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CHAPTER 2 (THE END OF BIPOLARITY)

Ans.1 Vladimir lenin was founder if Bolshevik communist party,leader of the Russian revolution of 1917 and the founder head of USSR. Ans.2 the union of soviet socialist (USSR) came into being after the socialist revolution in Russia in 1917. Ans.3 Egalitarian society can be define as a society where all people are equal and free. Ans.4 The soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weekened the system even further.though wages continued to grow ,productivity and technology fell considerably behind that of west. This led to shortage in all consumer goods. Ans.5 Mikhail gorbachev became general secretary of the communist party in 1985 who sought to reform this system. Ans.6 Russia,Ukraine and Belarus declared that soviet union was disbanded. Ans.7 USSR- union of soviet socialist republic. CIS - commonwealth of independent states. Ans.8 Russia was accepted as a successor state of USSR. Ans.10 The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignity within various republics including Russia and Baltic republics, Ukraine, Georgia and others proved to be a most immediate cause for disintegration of USSR. Ans.11 political system of capitalism and democracy was accepted by soviet union. Ans.12 Chechnya and Dagestan faced violent secessionist movements. Ans.13 Tajikistan witnessed a civil war for 10 yrs. Ans.14 Czechoslovakia was divided in Czechs and Slovaks forming two independent states. Ans.15 multi polar world order is the co existence of several powers in the international system,greater regionalism , negotiated settlements of international conflicts ,an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision making through bodies like the UN that should be strengthened, democratized,and empowered.

Ans.16 Ideology of socialism as opposed to capitalism and need for an egalitarian society. Ans.17 Boris yeltsin emerged as a national hero in opposing this coup . the Russian revolution where yeltsin won a popular election and began to shake off centralised control. Ans.18 WARSA PACT, was started by USSR. Ans.19 Communist party and no other political party dominated the soviet union political system. Ans.20 Michael gorbhachev ,initiated reforms in the USSR. Ans.21a)After the second world war,the east European countries that the soviet army had liberated from the fascist forces came under the control of USSR. b) The political and the economic systems of all these countries were modelled after the USSR. c)The group of countries was called the second world or socialist bloc .the warsa pact ,a military alliance held them together. the USSR was the leader of that bloc Ans.22 The model of transition in Russia,East Europe Central asia that was influenced by world bank and the IMF came to be known as shock therapy. Ans.23 The reason for the revival for most of their economies was the export of natural resources like oil,natural gas and minerals. Azerbaijan,Kazakhstan,Russia,Turmenistan and Uzbenistan are major oil and gas producers .other countries have gained because of the oil pipelines that cross their territories for which they get rent. Ans.24 The central asia also became a zone of competition between outside powers and oil companies .the region is next to Russia,China,Afghanistan and close to West asia.after 11 sept 2001. The US wanted military bases in the region and paid the govts. Of all central asian states to hire bases and to allow airplanes to fly over their territory during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Ans 25. Features of soviet union: 1.The union of soviet socialist republic(USSR) came into being after the socialist revolution in Russia in 1917. 2/The revolution was inspired by the ideals of socialism as opposed to capitalism ,and the need for egalitarian society. 3.Soviet system gave primacy to the state and the institution of party.

4.The soviet political system centered around the communist party,and no other political party or opposition was allowed, The economy was planned and controlled by the state. Ans.26 Condition of soviet economy after the 2nd world war : The soviet union became a great power after the second world war. 1.The soviet economy was then more developed than the rest of the world except for the US. 2.It had complex communications network, vast energy resources incuding oil,iron and steel, machinery productionand a transport sector that connected remotest areas . 3.It had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pins to cars. 4.The soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens,and the govt. subsidized basic necccessitis including health,education, child care and other welfae schemes. 5.There was no unemployment. 6.State ownership was the dominant form of ownership:land and productive assets were owned and controlled by the soviet state. But one side reversing the coin there we see a negative side of the soviet economy: 1.The soviet system became very bureaucratic and authoritarian ,making life difficult for its citizens. 2.Lack of democracy and absence of freedom of speech stifled people who often expressed their dissent in jokes and cartoons. 3.Russia dominated everything.and people from other regions felt neglected anf often suppressed. 4.In the arms race, the soviet union manged to match with US from time to time but at a great cost . 5.The soviet union lagged behind the west in technology and most importantly in fulfilling the political or economic aspirations of citizens. 6.The soviet invasion of aghanistan in 1979 weakened the system further. 7.The soviet economy was flatering in the late 1970s and became stagnant Ans.27 Causes of Disintegration of USSR: 1.There is no doubt that internal weaknesses of soviet political and economic institutions which failed to meet the aspirations of the people ,were responsible for the collapse of the system. 2.Economic stagnation for many years led to severe consumer shortages and a large section of soviet society began to doubt and question the system and do so openly. 3.Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal and development of its satellite states in eastern Europe and within the soviet system. 4.This led to huge economic burden that the system could not cope with. 5.Ordinary citizens became more knowledgeable about the economic advance in west. They could see the disparities between their system and systems of west. 6.The soviet union had became stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well.

7.The communist party that had ruled the soviet union for 70 years was not to accountable to the people. 8.The party bureaucrats gained more priveleges than ordinary citizens .people did not identify with the system and with the rulers,and the government Ans.28 Indo-russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions. 1.Russia and India share a vision of a multi polar world order. 2.India stands to benefit from its relationship with Russia on issues like Kashmir ,energy supplies ,sharing information on international terrorism ,access to central asia and balancing its relations with china. 3.Russia stand to benefit from its relationship because India is the second largest arms market on Russia. 4.The Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia.since india is an importing nation. 5.Russia is important to india and has repeatedly came to assistance of india during its oil crises. 6.India is seeking to increase its energy imports from Russia and republics of Kazakhstan and Turmenistan. 7.Russia is important for indias nuclear energy plans assisted indias space industry by giving .for ex. The cryogenic rocket when india needed it. 8.Russia and India have collaborated on various scientific projects. Ans.29 Mikhail Gorbachev .who had became general secretary of the communist party of the soviet union in 1985,sought to reform this system. a)Reforms were necessary to keep the USSR abreast of the information& technological revolutions taking place in the west. b)The people in the east European countries which were part of the soviet bloc start to protest against their own govt.and soviet economy. c)Soviet Union ,under gorbhchev ,did not intervene when the disturbances occurred .and the communist regimes collapsed one after another. d)Gorbachev initiated the policies of economic and political reform and democritisation within the country. e)A coup take place in 1991 that was encouraged by communist party hardliners. The people had tested by then and did not want the old style rule of the communist party. f) Yeltsin emerged as a national hero in opposing this coup .The Russia republic, wher yeltsin won a popular election ,and bean to shake off centralised control. g)In December 1991.under the leadership of yeltsin Russia,Ukraine,and Belarus 3 major republics of the USSR, declared that soviet union was disbanded. h)Russia was now accepted as a successor state of the soviet union.it inherited the soviet seat in UN security council.Russia accepted all international treaties and commitments of the soviet union

Ans.30 3 features that distinguish soviet economy from capitalist economy: 1.In capitalist economy everything is in the hands of market and in soviet economy everything is in hands of state. 2.In capitalist economy difference between poor and rich is increasing, capitalist class is taking major decisions on other in soviet economy establishment of egalitarian society. 3.In capitalist economy ,there is a muli party system and in soviet economy only one political party that is communist party is there.. Ans.32 The model of transition in Russia,Central asia and East Europe that was infuenced by world bank and IMF came to be know as shock therapy. It cannot be considered as best way to make transition from communist to capitalist. Consequences of shock therapy: 1.In Russia, the state controlled industrial complex almost collapsed, about 90% of its industries were put for sale to private individuals and companies. 2.This was called the largest garage sale in history as valuable industries were undervalued and sold at throwaway prices. 3.The value of rubble ,the Russian currency declined dramatically. 4.The rate if inflation was so high that people lost their all savings. 5.The collective farm system was disintegrated leaving people without food security, and Russia started to import food . 6.The real GDP of Russia in 1999 was below what was in 1989. 7.The withdrawl of govt. subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty. 8. A Mafia emerged in most of these countries and started controlling many economic countries. 9. post soviet states especially Russia, were divided between rich and poor regions