were compared with longitudinal inter-trial changes in SDP time-to exhaustion (TTE, min) and relative SDP maximal power output (W MAX, wattskg-1). There were no significant Phase I inter-trial differences for time-toexhaustion, maximum power output, maximum heart rate, and relative VO2MAX. Intraclass correlation coefficients were high for all variables, ranging from R=0.933 to 0.992. Single-score reliability was also high, with correlation coefficients ranging from R(k=1)=0.823 to 0.977. High correlations were also observed between Phase II inter-trial changes in average TT speed and relative W MAX (r=0.70 to 0.94). Correlations between inter-trial changes in average TT speed and TTE were generally lower and more variable (r=0.26 to 0.87). These results suggest that changes in relative SDP W MAX can reliably, validly, and practically track changes in uphill TT performance. Rust, Jay. The effect of D-pinitol on 50 kilometer time trial performance, 2002. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (C. Foster). (45pp 1f $6.00) PH 1764

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Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of glucose supplementation during prolonged exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether d-pinitol, a purported augmenter of glucose transport, would have any practical effect on glucose uptake, and cycle time trial performance. Four recreationally trained male cyclists (age=35-49, ht=174-182cm, wt=73.5-78kg) performed five 50 km time trials under four different conditions (practice, placebo, 150mg, 600mg, and 1050mg of d-pinitol taken 120min before the ride). Heart rate, RPE, blood glucose, blood lactate, speed, and power output were measured and compared with REANOVA . There was no significant difference in any of the conditions in heart rate, RPE, blood glucose, blood lactate, speed and power output (p>.05). The responses during the rides were highly reproducible, with the data for one ride basically overlying the data for the other rides. Based on these results, d-pinitol apparently has no effect on 50km time trial performance. Schuenke, Mark Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption response to a bout of resistance exercise, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (R. Mikat). (47pp 1f $6.00) PH 1765 To examine the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) response following a bout of heavy resistance exercise (HRE), seven healthy males (age=223 year; height=1778 cm; mass=8310kg, percent body fat =10.4 4.2%) who weight trained recreationally, engaged in a 31minute bout of HRE. The bout consisted of four circuits of bench press, power cleans, and squats, selected to recruit most major muscle groups. Each set was performed using the subjects predetermined ten-repetition maximum and continued until failure. Each set was followed by a twominute rest interval. Oxygen consumption (VO2) measurements were obtained at regular intervals throughout the day, before and after HRE (34h pre, 29h pre, 24h pre, 10h pre, 5h pre, immediate post, 14h post, 19h post, 24h post, 38h post, 43h post, 48h post). Post-exercise VO2 measurements were compared to the baseline measurements that corresponded with the same time of day. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that EPOC was significantly elevated (p0.05) immediately, 14, 19, and 38 hours postexercise. Mean daily VO2 values for both post-exercise days were also significantly elevated above the baseline day. These results suggest that EPOC duration and magnitude following HRE may exceed the EPOC produced by following moderate aerobic exercise. Furthermore, the cumulative energy expenditure as a result of EPOC following HRE may exceed the combined total energy expended during and after aerobic exercise. Tzovanis, Maria. Power spectral components of heart rate variability at rest and exercise after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot, 1998. M.A., McGill University (Hlne Perrault). (117pp 2f $12.00) PH 1774

An abnormal chronotropic response to exercise, generally attributed to a putative sympathetic dysfunction, is a common finding following surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). There exists little information on sympathetic function in patients operated for a congenital heart defect to support such a claim. This study used spectral analysis of heart rate (HRV) and blood pressure (BPV) variability to examine sympathovagal influences on the sinus node in 9 adolescents operated for TOF 13.01.12 years previously and in 8 healthy age and sex-matched control (CTRL) subjects. Continuous ECG and BP recordings were obtained under supine or seated resting positions, with or without controlled respiration at 0.20 Hz (CR); after passive 85head up tilt (HUT); during cycling at steadystate heart rates of 100 and 120 bpm (Ex 100, Ex 120); and after 10 and 20 minutes of passive seated recovery. When compared to age matched control subjects, results showed total R-R variance to be lower in 7 of 8 patients for all nonexercising conditions and the mean values to be lower during CR (p<0.05) (TOF: 2662.9765.41 vs. CTRL: 6803.11453.03, ms2). HUT resulted in a significant increase in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) LF component in TOF, which was also associated with a rise in DBP in patients but not in CTRL. Total R-R variance (ms2) during exercise was significantly reduced from baseline yet was similar in both groups(Ex 120: TOF: 572.8105.34 vs. CTRL: 503 9100.95). Spectral component analysis showed similar HF and LF components in both groups at Ex 100, while a further relative decrease in HF, and inversely an increase in the LF component, was observed at Ex 120 in TOF, but not in CTRL (p<0.05) (Ex 120: LF/HF: TOF: +120.744.86 vs. CTRL: -21.810.86, %). This could not be explained by differences in respiratory frequencies, which were not different between groups under any condition. The observed chronotropic limitation during HUT, in addition to the higher LF R-R component observed during Ex 120, may be taken to reflect disturbances in sympathovagal balance in TOF exhibiting excellent post-surgical clinical status. Voelker, Stacie A. Relationship between the talk test and ventilatory threshold in cardiac patients, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (C. Foster). (48pp 1f $6.00) PH 1766 The Talk Test (TT) is a subjective method of prescribing exercise intensity. Previous studies have demonstrated that TT relates to the ventilatory threshold (VT) and can be used to prescribe intensity levels in healthy individuals. This study extends evaluation of TT to patients with stable cardiovascular disease. Each subject (N=10) completed two maximal exercise tests. One test used gas analysis to determine VT. The second test was identical; but, in this, one TT was administered. Outcomes at VT versus TT were compared. There was a significant difference in VO2 and HR between VT and the negative stage of TT (p<0.05). There was a good correlation for VO2 at VT and all stages

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of TT. We conclude that, when subjects were at the last positive or equivocal stage of TT, they were either at or below their VT. When subjects were at the negative stage of TT, they were above their VT and above an appropriate exercise intensity. Thus, TT appears to be a valid subjective measure of exercise intensity to guide exercise prescription in patients with clinically stable cardiovascular disease. Wingo, Jonathan E. The thermoregulatory efficacy of AKWATEK performance apparel in a thermoneutral environment, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Robert G. McMurray). (39pp 1f $6.00) PH 1769 The purpose of this study was to determine if an AKWATEK garment allows more effective heat dissipation than a cotton garment during exercise in a thermoneutral environment. Subjects (n=9) ran on a treadmill for 45 minutes at 65% VO2peak while wearing cotton sweatpants and either a long-sleeve AKWATEK shirt (AS), cotton shirt (CS), or no shirt (NS). There were no differences in RPE or VO2 between conditions (p<0.05). Total water loss was lowest in NS (1.10.3L), while AS (1.40.3L) and CS (1.50.3L) were not different. There was no difference in change in rectal temperature (DTre) or change in heart rate (DHR) between conditions. Skin temperature was lower in NS than CS. Thermal sensation was lower in AS and NS than in CS. Final Tre in AS (38.770.33C) was lower than in CS (39.10.4C), but not different from NS (38.850.16 C). These findings suggest a limited thermoregulatory benefit from wearing AKWATEK versus cotton.

HEALTH AND HEALTH EDUCATION


Armstead, C. C. B. Exercise adherence among AfricanAmerican women, 2001. M.P.A., Roosevelt University (Kristin J. Flynn). (162pp 2f $12.00) HE 760 Today, most Americans know that they should exercise. Research has shown that less than a quarter of adult Americans engage in enough physical activity to enhance their health. Many people do not seem to have a problem getting started with exercise. It is sticking with exercise that presents the seemingly insurmountable challenge. Women and minorities tend to have even lower physical activity levels than the general population, and they face a disproportionate risk for many lifestyle ailments that can be positively changed by regular, moderate exercise. The African-American Womens Fitness Research Project explored the general question: What factors will increase the likelihood that African-American women will maintain an adequate physical activity regime once they have started one? The project used a qualitative, groundedtheory research design to conduct six focus groups, with a

total of 48 African-American women. They discussed the general topic of staying with an exercise program long enough to experience and maintain positive results described in the research literature as exercise adherence. A major part of analyzing the results was comparing them to the extensive body of literature that exists on exercise adherence in general. Interestingly, research suggests that many of the factors that will help a person start an exercise regime may not be the same factors that will help that person stay with the program. Some of the key factors that have high associations with improved exercise adherence include: support and encouragement from friends and family, especially from a spouse; strong belief in yourself that you can succeed with your exercise program; having a positive feeling about exercise combined with the belief that you have control over your health; achieving or expecting to achieve your exercise goals; being highly selfmotivated, which will equip you to overcome barriers to exercise; and tailoring an exercise program to fit your current fitness level and lifestyle. The African-American Womens Fitness Research Project found that many of the general exercise adherence factors also applied to AfricanAmerican women, although sometimes to a varying degree. Additionally, certain adherence factors are exclusive to African-American women. Some of the key conclusions that emerged from the results of this project include the establishing of exercise goals, even general ones, that will help to motivate consistent exercise. Having a strong sense of self-motivation and practicing behavior that confirms the perception of self-motivation will encourage exercise adherence. It is important for AfricanAmerican women to examine their attitudes towards exercise, particularly how those attitudes and beliefs may have been affected by childhood or family influences. Obtaining current, accurate information about exercise and its benefits can offset any potentially negative attitudes and beliefs. Interpersonal relationships can play a major role in maintaining consistent exercise. Women who adhere to an exercise regime often have a friend, family member, or fitness partner that encourages exercise behavior. AfricanAmerican women must learn how to take care of themselvessuch as regular, moderate exercisein addition to taking care of everyone else. The results of this project provide promising insight for African-American women seeking to improve their health through physical activity. Barrett, Sarah A. The validity of the ViaMed blood glucose monitoring system, 2001. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Robert McMurray). (44pp 1f $6.00) HE 759 The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the ViaMed blood glucose sampling system by comparing its measures to the same blood analyzed by a CLIA/CDC approved laboratory measure at rest, during exercise, and during recovery. Four physically active Type 2 diabetics completed two exercise trials, consisting of a 30-minute

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exercise session, and one resting trial. Blood glucose levels were measured using the ViaMed glucose monitor and a CLIA/CDC approved laboratory method. There were no significant differences between a CLIA/CDC approved laboratory measure of blood glucose and the ViaMed Blood Chemistry Monitor at rest, during exercise, and during recovery (p=0.803). The ViaMed blood glucose measures had an overall mean of 130.256.6 mg/dL and the laboratory blood glucose measures produced an overall mean of 130.356.2 mg/dL. However, there was a high coefficient of variation for the ViaMed system, 7.4 mg/dL. Although the ViaMed strongly correlates (r = 0.98) with the laboratory values, because of the high amount of variability as well as many other systematic problems encountered using the ViaMed, use of this system is not recommended. Bryan, Allison E. Participant perceptions of a worksite health assessment program, 2002. M.S., Purdue University (Roger Seehafer). (73pp 1f $6.00) HE 752 Thousands of people die prematurely every year from diseases that are preventable. Studies show that the top ten causes of death could be dramatically reduced if individuals adopted healthier lifestyle behaviors. Due to increased health care costs, companies have been forced to bear the increasing health care expenditures that many of these unhealthy people generate. In an effort to control these costs, many companies have adopted some form of health assessment process to identify those employees at risk for certain diseases. The purpose of this study was to measure select outcomes of the health assessment process provided by the WorkLife program. The participant profile showed that the program participants were predominantly female, with 40-49 being the most frequently reported age range. Of the participants, the administration/professional staff participated the most often while the faculty had the lowest rate of participation. The overall self-perceived health status of the participants was healthy. The three most common reasons for participating in the health assessment process were that it was convenient, it was an easy way to attain health information, and that the participants were interested in their current health status. Interestingly, the participants listed the Bonus Buck incentive program as the 9th (out of 11) most motivating factor. Eighty-two percent of the participants reported visiting a physician on an annual basis. However, only twenty eight percent of them shared their results with the physician. Sixty percent of the participants reported that they were motivated to change their health behaviors because of the health assessment process. Eighty-five percent of the participants were interested in follow-up programs. The main areas of interest for follow-up programs included weight management, exercise, stress management, and nutrition classes. Eighty-eight percent of the participants were satisfied with the overall health assessment program.

Chong, Yin K. D. Anaerobic recovery and physical activity in normal and obese children, 2001. M.Sc., University of Hong Kong (Alison McManus). (118pp 2f $12.00) HE 749 Childhood obesity is often believed to be associated with low physical activity level. However, the determinants of physical activity are not fully understood. Since children differentially move in an anaerobic way, the recovery ability from anaerobic activity may determine how active a child is. The purposes of this study were to compare anaerobic recovery and physical activity level in normal weight and obese children, as well as to explore the relationship between different measures of obesity, anaerobic recovery, and physical activity level in children. Twenty volunteer subjects (10 normal weight and 10 obese) between the ages of 8-12 years participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements including body height, body weight, and several circumferences were taken and were used to calculate index and ratios for general (body mass index) and central body fat (waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio, waist-thigh-ratio) indicators. Anaerobic recovery was assessed as the percent recovery when performing two Wingate anaerobic tests on a Monark cycle ergometer (814E) against pre-determined resistance, with a 2-minute recovery period in-between. Physical activity level was monitored by the Tritrac accelerometer between three to five days, and was expressed as average vector magnitude. Results indicated that normal weight and obese children were equally active; however, obese children possessed significantly lower anaerobic recovery (p=0.013) than their normal weight counterparts. In addition, anaerobic recovery was significantly related to all measures of obesity, except for waist-thigh-ratio. Result of multiple stepwise regression revealed that waist circumference was the only variable that significantly predicted anaerobic recovery (30.6%). In contrast, no significant relationship existed between physical activity level, any obesity measures, or anaerobic recovery. In conclusion, the preliminary finding implied that obese children were less ready to start moving around after finishing one bout of activity, compared to the normal weight children, although there was no difference in their actual activity levels. Crenshaw, Ben D. Telemetry ECG monitoring during cardiac rehabilitation to detect myocardial ischemia, 2000. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (J. Porcari). (48pp 1f $6.00) HE 743 Historically, telemetric ECG monitoring (TELE) has been thought to be incapable of detecting ST-segment changes during exercise. One hundred and nine patients underwent a diagnostic exercise test. A 12-lead ECG (12L) and TELE (modified Lead II) were recorded simultaneously throughout the exercise test. A total of 1041 temporally correlated tracings were blinded, then interpreted by a cardiologist. ST depression was defined as 1 mm horizontal or

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downsloping at .08 mm from the J point in 2 or more adjacent leads. One hundred and twenty-nine tracings (in 36 patients) were positive for ST depression on 12L. Corresponding changes (same time and lead group) were seen on TELE 61% (79/129) of the time. In normal 12L tracings, there were 29 ST abnormalities observed in TELE (e.g. false positive). When changes were observed on TELE, corresponding changes were observed on 12L 73% (79/ 108) of the time. TELE matched 12L in magnitude of ST depression within 0.5 mm 54% of the time. In conclusion, TELE missed ST changes seen on 12L 39% of the time, and does not appear to be a sensitive marker of ischemia. However, when changes are seen on TELE, they indicate that ischemia may be present in a high percentage (73%) and should be taken seriously. Egbert, Carolyn K. Assessment of job satisfaction, perceived professional effectiveness, and advantages/disadvantages within integrative health programs among directors and practitioners, 2002. M.S., Purdue University (Roger W. Seehafer). (103pp 2f $12.00) HE 753 The purpose of this study was to evaluate integrative health programs by examining perceptions of professionals who were utilizing an integrative health approach. A 10question survey was mailed to and returned by 43 professionals within seven integrative health programs throughout the United States. The survey included quantitative and qualitative assessments. First, descriptive variables included duration of participation in an integrated setting, primary professional role, integrative health discipline, and degrees/ licenses/ certifications. Other quantitative assessments included job satisfaction and perceived professional effectiveness within the integrated setting. Secondly, qualitative assessments examined professional effectiveness, advantages/ disadvantages, and suggestions for improvement of integrative health programs. Quantitative results revealed that the majority of respondents reported high perceived levels of satisfaction and effectiveness. Respondents were classified into five integrative health disciplines: directors (n=8), multidisciplinary practitioners (n=9), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners (n=21), allopathic practitioners (n=4), and health promotion practitioners (n=0). Two statistically significant results emerged. For the entire sample, job satisfaction and perceived professional effectiveness levels were positively associated. Also, perceived levels of professional effectiveness were slightly higher for CAM practitioners than for allopathic practitioners. Qualitative results revealed that reasons for professional effectiveness (i.e., professional skills, holistic approach, and improved client health status) outnumbered reasons for professional ineffectiveness (i.e., lack of insurance, lack of time, and resistance to the integrative approach). Likewise, advantages within the integrative health setting (i.e., interaction with other professionals,

increased options and health outcomes for clients, and caring for the whole person) outnumbered the disadvantages (i.e., limited insurance, allopathic professionals resistance to CAM, and clients lack of understanding of the integrative approach). Finally, suggestions for improvement included promotion/awareness (i.e., increased insurance, client education, and acceptance of CAM) and program quality enhancement (i.e., integrative health education during health/medical training, research, and improved communication between disciplines). Since representation and themes within health promotion/ disease prevention were limited, respondents implied that they were still in the process of establishing the integrative health approach in a field that has traditionally focused on treatment rather than prevention. Recommendations included the continued development of integrative health programs as long as future research continues to evaluate quality and effectiveness of these programs. Grall, Sarah K. The efficacy of continuous ECG monitoring among low, intermediate, and high risk phase II cardiac rehabilitation patients, 1992. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (John Porcari). (43pp 1f $6.00) HE 761 Continuous electrocardiographic (CECG) monitoring is commonly used in Phase II cardiac rehabilitation programs to detect complications resulting from exercise. It has been suggested that high risk cardiac patients are more likely to experience a serious event during exercise sessions, and therefore should be monitored more closely. Stratifying risk implies that one can predict which patients are at an increased risk of experiencing complications during cardiac rehabilitation. To determine the usefulness of CECG and the application of risk stratification, a retrospective 5-year study of 241 Phase II patients was conducted. Risk stratification, based on AACVPR criteria, resulted in 123 (51%) patients classified as low risk, 80 (33%) as intermediate risk, and 38 (16%) as high risk. The Phase II exercise records were examined to identify individuals who had a significant event during Phase II. All documented events which necessitated physician intervention or cessation of the exercise sessions were recorded. A total of 3,877 exercise sessions were reviewed. Ninety-nine significant events occurred in a total of 69 patients. Of the 99 total events, 57 (57%) were detected through the use of CECG. With regard to risk level, it was found that 29 (24%) low, 27 (34%) intermediate, and 13 (34%) high risk patients had at least one significant event. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant (p>.05) difference in the proportion of patients within each stratified subgroup who experienced events. Sixty-six events occurred within the first 3 weeks of program initiation, with 75% being detected through CECG. These results indicate that CECG may be efficacious for detecting abnormalities during Phase II cardiac rehabilitation, especially during the first 3 weeks of the program. Also, it appears that, based on current risk

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stratification guidelines, it may be difficult to predict which patients will have complications during Phase II cardiac rehabilitation. The findings of this study may be helpful in formulating standardized monitoring guidelines for Phase II cardiac exercisers, and may also aid in revising current risk stratification procedures. Gunter, Katherine B. A prospective study of functional performance balance self-efficacy, and bone mineral density in community-dwelling elderly women, 2002. Ph.D., Oregon State University (Christine M. Snow). (162pp 2f $12.00) HE 741 In the United States, falls are the leading cause of unintentional death, with one of every three people 65 years and older falling each year. Falls account for approximately 95% of hip fractures among older adults, and falls to the side predominate hip fracture related falls in this population. However, risk factors for side and frequent falls are poorly understood. Furthermore, few data exist to explain differences in bone mineral density among older postmenopausal women. In particular, data regarding the timing of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) among older women is scarce. In the first aim of this dissertation, we examined changes in mobility and balance-related risk factors for side falls as well as differences in these risk factors according to fall status in a population of 107 independent, elderly women (>70 yrs), who were followed over 2 years. We found hip abduction strength decreased (p<.001) in all subjects, with side-fallers exhibiting weaker hip abduction strength (p=.008), greater sway velocity (p=.027), and slower performances on the tandem walk (p=.039) and Get Up and Go (p<.001) compared to nonfallers. For the second study, in the same population, we examined 2-year changes in balance self-efficacy (BSE) and the relationship of BSE to side fall risk factors and falls incidence. Results showed BSE at baseline was predictive of Get Up and Go, hip abduction strength and tandem walk at follow-up (p<.008), but that BSE decreased only among the non-fallers (p=.013). In the third study, we examined 3-year hip bone mineral density (BMD) changes in women with distinct hormone replacement therapy (HRT) profiles: 1) no hormone replacement therapy (NoHRT), 2) HRT continually since menopause (Continual), 3) HRT begun 10 years after menopause (Late), 4) HRT initiated within 5 years (New), and compared the change in BMD of the hip across HRT groups. Only the NoHRT group lost bone over the 3 years (p=.014). We also assessed BMD of the lateral spine across levels of estrogen use in a sub-sample of participants and found long-term HRT users had significantly higher lateral spine BMD (p=.041) compared to women who had never been on HRT. Hannibal, Norman S. Reliability and validity of low back strength/endurance field tests in adolescents, 2002. M.S.Ed., Northern Illinois University (Sharon A. Plowman). (138pp 2f $12.00) HE 755

The purposes of this study were: (a) to determine the reliability of selected laboratory and field tests of dynamic and static low back function, (b) to evaluate the validity of the field tests (FITNESSGRAMTrunk Extension [FG-TE] and Box 90Dynamic Trunk Extension [B-90DTE]) when compared to laboratory tests (Parallel Roman Chair Dynamic Trunk Extension [PRC-DTE], Parallel Roman Chair Static Trunk Extension [PRC-STE], and Dynamometer Static Back Lift [DSBL), and (c) to examine the training sensitivity of each of these five tests to a dynamic resistance training program. Seventy-two participants (M=40, age=15.11.2 yr, height=172.67.6 cm, weight=66.99.8 kg; F=32, age=15.51.2 yr, height=164.16.5 cm, weight=58.58.2 kg) participated in a practice trial and two other trials (T1 and T2). Each trial consisted of all five tests. Two participants completed 18 sessions of strength training and performed a final testing trial (T3). Intraclass test-retest coefficients (1-way ANOVA model for a single measure) were very good for all tests both for the males and for the females respectively (PRC-DTE=.995, .992; B90DTE=.996, .99; PRC-STE=.994, .99; FG-TE=.998, .998; and DSBL=.98, .94). Validity coefficients determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient for the males and females respectively were as follows: B-90DTE vs. PRC-DTE=.82, .62 (p<.05); B-90DTE vs. PRC-STE=.55, .38 (p<.05); B-90DTE vs. DSBL=-.29, -.23; FG-TE vs. PRCDTE=.23, -.11; FG-TE vs. PRC-STE=-.15, .33; and FG-TE vs. DSBL=-.04, -.36. Percent increases in performance for each of the five tests after completing the resistance training protocol ranged from 2%-57% (N=2). All five tests were shown to be reliable for a single measure and average measure across days for both the male and female groups. B 90DTE was shown to be a valid field test when compared to PRC-DTE but only for the males. In addition, during testing with the B-90DTE, issues arose concerning the overall comfort of the participant, prompting the recommendation that the PRC be used for testing and the establishment of norms for the high school population. Finally, although the number of participants was very small, it appears that four of the five exercise tests do respond favorably to a comprehensive strength training and flexibility program. Miller, Jordan. The cardiopulmonary effects of an inelastic chest wall restriction, 2000. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (T. Triplett-McBride). (141pp 2f $12.00) HE 744 We examined the effects of an inelastic chest wall restriction (CWR) on cardiopulmonary function during rest and exercise in an attempt to mimic a condition similar to that seen in chronic heart failure. Forced vital capacities were measured at the beginning of the study, after which point four canvas straps were applied tightly around the thorax and abdomen so that vital capacity was reduced by >35%. Data were acquired during resting, 25%, and 45% of the peak workload achieved during the subjects screening

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visit. Vital capacity, total lung capacity, and residual volume were all significantly reduced during CWR conditions. Subjects exhibited significant increases in ventilation brought about by increases in breathing frequency, despite decreases in tidal volume. This breathing pattern elicited significant increases in the flow resistive work of breathing and the gastric pressure-time integral (>400%), and resulted in a decrease in the elastic work of breathing. Significant decreases in cardiac output (>10%) during CWR conditions were brought about by decreases in stroke volume. Heart rate, blood pressure, and calculated a-vO2 difference were all significantly elevated during CWR exercise conditions. We conclude that CWR conditions significantly affect pulmonary and cardiovascular function, although the mechanisms causing the decrease in cardiac output during CWR exercise conditions remain unclear. Additionally, our data suggest that CWR conditions elicit breathing patterns and cardiac responses similar to those seen in chronic heart failure, implying that CWR may be used as a crude model to study CHF. Murtaza, Saima. Applicability and feasibility of conjoint analysis to determine preferences for exercise, diet, or medications, 2000. M.Sc., University of Guelph (Paula M. Brauer). (164pp 2f $12.00) HE 742 This thesis is an investigation of the applicability of conjoint analysis to determine preferences of Canadian South Asians for the interventions of exercise, diet, and medications to prevent possible cardiovascular disease. A survey conducted on a convenience sample of 167 South Asians showed that the majority of respondents (97%) were willing to make changes to reduce their risk of heart disease. The percentages who preferred diet (40%) and exercise (48%) were similar. A lower percentage preferred medications (7%). Possible attributes of interventions when choosing among diet, exercise or drug interventions were identified through a series of three focus groups with individuals from the South Asian community. The following attributes were features of all three interventions: cost, time required, planning required, ease of practice, and side effects. The variability in preferences found in the survey and the presence of the above attributes justifies further investigation of conjoint analysis to determine preferences. Pennington, Carolyn R. Childrens beliefs as a determinant of physical activity, 2002. M.S., Brigham Young University (Patti A. Freeman). (75pp 1f $6.00) HE 757 The purposes of this study were to (a) determine childrens and parents physical activity patterns, (b) determine whether childrens own beliefs about physical activity are related to their perceptions of their parents beliefs about physical activity, and (c) examine the relationship between childrens beliefs about physical activity and their own physical activity patterns. Forty-five 8- to 10-year-old

children and their parents (n=135) wore Biotrainer accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Additionally, children completed a modified version of the Childrens Attraction to Physical Activity (CAPA) questionnaire and parents completed a short demographic questionnaire. Multiple regression revealed childrens and parents activity patterns were not significantly correlated. A multivariate regression analysis determined childrens own beliefs about physical activity are not significantly related to their perceptions of their parents beliefs about physical activity. However, one subscale, parental encouragement, was significantly related to childrens beliefs about physical activity. Finally, a multiple regression with children as the dependent variable was run to test the relationship between childrens beliefs and their physical activity patterns and was found to be nonsignificant. These findings indicate there are many determinants to physical activity and parental encouragement may be a key. Randall, Patricia L. Identification, description, and perceptions of personal and professional attributes for student teachers in school health education, and rankings of knowledge, skill, and disposition elements within each attribute: a pilot study, 2002. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (L. Oganowski). (86pp 1f $6.00) HE 745 Selecting personal and professional attributes for student teachers in school health education can be difficult for health educators, due to the number of attributes important for successful teaching. The problem of this study was to gather judgements from health educators currently teaching in relation to what personal and professional attributes student teachers need to possess when entering their student teaching experience. After the panel of health educators determined the attributes, they had an opportunity to determine which knowledge, skill, and disposition elements were most important to have. The invited sample consisted of 63 health educators who were then teaching health education. The sample was gathered from four different counties in Wisconsin. The overall response rate was 9.5% (N=6). A modified two round Delphi Technique was used for data collection, along with a nominal rating process. Questionnaire development was based on a list of personal and professional attributes identified through a review of the literature, and suggestions made by the panel of health educators during the first round of the Delphi. Panel members clarified and revised the attribute descriptions during the first round of the study. Each personal and professional attribute consisted of knowledge, skill, and disposition elements that were then ranked using a nominal rating process. Ten personal and professional attributes were identified, clarified, and rated.

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Rauzon, Terrie A. Barriers to participation in physical activity/ exercise for women with physical disabilities, 2002. Ph.D., University of Utah (Hester L. Henderson). (113pp 2f $12.00) HE 758 This study was conducted to determine the barriers that are significant in limiting involvement in physical activity/ exercise programs by women with disabilities. A number of reports have suggested barriers, real and perceived, deter individuals from participating in regular physical activity. In the general population the perceived barriers for participating in physical activity can be classified according to the following categories: effort, time, and health limitations. The most frequently cited perceived barriers in able-bodied women are lack of time, due to work and family obligations, lack of financial resources, and lack of energy and motivation. Little progress has yet been made in determining how perceived barriers to exercise influence physical activity patterns, especially for special populations. The three questions this study was designed to answer were: (1) What are the physical activity barriers that play a significant role in limiting women with physical disabilities from participating in physical activity/ exercise? (2) Are the demographics that limit women with physical disabilities from participating in physical activity/ exercise similar to those of able-bodied women? (3) Is there a significant relationship between time when the disability occurred and exercise behavior? The results of this study showed that the significant barriers to participation in physical activity/exercise for this population of women with disabilities were social support from both family and friends; confidence in their ability to exercise; environment barriers, such as accessible facilities, transportation, trained personnel, and adapted equipment; and financial resources, time, energy, and health limitations. Physical activity interventions are proposed to include ideas to enhance social support, ways to enhance confidence in ones ability to exercise, and suggestions to reduce environmental barriers. Reynolds, Terrianne L. Validation of knowledge of CDC skin cancer prevention protocol in a mid-western town, 2002. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (J. Odulana). (97pp 1f $6.00) HE 746 This study was designed to assess the extent to which the contents of the CDC Choose Your Cover campaign on skin cancer has infiltrated a community of mothers of young children and family health care providers in a MidWestern town. A single-phase distribution of a 42-item checklist was mailed to family health care providers (n=30), and distributed by hand to eligible mothers of young children (n=74) by health care personnel. Results indicated that out of the six mechanisms of the CDC Choose Your Cover campaign, knowledge information on Use of Sunscreen had infiltrated the most among

mothers of young children and family health care providers. Knowledge information on Use of a Hat and Ultraviolet Ray Protection resulted in low infiltration among mothers of young children. Family health care providers knowledge information on Use of a Hat also had not infiltrated to a large extent. Knowledge about Use of Shades had not infiltrated among mothers of young children or family health care providers. Results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in the knowledge between mothers of young children and family health care providers on the various aspects of the CDC Choose Your Cover protocol as a protective mechanism against skin cancer. Family health care providers had a higher score than mothers of young children on the overall knowledge of the six sun protective mechanisms against skin cancer as present in the CDC Choose Your Cover protocol. Robinson, Barbara L. Effects of visual impairment, gender, and age on self-determination opportunities at home, with friends, with health care, at school, and in physical education, 2002. M.S., State University of New York, Brockport (Lauren Lieberman). (80pp 1f $6.00) HE 762 Research on Self-Determination Theory has been conducted on many aspects of an individuals life across the lifespan. Studies have researched the effects of selfdetermined behaviors on general education, athletic sport participation, and individuals control of their own needs. However, few studies have been conducted on selfdetermination opportunities that are provided in physical education. Studies indicate an importance of self-determination in all aspects of ones life with regard to perceived competence, motivation, goal setting, choice making and achievement of positive outcomes. Few studies have been conducted regarding the effects of self determination on the lives of individuals with visual impairment or deafblindness. The current study examined self-determination opportunities across the following domains: at home, with friends, with health care, at school, and during physical education of students with visual impairments and deafblindness. Fifty-four students, 31 boys and 23 girls (ages 8 to 23 years), who participated in a one-week summer sport camp were surveyed. The variables studied were: level of visual impairments, gender, and age. A 2x2x3 MANOVA and post hoc analysis indicated that a significant difference for level of visual impairment was present; however, no significant differences were indicated for gender and age. All classifications of visual impairment scored low across all domains studied. It was concluded that self-determination opportunities are not being provided to students with visual impairments.

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Romeder, Zan M. An analysis of the stages of exercise change among older adults with a chronic illness, 1999. M.A., Simon Fraser University (Andrew Wister). (145pp 2f $12.00) HE 754 This thesis examines stages of exercise change among older adults with a chronic illness. The Transtheoretical Model is applied to understand exercise behavior, a self care practice recommended for the management of chronic illnesses. The thesis contains two parts. Part one consists of a unique description of the stages of exercise change over a two-year period. Part two involves testing hypotheses pertaining to the prediction of positive exercise change over a one-year period. The theories of planned behavior and self-efficacy are applied in conjunction with the Transtheoretical Model to develop the hypotheses. It is hypothesized that exercise history and illness factors will act as barriers for positive exercise behavior because of the characteristics of the population under study. The data used in this study came from the Vancouver (British Columbia) North Shore Self-Care Study. The North Shore study collected detailed health and self-care information on adults aged 50 and older who reported having one of four major chronic illnesses: arthritis, stroke, heart problems, and hypertension. After omitting those with stroke (due to small numbers), there were a total of 879 subjects at baseline (wave 1), 735 in wave 2, and 665 in wave 3. The results from the descriptive analysis indicate that the majority of the sample are exercising regularly, and that only 4.3% are sedentary for the entire study. Significant stage movement towards exercise maintenance was also found despite there being no formal exercise intervention. A large number of people were found to be moving from maintenance to pre-contemplation (active to sedentary) and from pre-contemplation to maintenance, illustrating that many are not moving through the stages, as suggested by the Transtheoretical Model, but from one extreme to the other. At the bivariate level, exercise history and three illness factors were statistically significant, and moderate support was found for the theories of planned behavior and self-efficacy. A multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the predictive factors of positive exercise stage change. Exercise history and four illness factors (type of illness, duration of illness, co-morbidity and activity restriction) were found to be statistically significant. Age was found to be negatively associated with positive exercise behavior, but education and gender were not statistically significant. Overall, the results of the study indicate moderate predictive power for the theories of planned behavior and self-efficacy, and strong support for the hypothesis that exercise history and illness factors are important factors (facilitators and barriers) for positive exercise stage change. An integration of both sections of the thesis leads to the conclusion that illness factors are at the root of exercise stage change, where they are causing extreme movement patterns and acting as barriers to

positive exercise stage change. In the future, it is recommended that health promotion programs consider the profound effect that a chronic illness has on ones ability to exercise regularly. Current theories applied to understand exercise behavior, such as the theory of planned behavior and self-efficacy theory, need to reconsider how the impact of a chronic illness, physiologically and psychologically, affect ones decision to exercise. Schuster-Decker, Rachel N. The acute effects of dynamic exercise and nutritional supplementation on blood pressure in hypertensive patients, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (C. Foster). (49pp 1f $6.00) HE 747 Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease. This study evaluated the reduction in blood pressure (BP) in response to sub-maximal cycling and nutritional supplementation with the active ingredient Larginine, independently and in combination. Subjects (N=9) were clinically stable with a clinical diagnosis of hypertension. Each completed 4 randomly ordered 120 min trials. BP was obtained at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes of each trial. Trial 1 consisted of placebo and repeated blood pressure measurements during rest. Trial 2 was identical to trial 1, except with active agent supplementation. Trial 3 consisted of placebo and a 25 min exercise session. Trial 4 was identical to trial 3, except with active agent supplementation. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean blood pressure (MBP) from rest to 90 min and 120 min. Post hoc tests showed a significant (p0.05) reduction in SBP at 90 and 120 min for trials 2, 3, and 4. DBP was significant at 90 min and 120 min only in trial 4. MBP was significant at 90 min in trials 2, 3, and 4, and at 120 min in trial 4 only. Analysis of BP during exercise in trials 3 and 4 revealed no significant difference. We conclude that exercise, as well as supplementation with L-arginine, can lower BP in mildly hypertensive individuals. Further, the effects of exercise and supplementation are shown to be additive. Smith, Christopher D. Evaluation of physical fitness attributes in cardiac rehabilitation program graduates who continue or elect not to continue participating in a structured exercise training program, 2002. M.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Bonita L. Marks). (58pp 1f $6.00) HE 750 The purpose of this study was to determine if the cessation of participation in a structured exercise program was accompanied with changes in the physical fitness of cardiac rehabilitation program graduates. A sample of 12 graduates from a three month cardiac rehabilitation program, each with a medical history of myocardial infarction, returned for a physician-monitored evaluation of physical fitness after 12 months of exercising in either a supervised prevention program (n=7) or an unstructured,

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independent setting (n=5). The physical fitness attributes examined were functional capacity (estimated peak VO2, METs, peak HR, and peak walking time), grip-strength, lower back/hamstring flexibility, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio. Paired samples t-tests (p>0.05) revealed no significant differences between the baseline and 12-month follow-up evaluations for any of the physical fitness attributes in either group of subjects. However there was a finding in the evaluation of BMI (p=0.071) that suggested bodyweight management was better for those subjects who participated in the structured exercise program. Within each group there was no significant change in the physical fitness variables evaluated twelve months after the completion of this three-month cardiac rehabilitation program. Further research with larger sample sizes is needed to substantiate these findings. Spurlock, Pualani. Association between participation in a university personal physical fitness course on leisure-time physical activity and stage of change in college women, 2002. M.S., Slippery Rock University (P. Pierce). (85pp 1f $6.00) HE 751 The purpose of this study was to compare leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) participation and stage of change between college women who completed a university personal physical fitness (PPF) course the previous semester (fitness group) and college women who never participated in a university PPF course (control group). The fitness group (FG) (n=44) and control group (CG) (n=44) were comprised of college females (18-26 years) who volunteered for this study. Total, moderate, and vigorous LTPA between the two groups were examined and independent t-tests showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the FG and CG. Stage of change between the two groups was analyzed and a chi-square analysis showed no significant association (p>0.05) between the FG and CG. Therefore, based on this data, FG subjects did not participate in greater amounts of LTPA and were not in more active stages of change as compared to the CG subjects. St. John, Wendy E. The effect of aerobic exercise on women with PMS, 1990. Ph.D., University of Southern California (Robert Wiswell). (127pp 2f $12.00) HE 756 This study was designed to determine the effect of a tenweek aerobic training period on PMS symptoms, depression symptoms, and blood levels of estrogen, progesterone, norepinephrine, and endorphins in women diagnosed with PMS. A descriptive approach was utilized to determine the differences between data taken prior to and following a ten-week exercise training program. The following tests were administered to each subject: resting and exercising EKG, maximal stress test on a treadmill, and blood drawing for analysis of hormones 20 minutes prior

to, immediately after, and 20 minutes after exercise. The same tests were administered in the pre-test and post-test sessions. For the exercise program the subjects were required to do aerobic exercise for a minimum of 30 minutes three to four times per week. They also recorded PMS symptoms (daily) and depression symptoms (twice per cycle) during the exercise program. A maximal walking treadmill graded exercise test was administered with a stress EKG to determine pre-values, the aerobic prescription, and post-values. The pre- and post-results were compared to determine rate of change. From the bloods drawn during the testing sessions, values were determined for estrogen, progesterone, endorphin, and norepinephrine. These values were compared with each other, then with other data from the VO2max test, and the self-reports of symptoms. A daily self-report was kept by the subjects to verify PMS symptoms and to evaluate changes within the syndrome and with the other data from the VO2max test and the hormone levels. The specific statistical tests used in the analysis of the data were descriptive statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficients to determine the relationship between selected variables for raw scores and on selected variables for the rate of change with pre-test values. Students t was used to test the differences in the means for selected values pre- to posttest. Significant correlations determined by the Pearson product moment correlation for the raw data were: (1) progesterone and estrogen with depression symptoms; (2) anxiety scores with the depression scores from both selfreports (Abraham and Zung); (3) the change in PE2 ratio correlated with pre endorphin and pre-estrogen values; (4) the change in endorphin correlated with pre-estrogen values; and (5) the change in estrogen correlated with preestrogen values. The signed rank order data yielded one significant relationship for the pre- to post-test values for depression measured by the Abraham PMS rating scale. All subjects except two showed a decrease in depression symptoms. The two exceptions showed either no change or no symptoms. Because of the small N there were trends but no significant differences for the students t tests between the means pre- to post-test for any variable, or between pre-values for the dropouts vs the subjects who completed the study. Within the limitations of this study, the following conclusions seem justified: 1. The null hypothesis was not rejected as there was no significant increase in the P/E2 ratio or in reduction of symptoms. 2. There were correlations between increases in P/E2 ratio and endorphin values (p.05) as well as a strong correlation between the Abraham PMTD scores and the Zung depression index which ranged from p.01 first two cycles to p .05 for the third cycle. 3. There was a significant relationship in the signed rank data of pre- to post-test values for PMS depression; i.e., most decreased with one no change and one no depression symptoms.

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Weise, Carey L. Brachial artery diameter and velocity of blood flow after hyperemia during the six hours following consumption of cranberry juice, 2002. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (J. Porcari). (59pp 1f $6.00) HE 748 The effects of cranberry juice consumption on brachial artery diameter and velocity of blood flow were investigated. Subjects were aged 40-69 years with documented cardiovascular disease. Subjects refrained from alcohol, fruit juices, or calcium-channel blockers for 24 hours, and from supplements for 5 days, prior to testing. They fasted 9 hours prior to the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=6) or a control group (n=7). Baseline measurements were collected, after which participants drank 3 mL/kg of pure cranberry juice, or 3 mL/kg of an isocaloric sugar water mixture (control), and were given half of a plain bagel to eat. Ultrasound and Doppler flow methods were used to measure brachial artery diameter using a longitudinal (M-mode) and crosssectional technique at pre-cuff and 2 minutes after cuff removal. Velocity of blood flow was measured at pre-cuff, maximum flow, and 1 and 2 minutes after cuff removal. Arterial blood pressure was measured with a manual sphygmomanometer. Measurements were repeated at hours 2, 4, and 6. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the cross-sectional and M-mode method. There were no significant differences in diameter values, velocity of blood flow values, mean arterial pressure, and resistance between the control and CBJ groups at any time. In general, these measurements significantly decreased (p<0.05) over time.

as the most important attraction/activity. Eighty-five percent of visitors stayed in a hotel. Finding new ways to attract winter visitors to increase profit margins was a key recommendation for future marketing. Sargent, Leslie A. The role of social support and self-efficacy in influencing moderate leisure time physical activity among African American women, 2001. M.S., University of Nebraska, Omaha (Manoj Sharma). (119pp 2f $12.00) RC 561 Physical activity behaviors are important for reduction in overall mortality rates, risk for coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, several cancers, hypertension, depression, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and obesity. Yet, a large proportion of Americans do not engage in regular physical activity. This problem is prevalent in low-income minority women, particularly in the African American community. This study aimed to examine the extent social support of family, friends, and the self-efficacy for specific leisure time physical activities had on duration of leisure-time physical activity in a community-based sample of African American women in a Midwestern city. A group of 240 volunteers were actively recruited to complete a 45-item questionnaire at community health centers and churches. The instrument was designed to measure the womens weekly minutes of physical activity, family and friend social support for moderate leisure time physical activity, different types of social support, and self-efficacy for moderate leisure time physical activity. Their perceptions of the ideal location and duration for a structured physical activity educational program were also obtained. Results indicated that the women surveyed participated in little structured leisure time physical activity. Less than half of the women reported participating in daily physical activity, and the average minutes of daily leisure time physical activity participation ranged from 9 to 14 minutes, which is much less than the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends. Social support from friends (p0.001) and self-efficacy (p0.001) were found to be significant and the most important predictors for physical activity and accounted for 25 percent of the variance in amount of physical activity. Any intervention for this community must build on these constructs. Study participants also recommended that interventions in this community should be conducted for at least one year through a local community center. Wu, Cheng-Chieh. The relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction of employees in park and recreation departments, 2001. M.S., Springfield College (Matthew Pentera). (119pp 2f $12.00) RC 559 The study was designed to examine the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction of fulltime employees in park and recreation departments. Gender difference in job satisfaction was also investigated.

RECREATION AND LEISURE


Rusch, Matt. 2000 market survey of La Crosse tourists & visitors, 2001. M.S., University of Wisconsin, La Crosse (G. Arimond). (48pp 1f $6.00) RC 560 A market survey of the La Crosse area (Wisconsin) was performed to determine the latest trends in visitors to the La Crosse region. The primary purpose of the study was to acquire visitor market information and compare it with the previous 1998 study. A visitor survey insert card placed in the 2000 Area Visitor and Information Guide provided a sample of 608 useable surveys. Of those, 75.5 percent of respondents had actually visited the La Crosse area. It was determined that approximately 75 percent of La Crosse visitors were from 8 market regions, and the average driving distance was 191 miles. There were four primary sources respondents used for making travel plans: the Internet, friends and family, the 1-800 number, and brochures. Winter visitation in the La Crosse area is severely lacking, with 70 percent of visitors coming between the months of June and October. Sightseeing was the primary reason provided for visiting the area, as well

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Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were computed between the four types of organizational cultures (clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy) and job satisfaction. For 77 park and recreation employees, whose questionnaires were usable, significant (p<.05) relationships were found between job satisfaction and clan culture (r=.341), market culture (r=-.237), and hierarchy culture (r=-.302). The relationship between adhocracy culture and job satisfaction was not significantly (p>.05) different from zero (r=.108). Based on statistical analysis, no significant (p>.05) difference in job satisfaction was found between male and female full-time employees. Female and male full-time employees in park and recreation departments in Massachusetts and Connecticut reported similar scores in job satisfaction.

PSYCHOLOGY
Beilock, Sian L. When performance fails: expertise, attention, and performance under pressure, 2003. Ph.D., Michigan State University (Deborah L. Feltz and Thomas Carr). (135pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2275 This work explored the cognitive mechanisms underlying pressure-induced performance decrements. Performance pressure is defined as an anxious desire to perform at a high level (Hardy, Mullen, & Jones, 1996). Choking, or performing more poorly than expected given ones level of skill, tends to occur in situations fraught with performance pressure (Baumeister, 1984; Beilock & Carr, 2001; Lewis & Linder, 1997). Self-focus or explicit monitoring theories of choking suggest that pressure induced performance decrements result from the explicit monitoring and control of proceduralized knowledge that is best run off as an uninterrupted and unanalyzed structure (Baumeister, 1984; Beilock & Carr, 2001; Lewis & Linder, 1997; Masters, 1992). Conversely, distraction theories propose that pressure creates a dual-task situation in which skill execution and performance worries vie for the attentional capacity once devoted solely to primary task performance (Lewis & Linder, 1997; Wine, 1971). To date, explicit monitoring theories have accounted quite well for the choking phenomenon (see Appendix A and B). However, the extant choking literature has solely utilized sensorimotor skills as a test bed. Well-learned, proceduralized sensorimotor skills do not possess the right task control structures to choke according to distraction theories (Allport, Antonis, & Reynolds, 1972). Furthermore, unpracticed sensorimotor skills, although based, in part, on explicitly accessible declarative knowledge (Beilock, Wierenga, and Carr, 2002), may not demand the type of processing and information storage that make a task susceptible to choking via distraction. Indeed, performance pressure does not appear to have a negative impact on novice sensorimotor skills at all (Beilock & Carr, 2001). It remains an open possibility,

then, that choking may occur via the mechanisms proposed by distraction theories in certain tasksfor example, complex cognitive tasks not based on an automated or proceduralized skill representation. Four experiments examined performance under pressure in the mathematical problem solving task of modular arithmetic (MA). Exp. I demonstrated that performance decrements in difficult, unpracticed MA problems occurred under high pressure conditions. Exp. 2 demonstrated that these pressureinduced failures only occurred for the most difficult and capacity demanding unpracticed equations. Exp. 3 further explored these performance failures both early and late in learning. Similar to Exp. 2, only difficult problems with large on-line working memory demands choked. Furthermore, these failures were limited to problems early in practice when capacity-demanding rule-based solution algorithms governed performance. In Exp. 4, participants performed MA problems once, twice, or 50 times each, followed by a high pressure test. Again, only difficult problems that had not been highly practiced showed performance decrements. These findings support distraction theories of choking in the domain of mathematical problem solving. This outcome contrasts with sensorimotor skills, such as golf putting, in which the data have uniformly supported explicit monitoring rather than distraction theories (Beilock & Carr, 2001; Lewis & Linder, 1997). This contrast suggests a taxonomy of skills based on the nature and representation of their control structures. Dean, Mark L. Effects of vow-making on adherence to a 12-week personal fitness program, self-efficacy, and theory of planned behavior constructs, 2001. Ph.D., University of Louisville (John C. Birkimer). (136pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2267 The effect of swearing a vow to perform an agreed behavior on the actual performance of the behavior was examined by survey and an experimental manipulation of 174 subjects. Subjects were members of the YMCA who decided to participate in the Twelve-Week Personal Fitness Program. As participants in the program, they agreed to exercise three days per week for 12 weeks and beyond at the YMCA. Once making the decision to participate, the experimental group was sworn to perform the promised behavior, the commitment group signed a written commitment to perform the promised behavior, and the control group did not experience any form of commitment. The impact of the manipulation was examined for its effect on adherence to the program. Additionally, the study examined Ajzen & Fishbeins Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and whether the vow-based intervention had an impact on prediction by the TPB constructs; Banduras Social Cognitive Theory, and whether the vow-based intervention had an impact on predictions of adherence by exercise selfefficacy; Prochaskas Transtheoretical Model and the effect of the vow-based intervention on self-efficacy and temptation; and Marlatts Relapse Prevention Model and the

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impact of the vow manipulation on the abstinence violation effect. Results failed to demonstrate that subjects in either the experimental or commitment group exhibited greater exercise adherence as measured by total sessions attended or by graduation from the fitness program. However, subjects in the vow condition did demonstrate greater adherence than those in the other conditions, as measured by consecutive weeks of three exercise sessions without relapse. Kuebel, Denise. An investigation into the relationship among motives for participation, goal orientation, and psychological outcomes in tennis players, 2001. Ed.D., University of Rochester (Craig R. Barclay). (124pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2269 A great deal of evidence has been amassed which supports the efficacy of participation in regular physical activity as a means of reducing the risks of some debilitating health conditions (e.g., heart disease, obesity), as well as enhancing overall psychological well-being. The significance of exercise as a health related activity that benefits the whole person (mentally and physically) has brought to the fore a need to address motivational issues related to adopting and maintaining regular physical activity. Accordingly, research into motivation for participation into physical activity holds great potential for guiding not only medical practice, but also educational and therapeutic practice. The present study is an investigation into the relationship between motives for participation in physical activity, goal orientation associated with such participation, and psychological outcomes such as perceived happiness, perceived life satisfaction, and vitality, as well as persistence in and adherence to participation in physical activity. Theories of motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and goal orientation (Nicholls, 1989) are discussed as a basis for the study. Specifically, it is hypothesized that individuals who experience more internal forms of motivation (e.g., interest, enjoyment) for engaging in physical activity, and who are more task than ego oriented, will report higher levels of positive well-being and be more likely to adhere to and persist in the activity. The investigation focuses on the following research questions in relationship to participation in physical activity: a) why do people participate in physical activities such as sport and exercise? b) what are the psychological outcomes associated with such participation? c) how do form of motivation and goal orientation influence persistence in and adherence to the activity ? and d) is there a significant relationship between form of motivation and goal orientation. The design of the study is hypothesis dependent. For hypothesis 1, the overall design is represented by two levels of a single independent variable: kind of motivation (i.e., intrinsic and extrinsic). For hypothesis 2, the design is represented by two levels of a single independent variable: kind of goal orientation (i.e., task and ego). For Hypothesis 3, the design is represented as a 2x2 model: kind of motivation x kind of goal orientation.

Maslovat, Dana. Contextual inference [interference]: single-task versus multi-task learning and influence of concurrent temporal interference, 2002. M.S., University of British Columbia (Ian Franks). (171pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2263 Contextual interference (CI) is a learning effect whereby high interference practice conditions produce decreased acquisition performance yet increased retention, and transfer performance. Thus, a more difficult practice environment, although initially detrimental to acquisition, actually benefits learning of the skill. Typical CI experimental paradigms involve the comparison of acquisition, retention and transfer performance of multiple tasks under a blocked acquisition schedule (low interference) versus a random acquisition schedule (high interference). Numerous studies have investigated contextual interference, and it has been shown to be a stable, robust phenomenon. Two studies involving bimanual coordination were conducted to further examine the contextual interference effect. Experiment 1 involved comparison of acquisition, retention and transfer performance of a single-task control group, two-task blocked presentation group, and a two-task random presentation group. Acquisition data showed both random and control groups outperformed the blocked group in performance of the coordination pattern. This was opposite to the expected CI effect and was attributed to the high number of acquisition trials providing enough time for the learning benefits of the interference to be realized. Retention data did show a typical CI effect for one dependent measure, with the random group significantly outperforming the blocked group. Neither two-task group significantly outperformed the control group, suggesting interference of a second task may be as beneficial to learning as extra practice on the initial task. No group effects were found during transfer performance; however, there was a learning effect on the opposite, unpracticed coordination pattern. Experiment 2 examined an alternate form of interference, requiring participants to concurrently verbalize a compatible or incompatible counting pattern while performing a bimanual coordination pattern, to determine if CI effects could be generalized to other forms of interference. No significant group effects were found in acquisition, retention, or transfer performance. This was attributed to insufficient interference caused by the counting patterns, perhaps due to anchoring strategies of the participants. Analysis of the retention data did provide weak support for a concurrent 2-count pattern providing more interference than a concurrent 4-count pattern. However, more research in the area of concurrent temporal interference is required to determine possible interference effects. Scanning data did show a significant improvement in performance of the to-be-learned task as well as the symmetrical bimanual coordination pattern, in support of previous studies. Examination of the sound data provided information regarding anchoring strategies of participants.

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McDonough, Meghan H. Understanding sport participation motivation in early adolescent females: the role of friendship and physical self-perceptions, 2002. M.S., University of British Columbia (Peter Crocker). (129pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2264 The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport friendship quality, athletic competence and attractiveness perceptions, global self-worth, and sport enjoyment in predicting motivation to participate in sport among young adolescent female sport participants. Two hundred and twenty-nine female team sport participants between the ages of eleven and fourteen participated in this study. Participants completed the athletic competence, physical attractiveness, and self-worth subscales of the SelfPerception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985), the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (Weiss & Smith, 1999), the sport enjoyment and sport commitment subscales of the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan, Simons, Carpenter, Schmidt, & Keeler, 1993), and two items assessing intention to return to the present sport and to sport in general. Sport enjoyment and intention to return means were very high and the distributions highly skewed, indicating that participants enjoy sport and are highly motivated to continue playing, but also made determining predictors and outcomes of these variables difficult. Correlational and multiple regression analysis suggested that self-worth was predicted primarily by physical attractiveness perceptions, with athletic competence perceptions making a minor contribution. Sport enjoyment was partially predicted by having things in common with ones best sport friend. Sport enjoyment predicted sport commitment and intentions to return. No relationship was found between selfworth and sport enjoyment. A path analysis of two models of participation motivation found that neither model fit the data well. Model modification procedures were undertaken to find a more parsimonious model and to identify potential relationships for future research. This study did not provide strong support for a predictive role of sport friendship quality and physical self perceptions in predicting sport enjoyment and motivation, or for a model where self esteem is a separate outcome of antecedents of motivation, rather than a mediating variable. The lack of variance on enjoyment and motivation variables greatly limited the ability of this study to determine predictors and outcomes of sport enjoyment and motivation. Future studies examining other aspects of youth peer relationships in sport are needed to explore their effects on sport related affect, motivation, and self-worth. Ricciuti, David P. Imagery and discomfort during a muscular endurance task, 2002. M.S., Springfield College (Mimi Murray). (141pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2258 Male and female college students (N=78) from physical education skills classes volunteered to participate in a study designed to determine if pre-test and post-test

differences existed between the amount of discomfort participants were able to endure using three different imagery coping methods. The Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ; Isaac, Marks, & Russell, 1986) was used to classify participants with regard to their imagery ability into high and moderate imagery ability groups. Using a 2x3x2 mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on pre-test and posttest wall sit times, differences in mean pre-test and posttest wall sit times were calculated for the three imagery training groups and both imagery ability classifications. No significant (p>.05) interactions were found. No significant (p>.05) main effect was found between pre-test and posttest wall sit times. No significant (p>.05) main effects were found for training groups or for imagery ability groups for wall sit times. Implications of the current study are that different imagery training methods may not influence discomfort tolerance. Rubin, Leah. Competitive trait anxiety in relation to the fivefactor model of personality, 2002. M.A., Loyola College in Maryland (Jenny L. Lowry). (105pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2273 Competitive trait anxiety has been relatively under-studied in comparison to its by-product, state anxiety. The purpose of the study was to better understand competitive trait anxiety in a sample of college athletes by examining its properties in conjunction with a comprehensive personality taxonomy: the Five-Factor Model. Results indicate that competitive trait anxiety was significantly explained by the trait of neuroticism, particularly the facet anxiety. Implications of this study will be discussed, specifically in relation to gender. Ruiz, Matthew D. Motivation and adherence to exercise in adults, 2002. M.S., Springfield College (Mimi Murray). (141pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2259 The study was conducted to determine differences in motivation as functions of exercise adherence status and gender. A sample of 76 males and 76 females between the ages of 35 and 55 were studied. The participants were asked to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory-2 (EMI-2; Markland & Ingledew, 1997) and the Stages of Exercise Scale (SOES; Cardinal, 1993). A 2x2 factorial analysis of variance was computed to determine gender differences on the subscales of the EMI-2 (Markland & Ingledew, 1997) and between adherers and non-adherers, as determined by the SOES (Cardinal, 1993). A significant interaction was found for the subscales Weight Management and Appearance. Female non-adherers had significantly (p<.05) higher motivation than male non-adherers on these subscales. Regarding main effects, adherers had significantly (p<.05) higher motivation than non-adherers on all but one subscale; no significant (p>.05) difference was found on Health Pressures. Males had significantly

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(p<.05) higher motivation than females on Enjoyment, Challenge, Social Recognition, and Competition. Based on the results of this study, motivational differences to exercise are expected between male and female adherers and non-adherers. Spievak, Elizabeth R. The use of self-focused attention and exercise as escape in those with traumatic personal history, 2001. Ph.D., University of Louisville (John Birkimer). (118pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2270 Self-bias, an attentional tuning toward information relevant to the self, and self focus, attentional tuning toward internally generated information about the self, are normal processes. For some, however, these usually helpful techniques can become distracting, inhibiting, and defeating. Self-focused attention has been linked to many psychological constructs including alcoholism, bingeing and depression (see Ingram, 1990, for review), and has been found to be an important construct in psychopathology. Pyszczynski, Greenberg, Hamilton and Nix (1991) recently concluded that careful study of the role played by such processes in particular disorders that take into account the diversity of dispositional and situational factors that are likely to lead to such problems is needed (p. 543). Dispositional factors such as self-esteem, depression, need for control, anxiety and a tendency toward selfevaluation or rumination have been linked to increased self-attention. Research on situational factors has suggested that environment may influence the development of attentional strategies and coping skills. Based on attention and self-focus research, a new construct was proposed and termed self-focused temperament: a predisposition, vulnerability or environmentally and socially influenced tendency to engage in self-focused attentional strategies. Someone with a self-focused temperament would tend to worry, self-analyze and get anxious if his or her attentional resources were not constantly consumed. Specific hypotheses were developed concerning personality and experience factors which, along with a self-focused temperament, would be correlated with unproductive coping and addictive behaviors. A large community sample was used to test and refine a path model and a second sample replicated the refined model. People who reported more trauma symptoms and higher trait anxiety were most likely to report unproductive coping strategies. Those who scored higher in private self-consciousness and had a selffocused temperament reported using mental disengagement and substance abuse. If they were also high in public self-consciousness, participants reported exercise addiction. Participants scoring higher in public self-consciousness, trauma symptoms and trait anxiety (but without a self-focused temperament) reported eating disorder behaviors. Active coping was related to high self esteem (negatively correlated with trait anxiety and trauma symptoms) and private self-consciousness. An experimen-

tal manipulation in Study 2 supported the path model results. This research has implications for identifying those at risk for unproductive coping, including substance abuse, eating disorder behaviors and exercise addiction. Interventions targeted towards those at risk may work to prevent the cycle of addictive behaviors before it begins. Veit-Hartley, Sylvia. Spirituality and the athletic experiences of elite track athletes, 2002. M.S., Western Washington University (Ralph Vernacchia). (177pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2274 In addition to striving for excellence through body and mind connection, exists the athletes spirit to evolve, transform, and transcend. Spirituality exists in human nature, and sport helps develop the human spirit by deepening and purifying the spirit. However, little research is available on spirituality and athletic experiences. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate, through specific elements of sports, the essence of spirituality as related to athletic experiences among elite track athletes. Elements such as awareness, commitment, concentration, and self-integration were explored in the study to understand spiritual existence and its influence in achieving athletic excellence. A secondary purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomena of spirituality in relation with athletic experiences in a qualitative fashion. To achieve these goals, this study utilized an inductive content analysis of athlete case interviews. The in-depth interviews of 10 elite distance runners consisted of probing questions regarding the athletes perception, insights, and thoughts of spirituality and its connection with their pursuit for excellence. The content analysis identified 496 raw data descriptors and 76 raw data responses, which raised the following 8 emergent themes: personal excellence/self-actualization, self-realization/self-development, transient moments, emotions, spiritual integration and growth, mental awareness and development, self-trust, and external influences. Eighty percent of the athletes described spirituality as having the mind, body, and spirit intertwined as one, embracing the whole self. Some of the athletes also expressed spirituality as being in the moment and aware of self, acknowledging ones true being and existence. Most importantly, the athletes responses elucidated spirituality as an underlying component of achieving personal and athletic excellence. Wilson, Catherine C. Self-efficacy and prior exercise experience in relationship to exercise adherence in beginning yoga classes, 2002. M.S., University of Memphis (Michael Hamrick). (52pp 1f $6.00) PSY 2272 This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy, prior exercise experience and exercise adherence in a community sample of beginning yoga students. Thirty-two subjects completed a survey packet that assessed prior exercise experience, attendance goals, and exercise self-

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efficacy. Attendance records were tracked for five weeks. Significant correlations were found between prior exercise experience and adherence, and attendance goals and actual attendance. Contrary to expectations, significant relationships between self-efficacy and adherence, and self-efficacy and prior exercise experience, were not found. Further exploration of the relationship between self efficacy and adherence in a mind-body context is recommended.

MOTOR LEARNING AND CONTROL


Adomaitis, Laura G. An intensive massed practice approach to re-training balance post-stroke, 2002. Ph.D., University of Oregon (Marjorie H. Woollacott). (201pp 3f $18.00) PSY 2261 Stroke is the leading cause of disability among adults in the United States. Falls are highly prevalent and a significant source of complications post-stroke. This research study tested the efficacy of standard physical therapy (based on the task-oriented approach) delivered in a massed practice paradigm. The purpose of this study was to test if the intensive massed practice intervention (six hours/day for two consecutive weeks) could significantly improve balance function post-stroke. A single-subject multiple baseline design across subjects with probes was utilized with ten subjects with chronic stroke disability. Probe tests consisted of giving standing subjects six backward perturbations on a force platform and were conducted periodically throughout the three phases of the study design: baseline, training, and maintenance. Time to recover balance (stabilization of the center of pressure) in response to a platform perturbation was calculated. More extensive platform balance tests were conducted prior to, immediately post, and three months post-training. Clinical tests also were administered. The data revealed nine demonstrations of improved balance performance at five points in time. The ability of the subjects to recover from a balance threat improved, with mean times to stabilization decreasing from a mean of 2.35.51 seconds during baseline to 1.581.23 seconds during training, and further still to 1.45 .29 seconds during maintenance. Intensive massed practice of standard physical therapy produced significant results in balance re-training with patients poststroke. Current stroke rehabilitation techniques can be effective, but we need to provide an opportunity for greater amounts of practice. Kim, Ji-Tae. Perceived physical and actual motor competence in Korean children with mild mental retardation: relationship to age, gender, and parental physical activity, 2003. Ph.D., Michigan State University (Crystal F. Branta). (186pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2276

The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship of perceived physical competence and actual motor competence relative to age, gender, and parental physical activity in children with mild mental retardation (MMR). Participants consisted of 112 children from 8 to 11 years of age with MMR who attend special schools for students with MR in Korea, and their parents. The Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000) and the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Physical Competence for Children with Mental Retardation (PSPPCCMR; Ulrich & Collier, 1990) were the instruments used to assess the perceived physical competence and actual motor competence of participant children. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ; Godin & Shephard, 1985) was used to assess leisure time physical activity of participant parents. Statistical tests (Pearson product-moment correlation, MANOVA, t-test, and ANOVA) were performed at the .05 alpha level. The results of this study indicated that the relationship between perceived physical competence and actual motor competence in children with MMR was statistically significant. There were significant effects of gender and parental physical activity on perceived physical competence and actual motor competence, but there were not effects of age and interaction of gender, age, and parental physical activity. This study suggests that applying Harters theory (1978) to children with MMR results in similar findings with regard to the relationship between perceived and actual physical competence and parental influence on perceived physical competence. From this study, the data regarding perceived physical competence and actual motor competence of children with MMR have implications for adapted physical educators or special education teachers to develop a more effective physical education program or curriculum for instruction in basic motor skills. Nagelkerke, Paul. Bimanual limb interaction, 2002. M.S., University of British Columbia (Ian Franks). (183pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2265 In this study I investigated the level of neurological interaction between two limbs performing fast, goal directed bimanual movements, and the extent to which the limbs interact and influence each other during movement preparation and production. This experiment focused upon the effect of symmetric and asymmetric bimanual movements of short and long distances performed simultaneously, specifically interaction in response to a movement blocking perturbation. Differences between the EMG patterns of unimanual, equal distance bimanual, and unequal distance bimanual elbow extension movements of 10 and 50 degrees indicated the level of influence seen in movement planning, while differences in kinematic measures indicated the level of interaction during movement production. Results indicated that there was a high level of influence during movement planning and execu-

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tion, resulting in highly symmetric EMG patterns, but no detectable interaction between the two limbs during movement execution. Blocking the intended movement of one limb had no effect on movement production of the other limb. Once movement was initiated each limb operated independently, displaying characteristic EMG patterns for unblocked movements and modified EMG patterns due to sensory feedback of a blocked movement. van Donkelaar, Paul. Manual and oculomotor control during tracking and interception tasks: normal characteristics and deficits due to cerebellar dysfunction, 1994. Ph.D., University of Calgary (R. G. Lee). (141pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2271 The contributions of visual motion processing, as well as of retinal and extraretinal signals, were investigated in three experiments in which natural, multijoint tracking and interception movements produced with the hand were directed towards moving targets. The latency of these responses to the onset of target motion was dependent on the velocity of the target. A simple model which assumes that latency is composed of a target velocity dependent threshold time and a subsequent processing time accurately accounted for the data. In addition, the initial trajectory of the hand was independent of target velocity when this variable was unpredictable from trial to trial. These characteristics are analogous to those observed for eye movements produced under similar conditions. Removing vision of the hand caused increases in positional error but did not influence target velocity matching performance in the tracking task. In contrast, in the interception task this manipulation led to significant increases in the variability of endpoint error. Restricting eye motion caused subjects to overestimate target velocity. In particular, hand gain (hand velocity/target velocity) was substantially increased in the tracking task during visual fixation. Similarly, in the interception task, subjects pointed further ahead of the target when eye movements were not allowed. Taken together, these results suggest that retinal information associated with vision of the hand contributes to those aspects of hand movement related to the position of the target, whereas extraretinal information concerning eye motion contributes to target velocity related aspects. The interaction between signals associated with eye and hand motion was investigated by having subjects with cerebellar dysfunction perform the tracking and interception tasks under these conditions. The normal deficits that are observed in the eye and hand movements of such subjects were exacerbated during the combined motions of these effectors. In particular, hand movements were more smoothly coordinated if the aberrant eye movements were restricted, and vice versa. The fact that this interaction is a negative one when eye and hand movements are disrupted suggests that the converse may be the case under normal circumstances. Specifically, information associated with oculomotor and manual motor

output may contribute to the high degree accuracy observed in the opposing system. The potential sites within the central nervous system where these interactions may occur are discussed. Volding, Lori A. A comparison of the motor development of deaf children of deaf parents and hearing parents, 2002. M.Ed., State University of New York, Brockport (Lauren Lieberman). (90pp 1f $6.00) PSY 2266 Differences in linguistic, cognitive, and social skills are known to exist between deaf children of deaf parents and of hearing parents; differences in motor development, however, are not known between the two groups. This study was designed to compare the motor development of 14 deaf children of deaf parents and 15 deaf children of hearing parents. The 11 girls and 18 boys were 4-9 years old; 16 were in the 4-6 age group, and 13 were in the 7-9 age group. The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) was used to assess the motor development of 29 participants who attended two schools for students who are deaf. Modifications to the procedure for administering the TGMD included visual demonstrations, the use of signing to communicate instructions, and video recordings of performance. The results of the study indicated no significant differences in motor development between deaf children of deaf parents and deaf children of hearing parents.

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Hammond, Krista C. The relationship between motivational orientations and motivation-related outcomes, 2002. M.S., Purdue University (Lavon Williams). (115pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2268 Developing physical competence and gaining acceptance are primary reasons for youth sport participation (Weiss & Ferrer-Caja, 2002). To promote positive youth sport experiences, the personal meaning young athletes give to physical competence and social belonging (i.e., their motivational orientations), and the self-perceptions they have regarding their ability and belonging need to be considered (Allen 2001a; Maehr & Nicholls, 1980; Nicholls, 1989). The interaction between motivational orientations such as physical-related (task and ego) and social-related (affiliation and validation) orientations and self-perceptions are thought to explain why some individuals are more effortful and satisfied than others. The majority of researchers studying motivational orientations have focused on physical-related orientations (see Duda & Hall, 2001), whereas few researchers have considered the relationship between social-related orientations and motivation-related outcomes (Allen, 2001a), or the moderating role of self-perceptions in the relationship between

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orientations and motivation-related outcomes (Cury et al., 1997; Sarrazin et al., 1999; Williams & Gill, 1995). The purposes of this study were to examine 1) the relationships among motivational orientations, perceived effort, and satisfaction, 2) the moderating role of perceived competence in the relationship between motivational orientations and motivation-related outcomes, and 3) the moderating role of perceived belonging in the relationship between motivational orientations and motivation-related outcomes. Team sport athletes (M=16.48 yrs; SD=1.17) completed sport-specific measures assessing motivational orientations, perceived competence, perceived belonging, perceived effort, and satisfaction. Results of a multivariate multiple regression analysis indicated that athletes higher in affiliation, validation, and task orientations feel more satisfied when they interact with others, receive recognition, and attain personal standards than those lower in social and task orientations. Additionally, athletes higher in ego and validation and lower in task and affiliation orientations perceive themselves as less effortful, feel more satisfied when they out-perform, and less satisfied when they achieve their personal standards than athletes lower in ego and validation and higher in task and affiliation orientations. Contrary to predictions, the results of the hierarchical multiple regressions failed to support the moderating role of self-perceptions. The findings indicate that knowledge of the personal meaning athletes hold for competence and belonging can provide a greater understanding of their sport experience. Magyar, T. M. A social cognitive perspective of motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms of leadership in female collegiate rowers, 2002. Ph.D., Michigan State University (Deborah L. Feltz). (200pp 3f $18.00) PSY 2262 The purpose of this investigation was to examine the motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms of leadership in collegiate rowers. Participants were 367 female intercollegiate rowers ages 18-37 (M=19.75). Rowers completed a demographic questionnaire, a reduced version of the BemSex Role Inventory (R-BSRI; Bem, 1974; Covey & Feltz, 1991), a modified version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (M-TEOSQ; Duda & Nicholls, 1992), and a modified version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (M-PMCSQ-2; Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000). Regulatory mechanisms of leadership were measured with constructs developed for the purpose of this research to assess leadership skills, and efficacy beliefs (e.g., leadership efficacy, task self-efficacy, and collective efficacy). Leadership effects were classified into two dimensions: performance and motivational. Performance leadership was operationalized as someone who is considered to be the go to person, is competent, masterful, assertive, confident, and may lead a boat toward a successful performance outcome. Successful performance outcome was operationalized as an improved race time or

winning a race. Motivational leadership was operationalized as someone who encourages teammates to stay tough and work through the pain (i.e., on the erg or during a race), resolves conflict between members of the boat, acts unselfishly, shows concern for others, or helps teammates calm their nerves before testing and competitions. The conceptual model was tested using path analysis. Results from this analysis demonstrated that leader goal orientation and leadership efficacy emerged as the strongest predictors of leader effectiveness. Specifically, athletes who reported greater leader goal orientation and leadership efficacy obtained higher scores on leader effectiveness from their teammates. Perceptions of mastery motivational climate also demonstrated a consistent and significant relationship with leadership skills in sport. Leadership efficacy demonstrated the strongest mediating effect between personal and situational determinants with leader effects. Future research should examine leadership over the entire course of the season in order to assess the emergent patterns that may occur. Meyer, James L. Leadership perceptions and achievement motivation in sport, 1996. Ph.D., Gonzaga University (Nancy Isaacson). (243pp 3f $18.00) PSY 2277 The purposes of this research were to (1) understand perceptions elite and non-elite athletes hold toward coaching behaviors. (2) understand coaches perceptions of their own behaviors, and (3) compare athletes perceptions of coaches behavior to the coaches perceptions of their own leadership behaviors. Additionally, this study sought to (4) determine whether the constructs of task- and egoorientation of achievement motivation have utility at the elite and non-elite levels of sport, and (5) whether these constructs can be related to leadership perceptions. Thirteen research questions guided this investigation. Participants consisted of 332 alpine ski racers and 345 coaches. The Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) (Chelladurai, 1989) was used to determine coaches behavior, and the Task and Ego Orientation Questionnaire (TEOSQ) (Duda, 1989) was used to assess athletes achievement motivation. ANOVA and Multiple Regression were used to analyze the data. Findings were largely in concurrence with previous research. Four major results revealed: (1) low occurrence levels of autocratic behavior by coaches as perceived by athletes and coaches, and high occurrence levels of training and instruction and positive feedback behaviors as perceived by athletes and coaches; (2) athletes were found to be high in task-orientation and slightly lower in ego-orientation; (3) democratic behavior by coaches was identified as a predictor of task-orientation in athletes, and autocratic behavior by coaches was a predictor of athletes ego-orientation; and (4) the theoretical constructs of transformational and charismatic leadership

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by coaches appear to be relevant to the athletic domain. Conclusions, discussions, and suggestions for future research complete the study. Sato, Naoko. The relationship between stress and social factors of coping in international students, 2002. M.S., Springfield College (John Smith). (118pp 2f $12.00) PSY 2260 The study was designed to assess the relationship between stress symptoms (anxiety, depression, and somatization) and social factors of coping (social support, English proficiency, and length of stay in an English speaking country) in international students at Springfield College (Massachusetts). The Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI 18; Derogatis, 2000) was used to assess levels of anxiety, depression, and somatization, and the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey (Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991) was distributed to measure levels of social support. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was computed to determine the relationship between stress symptoms and social factors of coping. The overall score of social support and other subscales of social support (Tangible, Affectionate, Positive Social Interaction, and Emotional/Informational) had a significant (p<.05) negative relationship with overall score of stress and Anxiety, Depression, and Somatization with the exception of the relationship between Affectionate Support and Somatization, which was not statistically significant. Length of stay was negatively related to only Somatization (p<.05). English proficiency had no significant (p>.05) relationship with any symptoms of stress.

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PART II KEYWORDS INDEX for VOLUME 16, NO. 1


This index includes keywords for titles published in microfiche format by Kinesiology Publications in Kinesiology Abstracts, Volume 16, No. 1 (April 2003). Each title in Part I is indexed using keywords selected and assigned from the Sport Thesaurus, published by the Sport Information Resource Centre (SIRC), located in Gloucester, Canada. (Users should note that British spelling conventions [e.g., behaviour] occasionally appear.) In addition to keywords identifying the content of a study, the major research methods are identified by the statistical technique employed and appear in brackets immediately following the author's name. Users may find these methodological and statistical descriptors helpful in identifying a particular design or statistical prototype for their own research investigations. A listing of statistical abbreviations used in this index is found on the following page. The keywords appear in alphabetic order and are followed by the author names of the doctoral or master's theses that they refer to. Because each thesis will have more than one keyword, author names appear several times under different keywords. The author names are followed by the research and statistical methods used in the study. These are contained in bracketsthe letters in front of the dash refer to the research methods, those following the dash denote the statistical methods. The methods information is followed by the subject code and number for the study. The following example illustrates the elements of each entry.

BIOMECHANICS
Allen, D.M. [D,MA-DE,MAV] PE 3815

Biomechanics is one of the keywords of a study by D. M. Allen. The research methods used in the study include Descriptive and Mechanical Analysis techniques; statistics are Descriptive and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. The studys subject code is PE 3815. To find the title of the study as listed in part I of Kinesiology Abstracts, use the author index in the back of the book to find the page number on which the study by D. M. Allen is listed. Criteria used to determine whether a study is experimental include the use of a control group and the manipulation of an independent variable or variables. Studies designed to examine correlations among selected variables in a particular population are classified as surveys. Specific abbreviations for research methods and the statistical techniques that were used are listed alphabetically in the table on the following page.

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METHODS
A AR C CA CH CI COM D DA E Anthropometry Action Research Case Study Content Analysis Choreography Critical Incident Analysis Comparative Study Descriptive Documentary Analysis Experimental GE H I IA J JA L LR M MA Genetic Historical Interview Item Analysis Jury Job Analysis Laboratory Library Research Model Mechanical Analysis MAN O P Q REV S SD TC Manual Observational Philosophical Questionnaire Review Survey Semantic Differential Test Construction

STATISTICS
% AC AV AV(F) B BC BON CAN CC CO CQ CS CV DE DEL DisA DU DUN Eta F FA FET FZ G GA GG HA HS HV K Percent Analysis of Covariance Analysis of Variance Analysis of Variance (Friedman) Binomial Biserial Correlation Bonferroni Method Canonical Correlation Contingency Coefficient Cohens Coefficient of Agreement Cochran Q Test Chi Square Coefficient of Variation Descriptive Delphi Method Discriminant Analysis Duncan Multiple Regression Dunn Test Curvilinear Correlation Flanagan Procedure Factor Analysis Fisher's Exact Test Fisher's Z Graphic Gamma Method of Association Greenhouse Geisser Conservative Test Hartleys Method Hulls Method Homogeneity of Variance Kirks Test KC KR KS KW LR LSD MAC MAV MDA MMM MR N NK PA PC PR R RC RD RE RM RPM SB SCH SEE SI SP Coefficient of Consistence Kuder-Richardson Kolmogorov-Smirnov Kruskal-Wallis Logistical Regression Least Significant Variance Multivariate Analysis of Covariance Multivariate Analysis of Variance Multivariate Discriminant Analysis Multivariate Mixed Model Multiple Regression Normative Newman-Keuls Path Analysis Phi Coefficient Phi Coefficient Multiple Correlation Reliability Coefficient Spearman Rank Correlation Regression Equation Repeated Measures Pearson Product-Moment Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula Scheffes Method Standard Error of the Estimate Sign Test Split Plot Repeated Measures Analysis SSP Split-Split Plot Repeated Measures Analysis T T Ratio TA Trend Analysis TAU Kendalls Rank Coefficient TR Tetrachoric Correlation TU Tukeys Test U Mann-Whitney U Test V Votaw Formula W Kendall Coefficient of Concordance WD(R) Wherry-Doolittle Method (Multiple Correlation) WI Wilcoxon Test WL Wilks's Lambda Z Standard Score

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KEYWORDS
ABNORMALITY
McCafferty, J. E. [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 417 [D, L-DE, AV, RM, TU] PE 4448 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, Q, S, IA-DE, RC, FA] PSY 2270 [D, Q-DE, AV, RD, BON, T, G] HE 753 [D, DA, Q-DE, %] PE 4457 [D, Q-DE] PE 4416 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4438 [D, DA-DE, T, AV, CS] PE 4393 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, RC, RM, AV, RPM, T, %, G] HE 755 [D, A-DE, RPM, AV, TU] PE 4396 [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410 [D, S, Q, I-DE, FA, AV, T, G] PSY 2259 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, SCH, LSD] PE 4406 [D, L-DE, %, RPM] PH 1778 [D, E-DE, %, AV, RM, TU, G] PH 1763 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, I-DE, %, MAV, G] HE 754 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, AC, BON, RPM, G] PE 4429 [D, A-DE, RM, AV, G] PH 1761 [D, A-DE, T, AV, RPM] HE 749 [D, Q-DE, T] PE 4425 [D, AR, Q-DE, RPM, AV, T, G] PE 4446 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, Q, I-DE, U] PE 4444 [D, A-DE, RPM, AV, TU] PE 4396 [D, A,Q-DE, RPM, RE, AV, T] PE 4436 [D, Q-DE, AV, G] PSY 2275 [D, M, Q-DE, AV, T, MR] PSY 2273 [D, Q, S, IA-DE, RC, FA] PSY 2270 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, T, G] PSY 2265 [D-DE] PE 4424 [D, A, L-DE, AV, RM, RPM] PH 1773 [D, L, A-DE, G] PE 4397 [D, Q-DE] PE 4458

ASIAN
Murtaza, S. [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 [D, L, A-DE, %, T] PE 4400 [D, Q-DE, FA, MAV] PE 4389 [D, I-DE] PE 4455 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4413 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439 [D, Q-DE, RPM, MR, BON] PSY 2268 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, Q, S-DE, AV, MR, RC] PSY 2277 [D, M, Q-DE, AV, T, MR] PSY 2273 [D, Q, H-DE, %, AV] PE 4461 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, Q-DE] PE 4416 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4438 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, Q-DE, AV, G] PSY 2275 [D, TC-DE, AV, RM, GG, TU, G] PSY 2263 [D, Q-DE, FA, MAV] PE 4389 [D, Q-DE, AV, CA, %] PE 4403 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, RC, RM, AV, RPM, T, %, G] HE 755 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4413 [D-DE, T] PE 4402 [D, MA, AR, A-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4415 [D, AR-DE, AV, RM] PE 4459 [D, JA-DE, AV, %] PE 4427 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392 [D, Q, E-DE, MAV, AV RM, MR] PSY 2267 [D, Q-DE, MR, RC, AC] HE 757 [D, AR, TC-DE, FA, AV, %, G] PE 4442 [D, Q, L-DE, MAV, RM, SCH, G] PE 4447 [D, AR,Q-DE, RM, AV, T, G] PE 4453 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, AV, T,G] PE 4411 [D, TC, A, AR-DE, RM, T, AV, G] PE 4394 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, M, AR-DE, RPM, G] PE 4456 [D, AR, MA-DE, G] PE 4432 [D, AR, MA-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4431 [D, AR-DE, AV, RM, G] PE 4445 [D, AR, Q-DE, RPM, AV, T, G] PE 4446 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, AR, M-DE, MR, WI, G] PE 4441 [D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, AR-DE] PE 4450 [D, AR-DE, AV] PE 4435 [D, AR, TC-DE, FA, AV, %, G] PE 4442 [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 4417 [D, MA, AR, A-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4415

ABSORPTION
Kastberg, L. S.

ATHLETE
Abel, M. G. Bradney, D. Darnell, S. C. Frerking, B. C. Gaddie, T. Hammond, K. C. Kearney, M. M. Meyer, J. L. Rubin, L. Talsky, K. A. Van Wychen, S. L.

ACCIDENT
Gunter, K. B.

ADAPTATION
Hunt, M. A.

ADAPTED
Kearney, M. M. Addiction Spievak, E. R.

ADMINISTRATION
Egbert, C. K. Garrett, D. M. Pack, S. M. Thomas, T. R. White, B. J.

ATHLETIC DIRECTOR
Pack, S. M. Thomas, T. R.

ATHLETIC TRAINER
Kearney, M. M.

ADOLESCENT
Hannibal, N. S. Lock, H. A. Wulk, E. A.

ATTENTION
Beilock, S. L. Maslovat, D.

ATTITUDE
Bradney, D. Halverson, K. S.

ADULT
Ruiz, M. D. Rampersaud, R.

BACK
Hannibal, N. S. Peterman, W. A.

ADVENTURE EDUCATION AEROBIC CAPACITY


Bolles, J. R. Karlsdottir, A. E.

BASKETBALL
Frerking, B. C. Grotenhuis, J. A. McIntyre, K. Milligan, P. E. Petitgout, M. Pizzi, J.

AGED
Gunter, K. B. Romeder, Z. M. Thompson, C. J.

ANAEROBIC CAPACITY
Brucker, L. Chong, Y. K. D. Kuipers, N. T.

BEHAVIOUR
Dean, M. L. Pennington, C. R.

BENCH PRESS
Lander, J. E.

ANTERIOR CRUCIATE
Harter, R. A. Hunt, M. A. Terrell, S. L.

BIATHLON
Higginson, B. K.

BIOMECHANICS
Benson, M. E. Birkelo, J. R. Bobick, T. G. Caster, B. L. Derrick, T. R. DeVita, P. DeVita, P. Harter, R. A. Harter, R. A. Hunt, M. A. Ingram, S. G. Karduna, A. R. Kindling, L. A. Knutzen, K. M. Lander, J. E. McCafferty, J. E. McIntyre, K.

ANTHROPOMETRY
Lock, H. A. St. John, W. E.

ANXIETY
Beilock, S. L. Rubin, L. Spievak, E. R.

ARM
Nagelkerke, P.

ART
Kim, K.

ARTERY
Burns, S.

ARTHROSCOPY
Oosthuizen, J. J.

ARTIFICIAL TURF
Hammond, J.

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Myers, R. L. Peterman, W. A. Sadeghi, H. Sawhill, J. A.

[D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PE 4451 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D, AR-DE, RPM, CAN, G] PE 4419 [D, AR-DE, RPM, FA, AV, G] PE 4460 [D, I-DE, TA] HE 760 [D, H-DE] PE 4440 [D, Q-DE, %, RC, G] RC 561 [D, Q-DE, %, T, AV, MR, RPM] PE 4399 [D, Q-DE, MAV, AV, T, SCH] HE 762 [D, L-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] HE 744 [D, E, A-DE, AV, RM, G] HE 748 [D, L-DE, RM, AV, RPM, G] HE 759 [D, A, L-DE, AV, RM, RPM] PH 1773 [D, A-DE, RPM, AV, TU] PE 4396 [D, A,Q-DE, RPM, RE, AV, T] PE 4436 [D, Q, A-DE, %, RM, AV, BON, G] PH 1769 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, A,Q, L-DE, CS, AC] PE 4462 [D-DE, T] PE 4402 [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 [D, AR-DE, AV] PE 4435 [D, E, A-DE, AV, RM, G] HE 748 [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PE 4451 [D, I-DE] PE 4455 [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 [D,A, L-DE, %, MAV, NK, G] PH 1776 [D, A-DE, %, MAV, RM, NK] PH 1777 [D, Q, L-DE, RM, AV, T, RE] PH 1772 [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 [D, A, Q-DE, AV, T, BON] HE 750 [D, L, A-DE, RM, AV, %, G] PH 1760 [D, AR-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PSY 2271 [D, AR-DE, %, TA, RM, AV, T, RPM, G] PSY 2261 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, I-DE] PE 4455 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439

CHILD
Chong, Y. K. D. Pelletier, D. J. Pennington, C. R. Volding, L. A. [D, A-DE, T, AV, RPM] HE 749 [D, Q-DE, AV, HV] PE 4390 [D, Q-DE, MR, RC, AC] HE 757 [D, IA-DE, T, FA, AC] PSY 2266 [D, Q-DE, RPM,T, MAV, AV] PSY 2276 [D, A,Q, L-DE, CS, AC] PE 4462 [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 4417 [D, CH-DE] PE 4423 [D, Q-DE, MR, RC, AC] HE 757 [D, DA, I-DE] PE 4443 [D, I-DE, %, MAV, G] HE 754 [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 [D, Q, A-DE, %, RM, AV, BON, G] PH 1769 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, AC, BON, RPM, G] PE 4429 [D, Q-DE, FA, MAV] PE 4389 [D, Q, S-DE, AV, MR, RC] PSY 2277 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392 [D, Q, I-DE, U] PE 4444 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, Q-DE, FA, MAV] PE 4389 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, RPM, MAV] PSY 2262 [D, TC-DE, AV, RM, GG, TU, G] PSY 2263 [D, Q, E-DE, MAV, AV RM, MR] PSY 2267 [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, M, Q-DE, AV, T, MR] PSY 2273 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, Q-DE, RPM] PSY 2272

BLACKS
Armstead, C. C. B. Hawkins, C. M. Sargent, L. A. Willming, C. L.

CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Kim, J. Taylor, I. W.

BLINDNESS
Robinson, B. L.

CHIROPRACTIC
McCafferty, J. E.

BLOCKING
Miller, J.

CHOREOGRAPHY
Grover-Haskin, K.

BLOOD FLOW
Weise, C. L.

CHRISTIANITY
Pennington, C. R. Sneddon, R. B.

BLOOD GLUCOSE
Barrett, S. A.

BLOOD VESSEL
Burns, S.

CHRONIC DISEASE
Romeder, Z. M.

BODY COMPOSITION
Lock, H. A. St. John, W. E. Wingo, J. E.

CLINIC
Ryan, M. B.

CLOTHING
Wingo, J. E.

BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION BONE DENSITY


Gunter, K. B.

CLUBHEAD
Thompson, C. J.

BONE DEVELOPMENT
Taylor, I. W.

COACH
Bradney, D. Meyer, J. L. Pizzi, J. Terrell, S. L. Van Wychen, S. L.

BOY
Grotenhuis, J. A. Mani, M. J.

BRACE
Knutzen, K. M.

COACHING
Bradney, D. Pizzi, J. Van Wychen, S. L.

BRACHIAL ARTERY
Weise, C. L.

COACHING BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT SYSTEM COGNITION


Magyar, T. M.

BRITISH COLUMBIA
Ryan, M. B.

BUTTOCK
Myers, R. L.

COGNITIVE STYLE
Maslovat, D.

CANADA
Darnell, S. C. Murtaza, S. Ryan, M. B.

COMMITMENT
Dean, M. L.

COMMUNITY
Mani, M. J.

CARBOHYDRATE
Hagobian, T. A. Miller, M. R. Halliwill, J. R. Murtaza, S. Smith, C. D.

COMPARATIVE STUDY
Van Wychen, S. L. Kearney, M. M.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

COMPETENCY-BASED INSTRUCTION COMPETITION


Rubin, L. Van Wychen, S. L.

CELL
Garner, D. J. P.

COMPETITIVE BEHAVIOUR COMPLIANCE


Van Wychen, S. L. Wilson, C. C.

CEREBELLUM
van Donkelaar, P. Adomaitis, L. G.

CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDER CERTIFICATION


Kearney, M. M.

COMPUTER
Wirakartakusumah [D, Q-DE, RPM, AV, RD] PE 4409

CONCENTRATION
Maslovat, D. [D, TC-DE, AV, RM, GG, TU, G] PSY 2263 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559 [D, TC-DE, AV, RM, GG, TU, G] PSY 2263

CHAMPIONSHIP
Darnell, S. C. Gaddie, T.

CONNECTICUT
Wu, C. Maslovat, D.

CONTEXTUAL INTERFERENCE

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

COORDINATION
Nagelkerke, P. [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, T, G] PSY 2265 [D, A, L-DE, AV, RM, RPM] PH 1773 [D, M, AR-DE, RPM, G] PE 4456 [D, CH-DE] PE 4423 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559 [D, A-DE, RM, AV, G] PH 1761 [D, AR-DE] PH 1775 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, COM-DE] PH 1768 [D, A-DE, RC,RM, AV, CV, RPM, G] PH 1771 [D, E-DE] PH 1764 [D-DE] PE 4420 [D, CH-DE] PE 4423 [D, H-DE] PE 4440 [D-DE] PE 4424 [D-DE] PE 4426 [D-DE] PE 4428 [D, DA, I-DE] PE 4443 [D, IA-DE, T, FA, AC] PSY 2266 [D-DE, %, G] HE 743 [D, L-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] HE 744

CORONARY DISEASE
Burns, S.

CORRELATION
Derrick, T. R.

Kearney, M. M. Pelletier, D. J. Terrell, S. L. Thomas, T. R. Willming, C. L.

[D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, Q-DE, AV, HV] PE 4390 [D, Q, I-DE, U] PE 4444 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4438 [D, Q-DE, %, T, AV, MR, RPM] PE 4399 [D, A, Q-DE, T] PE 4421 [D-DE, %, G] HE 743 [D, DA, IA-DE, CS, %] HE 761 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PE 4451 [D, Q-DE, AV, HV] PE 4390 [D, Q-DE, RE, %, G] PE 4401 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, I, SD-DE, TA] PSY 2274 [D, Q-DE, %, G] HE 752 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559 [D, L, Q, A-DE, RE, %, AV, TU, G] PH 1767 [D, L, A-DE, %, T] PE 4400 [D, AR-DE] PH 1775 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, RC, RM, AV, RPM, T, %, G] HE 755 [D, Q-DE, FA, AV, RM, G] PSY 2258 [D, A-DE, RM, AV, G] PH 1761 [D, A-DE, %, MAV, RM, NK] PH 1777 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4438 [D, AR-DE, %, TA, RM, AV, T, RPM, G] PSY 2261 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU] PH 1762 [D, COM-DE] PH 1768 [D, AR, A-DE, T] PE 4412 [D, Q, S, IA-DE, RC, FA] PSY 2270 [D, L-DE, RM, AV, RPM, G] HE 759 [D, Q-DE, %, G] HE 752 [D-DE, %, G] HE 743 [D, Q-DE, AV, RD, BON, T, G] HE 753 [D, AR-DE] PH 1775 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, COM-DE] PH 1768 [D, A-DE, RC,RM, AV, CV, RPM, G] PH 1771 [D, A, Q-DE, AV, T, BON] HE 750 [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 [D, L, A-DE, %, T] PE 4400 [D, L-DE, AV, RM, LSD, RPM, MR] PH 1770 [D, I-DE, TA] HE 760 [D, A, L-DE, AV, RM, RPM] PH 1773

ELBOW
Cutler, A. J. Crenshaw, B. D. Grall, S. K.

CREATIVITY
Grover-Haskin, K.

ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY ELECTROMYOGRAPHY
Myers, R. L.

CULTURE
Wu, C.

CYCLING
Brucker, L. Fredrick, D. Hunt, M. A. Lanigan, E. Murphy, O. F. Rust, J.

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Pelletier, D. J.

ELITE ATHLETE
Cimbalnik, A. M. Van Wychen, S. L. Veit-Hartley, S.

DANCE
Andrzejewski, C. E. Grover-Haskin, K. Hawkins, C. M. Kim, K. Ozmun, L. M. Scott, A. Sneddon, R. B.

EMPLOYEE
Bryan, A. E. Wu, C.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Daly, W.

ENDURANCE
Abel, M. G. Fredrick, D. Hannibal, N. S. Ricciuti, D. P.

DEAFNESS
Volding, L. A.

DIAGNOSIS
Crenshaw, B. D.

DIAPHRAGM
Miller, J.

ENERGY METABOLISM
Brucker, L. Miller, M. R.

DIET
Murtaza, S. [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 Schuster-Decker, R. [D-DE, %, RM, AV, TU] HE 747

EQUALITY
Thomas, T. R.

DIETARY FAT
Hagobian, T. A. Miller, M. R. Hagobian, T. A. [D,A, L-DE, %, MAV, NK, G] PH 1776 [D, A-DE, %, MAV, RM, NK] PH 1777 [D,A, L-DE, %, MAV, NK, G] PH 1776 [D, Q-DE, %, T, AV, MR, RPM] PE 4399 [D-DE, %, G] HE 743 [D, Q, L-DE, RM, AV, T, RE] PH 1772 [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 [D, A, Q-DE, AV, T, BON] HE 750 [D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, L-DE, %, RPM] PH 1778 [D, A-DE, RM, AV, G] PH 1761 [D, E-DE] PH 1764 [D, Q-DE] PE 4416 [D, DA-DE, T, AV, CS] PE 4393 [D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU] PH 1762 [D, Q-DE, FA, MAV] PE 4389 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4413

EQUILIBRIUM
Adomaitis, L. G. Gunter, K. B.

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION DISCRIMINATION


Willming, C. L.

ERGOMETRY
Donahue, M. D. Lanigan, E.

DISEASE
Crenshaw, B. D. Halliwill, J. R. Murtaza, S. Smith, C. D.

ERGONOMICS
Foggiano, P. H.

ESCAPE
Spievak, E. R.

EVALUATION
Barrett, S. A. Bryan, A. E. Crenshaw, B. D. Egbert, C. K. Fredrick, D. Kearney, M. M. Lanigan, E. Murphy, O. F. Smith, C. D.

DISLOCATION
Karduna, A. R.

DISTANCE
Bolles, J. R. Brucker, L. Rust, J.

DIVISION III
Pack, S. M.

DOCUMENTATION
White, B. J.

EXAMINATION
Murtaza, S.

DYNAMOMETRY
Donahue, M. D.

EXERCISE
Abel, M. G. Anning, J. H. Armstead, C. C. B. Burns, S.

EATING DISORDER
Bradney, D.

EDUCATION
Frerking, B. C.

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Donahue, M. D. Hagobian, T. A. Halliwill, J. R. Hannibal, N. S.

[D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU] PH 1762 [D,A, L-DE, %, MAV, NK, G] PH 1776 [D, Q, L-DE, RM, AV, T, RE] PH 1772 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, RC, RM, AV, RPM, T, %, G] HE 755 Higginson, B. K. [D, Q, L-DE, MAV, RM, SCH, G] PE 4447 Karlsdottir, A. E. [D, E-DE, %, AV, RM, TU, G] PH 1763 Keller, C. P. [D, A-DE, FA, RM, AV, RPM, SEE, RC, G] PE 4449 Kuebel, D. [D, Q-DE, T] PSY 2269 McCafferty, J. E. [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 4417 Miller, M. R. [D, A-DE, %, MAV, RM, NK] PH 1777 Murphy, O. F. [D, A-DE, RC,RM, AV, CV, RPM, G] PH 1771 Murtaza, S. [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 Myers, R. L. [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PE 4451 Pennington, C. R. [D, Q-DE, MR, RC, AC] HE 757 Rauzon, T. A. [D, Q-DE, %, MAV, AV, CS] HE 758 Romeder, Z. M. [D, I-DE, %, MAV, G] HE 754 Ruiz, M. D. [D, S, Q, I-DE, FA, AV, T, G] PSY 2259 Schuenke, M. [D, AR, L-DE, %, RM, AV, SCH, G] PH 1765 Schuster-Decker, R. [D-DE, %, RM, AV, TU] HE 747 Smith, C. D. [D, A, Q-DE, AV, T, BON] HE 750 Spievak, E. R. [D, Q, S, IA-DE, RC, FA] PSY 2270 St. John, W. E. [D, Q, L-DE, T, RPM, WI, G] HE 756 Tzovanis, M. [D, E, A-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PH 1774 Wilson, C. C. [D, Q-DE, RPM] PSY 2272 Wulk, E. A. [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410

FUND RAISING
Turano, C. [D, I-DE] PE 4452 [D, AR-DE, %, TA, RM, AV, T, RPM, G] PSY 2261 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 4417 [D, AR-DE, RPM, CAN, G] PE 4419

GAIT
Adomaitis, L. G. Hunt, M. A. McCafferty, J. E. Sadeghi, H.

GAME
Wirakartakusumah [D, Q-DE, RPM, AV, RD] PE 4409

GIRL
Davidson, K. [D, AR-DE, T, RPM] PE 4422 Mani, M. J. [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 McDonough, M. H. [D, Q-DE, %, RC, RPM, RD, MR, RE] PSY 2264

GLENOHUMERAL JOINT
Karduna, A. R. [D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, E, A-DE, AV, RM, G] HE 748 [D, Q-DE, T] PSY 2269 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, AC, BON, RPM, G] PE 4429 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, AR, A-DE, T] PE 4412 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, AR, MA-DE, G] PE 4432 [D, AR-DE, AV, RM, G] PE 4445 [D, AR, M-DE, MR, WI, G] PE 4441 [D, AR-DE, T, RPM] PE 4422 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, T, G] PSY 2265 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, Q-DE, %, MAV, AV, CS] HE 758 [D, Q-DE] PE 4407 [D, Q-DE, FA, MAV] PE 4389 [D, A-DE, T, AV, RPM] HE 749 [D, Q-DE, T] PSY 2269 [D, Q, L-DE, T, RPM, WI, G] HE 756 [D, Q-DE, %, G] HE 752 [D, Q-DE, AV, RD, BON, T, G] HE 753 [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 [D, Q-DE, DEL] HE 745 [D, Q-DE, %, G] HE 752 [D, Q-DE, AV, RD, BON, T, G] HE 753 [D, Q-DE, MAV, AV, T, SCH] HE 762 [D-DE, %, G] HE 743 [D, A, Q-DE, AV, T, BON] HE 750 [D, DA, IA-DE, CS, %] HE 761 [D, E-DE, %, AV, RM, TU, G] PH 1763 [D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PH 1766

GLUCOSE
Weise, C. L.

GOAL SETTING
Kuebel, D. Thompson, C. J.

GOLF TEST OF ATTENTIONAL STYLE GRAVITATION


Caster, B. L.

FAILURE
Beilock, S. L. [D, Q-DE, AV, G] PSY 2275 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, Q-DE, MR, RC, AC] HE 757

GRIP
Foggiano, P. H. Caster, B. L. DeVita, P. Harter, R. A. Ingram, S. G.

FALLING
Gunter, K. B.

GROUND REACTION FORCE

FAMILY
Pennington, C. R.

FANTASY
Wirakartakusumah [D, Q-DE, RPM, AV, RD] PE 4409

GYMNASTICS
Davidson, K.

FATIGUE
Daly, W. Garner, D. J. P. Kindling, L. A. [D, L, Q, A-DE, RE, %, AV, TU, G] PH 1767 [D, L, A-DE, RM, AV, %, G] PH 1760 [D, AR-DE] PE 4450 [D, CH-DE] PE 4423 [D, AR, A-DE, T] PE 4412 [D, AR, MA-DE, G] PE 4432 [D, AR, MA-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4431 [D, Q-DE] PE 4458 [D, Q, S-DE, %, T, RPM] PSY 2260 [D, Q, DA-DE, T] PE 4437 [D, AR-DE, AV, RM] PE 4459

HAND
Nagelkerke, P.

HANDICAPPED
Kearney, M. M. Rauzon, T. A. Reigstad, A. C.

FEMINISM
Grover-Haskin, K.

FINGER
Foggiano, P. H.

HEALTH
Bradney, D. Chong, Y. K. D. Kuebel, D. St. John, W. E.

FOOT
DeVita, P. DeVita, P.

FOOTBALL
Hammond, J.

HEALTH CARE
Bryan, A. E. Egbert, C. K. Murtaza, S.

FOREIGN STUDENT
Sato, N.

FRANCHISE
Thomas, T. R.

HEALTH EDUCATION
Randall, P. L.

FREE THROW
Milligan, P. E.

HEALTH PROMOTION
Bryan, A. E. Egbert, C. K. Robinson, B. L.

FRIENDSHIP
McDonough, M. H. [D, Q-DE, %, RC, RPM, RD, MR, RE] PSY 2264

HEART
Crenshaw, B. D. Smith, C. D.

FUN RUN
Ryan, M. B. [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741

FUNCTIONALISM
Gunter, K. B.

HEART DISEASE
Grall, S. K. Karlsdottir, A. E. Voelker, S. A.

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HEART RATE
Karlsdottir, A. E. Tzovanis, M. [D, E-DE, %, AV, RM, TU, G] PH 1763 [D, E, A-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PH 1774 [D, MA-DE, G] PE 4433 [D, L-DE, AV, RM, LSD, RPM, MR] PH 1770 [D, Q, L-DE, RM, AV, T, RE] PH 1772 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439 [D, AR-DE, AV, RM, G] PE 4445 [D, A,Q, L-DE, CS, AC] PE 4462 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439 [D, H-DE] PE 4440 [D, DA, I-DE] PE 4443 [D, L, Q, A-DE, RE, %, AV, TU, G] PH 1767 [D, L-DE, AV, RM, TU] PE 4448 [D, E, A-DE, AV, RM, G] HE 748

ISOTONIC
Lander, J. E. [D, AR, TC-DE, FA, AV, %, G] PE 4442 [D, Q-DE] PE 4416 [D, Q-DE, AV, RD, BON, T, G] HE 753 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559 [D, AR-DE, AV, RM, G] PE 4445 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, MA, AR, A-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4415 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4438 [D, AR, Q-DE, RPM, AV, T, G] PE 4446 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, AR-DE, AV] PE 4435 [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 4417 [D, MA, AR, A-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4415 [D, L, A-DE, G] PE 4397 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439 [D, IA, Q-DE, %, T] HE 746 [D, Q-DE, RPM,T, MAV, AV] PSY 2276 [D-DE] PE 4424 [D, L-DE, %, RPM] PH 1778 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, T, G] PSY 2265 [D, DA-DE, T, AV, CS] PE 4393 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, RPM, MAV] PSY 2262 [D, Q, S-DE, AV, MR, RC] PSY 2277 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559 [D, TC-DE, AV, RM, GG, TU, G] PSY 2263 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 4417 [D, AR-DE, RPM, FA, AV, G] PE 4460 [D, Q-DE] PE 4407 [D, DA-DE, T, AV, CS] PE 4393 [D, Q-DE, %, RC, G] RC 561 [D, A, Q-DE, T, CS] HE 751 [D, Q-DE, %, T, AV, MR, RPM] PE 4399 [D, DA-DE, T, AV, CS] PE 4393 [D, TC, A, AR-DE, RM, T, AV, G] PE 4394 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D, AR, Q-DE, RPM, AV, T, G] PE 4446 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395

HEART VENTRICLE
Karduna, A. R.

JOB ANALYSIS
Pack, S. M.

HEMODYNAMICS
Anning, J. H. Halliwill, J. R.

JOB SATISFACTION
Egbert, C. K. Wu, C.

JUDO
Harter, R. A.

HERO
Gaddie, T.

JUMPING
Caster, B. L. McIntyre, K.

HIP THROW
Harter, R. A.

HISTOLOGY
Taylor, I. W.

KANSAS
Thomas, T. R.

HISTORY
Gaddie, T. Hawkins, C. M. Sneddon, R. B.

KNEE
Harter, R. A. Hunt, M. A. Knutzen, K. M. McCafferty, J. E. McIntyre, K. Oosthuizen, J. J.

HORMONE
Daly, W.

HYDROCORTISONE
Kastberg, L. S.

KNOWLEDGE LEVEL
Gaddie, T. Reynolds, T. L.

HYPEREMIA
Weise, C. L.

KOREA
Kim, J.

HYPERTENSION
Schuster-Decker, R. [D-DE, %, RM, AV, TU] HE 747

LABANANALYSIS
Kim, K.

IMAGERY
Ricciuti, D. P. [D, Q-DE, FA, AV, RM, G] PSY 2258 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, SCH, LSD] PE 4406 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, AV, T,G] PE 4411 [D, Q-DE, RE, %, G] PE 4401 [D, Q-DE, %, AV, CS, RE, T,G] PE 4454 [D, A, Q-DE, T] PE 4421 [D, Q-DE] PE 4458 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, Q, A-DE, T, G] PE 4414 [D, MA, AR, A-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4415 [D, Q, S, IA-DE, RC, FA] PSY 2270 [D, Q, I-DE, U] PE 4444 [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410 [D, L-DE, RM, AV, RPM, G] HE 759 [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 [D, TC-DE, AV, RM, GG, TU, G] PSY 2263

LACTATE
Bolles, J. R.

IMPACT
Caster, B. L.

LANDING
Caster, B. L.

INDIVIDUALISM
Rampersaud, R.

LATERALITY
Nagelkerke, P.

INJURY
Birkelo, J. R. Cimbalnik, A. M. Comstock, R. D. Cutler, A. J. Hammond, J. Hunt, M. A. Leszun, C. N. McIntyre, K. Spievak, E. R. Terrell, S. L. Wulk, E. A.

LAW
White, B. J.

LEADERSHIP
Magyar, T. M. Meyer, J. L. Pizzi, J. Wu, C.

LEARNING
Maslovat, D.

LEG
Caster, B. L. McCafferty, J. E. Sawhill, J. A.

INSTRUMENTATION
Barrett, S. A.

INTEGRATION
Mani, M. J.

INTERFERENCE
Maslovat, D.

LEGISLATION
Reigstad, A. C. White, B. J.

INTERNET
Wirakartakusumah [D, Q-DE, RPM, AV, RD] PE 4409

LEISURE
[D, AR, TC-DE, FA, AV, %, G] PE 4442 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PE 4451 [D, AR-DE, RPM, FA, AV, G] PE 4460 [D, E-DE, %, AV, RM, TU, G] PH 1763 [D, AR, L-DE, %, RM, AV, SCH, G] PH 1765 [D, L, A-DE, %, T] PE 4400 Sargent, L. A. Spurlock, P. Willming, C. L.

ISOKINETIC
Lander, J. E. Myers, R. L. Sawhill, J. A.

LIABILITY
White, B. J.

ISOMETRIC
Karlsdottir, A. E. Schuenke, M.

LIFTING
Bobick, T. G. Peterman, W. A.

ISOMETRIC TRAINING
Abel, M. G.

LIGAMENT
Harter, R. A. Hunt, M. A.

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

Terrell, S. L.

[D, Q, I-DE, U] PE 4444 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D, AR, M-DE, MR, WI, G] PE 4441 [D, AR, Q-DE, RPM, AV, T, G] PE 4446 [D, Q, H-DE, %, AV] PE 4461 [D, TC, A, AR-DE, RM, T, AV, G] PE 4394 [D, AR,Q-DE, RM, AV, T, G] PE 4453 [D, A, Q-DE, T] PE 4421 [D, Q, A-DE, T, G] PE 4414 [D, H-DE] PE 4440 [D, A-DE, RPM, AV, TU] PE 4396 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, AC, BON, RPM, G] PE 4429 [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 [D, I-DE] PE 4455 [D, I, DA-DE] PE 4418 [D, Q, DA-DE, T] PE 4437 [D, Q-DE, RPM, AV, RD] PE 4409 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559 [D, M, AR-DE, RPM, G] PE 4456 [D, AR, M-DE, MR, WI, G] PE 4441 [D, M, AR-DE, RPM, G] PE 4456 [D, AR, MA-DE, G] PE 4432 [D, AR, MA-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4431 [D, AR-DE] PH 1775 [D, A-DE, RPM, AV, TU] PE 4396 [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410 [D, MA-DE, G] PE 4433 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D, I-DE] PE 4455 [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 [D, Q-DE, RPM,T, MAV, AV] PSY 2276 [D, COM-DE] PH 1768 [D,A, L-DE, %, MAV, NK, G] PH 1776 [D, A-DE, %, MAV, RM, NK] PH 1777 [D, E-DE] PH 1764 [D, A,Q, L-DE, CS, AC] PE 4462 [D, E, A-DE, AV, RM, G] HE 748 [D, L, A-DE, G] PE 4397 [D, Q-DE, AV, HV] PE 4390 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410

Hawkins, C. M.

[D, H-DE] PE 4440 [D, AR-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PSY 2271 [D, Q-DE, RPM, MR, BON] PSY 2268 [D, Q-DE, T] PSY 2269 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, RPM, MAV] PSY 2262 [D, Q, S-DE, AV, MR, RC] PSY 2277 [D, S, Q, I-DE, FA, AV, T, G] PSY 2259 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, T, G] PSY 2265 [D, Q-DE, RPM,T, MAV, AV] PSY 2276 [D, IA-DE, T, FA, AC] PSY 2266 [D, TC, A, AR-DE, RM, T, AV, G] PE 4394 [D, M, AR-DE, RPM, G] PE 4456 [D, AR, MA-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4431 [D, AR, MA-DE, G] PE 4432 [D, AR, Q-DE, RPM, AV, T, G] PE 4446 [D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, T, G] PSY 2265 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D, AR-DE, RPM, FA, AV, G] PE 4460 [D-DE] PE 4424 [D, L, A-DE, RM, AV, %, G] PH 1760 [D, AR,Q-DE, RM, AV, T, G] PE 4453 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, AR, A-DE, T] PE 4412 [D, L, A-DE, RM, AV, %, G] PH 1760 [D, Q-DE, T] PE 4425 [D, Q, A-DE, T, G] PE 4414 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PE 4451 [D, Q-DE, FA, AV, RM, G] PSY 2258 [D, AR-DE, RPM, FA, AV, G] PE 4460 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D-DE, %, G] HE 743 [D, Q, DA-DE, T] PE 4437 [D, DA, Q-DE, %] PE 4457 [D, Q-DE] PE 4416 [D, I-DE] PE 4452 [D, Q, DA-DE, T] PE 4437 [D, IA, Q-DE, %, T] HE 746 [D, Q, I-DE, U] PE 4444 [D,A, L-DE, %, MAV, NK, G] PH 1776 [D, A-DE, T, AV, RPM] HE 749 [D, DA, IA-DE, CS, %] HE 761 [D, Q-DE, %, MAV, AV, CS] HE 758 [D, I-DE] PE 4455

LOADING
Caster, B. L. Peterman, W. A.

MOTION PERCEPTION
van Donkelaar, P.

LOCOMOTION
Ingram, S. G. Harter, R. A. Talsky, K. A.

MOTIVATION
Hammond, K. C. Kuebel, D. Magyar, T. M. Meyer, J. L. Ruiz, M. D.

LONGITUDINAL STUDY LUMBAR VERTEBRAE


Bobick, T. G. Benson, M. E. Cutler, A. J. Leszun, C. N.

MOTOR CONTROL
Nagelkerke, P. Kim, J. Volding, L. A.

LUMBOSACRAL REGION MAGNETIC FIELD THERAPY MAINSTREAMING


Hawkins, C. M.

MOTOR DEVELOPMENT MOVEMENT


Bobick, T. G. Derrick, T. R. DeVita, P. DeVita, P. Harter, R. A. Karduna, A. R. Nagelkerke, P. Peterman, W. A. Sawhill, J. A. Kim, K.

MAN
Lock, H. A. Thompson, C. J.

MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES
Murtaza, S.

MARKETING
Darnell, S. C. Rosaaen, K. R. Thomas, T. R. Wirakartakusumah

MOVEMENT AWARENESS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS


Garner, D. J. P.

MASSACHUSETTS
Wu, C. Derrick, T. R. Ingram, S. G.

MUSCLE
Benson, M. E. Caster, B. L. Foggiano, P. H. Garner, D. J. P. Kuipers, N. T. Leszun, C. N. Myers, R. L. Ricciuti, D. P. Sawhill, J. A. Peterman, W. A. Crenshaw, B. D. Thomas, T. R. Garrett, D. M. Pack, S. M. Turano, C. Thomas, T. R.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL MEASUREMENT


Derrick, T. R. DeVita, P. DeVita, P. Fredrick, D. Lock, H. A. Wulk, E. A.

MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM MYOCARDIAL DISEASE NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION

MECHANIC
Karduna, A. R. Peterman, W. A.

MEDIA COVERAGE
Darnell, S. C.

MEDICATION
Murtaza, S. Kim, J. Lanigan, E.

MENTAL RETARDATION METABOLIC CLEARANCE RATE METABOLISM


Hagobian, T. A. Miller, M. R. Rust, J. Taylor, I. W. Weise, C. L.

NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE NEOPLASM


Reynolds, T. L. Terrell, S. L.

NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM NUTRITION


Hagobian, T. A.

OBESITY
Chong, Y. K. D.

METHOD
Oosthuizen, J. J. Pelletier, D. J. Van Wychen, S. L. Wulk, E. A.

OBSERVATION
Grall, S. K.

OBSTACLE
Rauzon, T. A.

MODERN DANCE

OLYMPIC GAMES
Darnell, S. C.

54

Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Wu, C. [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559 [D, TC, A, AR-DE, RM, T, AV, G] PE 4394 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, AV, T,G] PE 4411 [D, A-DE, RM, AV, G] PH 1761 [D, A-DE, T, AV, RPM] HE 749 [D, AR, L-DE, %, RM, AV, SCH, G] PH 1765 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, RC, RM, AV, RPM, T, %, G] HE 755 [D, Q-DE, FA, AV, RM, G] PSY 2258 [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 [D, IA-DE, T, FA, AC] PSY 2266 [D, Q-DE, MR, RC, AC] HE 757 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559

Reigstad, A. C. Robinson, B. L.

[D, Q-DE] PE 4407 [D, Q-DE, MAV, AV, T, SCH] HE 762 [D, A-DE, T, AV, RPM] HE 749 [D, Q, E-DE, MAV, AV RM, MR] PSY 2267 [D, Q-DE, MR, RC, AC] HE 757 [D, Q-DE, %, MAV, AV, CS] HE 758 [D, Q-DE, %, RC, G] RC 561 [D, A, Q-DE, T, CS] HE 751 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, AC, BON, RPM, G] PE 4429 [D, AR-DE, %, TA, RM, AV, T, RPM, G] PSY 2261 [D, Q, L-DE, RM, AV, T, RE] PH 1772 [D, COM-DE] PH 1768 [D, E, A-DE, AV, RM, G] HE 748 [D, L, A-DE, %, T] PE 4400 [D, L-DE, AV, RM, LSD, RPM, MR] PH 1770 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, AV, T,G] PE 4411 [D, TC, A, AR-DE, RM, T, AV, G] PE 4394 [D, L-DE, %, RPM] PH 1778 [D, A-DE, RM, AV, G] PH 1761 [D, AR, A-DE, AV, RE, RM] PE 4430 [D, A, Q-DE, T] PE 4421 [D, L, Q, A-DE, RE, %, AV, TU, G] PH 1767 [D, AR-DE, T, RPM] PE 4422 [D, AR, MA-DE, G] PE 4432 [D, AR, MA-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4431 [D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU] PH 1762 [D, AR-DE] PH 1775 [D, L, A-DE, RM, AV, %, G] PH 1760 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, Q, L-DE, MAV, RM, SCH, G] PE 4447 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, E-DE, %, AV, RM, TU, G] PH 1763 [D, A-DE, FA, RM, AV, RPM, SEE, RC, G] PE 4449 [D, Q-DE, T] PE 4425 [D, L-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] HE 744 [D, A-DE, RC,RM, AV, CV, RPM, G] PH 1771 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D, Q-DE, FA, AV, RM, G] PSY 2258 [D, E-DE] PH 1764 [D, AR, L-DE, %, RM, AV, SCH, G] PH 1765 [D, E, A-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PH 1774 [D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PH 1766 [D, E, A-DE, AV, RM, G] HE 748 [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, AV, T,G] PE 4411 [D, L-DE, AV, RM, LSD, RPM, MR] PH 1770 [D, Q, L-DE, T, RPM, WI, G] HE 756 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, AV, T,G] PE 4411 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, RC, RM, AV, RPM, T, %, G] HE 755

ORIENTATION
Bobick, T. G.

PHYSICAL FITNESS
Chong, Y. K. D. Dean, M. L. Pennington, C. R. Rauzon, T. A. Sargent, L. A. Spurlock, P. Thompson, C. J.

OVERHEAD
Birkelo, J. R. Brucker, L. Chong, Y. K. D. Schuenke, M.

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION

PAIN
Hannibal, N. S. Ricciuti, D. P. Ryan, M. B.

PHYSICAL THERAPY
Adomaitis, L. G.

PHYSIOLOGIC MONITORING
Halliwill, J. R. Lanigan, E. Weise, C. L.

PARENT
Volding, L. A. Pennington, C. R.

PARENT-CHILD RELATION PARK


Wu, C.

PHYSIOLOGY
Abel, M. G. Anning, J. H. Birkelo, J. R. Bobick, T. G. Bolles, J. R. Brucker, L. Caster, B. L. Cutler, A. J. Daly, W. Davidson, K. DeVita, P. DeVita, P. Donahue, M. D. Fredrick, D. Garner, D. J. P. Gunter, K. B. Higginson, B. K. Hunt, M. A. Karlsdottir, A. E. Keller, C. P. Kuipers, N. T. Miller, J. Murphy, O. F. Peterman, W. A. Ricciuti, D. P. Rust, J. Schuenke, M. Tzovanis, M. Voelker, S. A. Weise, C. L. Wulk, E. A.

PARTICIPATION
Kuebel, D. [D, Q-DE, T] PSY 2269 Mani, M. J. [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 McDonough, M. H. [D, Q-DE, %, RC, RPM, RD, MR, RE] PSY 2264

PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME


Oosthuizen, J. J. [D, L, A-DE, G] PE 4397 [D, AR-DE, %, TA, RM, AV, T, RPM, G] PSY 2261 [D, A, L-DE, AV, RM, RPM] PH 1773 [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 4417 [D, AR-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PSY 2271 [D, DA, IA-DE, CS, %] HE 761 [D-DE, T] PE 4402 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D-DE] PE 4424 [D, TC-DE, AV, RM, GG, TU, G] PSY 2263 [D, Q-DE, %, T, AV, MR, RPM] PE 4399

PATHOLOGY
Adomaitis, L. G. Burns, S. McCafferty, J. E. van Donkelaar, P.

PATIENT ADVOCACY
Grall, S. K.

PERCEIVED EXERTION
Grotenhuis, J. A.

PERCEPTION
Kearney, M. M. Kim, K. Maslovat, D. Willming, C. L.

PERFORMING ARTS
Andrzejewski, C. E. [D-DE] PE 4420 Grover-Haskin, K. [D, CH-DE] PE 4423 Ozmun, L. M. [D-DE] PE 4426

PERSONAL SPACE
Scott, A. Wu, C. [D-DE] PE 4428 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439 [D-DE] PE 4424 [D-DE] PE 4428 [D, DA, I-DE] PE 4443 [D, I, SD-DE, TA] PSY 2274 [D-DE, T] PE 4402 [D, Q-DE, AV, CA, %] PE 4403 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, Q-DE, AV, HV] PE 4390 [D, JA-DE, AV, %] PE 4427

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY


Gaddie, T. Kim, K. Scott, A. Sneddon, R. B. Veit-Hartley, S.

PITCHING
Birkelo, J. R.

PLASMA VOLUME
Anning, J. H.

PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME
St. John, W. E.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Grotenhuis, J. A. Halverson, K. S. Kearney, M. M. Pelletier, D. J. Petitgout, M.

PREVENTION
Birkelo, J. R. Gunter, K. B. Hannibal, N. S.

55

Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

Karduna, A. R. McIntyre, K. Murtaza, S. Reynolds, T. L. Terrell, S. L.

[D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, MA, AR, A-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4415 [D, Q-DE, %, CS, FET] HE 742 [D, IA, Q-DE, %, T] HE 746 [D, Q, I-DE, U] PE 4444 [D, Q-DE, AV, RD, BON, T, G] HE 753 [D, Q-DE, DEL] HE 745 [D, Q-DE, %, G] HE 752 [D, A, Q-DE, T, CS] HE 751 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, T, G] PSY 2265 [D, AR-DE] PH 1775 [D-DE] PE 4420 [D, I-DE, TA] HE 760 [D, Q-DE, AV, G] PSY 2275 [D, Q-DE, FA, MAV] PE 4389 [D, Q, E-DE, MAV, AV RM, MR] PSY 2267 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439 [D, Q-DE, RPM, MR, BON] PSY 2268 [D, Q-DE, T] PSY 2269 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, RPM, MAV] PSY 2262 [D, TC-DE, AV, RM, GG, TU, G] PSY 2263 [D, Q-DE, %, RC, RPM, RD, MR, RE] PSY 2264 [D, Q, S-DE, AV, MR, RC] PSY 2277 [D-DE] PE 4426 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392 [D, Q-DE, %, MAV, AV, CS] HE 758 [D, Q-DE, FA, AV, RM, G] PSY 2258 [D, I-DE, %, MAV, G] HE 754 [D, M, Q-DE, AV, T, MR] PSY 2273 [D, S, Q, I-DE, FA, AV, T, G] PSY 2259 [D, Q, S, IA-DE, RC, FA] PSY 2270 [D, A, Q-DE, T, CS] HE 751 [D, I, SD-DE, TA] PSY 2274 [D, Q-DE, RPM] PSY 2272 [D, IA, Q-DE, %, T] HE 746 [D, L-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] HE 744 [D, AR, L-DE, %, RM, AV, SCH, G] PH 1765 [D, AR-DE] PE 4450 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, SCH, LSD] PE 4406 [D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, A-DE, T, AV, RPM] HE 749 [D, AR, Q-DE, RPM, AV, T, G] PE 4446 [D, Q-DE] PE 4407 [D, Q-DE, %, RC, G] RC 561 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, AC, BON, RPM, G] PE 4429 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559

REHABILITATION
Adomaitis, L. G. Crenshaw, B. D. Grall, S. K. Harter, R. A. Hunt, M. A. Karduna, A. R. Karlsdottir, A. E. Knutzen, K. M. Oosthuizen, J. J. Smith, C. D. Voelker, S. A. [D, AR-DE, %, TA, RM, AV, T, RPM, G] PSY 2261 [D-DE, %, G] HE 743 [D, DA, IA-DE, CS, %] HE 761 [D, AR, Q-DE, RPM, AV, T, G] PE 4446 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, E-DE, %, AV, RM, TU, G] PH 1763 [D, AR-DE, AV] PE 4435 [D, L, A-DE, G] PE 4397 [D, A, Q-DE, AV, T, BON] HE 750 [D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PH 1766 [D, DA, I-DE] PE 4443 [D, E, A-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PH 1774 [D, AR-DE, %, TA, RM, AV, T, RPM, G] PSY 2261 [D, L, A-DE, RM, AV, %, G] PH 1760 [D, L-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] HE 744 [D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PH 1766 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, MA, AR, A-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4415 [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, RPM, MAV] PSY 2262 [D, Q-DE, %, AV, CS, RE, T,G] PE 4454 [D, L-DE, %, RPM] PH 1778 [D, AR, MA-DE, G] PE 4432 [D, AR, MA-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4431 [D, Q, L-DE, MAV, RM, SCH, G] PE 4447 [D, AR-DE] PE 4450 [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 [D, Q-DE] PE 4458 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 [D, Q-DE, FA, MAV] PE 4389 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4413 [D-DE, T] PE 4402 [D, Q-DE, AV, CA, %] PE 4403 [D, JA-DE, AV, %] PE 4427 [D, Q, H-DE, %, AV] PE 4461 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4438 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4413 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439

PROFESSIONAL
Egbert, C. K. Randall, P. L.

PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION PROGRAM


Bryan, A. E. Spurlock, P.

PROPRIOCEPTION
Nagelkerke, P.

RELIGION
Sneddon, R. B.

PROTOCOL
Fredrick, D.

REPAIR
Tzovanis, M. Adomaitis, L. G.

PSYCHOLOGY
Andrzejewski, C. E. Armstead, C. C. B. Beilock, S. L. Bradney, D. Dean, M. L. Gaddie, T. Hammond, K. C. Kuebel, D. Magyar, T. M. Maslovat, D. McDonough, M. H. Meyer, J. L. Ozmun, L. M. Pizzi, J. Rauzon, T. A. Ricciuti, D. P. Romeder, Z. M. Rubin, L. Ruiz, M. D. Spievak, E. R. Spurlock, P. Veit-Hartley, S. Wilson, C. C.

REPETITION TRAINING RESEARCH


Garner, D. J. P.

RESPIRATION
Miller, J. Voelker, S. A.

RETIREMENT
Gunter, K. B.

RISK
McIntyre, K. Ryan, M. B.

RISK MANAGEMENT
Gunter, K. B.

ROTATOR CUFF
Karduna, A. R.

ROWING
Magyar, T. M.

RUGBY
Comstock, R. D.

PUBLIC HEALTH
Reynolds, T. L. Miller, J. Schuenke, M.

RUNNING
Bolles, J. R. DeVita, P. DeVita, P. Higginson, B. K. Kindling, L. A. Ryan, M. B.

PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE

QUADRICEPS
Kindling, L. A.

SAFETY
Hammond, J.

QUALITY OF LIFE
Rampersaud, R.

SCHEDULING
Van Wychen, S. L.

RANGE OF MOTION
Karduna, A. R.

SCHOOL
Mani, M. J.

RECOVERY
Chong, Y. K. D. Harter, R. A.

SECONDARY SCHOOL
Bradney, D. Frerking, B. C. Grotenhuis, J. A. Halverson, K. S. Petitgout, M. Talsky, K. A. Thomas, T. R.

RECREATION
Reigstad, A. C. Sargent, L. A. Thompson, C. J. Wu, C.

SELECTION
Frerking, B. C.

SELF-ACTUALIZATION
Gaddie, T.

56

Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

SELF-CONTROL
Spievak, E. R. Robinson, B. L. [D, Q, S, IA-DE, RC, FA] PSY 2270 [D, Q-DE, MAV, AV, T, SCH] HE 762 [D, Q, E-DE, MAV, AV RM, MR] PSY 2267 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, Q-DE, %, RC, G] RC 561 [D, Q-DE, RPM] PSY 2272

Peterman, W. A.

[D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D, I, SD-DE, TA] PSY 2274 [D, I, DA-DE] PE 4418

SPIRITUALITY
Veit-Hartley, S.

SELF-DETERMINATION SELF-EFFICACY
Dean, M. L. Gunter, K. B. Sargent, L. A. Wilson, C. C.

SPONSORSHIP
Rosaaen, K. R.

SPORT
Cimbalnik, A. M. Gaddie, T. Hammond, K. C. Magyar, T. M. McDonough, M. H. [D, Q-DE, RE, %, G] PE 4401 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439 [D, Q-DE, RPM, MR, BON] PSY 2268 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, RPM, MAV] PSY 2262 [D, Q-DE, %, RC, RPM, RD, MR, RE] PSY 2264 Oosthuizen, J. J. [D, L, A-DE, G] PE 4397 Rampersaud, R. [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, SCH, LSD] PE 4406 Rosaaen, K. R. [D, I, DA-DE] PE 4418 Rubin, L. [D, M, Q-DE, AV, T, MR] PSY 2273 Thomas, T. R. [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4438 Thomas, T. R. [D, Q, DA-DE, T] PE 4437 Turano, C. [D, I-DE] PE 4452 White, B. J. [D, DA-DE, T, AV, CS] PE 4393 Wirakartakusumah [D, Q-DE, RPM, AV, RD] PE 4409

SELF-PERCEPTION
McDonough, M. H. [D, Q-DE, %, RC, RPM, RD, MR, RE] PSY 2264

SEX DISCRIMINATION
Thomas, T. R. [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4438 [D, AR, MA-DE, G] PE 4432 [D, AR, MA-DE, AV, MR, G] PE 4431 [D, Q, L-DE, MAV, RM, SCH, G] PE 4447 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, AV, T,G] PE 4411 [D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, L-DE, AV, RM, TU] PE 4448 [D, IA, Q-DE, %, T] HE 746 [D, Q, S-DE, %, T, RPM] PSY 2260 [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, SCH, LSD] PE 4406 [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 [D, Q-DE, MAV, AV, T, SCH] HE 762 [D, Q-DE, %, T, AV, MR, RPM] PE 4399 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T, G] RC 559 [D, Q, H-DE, %, AV] PE 4461 [D, Q-DE, RPM, MR, BON] PSY 2268 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, RPM, MAV] PSY 2262 [D, Q, S-DE, %, T, RPM] PSY 2260 [D, Q-DE, %, RC, G] RC 561

SHOES
DeVita, P. DeVita, P.

SHOOTING
Higginson, B. K.

SHOULDER
Birkelo, J. R.

SPORTS MEDICINE
Cimbalnik, A. M. Comstock, R. D. Ryan, M. B. [D, Q-DE, RE, %, G] PE 4401 [D, Q-DE, %, AV, CS, RE, T,G] PE 4454 [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 [D, AR, M-DE, MR, WI, G] PE 4441 [D, AR-DE, %, TA, RM, AV, T, RPM, G] PSY 2261 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, %, AV, G] PE 4391 [D-DE] PE 4428 [D, AR, A-DE, T] PE 4412 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, RC, RM, AV, RPM, T, %, G] HE 755 [D, Q-DE, T] PE 4425 [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410 [D, L, Q, A-DE, RE, %, AV, TU, G] PH 1767 [D, Q, S-DE, %, T, RPM] PSY 2260 [D, Q, S, IA-DE, RC, FA] PSY 2270 [D, Q-DE, T] PE 4425 [D, AR-DE, %, TA, RM, AV, T, RPM, G] PSY 2261 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4413 [D, Q-DE, AV, CA, %] PE 4403 [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 [D, Q-DE, DEL] HE 745 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392

SHOULDER JOINT
Karduna, A. R.

SKIN
Kastberg, L. S.

SPRINTING
Ingram, S. G.

SKIN DISEASE
Reynolds, T. L.

STABILITY
Adomaitis, L. G. Hunt, M. A.

SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR
Sato, N. Mani, M. J. Rampersaud, R. Mani, M. J. Robinson, B. L. Willming, C. L. Wu, C.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

STANCE
Peterman, W. A.

STANDING
Peterman, W. A.

STORY
Scott, A.

STRENGTH
Foggiano, P. H. Hannibal, N. S. Kuipers, N. T. Wulk, E. A.

SOCIAL PERCEPTION
Talsky, K. A.

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Hammond, K. C. Magyar, T. M. Sato, N. Sargent, L. A.

STRESS
Daly, W.

SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT SOLO


Andrzejewski, C. E. [D-DE] PE 4420

STRESS MANAGEMENT
Sato, N. Spievak, E. R.

SORENESS
Leszun, C. N. van Donkelaar, P. [D, Q, A-DE, T, G] PE 4414 [D, AR-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PSY 2271 [D, Q-DE] PE 4407 [D, E, I-DE, CS, RM] PE 4405 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, AC, BON, RPM, G] PE 4429 [D, Q-DE, RE, %, G] PE 4401 [D, AR,Q-DE, RM, AV, T, G] PE 4453 [D, TC, A, AR-DE, RM, T, AV, G] PE 4394

STRETCHING
Kuipers, N. T.

SPATIAL ORIENTATION SPECIAL EDUCATION


Reigstad, A. C.

STROKE
Adomaitis, L. G.

STUDENT
Frerking, B. C. Halverson, K. S. Mani, M. J.

SPECIAL OLYMPICS
Mani, M. J.

SPEED
Thompson, C. J.

STUDENT TEACHER
Randall, P. L.

SPEED SKATING
Cimbalnik, A. M.

STYLE
Pizzi, J.

SPINE
Benson, M. E. Bobick, T. G.

SUCCESS
Pizzi, J.

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

SUMMER
Higginson, B. K. [D, Q, L-DE, MAV, RM, SCH, G] PE 4447 [D, AR, Q-DE, RPM, AV, T, G] PE 4446 [D, MA, L, TC-DE, RM, AV, BON, G] PE 4434 [D, AR-DE, AV] PE 4435 [D, L, A-DE, G] PE 4397 [D, E, A-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PH 1774 [D, Q-DE, G] RC 560 [D, A,Q-DE, RPM, RE, AV, T] PE 4436

TIME TRIAL
Murphy, O. F. Rust, J. [D, A-DE, RC,RM, AV, CV, RPM, G] PH 1771 [D, E-DE] PH 1764 [D, MA-DE, G] PE 4433 [D, DA, Q-DE, %] PE 4457 [D, Q-DE, G] RC 560 [D, I, SD-DE, TA] PSY 2274 [D, Q-DE, RE, %, G] PE 4401 [D, AR-DE, T, RPM] PE 4422 [D, AR-DE] PH 1775 [D, Q, L-DE, MAV, RM, SCH, G] PE 4447 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, AR-DE, AV, RM] PE 4459 [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 [D, Q, I-DE, U] PE 4444 [D, IA-DE, RE, AV, RM, G] PE 4408 [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410 [D, Q-DE, %, T, AV, MR, RPM] PE 4399

SURGERY
Harter, R. A. Karduna, A. R. Knutzen, K. M. Oosthuizen, J. J. Tzovanis, M.

TISSUE
Karduna, A. R.

TITLE IX
Garrett, D. M.

SURVEY
Rusch, M.

TOURISM
Rusch, M.

SWIMMING
St. John, W. E.

TRACK AND FIELD


Veit-Hartley, S.

SYMBOLISM
Andrzejewski, C. E. [D-DE] PE 4420

TRAINING
Cimbalnik, A. M. Davidson, K. Fredrick, D. Higginson, B. K. Kearney, M. M. Milligan, P. E. Ryan, M. B. Terrell, S. L. Van Wychen, S. L. Wulk, E. A.

SYMMETRY
Bobick, T. G. Nagelkerke, P. [D, TC, A, AR-DE, RM, T, AV, G] PE 4394 [D, AR-DE, RM, AV, TU, T, G] PSY 2265 [D-DE] PE 4426 [D, Q-DE, AV, HV] PE 4390 [D, JA-DE, AV, %] PE 4427 [D-DE, T] PE 4402 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, SCH, LSD] PE 4406 [D, A-DE, RPM, AV, TU] PE 4396 [D, Q-DE, AV, HV] PE 4390 [D, Q, DA-DE, T] PE 4437 [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410 [D, MA-DE, G] PE 4433 [D-DE, %, G] HE 743 [D, L-DE, RM, AV, RPM, G] HE 759 [D, L-DE, AV, RM, TU] PE 4448 [D, A-DE, FA, RM, AV, RPM, SEE, RC, G] PE 4449 [D, A-DE, RC,RM, AV, CV, RPM, G] PH 1771 [D, AR-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PSY 2271 [D, L, Q, A-DE, RE, %, AV, TU, G] PH 1767 [D, E, A-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PH 1774

TEACHING
Ozmun, L. M. Pelletier, D. J. Petitgout, M.

TEAM
Grotenhuis, J. A.

TRAVEL
Willming, C. L.

TEAM SPORT
Rampersaud, R.

TREATMENT
Halliwill, J. R. Leszun, C. N. McCafferty, J. E. [D, Q, L-DE, RM, AV, T, RE] PH 1772 [D, Q, A-DE, T, G] PE 4414 [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 4417 Oosthuizen, J. J. [D, L, A-DE, G] PE 4397 Ricciuti, D. P. [D, Q-DE, FA, AV, RM, G] PSY 2258 Ryan, M. B. [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398 Schuster-Decker, R. [D-DE, %, RM, AV, TU] HE 747 Voelker, S. A. [D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PH 1766

TECHNIQUE
Lock, H. A. Pelletier, D. J. Thomas, T. R. Wulk, E. A.

TECHNOLOGY
Karduna, A. R.

TELEMETRY
Crenshaw, B. D.

TESTING
Barrett, S. A. Kastberg, L. S. Keller, C. P. Murphy, O. F. van Donkelaar, P.

TRIATHLON
Darnell, S. C. [D, I-DE] PE 4455 [D, AR-DE, AV, RM] PE 4459 [D, AR-DE, AV, G] PE 4410 [D, H-DE] PE 4440 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392 [D, Q-DE, %, RC, G] RC 561 [D, Q, DA-DE, T] PE 4437 [D, Q-DE, %, T, AV, MR, RPM] PE 4399 [D, Q-DE, FA, MAV] PE 4389 [D, Q-DE, %] PE 4413 [D, Q-DE, AV] PE 4404 [D, Q, A-DE, T, G] PE 4414 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, RPM, MAV] PSY 2262 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392 [D, M, Q-DE, AV, T, MR] PSY 2273 [D, Q, S-DE, %, T, RPM] PSY 2260 [D, A, Q-DE, T, CS] HE 751 [D, A,Q-DE, RPM, RE, AV, T] PE 4436 [D, I-DE] PE 4452 [D, DA-DE, T, AV, CS] PE 4393 [D, Q-DE, %, T, AV, MR, RPM] PE 4399 [D, A-DE, RC,RM, AV, CV, RPM, G] PH 1771 [D, Q-DE, AV, TU, G] PE 4398

UNDERHAND THROW
Milligan, P. E.

UNDERWATER
Wulk, E. A.

UNITED STATES
Hawkins, C. M. Pizzi, J. Sargent, L. A. Thomas, T. R. Willming, C. L.

TESTOSTERONE
Daly, W.

TETRALOGY OF FALLOT
Tzovanis, M.

UNIVERSITY
Bradney, D. Frerking, B. C. Kearney, M. M. Leszun, C. N. Magyar, T. M. Pizzi, J. Rubin, L. Sato, N. Spurlock, P. St. John, W. E. Turano, C. White, B. J. Willming, C. L.

THERAPY
Burns, S. Halliwill, J. R. Hannibal, N. S. [D, A, L-DE, AV, RM, RPM] PH 1773 [D, Q, L-DE, RM, AV, T, RE] PH 1772 [D, Q, A, AR-DE, RC, RM, AV, RPM, T, %, G] HE 755 Karlsdottir, A. E. [D, E-DE, %, AV, RM, TU, G] PH 1763 McCafferty, J. E. [D, Q, AR, MA-DE, FA, RM, AV, SCH] PE 4417 Romeder, Z. M. [D, I-DE, %, MAV, G] HE 754 Schuster-Decker, R. [D-DE, %, RM, AV, TU] HE 747 Smith, C. D. [D, A, Q-DE, AV, T, BON] HE 750 St. John, W. E. [D, Q, L-DE, T, RPM, WI, G] HE 756

THERMODYNAMICS
Wingo, J. E. [D, Q, A-DE, %, RM, AV, BON, G] PH 1769 [D, AR, A-DE, RM, AV, T,G] PE 4411

UPHILL
Murphy, O. F.

THROWING
Birkelo, J. R.

VANCOUVER
Ryan, M. B.

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

VENTILATION-PERFUSION RATIO
Schuenke, M. Voelker, S. A. [D, AR, L-DE, %, RM, AV, SCH, G] PH 1765 [D, Q-DE, RM, AV, TU, G] PH 1766 [D, AR-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PSY 2271 [D-DE] PE 4424 [D, AR-DE, T, AV, RM, G] PSY 2271 [D, E-DE] PH 1764 [D, DA-DE, T, AV, CS] PE 4393 [D, A-DE, FA, RM, AV, RPM, SEE, RC, G] PE 4449 [D, AR-DE, RPM, CAN, G] PE 4419 [D, AR, A-DE, T] PE 4412 [D, AR, TC-DE, FA, AV, %, G] PE 4442 [D, AR, L-DE, %, RM, AV, SCH, G] PH 1765 [D, I, C, P-DE, TA] PE 4439 [D, Q-DE, RPM, T] PE 4392 [D, Q-DE, AV, CA, %] PE 4403 [D, Q-DE, DEL] HE 745 [D, Q-DE, G] RC 560 [D, I-DE, TA] HE 760 [D, L-DE, %, RPM] PH 1778 [D, Q-DE, %, AV, CS, RE, T,G] PE 4454 [D, AR-DE, T, RPM] PE 4422 [D, CH-DE] PE 4423 [D, AR, Q-DE, %, AV, BON] HE 741 [D, Q, A-DE, T, G] PE 4414 [D, Q-DE, AV, FA, RPM, MAV] PSY 2262 [D, Q-DE, %, MAV, AV, CS] HE 758 [D, A, Q-DE, T, CS] HE 751 [D, A,Q-DE, RPM, RE, AV, T] PE 4436 [D, Q, L-DE, T, RPM, WI, G] HE 756 [D, I-DE] PE 4452 [D, Q-DE, %, G] HE 752 [D, Q-DE, RE, %, G] PE 4401 [D, AR-DE, RM,AV, TU, G] PE 4395 [D, Q-DE, RPM] PSY 2272

VISION
van Donkelaar, P.

VISUAL PERCEPTION
Kim, K. van Donkelaar, P.

VITAMIN B COMPLEX
Rust, J.

WAIVER
White, B. J.

WALKING
Keller, C. P. Sadeghi, H.

WEIGHTLIFTING
Foggiano, P. H. Lander, J. E. Schuenke, M.

WINNING
Gaddie, T. Pizzi, J.

WISCONSIN
Halverson, K. S. Randall, P. L. Rusch, M.

WOMAN
Armstead, C. C. B. Bolles, J. R. Comstock, R. D. Davidson, K. Grover-Haskin, K. Gunter, K. B. Leszun, C. N. Magyar, T. M. Rauzon, T. A. Spurlock, P. St. John, W. E. St. John, W. E. Turano, C.

WORK
Bryan, A. E.

WOUND
Cimbalnik, A. M. Hunt, M. A.

YOGA
Wilson, C. C.

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

AUTHOR INDEX
Abel, M. G. Adomaitis, L. G. Andrzejewski, C. E. Anning, J. H. Armstead, C. C. B. Barrett, S. A. Beilock, S. L. Benson, M. E. Birkelo, J. R. Bobick, T. G. Bolles, J. R. Bradney, D. Brucker, L. Bryan, A. E. Burns, S. Caster, B. L. Chong, Y. K. D. Cimbalnik, A. M. Comstock, R. D. Crenshaw, B. D. Cutler, A. J. Daly, W. Darnell, S. C. Davidson, K. Dean, M. L. Derrick, T. R. DeVita, P. DeVita, P. Donahue, M. D. Egbert, C. K. Foggiano, P. H. Fredrick, D. Frerking, B. C. Gaddie, T. Garner, D. J. P. Garrett, D. M. Grall, S. K. Grotenhuis, J. A. Grover-Haskin, K. Gunter, K. B. Hagobian, T. A. Halliwill, J. R. Halverson, K. S. Hammond, J. Hammond, K. C. Hannibal, N. S. Harter, R. A. Harter, R. A. Hawkins, C. M. Higginson, B. K. Hunt, M. A. Ingram, S. G. Karduna, A. R. Karduna, A. R. Karlsdottir, A. E. Kastberg, L. S. Kearney, M. M. Keller, C. P. Kim, J. PE PSY PE PH HE HE PSY PE PE PE PH PE PH HE PH PE HE PE PE HE PE PH PE PE PSY PE PE PE PH HE PE PH PE PE PH PE HE PE PE HE PH PH PE PE PSY HE PE PE PE PE PE PE PE PE PH PE PE PE PSY 4400 ............... 2 2261 ............. 43 4420 ............. 10 1770 ............. 24 760 ............... 30 759 ............... 30 2275 ............. 39 4453 ............. 12 4411 ............. 13 4394 ............. 13 1778 ............. 25 4389 ............... 3 1761 ............. 25 752 ............... 31 1773 ............. 25 4430 ............. 13 749 ............... 31 4401 ............. 20 4454 ............. 20 743 ............... 31 4421 ............. 20 1767 ............. 26 4455 ............... 9 4422 ............. 14 2267 ............. 39 4456 ............. 14 4432 ............. 14 4431 ............. 14 1762 ............. 26 753 ............... 32 4412 ............. 15 1775 ............. 26 4413 ............... 6 4439 ............... 5 1760 ............. 26 4457 ............... 1 761 ............... 32 4402 ............... 7 4423 ............. 11 741 ............... 33 1776 ............. 27 1772 ............. 27 4403 ............... 1 4458 ............. 20 2268 ............. 44 755 ............... 33 4446 ............. 21 4445 ............. 15 4440 ............. 11 4447 ............... 3 4395 ............. 15 4441 ............. 16 4433 ............. 17 4434 ............. 16 1763 ............. 27 4448 ............. 21 4404 ............. 21 4449 ............... 5 2276 ............. 43 Kim, K. PE Kindling, L. A. PE Knutzen, K. M. PE Kuebel, D. PSY Kuipers, N. T. PE Lander, J. E. PE Lanigan, E. PH Leszun, C. N. PE Lock, H. A. PE Magyar, T. M. PSY Mani, M. J. PE Maslovat, D. PSY McCafferty, J. E. PE McDonough, M. H. PSY McIntyre, K. PE Meyer, J. L. PSY Miller, J. HE Miller, M. R. PH Milligan, P. E. PE Murphy, O. F. PH Murtaza, S. HE Myers, R. L. PE Nagelkerke, P. PSY Oosthuizen, J. J. PE Ozmun, L. M. PE Pack, S. M. PE Pelletier, D. J. PE Pennington, C. R. HE Peterman, W. A. PE Petitgout, M. PE Pizzi, J. PE Rampersaud, R. PE Randall, P. L. HE Rauzon, T. A. HE Reigstad, A. C. PE Reynolds, T. L. HE Ricciuti, D. P. PSY Robinson, B. L. HE Romeder, Z. M. HE Rosaaen, K. R. PE Rubin, L. PSY Ruiz, M. D. PSY Rusch, M. RC Rust, J. PH Ryan, M. B. PE Sadeghi, H. PE Sargent, L. A. RC Sato, N. PSY Sawhill, J. A. PE Schuenke, M. PH Schuster-Decker, R. N. HE Scott, A. PE Smith, C. D. HE Sneddon, R. B. PE Spievak, E. R. PSY Spurlock, P. HE St. John, W. E. PE St. John, W. E. HE Talsky, K. A. PE 4424 ............. 11 4450 ............. 17 4435 ............. 17 2269 ............. 40 4425 ............. 22 4442 ............. 18 1768 ............. 28 4414 ............. 22 4396 ............. 22 2262 ............. 45 4405 ............... 7 2263 ............. 40 4417 ............. 22 2264 ............. 41 4415 ............. 18 2277 ............. 45 744 ............... 33 1777 ............. 28 4459 ............... 3 1771 ............. 28 742 ............... 34 4451 ............. 18 2265 ............. 43 4397 ............. 23 4426 ............. 11 4416 ............... 1 4390 ............... 6 757 ............... 34 4391 ............. 18 4427 ............... 6 4392 ............... 4 4406 ............... 7 745 ............... 34 758 ............... 35 4407 ............... 8 746 ............... 35 2258 ............. 41 762 ............... 35 754 ............... 36 4418 ............... 9 2273 ............. 41 2259 ............. 41 560 ............... 38 1764 ............. 28 4398 ............. 23 4419 ............. 19 561 ............... 38 2260 ............. 46 4460 ............. 19 1765 ............. 29 747 ............... 36 4428 ............. 12 750 ............... 36 4443 ............. 12 2270 ............. 42 751 ............... 37 4436 ............. 23 756 ............... 37 4461 ............... 8 Taylor, I. W. Terrell, S. L. Thomas, T. R. Thomas, T. R. Thompson, C. J. Turano, C. Tzovanis, M. van Donkelaar, P. Van Wychen, S. L. Veit-Hartley, S. Voelker, S. A. Volding, L. A. Weise, C. L. White, B. J. Willming, C. L. Wilson, C. C. Wingo, J. E. Wirakartakusumah Wu, C. Wulk, E. A. PE PE PE PE PE PE PH PSY PE PSY PH PSY HE PE PE PSY PH PE RC PE 4462 ............. 24 4444 ............... 4 4438 ............... 2 4437 ............... 9 4429 ............... 4 4452 ............. 10 1774 ............. 29 2271 ............. 44 4408 ............... 4 2274 ............. 42 1766 ............. 29 2266 ............. 44 748 ............... 38 4393 ............... 2 4399 ............... 8 2272 ............. 42 1769 ............. 30 4409 ............. 10 559 ............... 38 4410 ............... 5

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

SCHOOL INDEX
Brigham Young University Hawkins, C. M. Milligan, P. E. Pennington, C. R. Sneddon, R. B. Eastern Michigan University Terrell, S. L. Gonzaga University Meyer, J. L. Johns Hopkins University Karduna, A. R. Loyola College in Maryland Rubin, L. McGill University Tzovanis, M. Michigan State University Beilock, S. L. Kim, J. Magyar, T. M. Montana State University Higginson, B. K. Keller, C. P. McCafferty, J. E. Murphy, O. F. Northern Arizona University Garrett, D. M. Northern Illinois University Hannibal, N. S. Petitgout, M. Oregon State University Garner, D. J. P. Gunter, K. B. White, B. J. Purdue University Bryan, A. E. Egbert, C. K. Hammond, K. C. Lock, H. A. Roosevelt University Armstead, C. C. B. San Francisco State University Fredrick, D. Hagobian, T. A. Miller, M. R. Simon Fraser University Romeder, Z. M. Slippery Rock University Cutler, A. J. Davidson, K. Foggiano, P. H. Kuipers, N. T. Leszun, C. N. Spurlock, P. PE 4440 ...................... 11 PE 4459 ........................ 3 HE 757 ....................... 34 PE 4443 ...................... 12 PE 4444 ........................ 4 PSY 2277 ................... 45 PE 4433 ...................... 17 PSY 2273 ................... 41 PH 1774 ..................... 29 PSY 2275 ................... 39 PSY 2276 ................... 43 PSY 2262 ................... 45 PE 4447 ........................ 3 PE 4449 ........................ 5 PE 4417 ...................... 22 PH 1771 ..................... 28 PE 4457 ........................ 1 HE 755 ....................... 33 PE 4427 ........................ 6 PH 1760 ..................... 26 HE 741 ....................... 33 PE 4393 ........................ 2 HE 752 ....................... 31 HE 753 ....................... 32 PSY 2268 ................... 44 PE 4396 ...................... 22 HE 760 ....................... 30 PH 1775 ..................... 26 PH 1776 ..................... 27 PH 1777 ..................... 28 HE 754 ....................... 36 PE 4421 ...................... 20 PE 4422 ...................... 14 PE 4412 ...................... 15 PE 4425 ...................... 22 PE 4414 ...................... 22 HE 751 ....................... 37 Springfield College Bradney, D. Pelletier, D. J. Peterman, W. A. Pizzi, J. Ricciuti, D. P. Ruiz, M. D. Sato, N. Wu, C. State University of New York, Brockport Hammond, J. Robinson, B. L. Volding, L. A. Texas Womans University Andrzejewski, C. E. Grover-Haskin, K. Kim, K. Ozmun, L. M. Scott, A. University of British Columbia Darnell, S. C. Hunt, M. A. Maslovat, D. McDonough, M. H. Nagelkerke, P. Ryan, M. B. Taylor, I. W. University of Calgary van Donkelaar, P. University of California, San Diego Comstock, R. D. University of Cincinnati St. John, W. E. University of Florida Willming, C. L. University of Guelph Murtaza, S. University of Hong Kong Chong, Y. K. D. University of Kansas Thomas, T. R. Thomas, T. R. Thompson, C. J. University of Louisville Dean, M. L. Spievak, E. R. University of Memphis Rosaaen, K. R. Wilson, C. C. University of Montreal Sadeghi, H. University of Nebraska, Omaha Sargent, L. A. PE 4389 ........................ 3 PE 4390 ........................ 6 PE 4391 ...................... 18 PE 4392 ........................ 4 PSY 2258 ................... 41 PSY 2259 ................... 41 PSY 2260 ................... 46 RC 559 ....................... 38 PE 4458 ...................... 20 HE 762 ....................... 35 PSY 2266 ................... 44 PE 4420 ...................... 10 PE 4423 ...................... 11 PE 4424 ...................... 11 PE 4426 ...................... 11 PE 4428 ...................... 12 PE 4455 ........................ 9 PE 4395 ...................... 15 PSY 2263 ................... 40 PSY 2264 ................... 41 PSY 2265 ................... 43 PE 4398 ...................... 23 PE 4462 ...................... 24 PSY 2271 ................... 44 PE 4454 ...................... 20 PE 4436 ...................... 23 PE 4399 ........................ 8 HE 742 ....................... 34 HE 749 ....................... 31 PE 4438 ........................ 2 PE 4437 ........................ 9 PE 4429 ........................ 4 PSY 2267 ................... 39 PSY 2270 ................... 42 PE 4418 ........................ 9 PSY 2272 ................... 42 PE 4419 ...................... 19 RC 561 ....................... 38

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University of New Mexico Burns, S. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Barrett, S. A. Birkelo, J. R. Bolles, J. R. Daly, W. Frerking, B. C. Kastberg, L. S. Lanigan, E. McIntyre, K. Myers, R. L. Pack, S. M. Smith, C. D. Turano, C. Wingo, J. E. University of Oregon Adomaitis, L. G. Caster, B. L. Derrick, T. R. DeVita, P. DeVita, P. Harter, R. A. Harter, R. A. Ingram, S. G. Kindling, L. A. Knutzen, K. M. Lander, J. E. Sawhill, J. A. University of Pennsylvania Karduna, A. R. University of Rochester Kuebel, D. University of South Africa Gaddie, T. University of Southern California St. John, W. E. University of Texas, El Paso Benson, M. E.

PH 1773 ..................... 25 HE 759 ....................... 30 PE 4411 ...................... 13 PH 1778 ..................... 25 PH 1767 ..................... 26 PE 4413 ........................ 6 PE 4448 ...................... 21 PH 1768 ..................... 28 PE 4415 ...................... 18 PE 4451 ...................... 18 PE 4416 ........................ 1 HE 750 ....................... 36 PE 4452 ...................... 10 PH 1769 ..................... 30 PSY 2261 ................... 43 PE 4430 ...................... 13 PE 4456 ...................... 14 PE 4432 ...................... 14 PE 4431 ...................... 14 PE 4445 ...................... 15 PE 4446 ...................... 21 PE 4441 ...................... 16 PE 4450 ...................... 17 PE 4435 ...................... 17 PE 4442 ...................... 18 PE 4460 ...................... 19 PE 4434 ...................... 16 PSY 2269 ................... 40 PE 4439 ........................ 5 HE 756 ....................... 37 PE 4453 ...................... 12

University of the Free State Oosthuizen, J. J. University of Toledo Anning, J. H. University of Utah Rauzon, T. A. University of Wisconsin, La Crosse Abel, M. G. Brucker, L. Cimbalnik, A. M. Crenshaw, B. D. Donahue, M. D. Grall, S. K. Grotenhuis, J. A. Halverson, K. S. Karlsdottir, A. E. Kearney, M. M. Mani, M. J. Miller, J. Rampersaud, R. Randall, P. L. Reigstad, A. C. Reynolds, T. L. Rusch, M. Rust, J. Schuenke, M. Schuster-Decker, R. N. Van Wychen, S. L. Voelker, S. A. Weise, C. L. Wirakartakusumah, D. N. Wulk, E. A. University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Talsky, K. A. Virginia Commonwealth University Halliwill, J. R. West Virginia University Bobick, T. G. Western Washington University Veit-Hartley, S.

PE 4397 ...................... 23 PH 1770 ..................... 24 HE 758 ....................... 35 PE 4400 ........................ 2 PH 1761 ..................... 25 PE 4401 ...................... 20 HE 743 ....................... 31 PH 1762 ..................... 26 HE 761 ....................... 32 PE 4402 ........................ 7 PE 4403 ........................ 1 PH 1763 ..................... 27 PE 4404 ...................... 21 PE 4405 ........................ 7 HE 744 ....................... 33 PE 4406 ........................ 7 HE 745 ....................... 34 PE 4407 ........................ 8 HE 746 ....................... 35 RC 560 ....................... 38 PH 1764 ..................... 28 PH 1765 ..................... 29 HE 747 ....................... 36 PE 4408 ........................ 4 PH 1766 ..................... 29 HE 748 ....................... 38 PE 4409 ...................... 10 PE 4410 ........................ 5 PE 4461 ........................ 8 PH 1772 ..................... 27 PE 4394 ...................... 13 PSY 2274 ................... 42

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ADDITIONAL ITEMS AVAILABLE FROM KINESIOLOGY PUBLICATIONS

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SPORTS MEDICINE


SPORTS MEDICINE BULLETIN 10(1975)-32(1997) American College of Sports Medicine. 23 fiche ACSM News 8(1973)-9(1974) American College of Sports Medicine. 1 fiche AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SPORTS MEDICINE NEWSLETTER 2:2(May 1967)-7:4(Oct. 1972) American College of Sports Medicine. 2 fiche AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SPORTS MEDICINE 1:1(March 1966)-2:1(Feb. 1967) American College of Sports Medicine. 1 fiche Complete Set (27 fiche) ........................................................................................................................................................... $108

COUNCIL FOR NATIONAL COOPERATION IN AQUATICS


Archives, records, reference material, conference reports (1951-1972). More than 2400 pages. 32 fiche ..................... $64 Addition No. 1. Biennial conference reports (1974-1980). More than 600 pages. 8 fiche ................................................. $16

IOC WORLD CONGRESS ON SPORT SCIENCE PROCEEDINGS


IOC WORLD CONGRESS ON SPORT SCIENCES Proceedings: First IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences, October 28, 1989-November 3, 1989" The Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, 1989. 5 fiche ...................................... $20

UNITED STATES VOLLEYBALL ASSOCIATION


Archives, history, records, annual guides (1916-1975). More than 9,000 pages. 126 fiche .......................................... $378 Addition No. 1Volleyball Review (1940-1973), U.S.A. Volleyball Review (1973-1980), Volleyball Official Guide (1976-1980). 4,958 pages. 67 + fiche .................................................................................. $201 Addition No. 2Volleyball Review (1980-1981), U.S.A. Volleyball Review (1981-1986), Volleyball Official Guide (1981-1986). 2,916 pages. 43 fiche ................................................................................................................................... $129 Addition No. 3USA volleyball reference guide (1987-1999), United States beach volleyball rules (1997-1999) United States volleyball rules (1990-1999). 70 fiche ..................................................................................................... $210 Complete Set: 17,000+ pages. 306 fiche ................................................................................................................................ $900 Also Available: Flanagan, Lance (1960). The History of Volleyball in the United States. Columbia University. 3 fiche ......................... $12.00 Lu, Hui-Ching (1950). An analysis of volley ball in various regions of the world. A report of a Type C project (Ed.D.), Columbia University. 5 fiche ..................................................................... $20.00

THE UNITED STATES OLYMPIC ACADEMY


USOA I Perspectives of the Olympic Games University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, 1977. 3 fiche ....................... $12 USOA II Sport and Olympism: A Way of Life Illinois State University at Normal, 1978. 2 fiche ............................. $8 USOA III The Spirit of Sport Brigham Young University at Provo, 1979. 2 fiche ......................................................... $8 USOA IV The Olympic Ideal: 776 B.C. to the 21st Century Indiana University at Bloomington, 1980. 11 fiche ... $44 USOA V Expanding Olympic Horizons Olympic Training Center at Colorado Springs, 1981. 4 fiche .................. $16 USOA VI Purposes, Principles and Contradictions of the Olympic Movement Pepperdine University, 1982. 2 fiche ...................................................................................................................................................................................... $8 USOA VII Olympism: A Movement of the People Texas Tech University, 1983. 5 fiche ........................................ $20 USOA VIII Educating for a Better World: Now! Los Angeles Athletic Club, 1984. 3 fiche ................................... $12

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Kinesiology PublicationsUniversity of Oregon

USOA IX Olympism: A Commitment to a Better World Tomorrow Through Sport State University of New York, Pittsburg, 1985. 3 fiche .................................................................................................................................. $12 USOA X Olympism, the Olympic Games and the Worldwide Olympic Movement U.S. Olympic Complex, Colorado Springs, 1986. 5 fiche ....................................................................................................................................... $20 USOA X SELECTIONS I United States Olympic Committee, United States Olympic Academy, A Collection of 23 Representative Presentations at USOAs I-IX. A Souvenir Prepared for the Celebration of USOA X at Colorado Springs, June 10-14, 1986 Colorado Springs, 1986. 2 fiche .................................................................... $8 USOA X SELECTIONS II Compendium of the Speeches Presented by Educators, Olympic Champions, Administrators, and Avery Brundage at the International Olympic Academy 1961-1985 Colorado Springs, 1986. 3 fiche ...................................................................................................................................... $12 USOA XI The Olympics: Serving All People and All Nations Indianapolis, Indiana, 1987. 4 fiche ...................... $16 USOA XII Proceedings, United States Olympic Academy XII Pennsylvania State University, 1988. 3 fiche ...... $12 USOA XIII Olympic Education: Breaking Ground for the 21st Century Evergreen State College, 1989. 4 fiche . $16 USOA XIV "Gold or Laurel: The Olympic Tradition in a Changing World" Emory University, 1990. 4 fiche .......... $16 USOA XV "Olympic USA: A Team Effort." Colorado State University, 1991. 3 fiche .................................................... $12 Complete Set Price, USOA I XV incl. USOA X SELECTIONS I & II : .......................................................................... $200

1984 OLYMPIC SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS


Abstracts of papers presented. 9 fiche ..................................................................................................................................... $18

PHYSICAL EDUCATION SPORTS AND THE SCIENCES


Papers Presented in Honor of H. Harrison Clarke, Edited by Jan Broekhoff, 1976. Physical Fitness - Tests and Measurements - Physiology of Exercise - Motor Learning - Morphology - Biomechanics Contribution by more than 30 authors from the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, and Australia Keynote addresses by H. Harrison Clarke, Franklin Henry, and Henry Montoye. Book, 406 pages ............................ $10

REFLECTIONS BY H. HARRISON CLARKE


Reflections is the autobiography of H. Harrison Clarke, a renown physical educator whose numerous accomplishments and contributions to the profession span seven decades! A former president of the American Academy of Physical Education and vice president of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Dr. Clarke initiated intramural athletics and the graduate study program in physical education at Syracuse University, established the doctor of physical education degree at Springfield College, founded Microform Publications, the Physical Fitness Newsletter, and completed the Medford Boys Growth Study while at the University of Oregon. Book .............................................................................................................................................................................. $12 Available on Microfiche ............................................................................................................................................................. $12

CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN ATHLETIC COMPETITION


Children and Adolescents in Athletic CompetitionRewards and Adversities is the title of the Proceedings of a 1994 symposium held in memory of Professor Jan Broekhoff, last dean of the College of Human Development and Performance at the University of Oregon. The book contains the most important issues discussed during the symposium. Central was the question, how intense training influences children's physical and psychological maturation. International Institute for Sport and Human Performance, 1995. Book ............................................................................ $10

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