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Snorri Sturluson

Edda
Skldskaparml 1

Snorri Sturluson

Edda
Skldskaparml
1. Introduction, Text and Notes

Edited by

ANTHONY FAULKES

VIKING SOCIETY FOR NORTHERN RESEARCH


UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON

1998

Anthony Faulkes 1998 First published by Viking Society for Northern Research 1998 Reprinted with minor corrections 2007 ISBN: 978 0 903521 36 9 Volume 1 978 0 903521 38 3 Volume 2

Printed by Short Run Press Limited, Exeter

Contents of Volume 1
Introduction ............................................................................. vii Title ....................................................................................... vii Synopsis ............................................................................... viii The composition of the work ............................................... x Date and authorship .............................................................. xi The verse quotations .......................................................... xiii The ulur .............................................................................. xv The dialogue frame...........................................................xviii The prose narratives .......................................................... xxii The analysis of poetic diction .......................................... xxv Purpose ............................................................................xxxvii Manuscripts ..................................................................... xxxix This edition ............................................................................ li Table of verse quotations and their preservation .............. lv Bibliographical references ...................................................... lx Manuscript sigla ..................................................................... lxx Glossary of technical terms ................................................. lxxi Text ............................................................................................. 1 Textual notes ......................................................................... 135 General notes ......................................................................... 153

Contents of Volume 2
Glossary ................................................................................. 231 Index of names ...................................................................... 443

PREFACE
These two volumes contain the second part of Snorri Sturlusons Edda, Skldskaparml. Part I, Prologue and Gylfaginning, was published by the Clarendon Press, Oxford, in 1982, and reissued in paperback by the Viking Society for Northern Research in 1988. A second, corrected edition was published by the Viking Society in 2005. Part III, Httatal, was published by the Clarendon Press in 1991, and reissued in paperback with addenda and corrigenda by the Viking Society in 1999. Part II thus makes the work complete. Skldskaparml contains a lot of poetry that was composed mainly in Norway and Iceland in the ninth to twelfth centuries. Though much of it is quoted in short extracts, it constitutes an anthology of verse of various kinds, including mythological, historical, lyrical and other types of verse, selected and commented on by one of the major authors of thirteenth-century Iceland. This edition provides these examples of Old Norse verse with extensive explanatory notes and, in volume 2, a full glossary and index. It is hoped that it will be useful to students as an introduction to a wide variety of early Scandinavian poetry, presented in an authentic context and reflecting the taste and interests of an educated Icelander of the great age of saga-writing, himself a practised poet. I am grateful for the comments and corrections of Peter Foote, Richard Perkins and Mats Malm on the final draft of this book. A. F.

INTRODUCTION
Title
Skldskaparml (the language of poetry) is the second major part of Snorri Sturlusons Edda (Treatise on poetry; sometimes called the Prose Edda), coming in those manuscripts that include more than one part of the work between Gylfaginning and Httatal. The name is not found as the heading of this part of the text in any early manuscript (R and W have large ornamental initials at 1/2, though neither they nor T have any heading at 1/1; see textual note), but is used in the rubric at the head of the whole text in the Uppsala manuscript (U): Er fyrst fr sum ok Ymi, ar nst Skldskapar ml ok heiti margra hluta. At 3/10 this manuscript also includes the words hr hefr [or hefir] mjk setning skldskapar and in the version of the beginning of ch. 3 that it has before before ch. 2 (SnE 184887, II 302) Hr hefr Skldskapar ml ok heiti margra hluta. In fact the editors of the Arnamagnan edition (SnE 184887) took the first narrative sections of Skldskaparml as a continuation of Gylfaginning, and numbered the first chapters 558 accordingly, entitling this section Bragarur (speeches of Bragi), labelling 5/256/29 the Eptirmli (Epilogue; placed at 5/8) and beginning Skldskaparml itself at 5/9 (this arrangement of the text follows that of Rask (SnE 1818),where Skldskaparml is often called Sklda). Their chapters 558, however, do not continue the dialogue of Gylfaginning; they open a new narrative frame, a conversation between the god Bragi and gir, a personification of the sea, which seems to continue through much of Skldskaparml. Though the indications of the speakers peter out in the course of this section as they do in Httatal, and there is little sign of dialogue from ch. 43 onwards, several later chapters are introduced by a question, and the whole of the rest of Skldskaparml, to the end of ch. 74, can be taken as the words of Bragi. Apart from the opening chapter, only in 5/256/29 is the voice clearly authorial, and though ch. 33 does not really fit into the scheme (see below), chapters G5558 seem designed as an introduction to Skldskaparml even if they were perhaps written after the bulk of the rest of the section. The word skldskaparml appears also at 5/15 and in the passage in A which introduces a list of kennings which is placed immediately before the extracts from Skldskaparml in that manuscript (see p. xlvii below; note also TGT 104).

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Synopsis
Chapter G55: (The chapter numbers are those of SnE 184887, and the first four are a continuation of the chapter numbers of Gylfaginning): inn and the sir entertain gir to a feast. Chapter G56: Bragi tells gir the story of the giant jazis theft of Iunn and her golden apples, their recovery by Loki and how the sir killed jazi and compensated his daughter Skai; and how jazi and his brothers had taken their fathers inheritance. Chapter G57: The origin of the mead of poetry in the blood of Kvasir. Chapter G58: How inn brought the mead of poetry to the sir. Chapter 1: The categories of poetry. Eptirmli (Epilogue, 5/256/29): The meaning and purpose of the work. The story of Troy as an allegory of Norse myths. Chapter 2: Kennings for inn. Verses 126. Chapter 3: Kennings for poetry. Verses 2741. Chapter 4: Kennings for rr. Verses 4258. Chapter 5: Kennings for Baldr. Chapter 6: Kennings for Njrr. Verse 59. Chapter 7: Kennings for Freyr. Verses 6063. Chapter 8: Kennings for Heimdallr. Chapter 9: Kennings for Tr. Chapter 10: Kennings for Bragi. Chapter 11: Kennings for Viarr. Chapter 12: Kennings for Vli. Chapter 13: Kennings for Hr. Chapter 14: Kennings for Ullr. Chapter 15: Kennings for Hnir. Chapter 16: Kennings for Loki. Verse 64. Chapter 17: rrs duel with Hrungnir. Verses 6571 (Haustlng 1420). Chapter 18: rrs journey to Geirrargarar. Verses 72, 7391 (rsdrpa 115 , 1720). Chapter 19: Kennings for Frigg. Chapter 20: Kennings for Freyja. Chapter 21: Kennings for Sif. Chapter 22: Kennings for Iunn. Verses 92104 (Haustlng 113). Chapter 23: Kennings for the sky. Verses 10516. Chapter 24: Kennings for the earth. Verses 11722. Chapter 25: Kennings for the sea. Verses 12334. Chapter 26: Kennings for the sun. Verses 1356.

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Chapter 27: Kennings for the wind. Verse 137. Chapter 28: Kennings for fire. Chapter 29: Kennings for winter. Verses 1389. Chapter 30: Kennings for summer. Verse 140. Chapter 31: Kennings for man and woman. Chapter 32: Kennings for gold. Chapter 33: Gold = girs fire; girs feast for the gods. Verse 141. Chapter 34: Gold = Glasirs foliage. Verse 142. Chapter 35: Gold = Sifs hair. The dwarfs make treasures for the gods. Chapter 36: Gold = Fullas head-band. Verse 143. Chapter 37: Gold = Freyjas tears; her daughter Hnoss. Verses 1449. Chapter 38: Gold = giants words. Verse 150. Chapter 39: Gold = otter-payment. The origin of this kenning. Chapter 40: Gold = Ffnirs lair. Sigurrs slaying of the serpent Ffnir. Verses 1512 (from Ffnisml). Chapter 41: Sigurr and Brynhildr; his marriage to Gurn and death. Chapter 42: Deaths of the Niflungar, Atli and Jrmunrekkr. Verses 1538 (Ragnarsdrpa 18, 37). Chapter 43: Gold = Fris meal. The mill Grotti. Verses 15982 (Grottasngr), 1834. Chapter 44: The origin of Hrlfr krakis nickname. Gold = Krakis seed. Hrlfrs expedition to Uppsala. Verses 1856. Chapter 45: Gold = Hlgis mound-roof. The old lay of Bjarki. Verses 187, 18890 (Bjarkaml 46). Chapter 46: Gold = fire of the hand, etc. Verses 1915. Chapter 47: Kennings for man and woman as givers of gold and as trees. Verses 196218. Chapter 48: Kennings for battle. Verses 21925. Chapter 49: Kennings for weapons and armour. Verses 22649. Chapter 50: Battle = the Hjanings storm. Hjaningavg. Further kennings for battle and weapons. Verses 25054 (Ragnarsdrpa 812), 255. Chapter 51: Kennings for ship. Verses 25667. Chapter 52: Kennings for Christ. Verses 26877. Chapter 53: Kennings for kings. Terms for kings and noblemen. Verses 27899. Chapter 54: kend heiti. Terms for poetry. Verses 300ab, 3013. Chapter 55: Terms for pagan gods. Verses 3048.

Skldskaparml

Chapter 56: Terms for the heavens, sun and moon. Chapter 57: Terms for the earth. Verses 30917. Chapter 58: Terms for wolves, bears, stags, horses, oxen, snakes, cattle, sheep, swine. Verses 31831 (including orgrmsula and Klfsvsa or Alsvinnsml ). Chapter 59: Terms for the sky and weather. Verse 332 (from Alvssml). Chapter 60: Terms for raven and eagle. Verses 33343. Chapter 61: Terms for the sea. Verses 34469. Chapter 62: Terms for fire. Verses 37079. Chapter 63: Terms for times and seasons. Verse 380 (from Alvssml). Chapter 64: Terms for men. Kings. Hlfdan the Old and his sons. Verses 381411. Chapter 65: Terms for men. Chapter 66: ula of terms for men. Chapter 67: Terms for men:vikenningar, sannkenningar and fornfn. Chapter 68: Terms for women;vi(r)kenningar. Chapter 69: Terms for the head, eyes, ears, mouth, teeth, tongue, hair. Chapter 70: Terms for heart, mind and emotions. Chapter 71: Terms for arms and legs, hands and feet. Chapter 72: Terms for speech (and kennings for battle). Chapter 73: Terms for wisdom and other mental qualities. Chapter 74: Homonyms, ofljst. Chapter 75: ulur of names and synonyms for sea-kings, giants, troll-wives, gods and goddesses, women, men, battle, various weapons and armour, sea, rivers, fish, whales, ships, land, various animals, domestic and wild, the heavens and the sun. Verses 412517.

The composition of the work


Httatal, which is a poem illustrating the use of various verse-forms with a commentary that is mostly concerned with explaining the metrical and other formal devices used in their construction, and was probably written before Skldskaparml, also includes some passages concerned with poetical language (e. g. Httatal 1/55 6/21; i. e. verses 26 and commentary), and it seems likely that the author did not at first envisage compiling a separate section on the language of poetry. When he did start doing that, he listed various poetical terms under their designations, and the fact that in the second half of Skldskaparml kennings and heiti (simplex poetical

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terms) are not consistently separated (cf. note to 87/89) suggests that at first he did not plan to separate these two categories in his treatment of them (there is even more mixing of the two categories in the version of Skldskaparml in the Uppsala manuscript), and that when he did decide to have separate sections dealing with kennings and heiti he did not take all the kennings out of the heiti lists; this may imply that the work was still in the process of revision at the authors death. This second half of Skldskaparml also makes less consistent use of the dialogue form, and as in Httatal the speakers are here not generally named, and it is likely that the dialogue in the form it now has evolved gradually, only perhaps being provided with a narrative introduction after the bulk of the material had been compiled. In various parts of Skldskaparml narratives are also included to account for the origins of some of the kennings by recounting the myths and legends that were thought to have given rise to them. These are added in a somewhat unsystematic way (and are not all present in all of the manuscripts), and some (particularly the account of Otrgjld and the Gjkungar) have by some been thought to be interpolations. Whether they were added by the original author or by a later reviser, it is likely that these were not in the original plan of the work, and the introductory chapters (1/15/8), which among other things recount the myth of the origin of poetry, may have been the last to be compiled. Then, as with the discussions of poetical language in Httatal, it may be that the writer felt that there were too many such narratives to incorporate into Skldskaparml, and it is likely that Gylfaginning and its prologue were made into a separate introduction to the whole work to provide the mythical and legendary background to the whole of skaldic verse.

Date and authorship


Httatal must have been written soon after Snorri Sturlusons first visit to Norway in 121820; Skldskaparml may have been begun shortly afterwards and is likely to have been in process of compilation for some time. Its lack of organisation (compared with both Gylfaginning and Httatal, as well as with Heimskringla) suggests that it was unfinished at the time of Snorris death in 1241. Though various interpolations may have been made by a later hand, the attribution of the main part of Skldskaparml to Snorri is generally

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accepted, and is implied by the rubric at the beginning of the Uppsala manuscript (SnE 184887, II 250: Bk essi heitir Edda. Hana hefir saman setta Snorri Sturlusonr eptir eim htti sem hr er skipat. Er fyrst fr sum ok Ymi, ar nst Skldskapar ml ok heiti margra hluta) and the reference in the fragmentary manuscript AM 748 I b 4to (SnE 184887, II 4278: Hr er lykt eim hlut bkar er lfr rarson hefir samansett ok upphefr Skldskaparml ok kenningar eptir v sem fyrirfundit var kvum hfusklda ok Snorri hefir san samanfra ltit), even though this is here followed by a passage not thought to be part of Skldskaparml, extracts from which begin some three manuscript pages later (lfr rarson was a nephew of Snorri and the author of The Third Grammatical Treatise). Skldskaparml was, however, the part of Snorris Edda that both in the Middle Ages and later most attracted modifications and additions by various hands. Already Codex Wormianus (W) has (the remains of) a substantially revised version of the second part (the kend heiti section, beginning at 83/13) and two fragmentary manuscripts (AM 748 I b 4to (A) and AM 757 a 4to (B)) contain extensively revised versions of various parts of Skldskaparml where the order has been much changed and additions have been made. The Utrecht manuscript (T) and AM 748 II 4to (C) have texts that do not differ much from that in the Codex Regius (R), which is taken to represent Snorris work most accurately, though it is likely that scribal or editorial changes of various kinds have been made in all these versions. In particular it is uncertain whether Snorri intended the ulur (verses 412517) to be included in Skldskaparml. The version in the Uppsala manuscript differs from the others in all parts of the Edda, but particularly in Skldskaparml, where various passages and verses are absent, the material is very differently ordered and the whole structure of the work is different. It is difficult to know whether these differences are due to a later redactor of Snorris work or whether they derive from another version, perhaps a draft of the work, made by Snorri himself. It is unlikely, however, that the arrangement in the Uppsala manuscript gives a better idea of how Snorri intended the work to be than the Codex Regius does. Even after the end of the Middle Ages, Skldskaparml continued to be the part of the Edda that attracted the most attention; it was influential on the language of rmur poets and others, and various revisions and adaptations of the work were made in the seventeenth century and later (see Faulkes 19779).

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The verse quotations


The major part of Skldskaparml consists of lists of kennings and heiti provided for the use of young poets (this purpose of the work is clearly stated at 5/2530) illustrated from the work of more than 70 earlier poets (see the table below, pp. lvlix, and cf. SnE 1931 xlviixlviii; Hallberg 1975, 56) with narratives (some in prose, some in verse) to explain the origin of some kennings. Unlike Httatal, Skldskaparml contains no verse by Snorri himself. Some of the lists are derived from earlier versified lists such as are included in some manuscripts (but not in W or U) at the end of Skldskaparml (verses 412517; more of these are included in A and B than in R, T and C); some versified lists are included in the body of the work (verses 32531) and a rhythmical list is included at 106/23107/11. These are likely to have been part of the learned activity of twelfth-century Icelandic compilers (Einarr Sklasons poetry and eddic poems like Alvssml provide further evidence of this sort of activity), though of course it is possible that some of the ulur are actually compiled from Snorris prose lists. Some lists of names are derived from eddic poems (e. g. 88/8, 90/1, 1012 use Grmnisml 33, 37, 34) and Alvssml 20 and 30 are quoted as verses 332 and 380; Rgsula seems to be used in the names for different kinds of men and women in chs 658. Rgsula itself is included in Codex Wormianus, and only there, where it is presumably an interpolation. Three stanzas from Bjarkaml are quoted for their lists of terms for gold (verses 18890; only fragments are known of this poem, one of them in Heimskringla, Hkr II 3612; two more are attributed to it in Edda Magnsar lafssonar 265, 272; see Skj A I 18081, B I 17071). Many mythological names in Skldskaparml and the ulur also occur in Hyndlulj, and in some cases nowhere else, though it is uncertain whether this poem is later than Snorris Edda and makes use of it or the reverse. Grottasngr is quoted entire in R and T (and only there) in connection with the story of Fri Frileifsson which gives the origin of the kenning Fris meal for gold (ch. 43). Like Rgsula in W, this may be an interpolation. Many of the lists of kennings and heiti are of course simply compiled from their occurrences in the skaldic verses which are quoted; sometimes such verses are not quoted, however, and some of the kennings for sky and the sun in chs 23 and 26, for instance, are parts of kennings for God in Christian poems that are

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not always quoted there either; cf. 85/1316 (see ch. 52 and Meissner 1921, 37882). The little treatise on poetic language known as Den lille Sklda (in A and B; SnE 184887, II 42831, 51115), if older than Snorris work, might have been a source, and there may have been other such compilations. Finnur Jnsson evidently assumed that Den lille Sklda was compiled from Snorris work, and he printed at the foot of the pages of his edition references to the passages in Skldskaparml that may have been used in it, see SnE 1931, 2559; cf. Finnur Jnsson 192024, II 926. Schedae by Smundr fri have been suggested as a further source, see de Vries 19647, II 226 (see also 230 n. 130). But the majority of Snorris sources must have been oral, and most others non-learned (no Latin sources can be demonstrated for any part of Skldskaparml except for the so-called Eptirmli, 5/366/29; but some narratives are derived from vernacular sagas, see below). Most of the illustrative quotations consist of half-stanzas attributed to named skaldic poets, though a few are anonymous. Some of these appear in other Icelandic books, especially Heimskringla and other versions of the Kings Sagas (where usually whole stanzas are quoted) but the variations from the texts that appear in other sources imply that in Skldskaparml Snorri has quoted from memory or used oral variants; and it is likely that most of the other verses quoted that are not found elsewhere (and there are many of these) are similarly quoted from memory. Especially where the quotations are part of extensive poems, however, there is a possibility that Snorri or another had previously copied them into manuscripts, though no anthologies of skaldic verse and few complete poems have been preserved. Finnur Jnsson has pointed out (SnE 1931, xlviii) that a number of the poets quoted appear only in one section of the work, though there are also many that appear in both sections (i. e. the section on kennings and the one on kend heiti). There does not seem to be any conclusion to be drawn from this. Verses are seldom assigned to named poems in Skldskaparml, though many are believed to belong to long poems, flokkar or drpur. For instance, ten quotations in Skldskaparml are believed to be from jlfr Arnrssons Sexstefja, but the poem itself is not named. It is therefore often difficult to be certain which poems verses belong to, and whether or not they are independent lausavsur (i. e. stanzas that are complete poems in themselves; many of the

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attributions in Skj are based on guesswork). Moreover when there is more than one poet of the same name, the patronymic or nickname is not always given, and some verses that are, for instance, attributed to Einarr could be either by Einarr sklaglamm or Einarr Sklason. In a few cases there are quotations without any attribution which may belong to the work of known poets and be parts of known poems. There are some so-called mythological skaldic poems quoted in Skldskaparml, mainly in connection with the lists of kennings for rr (also Iunn): there are extensive extracts from rsdrpa, Hsdrpa, Haustlng and Ragnarsdrpa (the last two of these are Norwegian shield poems, describing pictures on shields given the poets by patrons; Hsdrpa describes decorations in a hall in Iceland). Some verses from these poems are quoted elsewhere in the Prose Edda, but there are no quotations from these poems outside the work (except for quotations of single stanzas from Ragnarsdrpa in The Fourth Grammatical Treatise and Heimskringla as well as in Gylfaginning; there is also a quotation from Hsdrpa among the additions to Skldskaparml in W). It is uncertain whether Snorri himself intended these extended quotations to be included in Skldskaparml (they are not in all manuscripts), but obviously he knew the poems since he quotes individual verses from the poems as well and uses material from them in prose paraphrase in both Gylfaginning and Skldskaparml. They were probably composed in heathen times or in the period of transition to Christianity and were presumably known to Snorri from oral tradition, though their poor preservation and the abnormal spellings in the extant manuscripts suggest that they may have been copied from earlier poorly copied manuscripts.

The ulur
There are 106 stanzas contining ulur at the end of Skldskaparml in R, T and C and more in A and B. Some of these seem to have been sources for prose lists of kennings and heiti in Skldskaparml that are not all just compiled from examples in skaldic verse, but are evidently from earlier lists; cf. 85/1315 (but note that A has Himins heiti essi er hr eru ritin instead of essi nfn himins eru ritu, en). The lists of names for the sky and sun that follow (85/1720) are clearly partly based on the ulur in verses 51617 (cf. also the additional ula of Himins heiti in A and B, Skj A I 683, and

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Alvssml 12, 16; few of the names are found in other extant poems, those that are being anyway in verse later than Snorris Edda; see note to 85/13). Other prose lists in Skldskaparml that seem to be derived from ulur are those of names for bears (88/67, cf. verses 51011); stags (88/8, cf. verse 512; also Grmnisml 33, see Gylfaginning ch. 16); the moon (85/212, cf. verse 11 in Skj A I 6823 (Tungls heiti, in AB); the lists of words in chs 7071 seem to be related to the ulur of Hugar heiti ok hjarta and Heiti hendi in A, Skj A I 6889; and there are other examples of the probable use of verse ulur. It is clear that it is not just the ulur in R that were used by the compiler of Skldskaparml, and not even those in the same form as they have in R (the order is often different, there are both additional words and omissions as well as variant forms); and those that are in R are not used exhaustively in Skldskaparml. On the other hand, Finnur Jnsson (SnE 1931, xlviiixlix) assumed not only that Snorri did not use the ulur that are in R, but that the additional ones in A and B were later than his time anyway. Some of the ulur seem to be compiled from earlier extant sources. For instance, since the list of names of earth (85/2387/7) is derived from the verse examples that accompany it, the ula in verses 5012 may be derived partly from these too, though words are also included there that are not in other extant verse. The ula of rivernames in verses 47984 is partly based on Grmnisml 2729, or it may be the other way round. Only some of the river-names in the ulur are of mythical rivers mentioned in Gylfaginning and Grmnisml; others are geographical (cf. note to verses 47984) and may be derived from actual geographical knowledge, and several are also among the names of girs daughters, see 95/79 and note, and 36/256. The horses of the sun (90/1) and some of the serpentnames (90/11) are from Grmnisml 37, 34 (cf. also Grmnisml 30, Vafrnisml 12, 14), and some of these names (and Grmnisml 34) have also appeared already in Gylfaginning chs 1011, 16. The names for men (chs. 658) are partly from Rgsula, which also includes some of the names in verses 43848. Weapon-names and ship-names seem in many cases to be derived from sagas, particularly fornaldarsgur. The list of sea-kings (i. e. kings whose territory was the sea; vikings who took the title of king, verses 41216) contains names that appear elsewhere as names of semi-historical characters in poetry or prose narratives (e. g. Atli, Gjki, Gylfi,

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Hagbarr, Hjlmarr, Randvr) and this suggests that this list is no more than a list of legendary names. The coincidence of names of sea-kings, giants, dwarves and gods on the one hand, and of names of goddesses, giantesses, valkyries, norns and heroines of fornaldarsgur on the other, is probably due partly to the vagueness of these categories in Norse mythology generally, and partly to the random way in which lists of these kinds of beings were compiled. Some of the ulur contain foreign words (Latin, French, Greek); this confirms their learned character and implies that they were mostly compiled in the twelfth century or later. They have their closest literary parallels in the work of Einarr Sklason; cf. especially his lists of kennings for sea using names of islands, Skj A I 4845, verses 1114. Two of these are in A and all four are attributed to Einarr in Edda Magnsar lafssonar 2668. Magns lafsson possibly found them in W, but more likely in some other medieval manuscript. There are further drttkvtt verses of a similar kind containing terms for woman in U and A (SnE II 363, together with a verse of mansngr, and SnE II 49091) and Mlshttakvi is a collection of versified proverbs of a similar nature (Skj A II 13036; in R after Httatal ). S. Bugge (1875, 23742) suggested that both the ulur and Mlshttakvi were the work of Bjarni Kolbeinsson, along with Jmsvkinga drpa (Skj A II 110; also in R after Httatal). This is not demonstrable, though it is true that these writings are all in a similar spirit. Also comparable are Haukr Valdsarsons slendingadrpa (Skj A I 55660; in A) and Httalykill (attributed to Earl Rgnvaldr of Orkney and the Icelander Hallr rarinsson), and this group of writings may testify to the development of a particular kind of learned activity in Orkney. The ulur contain many words not actually found in poetry (and often not in prose either), so that their purpose as collections of names for use by poets is not always certain. Among their sources are skaldic verses as well as eddic poems, but also written prose sources and perhaps personal knowledge and travellers accounts for the foreign geographical names; cf. Apardjn in verse 481. This is included as a river-name, but though it contains a river-name, it is actually derived from the name of the town of Aberdeen, At the mouth of the River Don, and it is likely that it is based on garbled personal knowledge of the place. Some of the verse ulur are, however, older than the twelfth century, e. g. presumably the lists of dwarfs in Vlusp and those of rivers and

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other items in Grmnisml; there are some similar lists in poems in Heireks saga and in Anglo-Saxon poems such as Widsi; the date of Alvssml must be regarded as uncertain. Many of the whalenames (some are obviously fabulous) in verses 48990 are found in the chapter on whales in Konungs skuggsj, though it is difficult to know how old such traditions are. It seems clear that whether or not they were intended to be included as part of Skldskaparml, the ulur appended to the work in RTABC were not compiled by Snorri himself, and may have been added by another hand.

The dialogue frame


The scene is set in the first chapter, which parallels the second chapter of Gylfaginning, and it is probably based on the situation in Lokasenna (sometimes called gisdrekka, girs feast). This poem was certainly known to Snorri, for there are quotations from it in Gylfaginning, though in Skldskaparml it is mainly the prose introduction to the poem that is paralleled. The scene in both is a feast where the gods and gir are in the same hall (in sgarr in Skldskaparml, in girs hall in Lokasenna), and Snorri himself draws attention to the similarity in his prose account based on (the prose introduction to) Lokasenna in ch. 33 (41/12), where the feast does take place in girs hall. There is hardly any mention of the speakers from ch. 2 onwards, however, and as in Httatal the speakers names are generally not given and the dialogue is not kept up to the end of the section. This part of Skldskaparml is in conception rather like Alvssml: both works are concerned with esoteric names and kennings for various concepts, and the narrative framework in both is definitely subsidiary, though the didactic content in both is presented with considerable artistry. Grmnisml too has similarities, though there the content seems to be purely informational (i. e. has no practical purpose). The conversation between Bragi and gir in Skldskaparml is more artistic than that in Httatal, like that in Gylfaginning, where the speakers are also given names and embryonic characters, though unlike Gylfaginning it is not rounded off with a conclusion. (There are verbal similarities with the introduction to the dialogue in Gylfaginning, compare 1/25 and Gylfaginning 7/2027.) gir makes

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some comments on Bragis narration that are comparable to those of Gylfi on the narrations of Hr, Jafnhr and rii (e. g. 3/9, 4/6, 24/1718). Unlike that in Gylfaginning, where the dialogue is a contest, the content of the conversation in Skldskaparml has no real connection with the frame other than that Bragi, as god of poetry, is a suitable person to talk about the language of poetry and its origin (even though inn is more often actually mentioned by poets and is the god who obtained the mead of poetry for the use of men); on the other hand it is not quite clear why gir should have been chosen for the role of questioner, except that the tradition of girs feast for the gods in Lokasenna provides an ideal setting for the conversation; and being an outsider among the gods (he is usually regarded as one of the giants, a personification of one of the chaotic forces of nature) gir would be a suitable person to be instructed in the esoteric, sophisticated and civilised art of poetry. After the opening and the beginning of ch. 1, the references to Bragi and gir as speakers are mostly in the stories of rrs adventures, which may originally have been a separate section of Skldskaparml (as they are in U). If they were only later linked with the rest of Skldskaparml (which may like Httatal originally have had unnamed speakers), this would explain why in the later part of Skldskaparml there are references to both in the third person. As in Gylfaginning (14/2 and perhaps elsewhere) and Httatal (e. g. 16/1317) there are some places where the voice of the author seems to break into the conversation. For instance, there are references to the text as a written one at 73/31, 85/1315 (see Glossary under rita and cf. Httatal 11/9, 23/11, etc.). There are three phases to the conversation in Skldskaparml. After the scene-setting of 1/215, Bragi tells gir a story purportedly chosen at random about one of the exploits of the gods against the giants, at the end of which Bragi incidentally mentions that it gave rise to some kennings in poetry (3/58). This leads to girs first question about poetry: he asks about its origin (3/1011), and Bragi tells the myth of the origin of the mead of inspiration (3/125/8). gir then asks specifically about the language of poetry (5/910), and then begins the second phase: the analysis of poetic diction in the form of questions and answers, enumerating categories and sub-categories (5/924), in the same style as the beginning of Httatal. The dialogue is then interrupted by a passage in the authors voice giving the purpose of the work,

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emphasising the mythological background to many of the kennings, and suggesting an allegorical origin for some myths in the story of the Trojan War (5/256/29). Then the conversation is apparently resumed (but to begin with, in chs. 2 and 3, with no mention of the speakers; only in B is ch. 3 said to be part of Bragis speeches, though 6/30 seems to follow on from 5/24, see note to 6/32), and in this second phase kennings are enumerated according to their significations, beginning with those for inn, and illustrated by numerous quotations from skaldic verse. The conversation from now on becomes perfunctory; the next actual question is at 14/25, from which point the dialogue is handled very much in the same way as in Httatal, and various sections are introduced thus, without the speakers being identified (e. g. at the beginnings of chs 516). The speakers names are only reintroduced again at the beginning and end of ch. 17, where further extended narrations (rrs exploits) interrupt the enumeration of kennings. Chs 1718, which have rather little to do with the origins of kennings, are in U placed immediately after the first group of narratives and the interruption at 5/2535; it may be that they were afterthoughts (cf. 20/18 n.), but in any case the desire to include more such narratives perhaps for their own sake (there are others later in Skldskaparml that are not all mythological ones) may have been one of the reasons that Snorri went on to compile Gylfaginning. When the dialogue is maintained after ch. 18, it is quite perfunctory, as it is in Httatal, and the narrative frame seems to be forgotten. Both speakers are from time to time referred to in the dialogue in the third person (in chs 10, 22, 25, 27, 28, 32, 61), and one episode is related, in which both appear, which must have taken place after the conversation in which it is narrated (ch. 33; cf. note to 2/24). This suggests that phase two was not originally intended to be included in the frame of phase one, and that when they were joined together, the author neglected to make the changes that would have been necessary to avoid these absurdities. It is conceivable, but by no means certain, that the absurdities were deliberately intended as a joke or included for ironical purposes, to emphasise the fictional nature of the frame story. Phase three is the kend heiti section (from 83/13), where the dialogue, when there is any trace of it at all, is entirely perfunctory, as in Httatal, and towards the end is abandoned completely; there is no narrative conclusion. The last question is at 99/21. The ulur are

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clearly not intended to be part of the conversation. There are several more extended narratives in phases 2 (chs 335, girs feast, the making of the gods treasures; chs 3942, Otrgjld and the Gjkungar; chs 434, Fris mill, Hrlfr kraki; ch. 50, Hjaningavg) and 3 (ch. 64, the descendants of Hlfdan gamli); towards the end of phase 3 there are rather few verse illustrations (chs 6574). Skldskaparml is thus more varied in content and structure than either Gylfaginning or Httatal; the organisation is not entirely coherent and this adds to the impression that the work was not completed by the author. In Skldskaparml some sections are organised with an introductory list of kennings for a particular concept, followed by a series of illustrations from earlier poets exemplifying these kennings in the same order as in the introductory list. But this is not always by any means carried out with regularity; there are many inconsistencies and much randomness, and it is not possible to dismiss all these as the result of the activity of interpolators or scribal interference (cf. SnE 1931, xlivxlvii). Similarly, there are some verses adduced as examples of kennings that in fact contain none (see SnE 1931, xlv): verses 10 and 12 contain only kend heiti for inn; verse 20 contains no names or kennings except the name inn itself; verse 14 has only the kenning sigrunnr, which is a generalised one for warrior, not a specific name for inn; in verse 23 farmagnur only refers to inn in the particular situation of flying to escape jazi. The fact that some of these verses are not in all manuscripts is no argument for their being interpolations; it is more likely that some scribes omitted them when they realised that they did not contain the expected kennings. There are similar inconsistencies in the kend heiti section of Skldskaparml, where kennings are sometimes listed alongside heiti (see notes to 87/89, 90/1617, 269, 95/1, 108/69, 109/89); there is no reason there either to explain the inconsistencies as due to scribes rather than to the authors incomplete working out of his scheme (cf. 95/79 n.). The Uppsala manuscript has a less consistent division of Skldskaparml into kennings and heiti than some other manuscripts, and for instance has chs 50, 346, 3940, 435 after the section on kend heiti (SnE II 339355), though many of the other chapters dealing with kennings come before (see pp. xlxliv below). If U represents an earlier stage in the evolution of Skldskaparml than other manuscripts, this perhaps indicates that the division into ken-

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nings and heiti only occurred to the author after he had assembled most of his material; though the material was then arranged roughly into two sections, many remnants of the undifferentiated treatment survived at various points in the compilation, particularly in the kend heiti section. Of course it is also possible that the last chapters in Skldskaparml in U, which also contain some extended narratives, represent material that came to hand later, when the bulk of the compilation was complete.

The prose narratives


There is very little to be added to Finnur Jnssons summary of the sources of these in SnE 1931, livlvi. Like the stories in Gylfaginning, those in Skldskaparml are in many cases derived from eddic poems, though in some cases they are taken from or influenced by skaldic mythological poems such as rsdrpa, Ragnarsdrpa, Hsdrpa, Haustlng (or references to mythology in kennings in skaldic verse); in some cases parts of these verse sources are quoted. (Genealogical poems such as Ynglingatal, Hleygjatal and Nregskonungatal seem not to be used in Skldskaparml.) Other stories are from learned prose writings of the twelfth or early thirteenth centuries such as the mainly lost Skjldunga saga (which may also have been used in the first chapter of Gylfaginning as well as in its Prologue). As with Gylfaginning, it is difficult to gauge the extent to which Snorri may have been dependent in Skldskaparml on oral prose stories, either instead of verse sources or to supplement them. Where supposed Celtic motifs come into his narratives (for instance Sigurr gaining knowledge from sucking his finger, or the everlasting battle motif in the Hjaningavg; cf. Saxo Grammaticus 1979 80, II 75, 845) it is likely that his knowledge came from (via) written sources such as versions of Vlsunga saga and Skjldunga saga rather than oral ones. The opening frame story that introduces the speakers through whose words the following narratives are presented is probably based mainly on the situation described in Lokasenna (see p. xviii above); the preparation for the feast of the gods is described in Hymiskvia. 1/162/37 tells the story of how the sir slew jazi, which is the subject of part of Haustlng (with the text of which the prose account has some striking verbal correspondences). This is quoted in verses

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92104, though it seems likely that Snorri would have had other sources for the story too. Hrbarslj 19 has a rather different version of the conclusion of this affair. The story of how jazi and his brothers shared their inheritance (3/15) is not told elsewhere, though kennings based on it are widespread (cf. verse 150; see Meissner 1921, 2278). A version of the story of the origin of the mead of poetry (3/105/8) appears also in Hvaml 10410. Though this cannot have been Snorris only source, conceivably some of the differences in his account may be the result of his own rationalisation and expansion of the Hvaml account. The story is alluded to in many skaldic kennings, though it is not certain that they all originate in heathen times (see Frank 1981). The account of the Trojan war (5/366/29) could be derived from Trjumanna saga, and thus ultimately based on Latin versions of Homer (see Faulkes 19789, 119 n. 127), though it differs considerably from the saga in details. In fact the name Volukrontem at 6/3 seems to connect this account particularly with the version of the saga in Hauksbk (though this book was of course compiled later than Skldskaparml; see Faulkes 19789, 122). The story of rr and Hrungnir (20/1722/19) appears also in Haustlng (quoted in verses 6571), but it seems likely that Snorri knew other versions too. The beginning of the story and 22/2032 seem to have no parallel in extant sources. The story of rr and Geirrr (24/1925/34) seems to be based mainly on rsdrpa (quoted in verses 7391, as well as in verses 44 and 53), though the quotation of a fragment of a poem in ljahttr (verse 72; another in U, 25/27 n.) implies that there was an eddic poem that related this story too, and Snorris account does not follow rsdrpa closely. The story has reflexes in Saxo Grammaticus Book VIII (197980, II 142, 1445) and there may have been many versions current in Scandinavia (cf. McKinnell 1994, 5786). The story of gir entertaining the sir (40/3241/10) may have been suggested by Hymiskvia, though it is mainly based on the scene of Lokasenna, which may thus have been the model for this as well as for the frame of Skldskaparml. The peculiarity is that this event is said to be a return visit by the sir three months after the conversation of which the narration of ch. 33 still seems to be part. This may be another indication that the idea of the frame to Skldskaparml was only developed after much of the work had been compiled, and the compiler forgot that he had included an

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account of events that could not have been part of Bragis original narrative; but in that case, it is still odd that at 40/323 there is a reference to the frame story at the beginning of Skldskaparml. The note in 41/224 is clearly based on verse 142, another verse in ljahttr that is probably derived from an otherwise lost eddic poem. The account of Lokis cutting off of Sifs hair and the creation of the gods treasures that result (41/2943/10) has no parallel in extant sources, and it is difficult to know whether it was derived from lost poems or from oral prose stories. The account of the origin of Draupnirs magic properties conflicts with that in Gylfaginning 47. The story of Otrgjld and the Gjkungar (45/350/21) has parallels in Vlsunga saga and the Poetic Edda; it seems likely that the compiler knew not only the poems of the latter (he quoted two verses of Ffnisml (323) in verses 1512), but also some version of the prose links (or the stories part in prose and part in verse) that appear in the Codex Regius (cf. especially PE 173). It is also probable that he knew (an earlier version of) Vlsunga saga as well, though the Sigurar saga he refers to in Httatal 35/13 need not have been a written saga, and the fact that the story of Otrgjld and the Gjkungar is not in all manuscripts of Skldskaparml has been taken to strengthen the possibility that it is a later interpolation, which need not have been written earlier than the extant Vlsunga saga. But the details of the Skldskaparml account indicate that no one extant source has been used exclusively. Ragnarsdrpa is quoted in verses 1538, but not many details in the prose account seem to be derived from that. The version of the story of Jrmunrekkrs proxy wooing of Svanhildr and the role of his son Randvr (which seems to show the influence of the Tristram story) link the Skldskaparml account particularly with Vlsunga saga. The story of the mill Grotti is clearly based mainly on Grottasngr, quoted in R and T (verses 15982) and not found elsewhere, so that the poem itself may be an interpolation, though Snorri must have known it. The introductory prose however probably also contains information from Skjldunga saga, and it may have been there that Snorri found the text of the poem, too. The Hrlfr kraki stories (58/459/32) must also be derived from Skjldunga saga (cf. Skjldunga saga 42, Hkr I 57; much of the storybut with important differencesalso appears in the later Hrlfs saga kraka). The Bjarkaml verses (18890) could also be from Skjldunga saga (on which see F XXXV, xixlxx).

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The account of Hlgi (60/1013) may come from a lost Hlaajarla saga (cf. F XXVI, xvi and Finnur Jnsson 192024, II 633). The Hjaningar story (72/131) may be derived from Skjldunga saga; the account in Ragnarsdrpa, quoted in verses 25054, can scarcely be the only source of Snorris knowledge of the story. There is another account in Srla ttr in Flateyjarbk (I 30413) which differs greatly from these two and is probably a later development of the legend. The account of Hlfdan gamli and his descendants (101/1024 and 103/117, see notes; many of the names appear in the ula of names for king in SnE 184887, II 469) is related to the genealogical passages in Flateyjarbk I 2230 (Hversu Noregr byggist, which prefaces lfs saga Tryggvasonar) and these are related to Fundinn Noregr, Flb I 2413; the latter is the introduction to Orkneyinga saga, F XXXIV 27. All three may be derived from a common earlier (twelfth-century?) source, which was perhaps a saga like Skjldunga saga (see Faulkes 1993a, 61). The account is comparable to the last part of Heireks saga (5963) and Af Upplendinga konungum in Hauksbk 18926, 4567. Many of the names and some narrative details appear in Hyndlulj 1416, but it does not look as though this was a direct source, though its existence suggests the possibility that there could have been other poems like it that may have contained some of the information Snorri gives about the descendants of Hlfdan. Cf. Clunies Ross 1983, 60, where it is claimed that Hversu Noregr byggist is almost certainly later than both Fundinn Noregr and Snorris Edda; and F XXXIV, ixxvi, where Finnbogi Gumundsson suggests that the introductory chapters to Orkneyinga saga were compiled by Snorri Sturluson himself.

The analysis of poetic diction


The major part of Skldskaparml is devoted to the exemplification of kennings and heiti (arranged roughly into these two categories) for various concepts. Relatively little space is devoted to theoretical analysis of poetic diction or to comment. It is only in two passages, the first at the beginning of Skldskaparml (ch. 1, 5/924), the second at the very end (chs 6768, 107/12108/5) that Snorri actually discusses his categories. And as far as the language of poetry goes, his categories are actually rather few: they are kenning, heiti, and the parallel phrases kent heiti and kent heiti; vi(r)kenning,

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Skldskaparml

sannkenning, and fornafn; ofljst (ch. 74, 109/1122) and ngervingar (41/1117); nykrat he only mentions in Httatal in opposition to ngervingar. (The most important earlier analyses of Snorris categories are Brodeur 1952 and Halldr Halldrsson 1975; cf. also Clunies Ross 1987; Faulkes 1994.) Of these nine main terms that Snorri uses to describe poetical language, vi(r)kenning is least problematical. He uses it only in one passage, in chs 6768 of Skldskaparml, and both his definition (107/1314) and the examples he gives make it clear that he uses it to mean kennings referring to people (men and women) by their possessions or relationships (including those of friendship and enmity). But it is also clear that nearly all kennings for people which are designed to specify an individual person are in this category. Other kinds of kenning like tree of weapons cannot usually designate a particular person, only a member of the class of warriors. (Incidentally it should be noted that even when Snorri lists kennings as expressions for man or woman, most of them as they are actually used in verse refer to individuals, whether they mention individual characteristics or not; they rarely in fact replace common nouns.) The term vi(r)kenning presumably relates to Snorris phrase at kenna einhvern vi eitthvert, to refer to someone in terms of something, when that something is generally a relative or a possession or other attribute. (The term vi(r)kenning as Snorri uses it cannot have anything to do with the same term as used by religious writers to mean confession (of faith). Cf. Glossary under kenning.) Sannkenning is more difficult because Snorri uses the term both in Skldskaparml ch. 67 and in Httatal, and apart from the question of whether the commentary to Httatal is by the same author as Skldskaparml, it is not entirely certain whether one can assume that Snorri was absolutely consistent in his use of such terms over all his writings. In Skldskaparml he gives as examples of sannkenningar references to people as having certain qualities of character (107/268; the terms used here are nearly all compound nouns) while in Httatal he uses the term to refer to the use of attributives (whether with nouns for persons or inanimate objects) and also to the use of adverbials (Httatal 3/95/11). In spite of the etymology of the term sannkenningar (= true kennings), it does not seem that Snorri is contrasting literalness with the use of metaphor; some of his examples of sannkenningar

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would probably be analysed by modern readers as metaphorical, and moreover it is not in connection with sannkenningar that Snorri discusses metaphor. The element sann- in the term as it is used in Skldskaparml seems to be related to the idea of the essential nature of the persons referred to (i. e. what they are truly like), in the term as used in Httatal to the verb sanna in the sense of affirm (since the examples are mostly of affirmatory or intensive attributives and adverbs; they refer to what can truly be said to be the case). In distinguishing vi(r)kenningar and sannkenningar Snorri is attempting to distinguish descriptions based on accidents and those based on essences in the Aristotelian sense (compare the terms virnefni surname, soubriquet and sannnefni accurate, appropriate name); all his examples of vi(r)kenningar seem to describe people in terms of their accidental attributes (possessions, relationships) while his examples of sannkenningar both in Skldskaparml and Httatal are of descriptions in terms of inherent or innate qualities. In Skldskaparml all the examples are descriptions of people, but in Httatal some of them are of things or actions. In both parts of the work, most of the examples of sannkenningar are not kennings at all in the modern sense of the word since they are not constructed with the use of base-words and determinants. In The Third Grammatical Treatise, sannkenning is said to be the Norse name for epitheton, and some of the examples there relate to essential characteristics, but some to accidents; most are attributive adjectives, often compound ones: see TGT 100, 103 (here it is an error for mannkenningar) and 1078. Very many of Snorris examples of kennings do not contain metaphor. He does, however, on a few occasions draw attention to metaphorical expressions, his term for which seems to be ngervingar (ngjrvingar). This term has also caused some confusion because of its etymology. It appears in four passages in Skldskaparml (see Glossary) and in one passage in Httatal (5/126/16), and again seems to be used slightly differently in the two parts of the work. In neither does it refer to neologisms, rather it seems to mean either the making of new meanings for words (i. e. metaphors) or the construction of new (metaphorical) kennings. In the examples in Httatal this is done mainly by varying the base-word in kennings, in Skldskaparml by varying the determinant (or both). At Skldskaparml 41/717 there is the most detailed definition, and there ngerving is said to be the substitution of synonyms or near-synonyms for the

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determinant, so that gold can be called fire of gir, and then by substitution fire of the sea, lakes, rivers or brooks. v er at kallat ngervingar alt er t er sett heiti lengra en fyrr finnsk (For this reason it is all called ngervingar when the term is extended further than there are earlier examples of). Here Snorri is describing how by substitution of words of related meaning, the correspondence between the literal meaning of the kenning and what it actually refers to becomes remoter, so that the meaning of words is so to speak extended; but it is interesting that he is imagining that this happens chiefly through word-substitution rather than through the use of metaphor or allegory in the usual senses of those terms. The other examples in Skldskaparml are slightly different: at 74/56 kennings for weapons are developed from land of weapons = shield to hail or rain of the land of weapons. (Extending the kenning with several determinants is called rekit here as in Httatal.) At 108/14, 16, 37 the examples are of the creation of new kennings for parts of the body by analogy (ears = mouth or eyes of the hearing; mouth = ship of words, the lips the gunwale of the ship, the tongue the oar or rudder; arm = shoulders leg). The example in Httatal is similar to these last ones, in that an example is given (the only actual verse exemplification in the Eddafrom Snorris own poemof ngerving) of how the metaphors may be developed though a stanza: the sword conceived as a snake, the scabbard as its path, the fittings its slough, the blood its drink (a river that it seeks), the victims breast its route; the verbs are also chosen to fit these concepts. Thus the metaphors here are extended or continued throughout the stanza (so that he is almost producing allegory), and Snorri contrasts the coherence of his example with what he calls nykrat, where conflicting metaphors for the same concept are used in the same stanza. He does not give examples of this, though they can be found particularly in poems in kviuhttr (and in Egill Skallagrmssons Hfulausn; see Httatal pp. 50 and 84). But the emphasis in Skldskaparml is on the creation of new kennings, or perhaps on metaphorical kennings in general, rather than on extended metaphor. (On ngervingar and nykrat in Old Norse verse see Marold 1993.) Snorri says that nykrat is thought to be a blemish (Httatal 6/16), and in Skldskaparml 41/17 he emphasises that ngervingar are thought to be all right when they are in accordance with verisimilitude and natureone of his few evaluatory comments on kennings which suggests accord

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with the classical idea of restraint and conformity to nature found, for example, at the beginning of Horaces Ars Poetica where monstrosities (i. e. representations contrary to nature) are condemned. In TGT 80 nykrat or finnglknat is said to be one kind of cacemphaton found especially in ngervingar (cf. also FoGT 131). It is the term fornafn that has provoked the most discussion. The word is used (in the plural) in Httatal in its ordinary grammatical sense of pronoun in the prose after stanza 1. In Skldskaparml the term appears twice, without explanation in ch. 1, and in ch. 67. It is clear that there the term is used for references to people which replace their proper names (as opposed to terms that can refer to any person, i. e. replacements for common nouns); these replacements for proper names are what classical rhetoricians, whether Snorri knew it or not, sometimes called not pronouns but pronominatio (a description pro nomine; though commoner was the Greek term antonomasia). It is also clear that sannkenningar can be one kind of fornafn, and vi(r)kenningar seem to be another. These are therefore not exclusive or contrastive terms, but overlapping ones. Some (though not all) sannkenningar and vi(r)kenningar are varieties of fornafn, and there are presumably others. Note that in the Uppsala manuscript (SnE II 346) the section on fornfn corresponding to Skldskaparml ch. 67 begins not as in the Codex Regius enn eru au heiti er menn lta ganga fyrir nfn manna (107/12), but enn eru r kenningar er menn lta ganga fyrir nfn manna; at kllum vr fornfn manna; nevertheless it seems clear from the examples in both manuscripts that some fornfn are kennings and some are kend heitithough it is true that there are no unequivocal examples of kend heiti among them. The equivalent term to fornafn in modern Icelandic is srkenning, but Snorri does not use that term. It is significant that these three terms, sannkenningar, vi(r)kenningar and fornafn, occur in connection with kennings for man and woman, after a section listing common nouns that can be used for the class of human beings in general, i. e. terms that are not specific in application, and that they come under the general heading of terms that are put in place of mens names (au heiti er menn lta ganga fyrir nfn manna, 107/12). Again it seems that Snorris principal interest is in terms that can be used to refer to particular people in skaldic poetry. The explanation for this must be that Snorri saw skaldic poetry primarily as praise poetry (the sentence at 67/289

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seems to imply this, and most of his own verse seems to have been of this kind). So Snorris emphasis on kennings and heiti for persons is probably due to his seeing skaldic poetry as mainly concerned with the praise of persons (human and divine), and kennings and heiti principally as means of referring to the subjects of the poems. This is in fact the commonest use he himself makes of kennings in Httatal, where the majority of his kennings refer to King Hkon and Earl Skli. (Httatal contains roughly 120 kennings for ruler, referring to King Hkon and Earl Skli, and 25 referring to men more generally; there are 5 for gods, 29 for parts of the body, 61 for weapons, 29 for ships, 30 for gold, 32 for battle, 23 for parts of the natural world (earth, sea etc.), 5 for animals, and about 23 others.) This could also be the reason why he does not give examples of kennings or heiti for giants, though there are lists of giant-names in the ulur at the end of Skldskaparml and many kennings for giants in some of the poems quoted, e. g. in rsdrpa, see note to verses 7391. As Snorri says in ch. 31 of Skldskaparml (40/15), when names of giants are used in kennings for men, this is mostly as satire or criticism (though he quotes no examples of this; see smmijungr in Glossary). Since he is mainly concerned with praise poetry, he has little use for references to giants. It is important to remember that Snorris Edda is not a treatise on earlier Norse poetry; it is a book of instruction for young poets of his day illustrated from the work of earlier poets. It was no part of the requirement of young poets in the thirteenth century to be able to compose about giants (or indeed to write satire): their function was to learn to praise kings. It is this that determines the content of the Prose Edda, which not surprisingly does not well represent or cover the whole range of skaldic verse, and generally concentrates on the kinds of kennings that would be most useful for praising kings. This is also probably the reason why Snorri shows so little interest in metaphor and figures of speech. He sees poetical language largely in terms of substitutions of one name for another, rather than in terms of transference of meaning. The latter he describes as ngervingar and exemplifies in a number of places in both Skldskaparml and Httatal, but always with the implication that it is somewhat exceptional. Even kennings which seem to us obviously metaphorical, such as when gold is called fire of the sea or poetry the ship of the dwarfs as well as ale of dwarfs, are explained by Snorri in terms

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of substitutions, and the fundamental kenning type as arising from the events of a particular story. That is, a word for sea may be subsituted for the name gir as a variation on the kenning-type fire of gir, based according to Snorri on the story of how gir used gold as a source of light when he entertained the sir to a feast (Skldskaparml ch. 33); and li/l was a word for ale and for vessel, so that other words for ship could be used as a variation of the kenning-type mead of the dwarfs which arose from an episode in the story of the origin of poetry (Skldskaparml ch. 3, 14/1820). In his account of the origin of the mead of poetry at the beginning of Skldskaparml, however, Snorri seems to favour a metaphorical interpretation of the latter: kllum vr skldskap . . . farskost dverga, fyrir v at s mjr flutti eim fjrlausn r skerinu, 4/14. Indeed Snorris interest in word-play, which he calls ofljst, both as a device in itself and as a generator of kennings, does not seem to be justified by its frequency in recorded verse (see in particular Skldskaparml ch. 74 and Httatal stanzas 1723), while he gives rather little space to metaphor (Httatal stanza 6 and the commentary on it, 41/1017, 74/56, 108/1417, 378). It also seems somewhat odd that Snorri consistently explains kennings, and heiti too, as having their origin in stories or events, and scarcely seems to acknowledge other sources of poetical language (such as e. g. picture language or symbolism, metaphor or metonymy, or archaisms or loan-words from other languages). His concept of causation is still largely mythological. Indeed he seems to dismiss imagination as a source of poetical language by his insistence that it must be in accordance with lkindum ok eli, verisimilitude and nature (41/17; cf. his criticism of mixed metaphors as nykrat monstrous, Httatal 6/16). There seems to be no difference in Snorris usage between the terms nafn and heiti. They are apparently interchangeable both in his usage and that of his scribes, who have sometimes substituted one for the other, e. g. 83/14 (heiti R, nfn TAU), 85/1314 (cf. SnE 184887, II 460), 99/212 (cf. SnE 184887, II 604), as indeed does Finnur Jnsson in his 1931 edition, who tries by emendation rather unsuccessfully to impose consistency on his text, e. g. in the first few sentences of chs 54 and 64 of Skldskaparml. But at the beginning of ch. 55 all manuscripts introduce the list of kend heiti for gods as nfn; the section on names for the heavens (ch. 56) is

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introduced essi nfn himins eru ritu, en eigi hfum vr fundit kvum ll essi heiti; en essi skldskaparheiti . . .and the following list includes both kend and kend nfn. One might have expected that Snorri would reserve one of these labels (nafn or heiti ) for the normal or natural name for things, and the other for specifically poetical terms or secondary names, and thus contrast for instance the name inn with his alternative names such as Hr or Grmnir and the term hestr horse with fkr steed, but he does not use separate terms for these different kinds of names. Nor does he make a terminological distinction between what we call proper names (names of people) and common nouns (names of things) although he spends more time on the former, and seems to use the terms vi(r)kenning and fornafn only for references to people; and he does use the term einkarnafn of proper names of possessions such as ships (107/25). There is one place in Skldskaparml where Snorri does discuss the problem of kennings that can only indicate a class of persons, not an individual, i. e. those that are substitutions for common nouns rather than proper nouns; this is in ch. 53, in the account of kennings for kings: ar koma saman kenningar, ok verr s at skilja af sto, er rr skldskapinn, um hvrn kveit er konunginn, vat rtt er at kalla Miklagars keisara Grikkja konung, ok sv ann konung er rr Jrsalalandi, at kalla Jrsala konung, sv ok at kalla Rms konung Rmaborgar keisara ea Engla konung ann er Englandi rr. En s kenning er r var ritat, at kalla Krist konung manna, kenning m eiga hverr konungr. Konunga alla er rtt at kenna sv at kalla landrendr. But Snorri does not use special terms to distinguish kennings for common nouns from those for proper nouns, though vi(r)kenning and fornafn usually refer to the latter. In ch. 64 he lists common nouns for ruler that are derived from proper nouns (according to his explanation of their origina sort of reverse substitution, the opposite of pronominatio), such as engill, Gramr, Skilfingr, Ynglingr, but even here he does not use a term to distinguish common nouns from proper nouns. Indeed in Skldskaparml it is often difficult to tell which is which, for instance with items such as Jr/jr and many of the names in the ulur. The distinction between common and proper nouns is not dealt with at all clearly by Margaret Clunies Ross (1987, 33, 66, 956, 1027), who assumes too readily that Snorri was trying to make the distinction, and both she and Halldr Halldrsson assume

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that his terminology somehow reflects that of Latin grammarians. The latter (1975, 15; cf. 17 and 21) takes kend heiti to mean the same as verbum proprium as used by Quintilian. It is apparent from the examples Snorri gives not only that most kennings for people are vi(r)kenningar, but also that most kennings for individuals are fornfn: expressions where the name of the person referred to is not used. Vi(r)kenningar and fornafn are overlapping sub-categories of kennings and are usually kend heiti; all kennings and kend heiti are sub-categories of the general class of heiti or nfn. Only the pair kend heiti and kend heiti are exclusive categories. After his initial description of the kenning in ch. 1, Snorri returns three times in Skldskaparml to the description of kennings for persons in terms of substitutions for their names by means of references to their activities or attributes, in ch. 20: Sv m kenna allar synjur at nefna annarrar nafni ok kenna vi eign ea verk sn ea ttir; in ch. 22: su er sv rtt at kenna at kalla einnhvern annars nafni ok kenna vi verk sn ea eign ea ttir; and ch. 31: [mann] skal kenna vi verk sn, at er hann veitir ea iggr ea gerir . . . til eignar sinnar eirar er hann ok sv ef hann gaf, sv ok vi ttir r er hann kom af, sv r er fr honum kmu . . . Konu er ok rtt at kenna vi alla athfn sna ea vi eign sna ea tt (cf. also 107/25). It is clear that Snorri is particularly interested in this kind of kenning, and that he in a sense thinks of it as the normal kind of kenning. The term heiti moreover does not mean the same as at nefna hvern hlut sem heitir (5/17) which seems to refer to the use of simplex terms whether poetical or not, while both heiti and nafn often refer to compound descriptions like kennings. So, at the beginning of the kend heiti section of Skldskaparml (83/1314), kend setning skldskapar, the rule for poetry without periphrasis, is defined as at nefna hvern hlut sem heitir, and paraphrased by the term kend heiti. (Incidentally when Halldr Halldrsson (1975, 14) takes setning at 83/13 as a synonym for heiti he must be mistaken; the word means rule there as elsewhere.) When introducing various kinds of kennings in Skldskaparml, Snorri frequently describes them as heiti (4/7, 6/31, 11/26, 60/18). Ch. 2 begins: Enn skal lta heyra dmin hvernig hfuskldin hafa ltit sr sma at yrkja eptir essum heitum ok kenningum. Ch. 3 begins Hr skal heyra hv skldin hafa kent skldskapinn eptir essum heitum er r eru ritu, sv sem er at kalla Kvasis dreyra (there follow examples

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of kennings). The verses from Bjarkaml in ch. 45 illustrating kennings for gold are introduced Bjarkamlum inum fornum eru tl mrg gulls heiti. Moreover there is not an absolute separation of the categories of kenning and kend heiti in Skldskaparml; in many chapters in the section on kennings, verses are included that contain only kend heiti (e. g. verse 20 in ch. 2) and simplex names are listed (e. g. in ch. 53), and conversely in the section on kend heiti that begins in ch. 54, kennings are frequently listed and exemplified (ch. 56, names for the heavens; ch. 58, names for wolf; ch. 69, names for parts of the body). One explanation may be that Snorri left his work in Skldskaparml unfinished and disordered, and intended to separate the lists of kennings and kend heiti more consistently, or it may be that in his classification other distinctions were more important than the simple one between kennings and kend heiti; but it seems inescapable that in Snorris usage the term heiti (and nafn) is an inclusive one, meaning any appellative term whether simple or compound, literal or metaphorical, referring to an individual or a class, normal or poetical. Snorri uses the term kenning to refer to a structural device, whereby a person or object is indicated by a periphrastic description containing two or more terms (which can be a noun with one or more dependent genitives or a compound noun or a combination of these two structures). This is clearest in his definition of the term in Httatal in the commentary to verse 2, where he unequivocally describes the kenning as containing a base-word and one or more determinants (though he does not have separate terms for these latter concepts; cf. kenna vi, kenna til in Glossary). His terminology in describing extended kennings (rekit) also makes this clear: At reka til hinnar fimtu kenningar (Httatal 8/29) means to extend a kenning to the fifth determinant (in this phrase kenning seems to mean the determinant itself). The verb kenna means to use a kenning (Httatal 1/53), to use a determinant (at kenna rtt, 6/9), or to denote or express by means of a kenning (kenna [manns] nafn, 8/389; see kenna, kenning in Glossaries to Httatal and Skldskaparml ). In Httatal, however, sannkenna and sannkenning refer not to the use of base-words and determinants, but to the use of attributives and adverbials with nouns, adjectives and verbs. The analysis of the kinds of poetical expression in Skldskaparml ch. 1 is found in only four of the independent manuscripts of Snorris

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Edda besides the Codex Regius. The Utrecht manuscript and Codex Wormianus, as usual, have texts almost identical to that of the Codex Regius, and it is only in these that the well-known three-fold division into kennings, heiti and fornfn is found. In the Uppsala manuscript (SnE 184887, II 296) the only categories are kent and kent, of which only the first is defined and exemplified at this point. In AM 757 a 4to (SnE 184887, II 532) the passage is garbled and the category of kenning is omitted. No one has succeeded in explaining adequately the relationships between the various manuscripts of the Prose Edda, and there is no single stemma that can reflect all the evidence. The Codex Regius is assumed to be the best text mainly because it is the most complete, and has fewest passages that are obvious interpolations. The text of the Uppsala manuscript is often unclear and muddled, but it is far from certain that all the muddle is due to scribal interference with Snorris text. It is also much shorter. The best explanation of it is probably that it is derived from an unfinished draft of the work, maybe on loose sheets of parchment, which someone has tried to order without great success. Alternatively it may be that the text of the Uppsala manuscript was in many places derived from Snorris notes for lectures on poetry, or even from notes on his lectures made by one of his audience. In particular the arrangement of Httatal in the Uppsala manuscript which begins with a list of the names of the various metres accompanied by (generally) the first line only of the verses exemplifying them looks like an aide-mmoire to recital. The Codex Regius may be derived from a more complete version of the Prose Edda, but has very likely also been tidied up by a later hand. It may be therefore that the Uppsala texts twofold division of poetical language was Snorris first try at analysis, and that the category of fornafn was added later. This could explain why the fornafn is not exemplified until the very end of Skldskaparml, and then not very clearly, and why it does not feature except in its grammatical sense in Httatal. Snorris categories show signs of being an emerging system, not fully worked out, rather than a completely formulated one. If this is so, it follows that it cannot have been the usual way of referring to the categories of poetical language before Snorris day. Investigation of what Snorri meant by his terms must be based on his usage and exemplification; one must not be led astray by the supposed etymology of these terms. For this reason I doubt the

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relevance of kenning in the meaning teaching to the understanding of the term as Snorri uses it as the name of a grammatical device. If any of the non-technical meanings of the verb kenna are relevant to the understanding of the noun kenning it is the meaning attribute, since kennings are generally nouns with attributives accompanying them in some form (cf. the term kenningarnafn nickname, surname). Similarly the meaning of heiti in Modern Icelandic is not necessarily the key to its meaning in Snorris Edda; the key is the context in which Snorri uses the term. The category of heiti is inclusive of all Snorris other categories (grammatically it concerns only the noun phrase), and these other categories overlap each other; they are not discrete or exclusive. Thus the kenning is a type of heiti, and some kennings are either sannkenningar or vikenningar; many heiti in each of these categories are fornfn, and some involve ofljst. The kenning is characterised by its structure, while the other categories relate to types of content or meaning, the way in which they relate to their referents. Snorris categories seem pragmatic and ad hoc; he appears not to be concerned to give an exhaustive classification of the kinds of poetical language, either of poetical terms or of types of kenning. They reflect his very particular interests rather than any desire to give a full account of the art of poetry. There is very little evidence that Snorri was influenced by classical rhetorical theory in Skldskaparml, except in his adoption of the term fornafn for pronominatio. His description of the kenning finds its closest parallel in a passage in Aristotles Poetics, but it is highly unlikely that he could have known that work either directly or indirectly (see Faulkes 1993a, 634). He has a small range of rhetorical devices that he exemplifies and shows little interest in the usual classical figures of speech, even metaphor and metonymy. Although Snorri includes the story of inns winning of the mead of poetry from the giants and giving it to the sir and to poets and scholars (4/65/8), there is little other indication that he regarded poetry as an inspirational activity. Even the mead of poetry is perhaps best regarded as bestowing a skill or accomplishment (rtt 3/10, verse 16/1) rather than inspiration. It is anyway what the poet produces, not that from which the poetry proceeds (see Faulkes 1997, 56). Both in Skldskaparml and Httatal the emphasis seems to be on the craftsmanship of verse-making and the ability to embellish utterances. The phrase flgit rnum (3/9; cf. 3/67)

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suggests an idea that poetical language is intended to conceal meaning rather than to reveal it; that the language is superimposed on the meaning to wrap it up so that it then requires interpretation (as do runes). The analogy with runes as a secret writing appears more than once (3/67, cf. note; 3/9; cf. 5/27, 109/15; cf. also Httatal 1/43). Both runes and the art of poetry were given to men by inn (and Bragi was another god who was a patron of poetry), but only as a skill or technology, not as religious inspiration. Such evaluative comments as Snorri includes suggest that he adhered to the classical idea of moderation in the use of figures of speech (cf. his references to nykrat, Httatal 6/1516 and ngervingar, Skldskapaml 41/1617). If the space devoted to analysis of diction in Skldskaparml is relatively small, the comments on the content or subject matter of poetry are even more sparse. There are, for instance, a number of interesting verses quoted which use sexual imagery to describe rulers gaining control over territory (see note to verse 10), but Snorri makes no remark about this or any other aspect of the imagery of skaldic verse except that on the use of names of giants and elves as base-words (40/1516). The intellectual background to Skldskaparml thus seems to be the same as that for the Grammatical Treatises; it is a scholarly and didactic milieu, concerned with the techniques of poetical expression. Both the author and the audience must have been fully literate, and there is little reason to connect the work with oral tradition of any kind.

Purpose
Most Icelandic prose writings have no statement of the purpose or origin of the work. Some fornaldarsgur and Romance sagas have a preface or epilogue where the author (or translator) says something about his intention, and learned writings like slendingabk and the Grammatical Treatises have prefaces. Snorris Edda has a prologue, but this is mainly a narrative introduction to Gylfaginning and says nothing about the authors purpose. He discusses his historical methods in the Prologues to Heimskringla and lfs saga helga. But the purpose of Skldskaparml is, unusually, stated clearly at 5/2535 between the first few narratives and the exemplification of the use of kennings in skaldic verse. It interrupts the dialogue in which both narratives and analysis are otherwise contained, and appears to be in

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an authorial voice. This purpose is clearly didactic, that is, the work was intended for use in training young poets, whether or not there was any formal organisation of that training in Iceland in the thirteenth century. It seems likely that there was not, and there is little indication that the work was actually intended for practical teaching purposes (i. e. as a basis for lectures). But though there is not much evidence for formal training of poets in vernacular verse, the teaching of (presumably) Latin verse composition is said to have taken place at the cathedral school at Hlar (Jns saga helga ch. 8, F XV2 217 and note 2). It was taught orally as part of the normal curriculum in schools throughout Europe in the Middle Ages after the elementary study of Latin, and there may have been places in Iceland where study of vernacular verse composition was introduced on the same plan, perhaps with the intention of replacing Latin as a didactic medium. The arrangement of Httatal in U seems adapted for such use, as notes for an oral presentation, and may be modelled on the procedures for teaching Latin verse in schools; but in general it seems likely that Skldskaparml would be used for private study rather than for formal teaching, and one may speculate that it was in fact more and more used as an aid to the understanding of the poetry of the past rather than as a guide for actual composition, though fourteenth-century references (see Foote 1982, 11415; 1984b, 257; Faulkes 1977, 34) suggest that (literate) poets did use it as a textbook. (On the purpose of Snorris Edda and the Grammatical Treatises, especially that of the individual manuscript compilations that contain them, see Sverrir Tmasson 1993, where it is argued that the compiler of W, in particular, was a clerical educator concerned to preserve traditional kinds of native learning.) Icelandic writers do not distinguish the genres of skaldic and eddic verse as modern scholars do. Snorri includes the metres characteristic of eddic verse alongside skaldic metres in Httatal without distinguishing the two, and quotes both eddic and skaldic verse in Skldskaparml (though predominantly the latter). He does not quote skaldic verse within the dialogue of Gylfaginning, probably because he was aware that the setting of his dialogue was in a time long before the earliest known skaldic poets, so he probably did make a distinction between anonymous poetry believed to be from prehistoric times and poetry attributed to named poets who lived in the Viking Age or later. Skldskaparml is chiefly concerned with the complex

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diction we now associate most with skaldic verse, with a high proportion of kennings and heiti (poetical words), though these are not confined to what is now classed as skaldic verse; but some of the comments indicate that Snorri was most concerned with praise poetry (see particularly 67/289), and if he really was trying to revive the art of skaldic poetry, it seems to have been mostly as a vehicle for praise of kings and earls (whether alive or recently dead) that he valued it, and most of the poetry he himself is known for is of that kind. He acknowledges the existence of other kinds of versesuch as satirical verse, verse in praise of women, God (and heathen gods) and saints, mythological and devotional poems and occasional verse of various sortsbut most of his discussion centres on court poetry. The kennings and heiti that are listed in Skldskaparml, and the narratives that explain their origins, apart from those that concern poetry itself, mostly relate to ways of referring to people; mostly men, but also women and including gods and goddesses, Christ and other kings. There are also terms listed for parts of the human body and emotions and other mental attributes, and the long section on gold seems to be there because gold appears so often in kennings for men, particularly kings (as givers of gold; cf. note to 74/36). Many of the other items included, such as ships, the sea, land, weapons and armour, battle, wolves and carrion birds, are most often found as parts of kennings for men, or else in statements about men. Many kennings for the sky are parts of kennings for God in Christian poems. There are a few other miscellaneous items, such as times and seasons and weather, and domestic animals, but the list of contents can hardly be said to cover all the concepts that a poet might wish to describe or refer to. The ulur have a somewhat wider range, and include, for instance, giants and troll-wives, rivers, fish and other animals. It seems reasonable to conclude that in Skldskaparml Snorri was mainly concerned with the appropriate poetical language to use in poems of praise about people, particularly kings and noblemen.

Manuscripts
As in other parts of the Edda, in Skldskaparml R and T have very similar texts and contain virtually the same material in the same order (each has only minor and apparently accidental omissions). C, which is fragmentary, contains the parts corresponding to 48/14 to

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Skldskaparml

70/20 (50/1721 is inserted at 48/31 and 50/229 is omitted; 60/18 61/10 is inserted at 60/9) and after a lacuna of three leaves 83/21 to the end of the ulur (p. 133; Vafrnisml 47/46 is added as an example of regin = gods at 85/2, cf. Gylfaginning 54). The text is very similar to that in R (there is no sign that it ever included Httatal, or indeed Gylfaginning, though there is no reason to think that Skldskaparml was not once complete). It lacks verses 1834 and the text of Grottasngr in ch. 43, which is probably an interpolation in R and T, so that here C may have a more original text than either of those two (it quotes the first verse only at 52/14). W has a text similar to these three as far as the end of the section on kennings (83/12), except that some narrative passages are missing (45/3 58/3; this manuscript thus also does not include Grottasngr). Then, instead of the second half of Skldskaparml (but after Httatal as the volume is now bound), there are the remains of what was evidently an extensively revised and interpolated version of the section on kend heiti (chs 5474); fragments survive of the parts concerned with names for man, corresponding to chs 657 (in ch. 65 there are rather a lot of agreements between W and U), and parts of the body (ch. 69); a short passage is included reminiscent of Httatal 4/216/21 and some material is repeated from the earlier part of Skldskaparml (ch. 31). The poem Rgsula, probably one of Snorris sources, which is found on a separate leaf in W, may have been included in connection with the terms for men and women (although the word edda appears as a term for great-grandmother both in the prose lists and in the poem, no connection is indicated with the name of the book), but there is no sign that the ulur (ch. 75) were ever included. There is, however, an additional half-verse attributed to lfr Uggason (from Hsdrpa; SnE 184887, II 499; SnE 1924, 112). Seventeenth-century versions of Skldskaparml contain what seem to be further parts of this redaction, but neither these nor what survives in W are close enough to R to provide much help in reconstructing Snorris original (see Faulkes 19779, especially I 1589; on the dates of the manuscripts with independent textual value see Faulkes 2005, xxviiixxx). In U, A and B Skldskaparml appears in versions that differ considerably from RTCW both in content and in the order of material. In U the opening frame story and the first set of narratives (1/25/8) appear in very abbreviated form. Corresponding to 5/935

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U has the first account of the rhetorical categories of poetry not only in a shorter form than RTW, but also different in that the third category of fornfn (5/18) is lacking and the exemplification of kennings is also quite different (though the examples given are of kennings for inn, the first sentence describing the kenning is reminiscent of ch. 31). 5/326/29 (which includes all the references to the Trojan War and the allegorical explanation of mythology associated with it) is entirely lacking. There follow instead more of the narratives that in the other manuscripts come after the treatment of kennings for names of sir (chs 1718), but omitting the extended quotations of Haustlng and rsdrpa (though the names and authorship of these two poems are quoted, see p. xlii below); and another fragment of ljahttr that is absent in RTW is included in connection with rrs visit to Geirrargarar (25/27 n.). At this point U includes four folios with some material that is clearly not part of Skldskaparml : Skldatal, a genealogy of the Sturlung family and a list of lawspeakers ending with Snorri Sturlusons name. On the last of these pages, originally blank, has been added the illustration of the frame of Gylfaginning (reproduced in Faulkes 1987, 6). Then, after the heading Hr hefr Skldskapar ml ok heiti margra hluta, comes a passage similar to 11/259, the beginning of ch. 3, but shorter and different in wording, and unaccompanied by any verse quotations (the passage is in fact compiled from 4/15 and 5/78, already included in shortened form at the end of chs G57 and G 58), then ch. 2, and ch. 3 again, this time corresponding more closely to the content of this chapter in RTW. Then follow chs 416 (with various rewordings and omissions, including that of the final verse quotation of ch. 16), 1920 (21 is omitted), 22 (omitting the extended quotation from Haustlng), 2332 (ch. 33 is omitted), ch. 36, then chs 378. In place of chs 3944 at this point there is a just a brief list of the kennings derived from the stories narrated in these chapters (compiled from [45/3,] 46/6, 47/21, 48/30, 49/5, 59/32) and the verses quoted in chs 44 (verses 185, 186/58) and 45. Then come chs 4649 (omitting verses 2489), part of the first sentence of ch. 50 and 73/3174/6 (i. e. omitting at this point both the story of Hjaningavg and the verses from Ragnarsdrpa, verses 25054), chs 5156, omitting here 85/1922, but including here the beginning of ch. 23 (33/247) again, this time in a shortened and altered form. Ch. 57 is entirely missing, and ch. 63 follows (omitting the

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second half, 99/1520) before the end of ch. 56 (85/212, 1920, in that order) with the first two lines of ch. 26 added again. After a half page originally left blank, though now filled with a drawing, there comes next the second part of ch. 64, from 101/10 (the first part of this chapter is not included, and nor is verse 411), then chs 6574 (ending at 109/15). U does not include ch. 75, the ulur, though two verses containing terms for woman are included at the end of Skldskaparml (SnE 184887, II 363; see below). After ch. 74 come various chapters omitted earlier: ch. 58 (omitting 90/13, 1315 and with 88/68 after 88/18; ch. 59 is omitted); ch. 60 (ch. 61 is omitted); ch. 62; ch. 50 (the story of Hjaningavg omitting the verses from Ragnarsdrpa and repeating 72/12, but omitting 73/3174/6, which was included earlier); chs 346 (ch. 36 is thus included twice in this manuscript, but the second time with a fuller introduction); ch. 39 (the beginning of the story of Otrgjld, omitting the first 10 words (see above)); the story breaks off soon after the beginning of ch. 40 (46/20) with a brief summary of the first paragraph; the remainder of the chapter and chs 4142 are omitted (so that the quotations from Ragnarsdrpa at the end of ch. 42 are also absent from U); ch. 44 (repeating the verses at the end of the chapter, this time without the omission of verse 186/14, though the four lines are written as a separate verse from 186/58); a summary of ch. 43 (omitting Grottasngr as well as verses 1834); ch. 45 (without verses 187 and 18890, the stanzas from Bjarkaml, which were included earlier, in their proper place just before ch. 46). This manuscript then concludes Skldskaparml with three stanzas (terms for woman, Skj A I 652, verses 2a and b; a mansngsvsa, Skj A I 601, verse 36) which were perhaps written over an erasure (see the facsimile edition of U, II 168; SnE 184887, II 363 n. 2). The first two of these verses are also in A among the ulur (they are similar to some of Einarr Sklasons verses). After this U has a version of The Second Grammatical Treatise and parts of Httatal. In many of these chapters verses are missing and in ch. 62 some are quoted by their first line only. This suggests that in the redactors exemplar they may have been complete; compare the treatment of Httatal in this manuscript (see Faulkes 1999, xxv): quoting just the first lines of verses suggests that the manuscript was used as an aide-mmoire for a reciter or lecturer. But the most significant omissions are the extended quotations from Haustlng, rsdrpa,

Introduction

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Ragnarsdrpa and the ulur. This has been taken to strengthen the case for these poems being interpolations into Snorris text, though the fact that even in U the first two of these, and the names of their authors, are referred to, and lists of names that seem to be derived from ulur are included (e. g. those of stags, SnE 184887, II 350, though the name eikyrnir (see verse 512) seems to have been added here by a later hand) shows that the text in U is not independent of these sources. Similarly, though nearly all of chs 4042 are omitted from U, the kennings derived from the story were listed earlier (after ch. 38), so it is clear that the redactor knew these chapters. The treatment of ch. 3 in U is the best evidence that U is in fact a shortening and adaptation of Skldskaparml in a form more like the other manuscripts, since though the beginning of the chapter first appears in abbreviated and altered form, like many other chapters in this manuscript, the scribe copied the chapter out again in a form closer to that of the other manuscripts and clearly did not lack a complete text in his exemplar; cf. his treatment of the last sentences of chs G578. The inclusion of the beginning of ch. 23 twice, the second time in shortened and altered form, again implies that the variations and shortening in U are not always due to a faulty exemplar. Otherwise the interesting thing about the different order of material in U is the tendency for narratives to be separated from the enumeration of the kennings they exemplify and the several cases of kennings and heiti being listed together instead of separated as they more often are in RTC (though even in these manuscripts there is not complete consistency in this). It cannot be said that the arrangement in U is either more logical or more consistent, but it is possible that in some respects U retains an earlier ordering of material than the other manuscripts, though this does not have to be because the order in the other manuscripts has been altered by a hand later than Snorris. There is a good deal that points to U having been derived from a draft of Snorris work in which the material was arranged in random order, perhaps on loose pieces of parchment, and the other manuscripts may derive from a revision made by Snorri himself (cf. pp. xixii above). But since some of the passages in U that have been shortened appear elsewhere in the manuscript in fuller and more accurate form, not all the omissions can have been in the redactors exemplar, and the repetitions of material in U, where one version of a passage is fuller and more accurate than another, imply

xliv

Skldskaparml

that the redactor was neither working from a rough draft nor from a damaged exemplar, but that he included material in shortened form (whether he did the shortening himself or found it in Snorris draft) as well as in its completer form, because of a change in plan either by himself or by Snorri. In many respects even the texts of R and T seem illogically ordered and it is likely, as said before, that Snorri had not finished working on the material at the time of his death, and he may have left more than one draft of it. U is however inaccurately copied as well, and in many cases the shortening of passages has left them incoherent, and the verses too are poorly copied. This shows that many of the characteristic readings of this manuscript are the result of careless work by a copyist or redactor. A is a fragmentary manuscript, though the part containing extracts from Skldskaparml does not actually have any pages missing. The extracts begin with ch. 45 (with only the heading Fr Hlga konungi) and continue to the end of ch. 49 (verse 198 is placed after verse 199) but include only the first part of the first sentence and the last few lines of ch. 50 (73/3174/6, thus omitting the quotation from Ragnarsdrpa; this is similar to the corresponding part of U). Then follow chs 5152 and the beginning of ch. 53, as far as verse 278, of which only the first word is written, followed by leita capitula fyrr bkinni (probably a reference to verse 5 in ch. 2, showing that the scribe or redactor had access to the earlier part of Skldskaparml), and the beginning (line 1 only) of verse 292 with its introduction (82/12) from later in the chapter. Then follow chs 54 (the first in the kend heiti section of Skldskaparml; verse 300a is omitted) and 55 (ch. 56 is lacking), ch. 57, then chs 61 (verse 350 comes after verse 351; verse 357 is complete with 8 lines) and 62, ch. 58 as far as 88/18, but omitting 88/68, then ch. 60, then the remaining parts of ch. 58: 90/1012 (with a list of additional names), 90/1315, 88/1990/2 (88/68 and 90/39 still omitted; two extra lines in verse 330). Then come chs 59, 56, 63. Of ch. 64, there is included only the second sentence (followed by leita fyrr bkinni alt til ess er Stfr kva) and 102/16105/16. Instead of verse 398 a different verse attributed to Marks is included, Skj A I 452, no. 2 (see note to verse 270), and there are two additional lines in verse 400 and two omitted in verse 403. After the first line of verse 411 is written ok fyrr er ritat, which is a reference to verse 386, not included earlier in this manuscript. Then there are chs 6575, concluding

Introduction

xlv

with a greatly extended series of ulur (cf. note to verses 412517). These include some verses in drttkvtt with names for women and islands, an example of a word for heart in a verse of Illugi Bryndlaskld (Skj A I 384), and four lines from Hallfrrs lfsdrpa (erfidrpa) (Skj A I 160), a prose list of names associated with Hel (cf. Gylf. 27/1821) and a glossary of poetical words and two lines in Latin about euphonia (see SnE III lxxii). The manuscript concludes with the incomplete (but only extant) text of Haukr Valdsarsons slendingadrpa (Skj A I 55660). Though there are some similarities between this manuscript and U, both in the arrangement of material and in some of the readings, the two manuscripts do not seem to be very closely related and cannot be said to contain the same redaction. The explanation of this text may be the same as that proposed for U, however, that it is derived from a draft of the work on loose sheets, since the order of material in general seems rather random. Though much is omitted, the references to earlier parts of the work that are not included show that the redactor was working from a version much more complete than that which he wrote out. There is variation in the order of some of the verse quotations within chapters, and some verses are more complete. The verses are in general better copied than in U, and contain some interesting additions to those quoted in R. It is difficult to say how much of the additional material and reorganisation dates from after Snorris time. B has an arrangement of parts of Skldskaparml that is similar in various ways to that in A, and these two manuscripts are clearly closely related, though B includes between chs 46 and 47 some of the earlier parts of Skldskaparml that are not in A. As in A, the text of Skldskaparml in B begins with chs 456 of Skldskaparml (with the heading Kenningar gulls), and then it has chs 2 (omitting some verse quotations), 3, 416 (omitting all the verse quotations); chs 1922 (omitting 30/212 and the extended quotation from Haustlng; 30/1516 placed after 33/23); chs 2331; then a version of ch. 1 (introduced with the words Sv segir bk eirri sem Edda heitir at s mar sem gir ht spuri Braga skld meal annarra hluta . . . ; cf. Bragi (1) in Index), which like that in U omits all reference to Troy and the allegorical explanation of myths as based on the Troy story (5/336/29), though it adds a reference to fyrsta capitula greindrar bkar ar sem segir af skipan himins ok jarar ok

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Skldskaparml

allra hluta er eim fylgja etc., which seems to refer to the Prologue to Gylfaginning. Then follow chs 32 and 47 (where verse 198 is replaced by verse 192 from ch. 46, already included earlier). There is a lacuna of probably one leaf beginning at the point corresponding to 62/29, and the next extant leaf begins in ch. 61 (95/1; verse 357 is here complete as in A) and the text continues to the end of ch. 62. The text of the missing leaf may have included some of the same parts of the text as A has between chs 47 and 61, though this section of the text covers 6 pages in A. The pages of B contain almost twice as much text as those of A, but still it is doubful whether there would have been enough room on one leaf for all the text that is missing. Then come chs 58 (as far as 88/18 and omitting 88/68 and the first five words of 88/9), 64 (from 101/10; the same substitution for verse 398 as A, and like A having two additional lines in verse 400 and two omitted in verse 403, but omitting verse 411 entirely; verse 486 is included later with the first half of this chapter), 60, 64 (omitting the first five words; cf. A) as far as 101/9; and finally chs 6575; the ulur appear in a similar extended redaction to that in A, though the last part is lost where one or more further leaves are missing. As with A and U, there seems to be no clear reason for the differences in the ordering of the material in B; there is the same tendency to omit extended narratives and quotations from the mythological skaldic poems in the chapters it includes where R has them. Though it is difficult to read because of deterioration of the parchment, the text, like that in A, often contains readings (for instance in the verses) that are better than those in R, and has a number of additional lines of verse. The redaction is not just a series of extracts; it represents a collection of material which is sometimes fuller than that in RTW. The best explanation of it is that like A and perhaps U it was based on a draft of material on loose sheets of parchment copied out without much conscious attempt at ordering it, though one might argue that some of the rearrangement of items has resulted in a more logical ordering of material, especially in chs 5463; see table below. All these manuscripts contain items that were probably not intended to be part of Snorris Edda. Besides the additional items at the end of A that are not in R (which may also have been on the second lost leaf of B), there are some that are related to Snorris Edda in various ways earlier in the manuscript. Before the text of Skldskaparml both A and B have parts of The Third Grammatical

Introduction

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Treatise which is by Snorris nephew lfr hvtaskld (A has before this a fragment of a fifth treatise that is not found elsewhere) and then a collection of kennings for various concepts without much apparent organisation (printed in SnE 1931, 2559). In A this is prefaced (in red) by Hr er lykt eim hlut bkar er lfr rarson hefir samansett ok upphefr Skldskaparml ok kenningar eptir v sem fyrirfundit var kvum hfusklda ok Snorri hefir san samanfra ltit (in B by Hr byrjask kenningar skldskapar). It is unlikely that this collection is actually part of Snorris work, though it could be part of the material he had collected for Skldskaparml or it could be a draft; the material in it does not, however, seem to be used in Skldskaparml, at any rate not systematically, and it may be just a collection made by someone else to supplement Snorris work (cf. p. xiv above). Two verses from Grmnisml (4041) are quoted near the end of the passage, and it is followed in both A and B by a short passage about the wolf Fenrir which is related to Gylfaginning ch. 34 but includes some verse lines describing the fetter Gleipnir that are not in Gylfaginning (cf. the names associated with Hel towards the end of A, which are related to the same chapter of Gylfaginning). Both A and B include some poems: A has a fragment of a collection of eddic poems similar to that in the Codex Regius, though the six leaves (fols 16) that contain them need not have been part of the same book as the rest of A originally; they have now been separated and remain in Copenhagen as AM 748 I a 4to, while the rest has been transferred to Reykjavk as AM 748 I b 4to. At the end A has a glossary of poetical words and Haukr Valdsarsons slendingadrpa, and B a collection of Christian religious poems, some of them probably composed in the fourteenth century. C has at the end (in a different hand) a genealogy of Snorris family, the Sturlungs, from Adam down to about the end of the fourteenth century. U has (in the middle of the text of Skldskaparml, after ch. 18) Skldatal, a genealogy of the Sturlung family and a list of lawspeakers (as well as the well-known drawing of Gangleri and the three kings that illustrates the frame of Gylfaginning), and between Skldskaparml and Httatal a version of The Second Grammatical Treatise. R and T contain Grottasngr, R also has Jmsvkingadrpa and Mlshttakvi (at the end). W contains Rgsula with a revised version of the second part of Skldskaparml as well as the four Grammatical Treatises.

xlviii

Skldskaparml

Since the Prose Edda is a treatise on poetry, it is not surprising that manuscripts of it should also contain poems of various kinds, whether or not these were poems collected by Snorri either in connection with the compilation of his Edda or for other reasons. Snorris Edda may well have been a stimulus to the collection and copying of poems both eddic and other in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Skldskaparml clearly also belongs in the series of treatises about language and rhetoric with the so-called Grammatical Treatises (it may be noted that just as Aris slendingabk sets the pattern for the later sagas by including a piece of skaldic verse in the narrative, so The First Grammatical Treatise provides a model for Skldskaparml by quoting Icelandic poetry to illustrate a linguistic point (FGT 1972, 226, cf. 84). The other items (genealogies, lists of poets and lawspeakers) associate various redactions of Skldskaparml particularly with Snorri Sturluson and his family. It is clear that the Prose Edda, and Skldskaparml in particular, was in a continual process of revision and expansion, and it is likely that this process began with Snorri himself, so that some redactions, such as that in U and maybe those in A and B, could be based on drafts he made himself (or had someone make). Some of the additional material in these manuscripts dates from after Snorris death (some of the poems appended to B, The Third and The Fourth Grammatical Treatise) and W (in its redaction of the second part of Skldskaparml, SnE 1924, 112) contains verse probably composed in the fourteenth century, that ascribed to brir rni (Jnsson?), c.1370 (Skj A II 430; cf. Finnur Jnsson 192024, III 1415). Thus the process of expansion clearly went on after Snorris death. It continued after the Renaissance with adaptations like Magns lafssons Edda (the so-called Laufs Edda) on into the eighteenth century (Hraundals Edda etc.; see Faulkes 19779). The compilers of the extant manuscripts that contain Snorris Edda were clearly interested in material that concerned poetical technique, particularly rhetoric, and the contents of the manuscripts illustrate this, though attitudes to the material may differ from one compiler to another. It may well be, for instance, that the compiler of W was principally interested in traditional vernacular poetry as a medium for religious teaching (cf. Sverrir Tmasson 1993), while the compiler of U may have been more interested in the prose narratives (he seems not to have understood much of the verses). The following table shows the arrangement of the lists of kennings and heiti in U, A and B.

Introduction
U Bragarur. The categories of poetry. Eptirmli. rrs duel with Hrungnir. rrs journey to Geirrargarar. Skldatal. Sturlung genealogy. Lawspeakers. [Kennings for poetry.] Kennings for inn. Kennings for poetry. Kennings for other gods. Kennings for goddesses. Kennings for the sky. Kennings for the earth. Kennings for the sea. Kennings for the sun. Kennings for the wind. Kennings for fire. Kennings for winter. Kennings for summer. Kennings for man and woman. Kennings for gold. Gold = Fullas head-band. Gold = Freyjas tears; her daughter Hnoss. Gold = giants words. Kennings for gold. Gold = fire of the hand, etc. Kennings for man and woman as givers of gold and as trees. Kennings for battle. Kennings for weapons and armour. Kennings for battle. Further kennings for weapons. Kennings for ship. Kennings for Christ. Kennings for kings. Terms for kings and noblemen. A Gold = Hlgis moundroof. The old lay of Bjarki. Gold = fire of the hand, etc. Kennings for man and woman as givers of gold and as trees. Kennings for battle. Kennings for weapons and armour. Kennings for battle. Further kennings for weapons. Kennings for ship. Kennings for Christ. Kennings for kings. (Men by family.) kend heiti. Terms for poetry. Terms for pagan gods. Terms for the earth. Terms for the sea. Terms for fire. Terms for wolves. Terms for birds of battle. Terms for snakes, cattle, sheep, swine, horses. Terms for the sky and weather. Terms for the heavens, sun and moon. Terms for times and seasons. Terms for men, kings (Halfdan the Olds second series of sons). Terms for men. ula of terms for men. Terms for men: vikenningar, sannkenningar and fornfn. Terms for women; vikenningar.

xlix
B Gold = Hlgis moundroof. The old lay of Bjarki. Gold = fire of the hand, etc. Kennings for inn. Kennings for poetry. Kennings for other gods. Kennings for goddesses. Kennings for the sky. Kennings for the earth. Kennings for the sea. Kennings for the sun. Kennings for the wind. Kennings for fire. Kennings for winter. Kennings for summer. Kennings for man and woman. The categories of poetry. Eptirmli. Kennings for gold. Kennings for man as giver of gold [lacuna] Terms for the sea. Terms for fire. Terms for wolves. Hlfdan the Old and his sons; other terms for kings. Terms for birds of battle. Terms for men. Kings. Terms for men. ula of terms for men. Terms for men: vikenningar, sannkenningar and fornfn. Terms for women; vikenningar. Terms for the head, eyes, ears, mouth, teeth, tongue, hair. Terms for heart, mind and emotions.

l
U kend heiti. Terms for poetry. Terms for pagan gods. Terms for the heavens (including some kennings). Terms for times. Terms for moon and sun (including some kennings). Hlfdan the Old and his sons. Terms for men. ula of terms for men. Terms for men: vikenningar, sannkenningar and fornfn. Terms for women; vikenningar. Terms for the head, eyes, ears, mouth, teeth, tongue, hair. Terms for heart, mind and emotions. Terms for arms and legs, hands and feet. Terms for speech (and battle). Terms for wisdom etc. Homonyms. Terms for wolves, bears, stags, horses, oxen, snakes. Terms for birds of battle. Terms for fire. Battle = the Hjanings storm. Hjaningavg. Gold = Glasirs foliage. Gold = Sifs hair. The dwarfs make treasures for the gods. Gold = Fullas head-band. Gold = otter-payment. The origin of this kenning. Gold = Ffnirs lair.

Skldskaparml
A Terms for the head, eyes, ears, mouth, teeth, tongue, hair. Terms for heart, mind and emotions. Terms for arms and legs, hands and feet. Terms for speech (and battle). Terms for wisdom etc. Homonyms. Ofljst. ulur (extended series). slendingadrpa. B Terms for arms and legs, hands and feet. Terms for speech (and battle). Terms for wisdom etc. Homonyms. Ofljst. ulur (extended series) [lacuna]

U (continued) The origin of Hrlfr krakis nickname. Gold = Krakis seed. Hrlfrs expedition to Uppsala. Gold = Fris meal. The mill Grotti. Gold = Hlgis moundroof. Names for women. Second Grammatical Treatise. Httatal.

Introduction

li

This edition
Parts at least of Skldskaparml appear in all seven of the manuscripts of the Prose Edda that have independent textual value. On the dates and relationships of these manuscripts see Faulkes 2005, xxviiixxxi. It is assumed that R, which has the fullest text of any of the medieval manuscripts, represents the contents and arrangement of the Prose Edda in the form nearest to that in which Snorri left it; the second part of Skldskaparml in W is clearly a later redaction of the material, and U is verbally shortened and carelessly copied to the point of incomprehensibility in many places. So even though additions and other changes may have been made to Snorris text in R too, it has usually been the manuscript on which the text of editions of the work have been based. Where there are gaps in the text, and where it is clearly corrupt and incomprehensible, it is filled out, mainly from T and W. Emended words in the text are marked with an asterisk; where a word that is in R is omitted from the text or the order of words is changed, is printed. Words or letters accidentally omitted by the scribe are included in angle brackets , illegible words or letters are supplied in square brackets [ ] (some words are now illegible in R or have disappeared which are visible either in the facsimile edition or in the photographs that were made before the most recent restoration of the manuscript, and brackets are not normally used for these; sometimes, too, words seem to have been visible to Finnur Jnsson that are now unclear or illegible, and these are often accepted as certain). The textual notes list all the places where the readings of R have been departed from, giving the original readings and the source of the emendation in the same normalised form as the rest of the text (where it is necessary to give the spelling of the manuscript, it is put in inverted commas; readings from manuscripts other than R are quoted either from the facsimile editions or from photographs, though where they are unclear, readings from SnE 184887 and 1924 have sometimes been accepted). A few of the more interesting and significant variants in other manuscripts, in particular some of the additional lines of verse, are included in the General Notes. The glossary attempts to explain all words in the verses and all those words in the prose that are likely to cause difficulty or are not adequately glossed in the edition of Gylfaginning (Faulkes 1982). Inflected forms are added to the headword in brackets where they may cause problems. The translations of many of the names in the

lii

Skldskaparml

ulur, especially those of animal species, are little more than guesses, but explanations of a lot of the names are given in BM, and the information there is not normally repeated here (on names in the ulur see also Bugge 1875; there is a useful guide to modern Icelandic animal and plant-names in skar Ingimarsson 1989). In the explanations of the verses in the Glossary and notes, the attempt has been made as far as possible to avoid emendation of the text of R, i. e. to interpret the text in this version rather than to attempt to restore supposed archetypal readings even when the texts of verses are preserved in other works. The most likely meanings of words and their syntax are given in the Glossary, where explanations are also given of all the kennings; some other possible interpretations are indicated in the notes, using some of K. Reichardts suggestions (1928, 1948, 1969) and occasionally those of D. Davidson (DD) and others. It was not thought necessary also to give the verses in prose word order. The basis is the interpretations of Finnur Jnsson in Skj B and LP, but particular attention is paid to those of Magns Finnbogason (SnE 1952). Frequent use has also been made of the comments of E. A. Kock (in NN ), who has often tried to simplify Finnur Jnssons syntactical interpretations, which can be unnecessarily complicated. But since poets sometimes did use complex structures (e. g. tmesis) it is not clear that one should always be looking for the simplest interpretation. There are good discussions of the problem in Reichardt 1928 (especially pp. 117) and 1969, where the author studies 24 supposed examples of tmesis in single drttkvtt lines and finds that only 9 of them are clear examples, 12 of them being easily got rid of by making the first element genitive by adding -s. Kock also proposes that a number of words should be taken as descriptive genitives instead of as determinants of kennings, and these too are difficult to be certain of. Another problematical kind of interpretation requires words to be taken as adverbial dative singular when they do not have a distinctive ending, e. g. hjarta v49/2, h v252/4; kind in v297/3 is apparently dat. of advantage; there is no grammatical reason why this should not be so, but it seems best avoided if possible. It is the same with prepositions separated from their object. There are some fairly clear examples (v65/3, v79/7, v85/78 (see note), v134/1, v146/1, v260/3, v315/1, v363/1 (cf. NN 785), v401/2) but others are less certain (v85/1, 250/2, 290/3; see notes) and it is difficult to imagine oral poets

Introduction

liii

using such a confusing procedure unnecessarily. The same may be said of the phenomenon of the transference of determinants or interchange of elements in kennings, often involving a kind of tmesis, though again there are some clear examples: v39/4, v89/6, v90/34, v91/56, v95/5, v103/6, v133/6 (?see note), v140/4, v149/3 (?), v150/2, v192/2 (?), v246/1, v322/3, v333/8; v73/6 according to DD; see Glossary under ing, herruma, myrkaurrii, myrkdreki. Snorri himself uses this feature in Httatal 28/1, while the commentary to verse 255 of Skldskaparml suggests such an interpretation when it is clearly unnecessary. When there are two possible interpretations of the same words which both give acceptable meanings, it seems natural to take the simpler one, except that it is not certain that simplicity was what most poets were aiming at; but it is hard to believe that their original audience would not have understood their verse in the most obvious way (cf. Faulkes 1997). The normalisation follows the same pattern as in Gylfaginning and Httatal, both in the prose and verse passages, where the language of the thirteenth century is largely what is being represented. The spelling only has been normalised; variant word-forms (such as 3rd pers. sg. vil at 1/36, for instance) are retained where they occur. Accents are not used in most foreign names, nor in other words where the original quantity of the vowel is uncertain (e. g. in the name Viarr, even though in some occurrences in verse the long vowel is required). The following spellings may be noted. In R, vr and vl are frequently spelt vr, vl. Often ey seems to be written for or , e. g. in gir v48/3, hli- v71/4, -ran v100/2, kpt v340/3, lgis v364/3; cf. reyrir in Index; conversely in Eymit v376/1; thus leyra 106/12 may be for lra or lra. Sometimes is found used for , as in ri v303/1 (cf. v93/8 t. n.; perhaps here for (or ), see below), though more often for , as in Hnir 45/4, grnnar v315/3; but o is used in hlir v267/1, pi v332/4, cf. note (see also v20/10 t. n.; v15/1 and Glossary under blta), while is used in skl- v514/10 (cf. SnE 184887, III xvixvii). The spellings a and av () alternate in bavllfagr gtv v157/6. The scribe uses o for (or ) in kovt v249/1, cf. t. n., kov v94/3 t. n. and kvomv 48/2, as well as in trovz v86/3 and tov 49/33, where it is unlikely that the modern form tru for the past tense pl. of troa is intended; cf. also v480/5 t. n. and lg, lg at 40/19 and

liv

Skldskaparml

20, 63/16 and 17. The spelling ei seems sometimes to be used for e, (or ) in ltr v128/3, Helju v332/6, brigri 109/11, htu 49/17 (cf. 3/21 t. n. and 49/31 n.); and conversely e for ei in tveimr v217/4, Meila v95/2, steini v127/3, steinsins 45/1, heilagt v274/4, reistu v353/3, reii 108/32; also e for ey in hleytamenn 107/20, for ey in hleytamar v447/1. There is alternation of u (v) and y in skatyrnir, where -yr- is written with the abbreviation for -ur- 85/18 (see Hreinn Benediktsson 1965, 91), and Yggs v300b/5 which is written with v. See v141/4 n. and t. n. and v28/4 t. n. Thus mysen 85/20, mvleN 85/21 could both be for either mlin(n) or mlin(n); at v480/3 dyna could be for Dna (same symbol as in -ul v483/8) and at v480/7 Mun is written with y in A. Then v is written in sm- v223/2, r v241/4 (only; cf. v501/1 t. n.). On unmutated forms like varn for vrn (confirmed by the hending v148/4), vgna (vgna) for vagna v67/7, see Hreinn Benediktsson 1963. Among the departures from normal spelling that may be phonological rather than orthographical is the frequent disappearance of d between consonants (before or after n), e. g. in munnlaug v110/4; annvanar v156/4; ranngr v449/6; vinnbjartr v454/4; munngjallr v458/1 (cf. Glossary and note v130/1 t. n.). Conversely, Stnyrti- is written for Snyrti-106/18; and fyrst- is written for fst- v74/3, hvrs- for hs- v444/4. The manuscript is inconsistent in the distribution of /d/t: li is spelled lit v171/8; muntu is spelled mvndv v263/1; ritat spelled rita 78/22 (if it is not ritu that is intended; cf. note). Some consonants are doubled without reason, and in some cases they are written single where doubling would be normal: the manuscript has -hattar v83/2; varar v131/2; ruttinn v145/3; tti v151/8; halr v168/4; skaptre v181/5; Rkkr v213/1 (cf. Noreen 1923, 279.2); ifrravvll 85/20; n Ri (rhyming with mringr) v388/4; skattvrnir v516/19. Some contracted forms of words are used where the metre presupposes uncontracted forms, e. g. br for bra; see note to verse 143 and (2) in Glossary. Abbreviations are sometimes inconsistently used: kall with abbreviation mark for klluu 5/38, ml with abbreviation sign (i. e. mlir) for what surely should be mlti 52/9 (usually this scribe writes ml with a curl on the l for mlir (2/28, 38, 3/9, 10), mli with a curl for mlti (48/19, 59/14); apparently mti at 1/24); svan with sign for -us for svans v147/6; -r with abbreviation for -ir 9/28 (see t. n.) and

Introduction

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v316/4 (similarly in the heading in U, SnE 184887, II 295, where hefr seems to be written hefir; see 1/12 t. n. and Hreinn Benediktsson 1965, 92); also unusual are svo for sum v367/1 (perhaps an alteration) and sin for snum v250/2, son for sonum v280/2. Punctuation is editorial (including round brackets), but note is taken of the capitalisation of the manuscript in the arrangement of paragraphs. Verses have been arranged in lines and divided in accordance with what seem the scribes intentions. Stanza divisions in the ulur are marked only by capital letters in R and are in some cases unclear, while divisions between ulur are generally indicated by larger ornamental capitals (they are marked in this edition by horizontal lines at the end of each ula). In the margins the chapter numbers of SnE 184887 I are given (as in SnE 1931 in brackets in the text); the first four (Bragarur) are there numbered 558 (here G55 etc.) in continuation from Gylfaginning, and in that edition Skldskaparml was taken to begin at 5/9.

Table of verse quotations and their preservation


+ before a source means that further verses or lines from the same poem (or in the case of lausavsur, further verses by the same poet) appear in the source indicated. Without this sign the source indicated includes one or more of the verses of the poem quoted in Skldskaparml. When the sign follows the source, it indicates that one or more of the verses and also further verses (or lines) from the same poem appear there. KS = Kings Sagas (i. e. two or more of Fagrskinna, Morkinskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna, Heimskringla, TM, H etc.). EM = Edda Magnsar lafssonar. More specific references to sources of the verse quotations are to be found in the General Notes. * means that the verse is only found in Snorris Edda. Square brackets indicate a second quotation of the same verse. A question mark before a verse number means that it is doubtful whether the verse belongs in the poem it is attributed to. Anon, Eirksml: 20; Fagrskinna+ , ?A love poem: *41 , A love poem: *208 , ?Poem about Magns gi: *370 , ?Poem about St Kntr: *381 , ?: *209 , ?: *215 , ?: *224, *225 , ?: *235

lvi

Skldskaparml

, ?: *240 , ?: *317 , ?: *342 , ?: *349, 356, *364; TGT (356) , ?: *372 , Ffnisml: 151, 152; PE+; +Gylf., +Sverris saga , Grmnisml: 62; PE+; +Gylf. , An eddic poem: *72; ?+U (25/27 n.) , An eddic poem: *142 , Grottasngr : *15982 , Bjarkaml: *188, *189, *190; +Hkr and H, +EM , orgrmsula: *325, *326, *327, *331; (+AB, hesta heiti; cf. verses 5036) , Alsvinnsml (Klfsvsa): *328, *329, *330 , Alvssml: 332, 380; PE+ , ula of words for groups of men: pp. *106/23107/11 , ula (sea kings): *412416; (+TGT) , ula (giants): *41722, *430431 , ula (troll-women): *423427 , ula (rr): *428 , ula (sir): *429, *432 , ula (synjur etc.): *433437; (+A, valkyries) , ula (women): *438; (+A and U; +A) , ula (men): *439448 , ula (battle): *449450 , ula (swords): *451462 , ula (axes): *463 , ula (spears): *464 , ula (arrows): *4656 , ula (bows): *467 , ula (weapons): *468 , ula (shields): *46971 , ula (helmets): *4723 , ula (mail-coats): *474 , ula (sea): *475478; (+A, waves; fiords) , ula (rivers): *479484 , ula (fish): *485488 , ula (whales): *48990; cf. Konungs skuggsj , ula (ships): *491500 , ula (earth): *5012 , ula (oxen, cows): *503506; (cf. orgrmsula) , ula (rams): *507 , ula (goats): *5089 , ula (bears): *510511 , ula (stags): *512 , ula (boars): *513

Introduction

lvii

, ula (wolves): *51415 , ula (heavens): *516; (+AB) , ula (sun): *517 Arnrr jarlaskld, orfinnsdrpa: *1, 106, *282 [344], *290, 297, *298, *384; +KS, Orkneyinga saga+ , Hrynhenda: 387, *406; Hkr+, +KS, +TGT and FoGT, +W, +Kntlinga saga , Magnsdrpa: ?*105, 213, 218, 352; KS+ , Poem on Hermundr Illugason: *113 , Rgnvaldsdrpa: *114, *296; +H and Orkneyinga saga , ?: *116 , ?Blgagladrpa: *404 , Memorial poem on Haraldr harri: *275, *321, *376; +TGT, +KS sgrmr, ?Poem about King Sverrir: *139 Atli, Poem about lfr kyrri: *374 Bersi (Hlmgngu-), Lausavsa: 221; Kormaks saga+ Bragi, Ragnarsdrpa: *24, *42, *48, *51, *110, ?*150, *153, 154, *155, *156, *157, *158, *237, *238, *250, *251, *252, *253, *254, *366; FoGT, +Gylf. and Hkr , Poem about rr: *52 , ?: *141 , ?Lausavsur : *300ab Brennu-Njll, Lausavsa: 355; KS(+) Bvarr balti, Sigurardrpa: *107; +Morkinskinna Blverkr, Poem on Haraldr harri: 353; KS+ Egill, Sonatorrek: 15, 16; Egils saga+ , Hfulausn: 31, 184, 319, 350; Egils saga+ , Arinbjarnarkvia: 60; Egils saga+, + W, +TGT , Lausavsur: 140, 392; Egils saga+ Eilfr Gurnarson, Poem on Earl Hkon: *36 , rsdrpa: *44, *53, *7391 , A Christian poem: *268 Eilfr klnasveinn, A poem about Christ?: *271, *272, *273, *276; ?+FoGT Einarr sklaglamm, Vellekla: *18, *25, *27, *28, *34, *35, *197, *223, *227, 247, 306, *334; +TGT, Hkr+, TM+, +Fagrskinna , Poem about a Danish king: *192, *299 Einarr (sklaglamm or Sklason?), ?: *222 Einarr (sklaglamm or Sklason?), Lausavsa: *262 Einarr Sklason, ?: *128, *129, *130, *131, *132, *134, *339, *346, *351, *357 (+AB), *362 , Poem about a ruler: *136 (or part of xarflokkr?) , xarflokkr: *145, *146 [232], *147, *148, *149, *183, *193, *194, *244, *245, ?*368; ?+TGT , Elfarvsur : 320; lsen 1884, 159, Hkr +, HuldaHrokkinskinna+ , ?Haraldssonakvi I: *233, *281, *312, *335, *336; +U (2 extra lines in verse 233), +Hkr, +Msk, +HuldaHrokkinskinna , ?Haraldssonakvi II: *399; +KS

lviii

Skldskaparml

, Runhenda: *367, *377, 403; KS+ , Geisli: 277; Flb+, Bergsbk+, +KS, +W, +TGT Erringar-Steinn, ?Lausavsa: *257 Eyjlfr daskld, Bandadrpa: 265, 304 (stef); KS+ Eysteinn Valdason, Poem about rr: *45, *46, *47 Eyvindr skldaspillir, Hleygjatal: 5 [278], *23, *33 [40], *61, *220, *307; TGT, KS+ , Hkonarml: 7, 11, 393; Hkr+, Fagrskinna+ , Lausavsur: 117, 143, 185, 249; KS+, TGT Gamli, Poem about rr: *49 , A praise poem: *401 Gizurr, Poem about a King lfr: *382; (+KS) Glmr Geirason, Grfeldardrpa: *6, *32, 243, *279 [394]; Fagrskinna+, +TGT +Landnmabk, +KS Grani, Poem about Haraldr harri: *373, 400; KS+ (AB+) Grettir, Lausavsa: 231; Grettis saga+ Gunnlaugr ormstunga, Lausavsa: 202; Gunnlaugs saga+ Hallar-Steinn, Poem about a woman: *201, *203, *204; +TGT Halldrr skvaldri, tfarardrpa: ?*379; +KS, +TGT Hallfrr, Hkonardrpa: *10, *118 [291], *119, *121, *212, *229, *230, *248, *288 , lfsdrpa (erfidrpa): 397; TM+, +KS, +A, +ireks saga, +Hallfrear saga Hallr, Poem on Magns Erlingsson: *323; ?+Sverris saga Hallvarr, Kntsdrpa: *115 (stef ), *239, *258, *311, *348, *388; +Kntlinga saga, +Hkr and H Haraldr harri, Lausavsur: 261, 284; KS+ (cf. Brennu-Njll above) Hvarr halti, Lausavsa: *2; +Hvarar saga Illugi, Poem on Haraldr harri: *322; +A, +KS Jrunn, Sendibtr: *402; +Hkr, +H, +TM Kolli see Bvarr Kormakr, Sigurardrpa: *12 [308], *21, *211, *241, *292, *301; +Hkr Mni, Lausavsa: 263; TGT, +Sverris saga, +Sturlunga saga Marks, Eirksdrpa: *111 (stef ?), *391, *398, *409; +Kntlinga saga , ?Poem about St Kntr: *270; +TGT, +AB , Lausavsur: 260, *369; TGT Ormr Barreyjarskld, ?: *109, *123 Ormr Steinrsson, Poem about a woman: *29, *38, 205, *207, *360; TGT, +Flb, EM+ , ?: *138; ?+U (v303 n.) ttarr svarti: Hfulausn: *196 [287], *359, 408; KS+, Orkneyinga saga, +FGT , Kntsdrpa: 217 [314]; KS+, +Kntlinga saga , lfsdrpa snska: *310, *340, *365, *383, *390, *395 Refr, Poem on Gizurr: *4, *17; +Hkr and H , Poem about orsteinn: *30, *216, *264; +Httatal , Travel poem: *124, *126 [347], *127, *354, *363 , ?: *214; (?+EM)

Introduction

lix

, ?Poem to a ruler: *234, ?*246 Sighvatr, Bersglisvsur: *386 [411]; +KS, +TGT , ?Religious poem: *274 , ?: *285 , Nesjavsur: 286; Hkr+, H+, +KS, +TGT Skapti roddsson, ?A poem about Christ: *269 Skli orsteinsson, Lausavsa: *135 , Poem on the Battle of Svl: *144, *187, *338, *343; +KS Snbjrn, Lausavsur: *133, *289 Steinarr, Poem about a woman: *206 Steinn Herdsarson, lfsdrpa: *112; +KS Steinrr, ?: *13 Stfr, Stfsdrpa: *396; +KS Styrkrr Oddason, ?: *266 Sveinn, Norrsetudrpa: *125, *137; +TGT Tindr, Drpa on Earl Hkon: 228; Hkr and TM+, Jmsvkinga saga+ lfr Uggason, Hsdrpa: *8, *14, *19, *39, *54, *55, *56, *63, *64, *210 [316], *242, *303; +W Valgarr, Poem about Haraldr harri: 358, *371, *378, *410; KS+ Vetrlii, ?Poem to rr: *57 Vga-Glmr, Lausavsa: 3 [226], 255, 337; Vga-Glms saga+, +Reykdla saga; 3 and 337 also in Landnmabk Vlu-Steinn, Poem about his son gmundr: *37, *315 jlfr Arnrsson, Sexstefja: *120, 122, *186 [389], *236, *280, *309, *318, *333, *385; KS+, +TGT , Runhent poem on Haraldr harri: *293, *294, *295; +KS , Lausavsa: 405; KS+, Hemings ttr +, +FGT, +TGT, +Sneglu-Halla ttr jlfr hvinverski, Haustlng: *6571, *92104, [*108, *305, *341] [rarinn loftunga], Tgdrpa: *200; +Kntlinga saga, +KS; poet only named in A orbjrn dsarskld, Poem about rr: *50, *58 ?, ?A Christian poem: *267 orbjrn hornklofi, Haraldskvi: *9; +Gylf., +KS , Glymdrpa: 219, 256, 345; KS+ rr Kolbeinsson, Eirksdrpa: 302, 313, *324; KS+, Jmsvkinga saga+, +Kntlinga saga rr mauraskld, ?: *195 rr Sjreksson, Poem on Klngr Brsason: 375; Hkr, H, Fagrskinna , ?: *59 , ?Lausavsa: *259; +W, +EM orkell hamarskld, ?Poem about lfr kyrri: *407 orleikr fagri, Flokkr on Sveinn lfsson: *191, *198, *361; +Kntlinga saga, +KS rlfr (rlfr, orvaldr), ?: *22 orvaldr blnduskld, ?: *26 , ?Sigurardrpa: *199, *283 lvir hnfa, ?Poem about rr: *43

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Konr Gslason. 1892. Udvalg af Oldnordiske Skjaldekvad. Kbenhavn. Kormaks saga: in Vatnsdla saga 1939. Kristnisaga. 1905. Ed. B. Kahle. Halle a. d. S. (Altnordische Saga-Bibliothek XI) KSk = Konungs skuggsj. 1983. Ed. L. Holm-Olsen. Oslo. Kuhn, Hans. 1983. Das Drttkvtt. Heidelberg. Landnmabk: in slendingabk. Landnmabk. 1968. Ed. Jakob Benediktsson. Reykjavk. (F I) Laxdla saga. 1934. Ed. Einar l. Sveinsson. Reykjavk. (F V) Legendary saga = Olafs saga hins helga: Die Legendarische Saga ber Olaf den Heiligen (Hs. Delagard. saml. nr. 8 II). 1982. Ed. Anne Heinrichs, Doris Jahnsen, Elke Radicke and Hartmut Rhn. Heidelberg. Lind, E. H. 192021. Norsk-islndska personbinamn frn medeltiden. Uppsala. LK = Lvk Kristjnsson. 1982. slenskir sjvarhttir II. Reykjavk. LML = L. M. Larson (trans.). 1917. The Kings Mirror (Speculum RegaleKonungs skuggsj). New York. Lokasenna: PE 96110. LP = Sveinbjrn Egilsson. 1931. Lexicon Poeticum Antiqu Lingu Septentrionalis. Rev. Finnur Jnsson. Kbenhavn. Mgus saga: Riddarasgur II. 1949. Ed. Bjarni Vilhjlmsson. Reykjavk, 135429. Marold, Edith. 1993. Ngerving und nykrat. Twenty-eight papers presented to Hans Bekker-Nielsen on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday 28 April 1993. Odense, 283302. Marold, Edith. 1994. Nagellose Masten. Sagnaing helga Jnasi Kristjnssyni sjtugum 10. aprl 1994. Reykjavk, 56579. McKinnell, John. 1994. Both One and Many. Essays on Change and Variety in Late Norse Heathenism. Rome. Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden. Bonn und Leipzig. Mrmanns saga. 1997. Ed. Desmond Slay. Copenhagen. (Editiones Arnamagnan A:17) Morkinskinna. 1932. Ed. Finnur Jnsson. Kbenhavn. Motz, Lotte. 1997. The Germanic Thunderweapon. Saga-Book XXIV:5, 32950. Mller. F. W. 1941. Untersuchungen zur Uppsala-Edda. Dresden. Mundt, M. 1994. r hll Kjrs. Helsing til Lars Vassenden p 70-rsdagen. Ed. Johan Myking et al. Bergen, 117121. Njls saga: Brennu-Njls saga. 1954. Ed. Einar l. Sveinsson. Reykjavk. (F XII)

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NN = E. A. Kock. 192344. Notationes Norrn IXXVIII. Lund. [References are to paragraph numbers] Noreen, A. 1923. Altislndische und Altnorwegische Grammatik. Halle (Saale). Norna-Gests ttr : Flb I 38498. Also in Fas I 30535. Nygaard, M. 1905. Norrn syntax. Kristiania. Oddr Snorrason. 1932. Saga lafs Tryggvasonar. Ed. Finnur Jnsson. Kbenhavn. Oddrnargrtr : PE 2349. OED = The Oxford English Dictionary. 1989. H = Den Store Saga om Olav den Hellige. 1941. Ed. O. A. Johnsen and Jn Helgason. Oslo. lafur Halldrsson. 1969. Snjfrar drpa. Afmlisrit Jns Helgasonar 30. jn 1969. Reykjavk, 14759. Reprinted with additions in lafur Halldrsson 1990, 21732. lafur Halldrsson. 1990. Grettisfrsla. Reykjavk. lsen, Bjrn Magnsson (ed.). 1884. Den Tredje og Fjrde Grammatiske Afhandling i Snorres Edda. Kbenhavn. Ordbog over det norrne prosasprog I. 1995. Ed. Helle Degnbol et al. Kbenhavn. Orkneyinga saga. 1965. Ed. Finnbogi Gumundsson. Reykjavk. (F XXXIV) Orms ttr Strlfssonar : in Harar saga 1991, 395421. skar Ingimarsson. 1989. Ensk-Latnesk-slensk og Latnesk-slenskEnsk Dra- og plntuorabk. Reykjavk. TM = lfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta IIII. 19582000. Ed. lafur Halldrsson. Kbenhavn. (Editiones Arnamagnan A:13) PE = The Poetic Edda in Edda. Die Lieder des Codex Regius I. 1962. Ed. Hans Kuhn. Heidelberg. Perkins, R. 19845. Rowing chants and the origins of Drttkvr httr . Saga-Book XXI:34, 155221. Poole, R. 1982. Ormr Steinrsson and the Snjfrardrpa. Arkiv fr nordisk filologi XCVII, 12237. Ragnars saga lobrkar : Fas I 21985. Reginsml: PE 1739. Reichardt, K. 1928. Studien zu den Skalden des 9. und 10. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig. (Palaestra 159) Reichardt, K. 1948. Die Thrsdrpa des Eilfr Godrnarson: Textinterpretation. PMLA. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America LXIII, 32991.

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Reichardt, K. 1969. A Contribution to the Interpretation of Skaldic Poetry: Tmesis. Old Norse Literature and Mythology. A Symposium. Ed. E. C. Polom. Austin, Texas, 20026. Reykdla saga: in Ljsvetninga saga. 1940. Ed. Bjrn Sigfsson. Reykjavk. (F X) Rgsula: PE 28087. Saxo Grammaticus. 197980. The History of the Danes III. Ed. H. E. Davidson, trans. P. Fisher. Cambridge. von See, Klaus. 1981. Edda, Saga, Skaldendichtung. Heidelberg. von See, Klaus. 1988. Mythos und Theologie im Skandinavischen Hochmittelalter. Heidelberg. SGT = The so-called Second Grammatical Treatise. 1982. Ed. F. D. Raschell. Firenze. Shetelig H. and Falk, H. 1937. Scandinavian Archaeology. Trans. E. V. Gordon. Oxford. Sigrdrfuml: PE 18997. Sigurarkvia in skamma: PE 20718. Skldatal: in SnE 184887, III 27086. Skarsrbk. Landnmabk Bjrns Jnssonar Skars. 1958. Ed. Jakob Benediktsson. Reykjavk. Skrnisml : PE 6977. Skj = Finnur Jnsson (ed.). 191215. Den norsk-islandske Skjaldedigtning A III, B III. Kbenhavn. Skjldunga saga: in Danakonunga sgur 1982, 390. SnE = Snorra Edda, the Prose Edda. SnE 1818 = Snorra-Edda samt Skldu og arme fylgjandi ritgjrum. Ed. R. Kr. Rask. Stockhlmi. SnE 184887 = Edda Snorra Sturlusonar IIII. Hafni. SnE 1924 = Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Codex Wormianus. AM 242, fol. Ed. Finnur Jnsson. Kbenhavn. SnE 1931 = Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jnsson. Kbenhavn. SnE [1952] = Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Magns Finnbogason. Reykjavk. Spearing, A. C. 1987. Readings in Medieval Poetry. Cambridge. Stfs ttr : in Laxdla saga 1934. Sturl. = Sturlunga saga III. 1946. Ed. Jn Jhannesson, Magns Finnbogason, Kristjn Eldjrn. Reykjavk. Sturlaugs saga starfsama: Fas III 10560. Sverrir Tmasson. 1983. Helgisgur, mlskufri og forn frsagnarlist. Skrnir CLVII, 13062.

Bibliographical References

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Sverrir Tmasson. 1993. Formli mlfriritgeranna fjgurra Wormsbk. slenskt ml XV, 22140. Sverris saga. 1920. Ed. Gustav Indreb. Kristiania. Srla saga sterka: Fas III 367410. Srla ttr : Flb I 30413. Also in Fas I 36582. TGT = The Third Grammatical Treatise in lsen, Bjrn Magnsson (ed.) 1884, 1119. Tka ttr : Flb II 22022. Also in Fas II 13541. Tolley, C. 1995. The Mill in Norse and Finnish Mythology. SagaBook XXIV:23, 6382. Tolley, C. 1996. Beowulf s Scyld Scefing Episode. Some Norse and Finnish Analogues. ARV. Nordic Yearbook of Folklore LII, 748. Trjumanna saga. 1963. Ed. J. Louis-Jensen. Copenhagen. (Editiones Arnamagnan A:8) Tryggvi Gslason. 1984. hverr skyldi dverga drttir skepia. Festskrift til Ludvig Holm-Olsen p hans 70-rsdag den 9. juni 1984. vre Ervik, 848. Turville-Petre, E. O. G. 1964. Myth and Religion of the North. London. Turville-Petre, E. O. G. 1976. Scaldic Poetry. Oxford. Vafrnisml: PE 4555. Vatnsdla saga. Hallfrear saga. Kormks saga. 1939. Ed. Einar l. Sveinsson. Reykjavk. (F VIII) Vestfiringa sgur. 1943. Ed. Bjrn K. rlfsson and Guni Jnsson. Reykjavk. (F VI) Viborg Amts Stednavne. 1948. Kbenhavn. Vga-Glms saga: in Eyfiringa sgur. 1956. Ed. Jnas Kristjnsson. Reykjavk. (F IX) Vilhjlms saga sjs : in Late Medieval Icelandic Romances IV. 1964. Ed. Agnete Loth. Copenhagen, 1136. (Editiones Arnamagnan B:23) de Vries, J. 19567. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte III. Berlin. de Vries, J. 19647. Altnordische Literaturgeschichte III. Berlin. de Vries, J. 1977. Altnordisches etymologisches Wrterbuch. Leiden. Vlsa ttr : in Anthony Faulkes (ed.). 1980. Stories from the Sagas of the Kings. London, 4961. Vlsunga saga. 1965. The Saga of the Volsungs. Ed. and trans. R. G. Finch. London. Vlundarkvia: PE 11623. Vlusp: PE 116. Vlusp. 1978. Ed. Sigurur Nordal. Durham.

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Wessn, E. (ed.). 1940. Codex Regius of the Younger Edda. Copenhagen. (CCIMA XIV) Wessn, E. (ed.). 1945. Fragments of the Elder and the Younger Edda. AM 748 I and II 4:o. Copenhagen. (CCIMA XVII) Worm, Ole. 1636. 52 Seu Danica literatura antiquissima. Hafni. Wyatt, I. and Cook, J. (eds). 1993. Two Tales of Icelanders. Durham. Yngvars saga vfrla: Fas II 42359. Zoga, Geir T. 1942. slenzk-Ensk Orabk. Reykjavk. ireks saga. 1951. Ed. Guni Jnsson. Reykjavk. rar saga hreu: in Kjalnesinga saga. 1959. Ed. Jhannes Halldrsson. Reykjavk. (F XIV) orsteins saga Vkingssonar : Fas III 173. orsteins ttr bjarmagns: Fas IV 31944. runn Valdimarsdttir. 1989. Snorri Hsafelli. Reykjavk. rymskvia: PE 11115. rvar-Odds saga: Fas II 199363.

MANUSCRIPT SIGLA
R = GkS 2367 4to (Stofnun Arna Magnssonar, Reykjavk); ed. SnE 1931; facsimile in Wessn 1940. T = University Library Utrecht MS No. 1374; ed. W. van Eeden, De Codex Trajectinus van de Snorra Edda, Leiden 1913; rni Bjrnsson, Snorra Edda, Reykjavk 1975; facsimile in Codex Trajectinus, ed. Anthony Faulkes, Copenhagen 1985. (Early Icelandic Manuscripts in Facsimile XV) U = University Library Uppsala DG 11; ed. SnE 184887, II 250 396; facsimile in Snorre Sturlas(s)ons Edda. Uppsala-handskriften DG 11, I, Stockholm 1962; II, Uppsala 1977. W = AM 242 fol. (Det Arnamagnanske Institut, Copenhagen); ed. SnE 1924; facsimile in Codex Wormianus, Copenhagen 1931. (CCIMA II) A = AM 748 I b 4to (Stofnun rna Magnssonar, Reykjavk); ed. SnE 184887, II 397494; facsimile in Wessn 1945. B = AM 757 a 4to (Stofnun rna Magnssonar, Reykjavk); ed. SnE 184887, II 50172. C = AM 748 II 4to (Stofnun rna Magnssonar, Reykjavk); ed. SnE 184887, II 573627, where it is referred to as AM 1 e fol.; facsimile in Wessn 1945.

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GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS


aalhending: the chief hending in a couplet, full (internal) rhyme, where two syllables have the same vowel and following consonant or consonant group. drpa (pl. drpur): a formally constructed poem (expected to have a stef or refrains). drttkvtt: a verse-form with stanzas of 8 six-syllable lines with regular alliteration and hendings (Httatal verses 16). erfidrpa: a memorial poem, a drpa in praise of a dead person. flokkr: a poem consisting of a series of stanzas without refrain (stef ). forn minni: ancient tradition, inherited statement, proverb. fornaldarsaga: saga of ancient times, Heroic saga. fornyrislag: a verse-form common in eddic poems as well as in skaldic verse, and similar to that of West Germanic poetry, having two-stress lines linked in pairs by alliteration. heiti: name, appellation, designation, term (usually, though not always, of a name which is not the usual one by which a person or thing is called; see Glossary). hending: rhyme, assonance (usually internal rhyme, but also used of end-rhyme). hrynhent: a verse-form similar to drttkvtt but with lines of eight syllables (Httatal 624). kenning: description, designation (usually a periphrastic one). klofastef : a refrain in the form of two or more continuous lines of verse separated from each other and distributed individually among two or more stanzas (usually appearing as the last lines of these stanzas, and unrelated syntactically to the rest of them); see Httatal, note to 70/1216. kviuhttr : a verse-form with alternating lines of three and four syllables (Httatal 102). lausavsa (pl. -vsur), laus vsa: a separate strophe not part of a sequence or long poem. lihent, lihendur : a verse-form with rhyme and alliteration falling on the same syllables, and/or with assonance between the first (rhyming) syllable of the even line and the hendings of the preceding odd line (Httatal 41 and 53). ljahttr : song-form, a verse form in which two alliterating short lines are followed by one longer line with independent internal alliteration.

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mlahttr : a verse-form with lines having an extra syllable compared with fornyrislag (Httatal 95). mansngr: a love poem, or a passage of love poetry in a narrative poem. Mansngsvsa is a verse from such a passage, or a verse similar to those in a mansngr. ofljst: punning, word-play; often by substituting homonyms when one is a proper name, i. e. using a proper name or a kenning for it for the common noun equivalent. kend heiti: names, appellations, designations, terms without periphrasis, without qualifiers or attributives (determinants). runhent: end-rhymed; see runhenda in Glossary to Httatal. skothending: (internal) half-rhyme, assonance (where two syllables end with the same consonant or consonant group but contain a different vowel). stef : refrain, a stanza or line or series of lines that are repeated at intervals in (part of) a drpa; see Glossary to Httatal. tmesis: the separation of a word into two parts with another word or words between. ula: a (versified) list of names or synonyms (heiti ).

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Snorri Sturluson

Edda
PA RT I I

[SKLDSKAPARML]
[INN ma]r er nefndr gir ea Hlr. Hann bj ey eiri er n er kllu [Hl]sey. Hann var mjk fjlkunnigr. Hann geri fer sna til sgars, en er sir vissu fer hans var honum fagnat vel ok margir hlutir me sjnhverfingum. Ok um kveldit er drekka skyldi, lt inn bera inn hllina sver, ok vru sv bjrt at ar af lsti, ok var ekki haft ljs annat mean vi drykkju var setit. gengu sir at gildi snu ok settusk hsti tlf sir, eir er dmendr skyldu vera ok sv vru nefndir: rr, Njrr, Freyr, Tr, Heimdallr, Bragi, Viarr, Vli, Ullr, Hnir, Forseti, Loki; slkt sama synjur: Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Iunn, Gerr, Sigyn, Fulla, Nanna. gi tti gfugligt ar um at sjsk. Veggili ll vru ar tjldu me fgrum skjldum. ar var ok fenginn mjr ok mjk drukkit. Nsti mar gi sat Bragi, ok ttusk eir vi drykkju ok oraskipti. Sagi Bragi gi fr mrgum tindum eim er sir hfu tt. Hann hf ar frsgn at rr sir fru heiman, inn ok Loki ok Hnir, ok fru um fjll ok eyimerkr ok var ilt til matar. En er eir koma ofan dal nakkvarn, sj eir xna flokk ok taka einn uxann ok sna til seyis. En er eir hyggja at soit mun vera, raufa eir seyinn ok var ekki soit. Ok annat sinn er eir raufa seyinn, er stund var liin, ok var ekki soit. Mla eir sn milli hverju etta mun gegna. heyra eir ml eikina upp yfir sik at s er ar sat kvazk ra v er eigi sonai seyinum. eir litu til ok sat ar rn ok eigi ltill. mlti rninn: Vili r gefa mr fylli mna af oxanum, mun sona seyinum. eir jta v. ltr hann sgask r trnu ok sezk seyinn ok leggr upp egar it fyrsta lr oxans tvau ok ba bgana. var Loki reir ok greip upp mikla stng ok reiir af llu afli ok rekr kroppinn erninum. rninn bregzk vi hggit ok flgr upp. var fst stngin vi kropp arnarins ok hendr Loka vi annan enda. rninn flgr htt sv at ftr taka nir grjtit ok urir ok viu, [en] hendr hans hyggr hann at slitna munu r xlum. Hann kallar ok bir allarfliga rninn friar, en hann segir at Loki skal aldri lauss vera nema hann veiti honum svardaga at koma Iunni t of sgar me epli sn, en Loki vil at. Verr hann lauss ok ferr til lagsmanna sinna ok er eigi at sinni sg fleiri tindi um eira fer r eir

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koma heim. En at kveinni stundu teygir Loki Iunni t um sgar skg nokkvorn ok segir at hann hefir fundit epli au er henni munu gripir ykkja, ok ba at hon skal hafa me sr sn epli ok bera saman ok hin. kemr ar jazi jtunn arnarham ok tekr Iunni ok flgr braut me ok rymheim til bs sns. En sir uru illa vi hvarf Iunnar ok gerusk eir brtt hrir ok gamlir. ttu eir sir ing ok [spyrr hverr annan] hvat sarst vissi til Iunnar, en at var st sarst at hon gekk r sgari me Loka. var Loki tekinn ok frr ingit ok var honum heitit bana ea pslum. En er hann var hrddr kvazk hann mundu skja eptir Iunni Jtunheima ef Freyja vill lj honum valshams er hon . Ok er hann fr valshaminn flgr hann norr Jtunheima ok kemr einn dag til jaza jtuns. Var hann rinn s, en Iunn var ein heima. Br Loki henni hnotar lki ok hafi * klm sr ok flgr sem mest. [E]n er jazi kom heim ok saknar Iunnar, tekr hann arnarhaminn ok flgr eptir Loka ok dr arnsg flugnum. En er sirnir s er valrinn flaug me hnotina ok hvar rninn flaug, gengu eir t undir sgar ok bru annig byrar af lokarspnum, ok er valrinn flaug inn of borgina, lt hann fallask nir vi borgarvegginn. slgu sirnir eldi lokarspnu en rninn mtti eigi stva er hann misti valsins. Laust eldinum firi arnarins ok tk af fluginn. vru sirnir nr ok drpu jaza jtun fyrir innan sgrindr ok er at vg allfrgt. En Skai, dttir jaza jtuns, tk hjlm ok brynju ok ll hervpn ok ferr til sgars at hefna fur sns. En sir buu henni stt ok yfirbtr, ok hit fyrsta at hon skal kjsa sr mann af sum ok kjsa at ftum ok sj ekki fleira af. s hon eins manns ftr forkunnar fagra ok mlir: enna ks ek, ftt mun ljtt Baldri. En at var Njrr r Natnum. at hafi hon ok sttargjr sinni at sir skyldu at gera er hon hugi at eir skyldu eigi mega, at hlgja hana. geri Loki at at hann batt um skegg geitar nokkvorrar ok rum enda um hrejar sr ok ltu au ymsi eptir ok skrkti hvrttveggja vi htt. lt Loki fallask kn Skaa ok hl hon. Var gjr stt af sanna hendi vi hana. Sv er sagt at inn geri at til yfirbta vi hana at hann tk augu jaza ok kastai upp himin ok geri af stjrnur tvr. mlir gir: Mikill ykki mr jazi fyrir sr hafa verit, ea hvers kyns var hann?

Skldskaparml

Bragi svarar: lvaldi ht fair hans, ok merki munu r at ykkja ef ek segi r fr honum. Hann var mjk gullauigr, en er hann d ok synir hans skyldu skipta arfi, hfu eir mling at gullinu er eir skiptu at hverr skyldi taka munnfylli sna ok allir jafnmargar. Einn eira var jazi, annarr Ii, rii Gangr. En at hfum vr ortak n me oss at kalla gullit munntal essa jtna, en vr felum rnum ea skldskap sv at vr kllum at ml ea ortak, tal essa jtna. mlir gir: at ykki mr vera vel flgit rnum. Ok enn mlir gir: Hvaan af hefir hafizk s rtt er r kalli skldskap? Bragi svarar: at vru upphf til ess at guin hfu stt vi at flk er Vanir heita, en eir lgu me sr fristefnu ok settu gri lund at eir gengu hvrirtveggju til eins kers ok spttu hrka *snum. En at skilnai tku goin ok vildu eigi lta tnask at griamark ok skpuu ar r mann. S heitir Kvasir. Hann er sv vitr at engi spyrr hann eira hluta er eigi kann hann rlausn. Hann fr va um heim at kenna mnnum fri, ok er hann kom at heimboi til dverga nokkvorra, Fjalars ok Galars, klluu eir hann me sr einmli ok drpu hann, ltu renna bl hans tvau ker ok einn ketil, ok heitir s reyrir, en kerin *heita Sn ok Bon. eir blendu hunangi vi blit ok var ar af mjr s er hverr er af drekkr verr skld ea framar. Dvergarnir sgu sum at Kvasir hefi kafnat mannviti fyrir v at engi var ar sv frr at spyrja kynni hann frleiks. buu essir dvergar til sn jtni eim er Gillingr heitir ok konu hans. buu dvergarnir Gillingi at ra s me sr. En er eir fru fyrir land fram, rru dvergarnir boa ok hvelfi skipinu. Gillingr var syndr ok tndisk hann, en dvergarnir rttu skip sitt ok reru til lands. eir sgu konu hans enna atbur, en hon kunni illa ok grt htt. spuri Fjalarr hana ef henni mundi huglttara ef hon si t sinn ar er hann hafi tnzk, en hon vildi at. mlti hann vi Galar brur sinn at hann skal fara upp yfir dyrrnar er hon gengi t ok lta kvernstein falla hfu henni, ok tali sr leiask p hennar, ok sv geri hann. er etta spuri Suttungr brurson Gillings, ferr hann til ok tk dvergana ok flytr s t ok setr flarsker. eir bija Suttung sr lfsgria ok bja honum til sttar furgjld mjinn dra, ok at verr at stt me eim. Flytr Suttungr mjinn heim ok hirir ar sem heita Hnitbjrg, setr

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ar til gzlu dttur sna Gunnlu. Af essu kllum vr skldskap Kvasis bl ea dverga drekku ea fylli ea nakkvars konar lg reris ea Bonar ea Snar ea farskost dverga, fyrir v at s mjr f[lut]ti eim fjrlausn r skerinu, ea Suttunga mj ea Hnitbjarga lgr. mlir gir: Myrkt ykki mr at mlt at kalla skldskap me essum heitum, en hvernig kmu eir sir at Suttunga mii? Bragi svarar: Sj saga er til ess at inn fr heiman ok kom ar er rlar nu slgu hey. Hann spyrr ef eir vili at hann brni lj eira. eir jta v. tekr hann hein af belti sr ok brndi, en eim tti bta ljrnir myklu betr ok fluu heinina. En hann mat sv at s er kaupa vildi skyldi gefa vi hf, en allir kvusk vilja ok bu hann sr selja, en hann kastai heininni lopt upp. En er allir vildu henda skiptusk eir sv vi at hverr br ljnum hls rum. inn stti til nttstaar til jtuns ess er Baugi ht, brir Suttungs. Baugi kallai ilt fjrhald sitt ok sagi at rlar hans nu hfu drepizk, en talisk eigi vita sr vn verkmanna. En inn nefndisk fyrir honum Blverkr. Hann bau at taka upp nu manna verk fyrir Bauga, en mlir sr til kaups einn drykk af Suttunga mii. Baugi *kvazk enskis *r eiga af miinum, sagi at Suttungr vildi einn hafa, en fara kvezk hann mundu me Blverki ok freista ef eir fengi mjinn. Blverkr vann um sumarit nu mannsverk fyrir Bauga, en at vetri beiddisk hann Bauga leigu sinnar. fara eir bir til Suttungs. Baugi segir Suttungi brur snum kaup eira Blverks, en Suttungr synjar verliga hvers dropa af miinum. mlir Blverkr til Bauga at eir skyldu freista vla nokkvorra, ef eir megi n miinum, en Baugi ltr at vel vera. dregr Blverkr fram nafar ann er Rati heitir ok mlir at Baugi skal bora bjargit ef nafarrinn btr. Hann gerir sv. segir Baugi at ggnum er borat bjargit, en Blverkr blss nafars raufina ok hrjta spnirnir upp mti honum. fann hann at Baugi vildi svkja hann, ok ba bora ggnum bjargit. Baugi borai enn. En er Blverkr bls annat sinn, fuku inn spnirnir. brsk Blverkr orms lki ok skrei nafars raufina, en Baugi stakk eptir honum nafrinum ok misti hans. Fr Blverkr ar til sem Gunnl var ok *l hj henni rjr ntr, ok lofai hon honum at drekka af miinum rj drykki. inum fyrsta drykk drakk hann alt r reri, en rum r Bon, inum rija r Sn, ok hafi hann allan mjinn. brsk hann arnarham ok flaug sem kafast. En er *Suttungr s flug arnarins, tk hann sr

Skldskaparml

arnarham ok flaug eptir honum. En er sir s hvar inn flaug settu *eir t garinn ker sn, en er inn kom inn of sgar sptti hann upp miinum kerin, en honum var sv nr komit at Suttungr mundi n honum at hann sendi aptr suman mjinn, ok var ess ekki gtt. Hafi at hverr er vildi, ok kllum vr at skldffla *hlut. En Suttunga mj gaf inn sunum ok eim mnnum er yrkja kunnu. v kllum v[r] skldskapinn feng ins ok fund ok drykk hans ok gjf hans ok drykk sanna. mlir gir: Hversu marga lund breyti r ortkum skldskapar, ea hversu mrg eru kyn skldskaparins? mlir Bragi: Tvenn eru kyn au er greina skldskap allan. gir spyrr: Hver tvenn? Bragi segir: Ml ok httir. Hvert mltak er haft til skldskapar? renn *er grein skldskaparmls. Hver? Sv: at nefna hvern hlut sem heitir; nnur grein er s er heitir fornfn; in rija mlsgrein er kllu er kenning, ok er s grein sv sett at vr kllum in ea r ea T ea einnhvern af sum ea lfum, at hverr eira er ek nefni til, tek ek me heiti af eign annars ssins ea get ek hans verka nokkvorra. eignask hann nafnit en eigi hinn er nefndr var, sv sem vr kllum Sigt ea Hangat ea Farmat, at er ins heiti, ok kllum vr at kent heiti. Sv ok at kalla Reiart. En etta er n at segja ungum skldum eim er girnask at nema ml skldskapar ok heyja sr orfjla me fornum heitum ea girnask eir at kunna skilja at er hulit er kveit: skili hann essa bk til frleiks ok skemtunar. En ekki er at gleyma ea sanna sv essar sgur at taka r skldskapinum for[nar ke]nningar r er hfuskld hafa sr lka ltit. En eigi skulu kristnir menn tra heiin go ok eigi sannyndi essar sagnar annan veg en sv sem hr finnsk upphafi bkar er sagt er fr atburum eim er mannflkit viltisk fr rttri tr, ok nst fr Tyrkjum, hvernig Asiamenn eir er sir eru kallair flsuu frsagnir r fr eim tindum er gerusk Troju til ess at landflkit skyldi tra gu vera. Priamus konungr Troju var hfingi mikill yfir llum her Tyrkja ok hans synir vru tignastir af llum her hans. S salr hinn gti er sir klluu Brimis sal ea bjrsal, at var hll Priamus konungs. En at er eir gera langa frsgn of ragnrkr, at er Trojumanna

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Snorra Edda

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orrosta. at er fr sagt at kurr engdi oxahfi ok dr at bori Migarsorm, en ormrinn helt sv lfinu at hann sktisk hafit. Eptir eim dmum er etta sagt er Ektor drap Volukrontem gtan kappa at sjnda inum mikla Akille ok teygi hann sv at sr me hfi hins drepna ess er eir jfnuu til oxans ess er kurr hafi hfuit af. En er Akilleus var dreginn etta fri me snu kappi var honum s ein lfshjlpin at flja undan banvnligu hggvi Hektoris ok srr. Sv er ok sagt at Ektor stti sv kafliga orrostuna ok sv miklir vru ofrhugir hans er hann s Akilleus at engi hlutr var sv sterkr at standask mtti fyrir honum, ok er hann misti Akilleus ok hann var flir sefai hann sv reii sna at hann drap ann kappa er Roddrus ht. Sv sgu sir at er kurr misti ormsins drap hann Ymi jtunn, en vi ragnarkr kom Migarsormr vveifliga at r ok bls hann eitri ok hj hann til bana, en eigi nentu sir at segja sv at kurr hefi ltizk at einn stigi yfir hann dauan tt sv hefi verit, en meir hrpuu eir frsgninni en satt var en eir sgu at Migarsormr fengi ar bana. En at fru eir til, tt Akilleus bar banaor af Ektori l hann daur sama velli af eim skum. at geru eir Elenus ok Alexander. ann Elenus kalla sir la. at segja eir at hann hefndi brur sns ok hann lifi er ll goin vru dau ok sloknar var eldrinn s er brendr var sgarr ok allar eignir goanna. En Pirrus, honum jfnuu eir til Fenrislfs, hann drap in, en Pirrus mtti vargr heita at eira tr vat eigi yrmi hann griastunum er hann drap konunginn hofinu fyrir stalla rs. at kalla eir Surtaloga er Troja brann. En Mi ok Magni synir kurs kvmu at krefja landa la ea Viar. Hann er Eneas, hann kom braut af Troju ok vann san str verk. Sv er ok sagt at synir Ektoris kmu til Frigialands ok settusk sjlfir at rki, en rku braut Elenum. Enn skal lta heyra dmin hvernig hfuskldin hafa ltit sr sma at yrkja eptir essum heitum ok kenningum, sv sem segir Arnrr jarlaskld at hann heiti Alfr: (1) N hykk slrhugas segja s lttir mr stra; tr Alfurtum jarls kostubrim hrosta.

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Hr kallar hann ok skldskapinn hrostabrim Alfur. Hvarr halti kva sv:

Skldskaparml (2) N er jdraugum gis arnar flaugok bauga, hygg ek at heimbo iggi Hangagosof vangi.

Sv kva Vga-Glmr: (3) Lattisk herr me httu Hangats at ganga ttit eim at htta ekkiligtfyrir brekku.

Sv kva Refr: (4) Opt komjarar leiptra er Baldr hniginn skaldi hollr at helgu fulli *hrafn-sar mrstafna.

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Sv kva Eyvindr skldaspillir: (5) Ok Sigurr hinn er svnum veitti *hrka bjr Haddingja vals Farmats fjrvi nmu *jarrendr gli.

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Sv kva Glmr Geirason: (6) ar var rafna byrjar, eim er stru go, Beima sjlfr skilfi Sigtr Atals dra.
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Sv kva Eyvindr enn:

8 (7)

Snorra Edda Gndul ok Skgul sendi Gautatr at kjsa of konunga hverr Yngva ttar skyldi me ni fara ok Valhllu vera.

Sv kva lfr Uggason: (8)


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Rr at vilgi *vu vfrgr (en mr la) Hroptatr (of hvapta hrrml) sonar bli.

Sv kva jlfr inn hvinverski: (9)


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Valr l ar sandi vitinn inum eineygja Friggjar fambyggvi. Fgnuum d slkri.

at kva Hallfrr: (10)


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Sannyrum spenr svera *snarr iggjandi viggjar *barrhaddaa byrjar *bikvn *und sik rija.

Hr er ess dmi at jr er kllu kona ins skldskap. Sv er hr sagt at Eyvindr kva: (11)
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Hermr ok Bragi (kva Hroptatr) gangi ggn grami vat konungr ferr s er kappi ykkir til hallar hinig.

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Sv kva Kormakr:

Skldskaparml (12) Eykr me ennidki *jarhljtr dafjarar breyti hn s er beinan bindr. Sei Yggr til Rindar.

Sv sagi Steinrr: (13) Forngervan ek firnum farms Gunnlaar arma horna fors at hrsa hltstyggs ok *ltinn.

Sv kva lfr Uggason: (14) ar hykk sigrunni svinnum sylgs valkyrjur fylgja heilags tafns ok hrafna. Hlaut innan sv minnum.

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Sv kva Egill Skallagrmsson: (15) Blt ek eigi af v brur Vlis gu jarar at ek gjarna sj. hefir Mms vinr mr of fengit blva btr er it betra telk. Gfumk rtt lfs ok bgi vgi *vanr vammi fira.

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(16)

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Hr er hann kallar gujaarr ok Mms vinr ok lfs bgi. Sv kva Refr: (17) r eigu vr veigar Valgautr salar brautar
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Snorra Edda Fals hrannvalar fannar framr valdi tamr gjalda.

Sv kva Einarr sklaglamm: (18)


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Hljta mun ek (ne hltir) Herts (of at frju) fyrir reysi at ausa austr vngnoar flausta.

Sv sem lfr kva Uggason: (19)


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Kostigr rr at kesti kynfrs eim er go hlu hrafnfreistaar hesti Heimdallr at mg fallinn.

Sv er sagt Eirksmlum: (20)


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Hvat er at drauma? kva inn. Ek hugumk fyrir dag rsa Valhll ryja fyrir vegnu flki, veka ek einherja, ba ek upp rsa bekki at str, bjrker leyra, valkyrjur vn bera sem vsi komi.

at kva Kormakr:
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Algildan bi ek aldar allvald of mr halda s bifvangi Yngva ungr. Fr Hroptr me Gungni.

at kva rlfr:

Skldskaparml (22) Sagi hitt er hugi Hliskjlfar gramr sjlfum hlfar styggr ar er hgnir Hreks liar vru.

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Sv kva Eyvindr: (23) Hinn er Surts r skkdlum farmagnur fljgandi bar.

Sv kva Bragi: (24) at erumk sent at snemma sonr Aldafrs vildi afls vi ri afan jarar reist of freista.

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Sv kva Einarr: (25) vat fjlkostigr flestu flestr rr vi son Bestlu tekit *hefi ek mors til mrar mringr en fra.

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Sv kva orvaldr blnduskld: (26) N hefi ek mart mii greipat burar Bors Bra arfa.

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Hr skal heyra hv skldin hafa kent skldskapinn eptir essum heitum er r eru ritu, sv sem er at kalla Kvasis dreyra ok dverga skip, dverga mj, jtna mj, Suttunga mj, ins mj, sa mj, furgjld jtna, lgr reris ok Bonar ok Snar ok fyllr, lgr Hnitbjarga, fengr ok fundr ok farmr ok gjf ins, sv sem hr er kveit er orti Einarr sklaglamm:

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Snorra Edda Hugstran bi ek heyra heyr, jarl, Kvasis dreyra foldar vr fyra fjarleggjar brim dreggjar.

Ok sem kva Einarr enn sklaglamm: (28) Ullar gengr of alla asksgn ess er hvt magnar byrgis bvar sorgar bergs geymil dverga.

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Sv sem kva Ormr Steinrsson: (29) At vri borit bjrs brkar ok mitt lk rekkar nemi daus drykk Dvalins einn sal.

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Ok sem Refr kva: (30) Grjtaldar *tk gildi gereinar orsteini. Berg-Mra glymr bra, bi ek la kyn hla.

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Sv sem kva Egill: (31) Buumk hilmir l, *ar ek hrrs of kv. Bar ek ins mj Engla bj.

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Ok sem kva Glmr Geirason: (32) Hli, hapta beiis hefk mildinga gildi. v *bijum vr gnar egna tjn *at fregnum.

Skldskaparml Ok sem kva Eyvindr: (33) Vilja ek hlj at *Hrs li mean Gillings gjldum yppik, mean hans tt hverlegi glga farms til goa teljum.

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Sv sem Einarr kva sklaglamm: (34) Eisar *vgr fyrir vsa, verk Rgnis mr *hagna, tr reris alda aldr hafs vi fles galdra.

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Ok enn sem hann kva: (35) N er ats Bonar bra, berg-Saxa, tr vaxa, grvi hll ok hli hlj fley jfurs jir.

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Ok sem kva Eilfr Gurnarson: (36) *Veri *r, alls ora oss grr of kon *mran sefreinu Snar s, vingjfum ra.

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Sv sem kva Vlu-Steinn: (37) Heyr Mms vinar *mna mr er fundr gefinn undar vi gma sker glymja glaumbergs, *Egill, strauma.

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Sv kva Ormr Steinrsson:

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Snorra Edda Seggir *urfut *ala ugg engu *sn ek Viurs feng hi, kunnum hrrsm hagaof minn brag.

Sv kva lfr Uggason: (39) Hoddmildum *tk hildar hugreifum leifi hann vil ek at gjf Grmnis ge-Njarar lkveja.

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Skldskapr er kallar sjr ea lgr dverganna, fyrir v at Kvasis bl var lgr reri r mjrinn vri gjrr, ok ar gerisk hann katlinum, ok er hann kallar fyrir v hverlgr ins sv sem kva Eyvindr ok fyrr var ritat: (40) Mean hans tt hverlegi glga farms til goa teljum.

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Enn er kallar skldskaprinn far ea li dverganna; l heitir l ok li heitir skip. Sv er tekit til dma at skldskapr er n kallar fyrir v skip dverga, sv sem hr segir: (41) *Bi ek til brar bergjarls ok skip dverga sollinn vind at senda seinfyrnd gtu eina.

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Hvernig skal kenna r? Sv at kalla hann son ins ok Jarar, fair Magna ok Ma ok rar, verr Sifjar, stjpfair Ullar, strandi ok eigandi Mjllnis ok megingjara, Bilskirnis, verjandi sgars, Migars, dlgr ok bani jtna ok trllkvinna, vegandi Hrungnis, Geirrar, rvalda, drttinn jlfa ok Rsku, dlgr Migarsorms, fstri Vingnis ok *Hlru. Sv kva Bragi skld: (42) Var l Viris arfa vilgi slakr er rakisk,

Skldskaparml Eynfis ndri, Jrmungandr at sandi. Sv kva lvir hnfa: (43) stisk allra landa umgjr ok sonr Jarar.

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Sv kva Eilfr: (44) Reir st Rsku brir; v gagn fair Magna. Skelfra rs n jlfa rttar steinn vi tta.

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Ok sem kva Eysteinn Valdason: (45) Leit brattrar *brautar baug hvassligum augum, stisk r at flausti ggs b, fair rar.

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Enn kva Eysteinn: (46) Sn bj Sifjar rni snarla fram me karli hornstraum getum Hrmnis hrraveiarfri.

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Ok enn kva hann: (47) Sv br vir at sjur seir rendi fram breiar jarar; t at bori Ulls mg[s] hnefar skullu.

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Sv kva Bragi: (48) Hamri frsk hgri hnd ar er allra landa

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Snorra Edda gir flugbara *endiseis *of kendi.

Sv kva Gamli: (49)


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Mean gramr hinn er svik samit snart Bilskirnis hjarta grundar fisk me grandi gljfrskeljungs nam rjfa.

Sv kva orbjrn dsarskld: (50)


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rr hefir Yggs me rum sgar af rek varan.

Sv kva Bragi: (51) Ok *borrins bara brautar hringr inn ljti haussprengi Hrungnis harger nean stari.

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Enn kva Bragi: (52) Vel hafi yrum eykjum aptr, *rvalda, haldit simbli sumbls of mrum sundrkljfr nu haufa.

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Sv kva Eilfr: (53) rngvir gein vi ungum angs raubita tangar kveldrunninna kvinna kunnleggs alinmunni.

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Sv kva Bragi: (54) jokkvxnum kva ykkja ikling *firinmikla

Skldskaparml hafra njts at hfgum htting megindrtti. Sv kva lfr: (55) Fullflugr lt fellir fjall-Gauts hnefa skjalla ramt mein var atreyni *reyrar leggs vi eyra.

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Enn kva lfr: (56) Vgymnir laust Vimrar vas af frnum nari hlusta grunn vi hrnnum. Hlaut innan sv minnum.

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Hr er hann kallar jtunn Vimrar vas. heitir Vimur, er rr er hann stti til Geirrargara. Ok sv kva Vetrlii: (57) Leggi brauzt Leiknar, *lamir rvalda, steyptir *Starkei, stttu of Gjlp daua.
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Ok sv kva orbjrn dsarskld: (58) Ball Keilu kolli, Kjallandi brauzt alla, r draptu Lt ok Leia, lztu dreyra Bseyru, *heptir Hengjankjptu, Hyrrokkin d fyrri, var snemr hin sma Svvr numin *lfi.
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Hvernig skal kenna Baldr? Sv at kalla hann son ins ok Friggjar, ver Nnnu, fair Forseta, eigandi Hringhorna ok Draupnis, dlgr Haar, Heljar sinni, grta gu. lfr Uggason hefir kveit eptir sgu

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Baldrs langt skei Hsdrpu, ok ritat er r dmi til ess er Baldr er sv kendr. Hvernig skal kenna Njr? Sv at kalla hann vagna gu ea Vana ni ea Van ok fur Freys ok Freyju, *gefanda gu. Sv segir rr Sjreksson: (59) Var sjlf sonar nama snotr una Kjalarr of tami kvut Hami Gorn bani gobrr Vani heldr vel mara hrleik spara.

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Hr er ess getit er Skai gekk fr Niri sem fyrr er ritat. Hvernig skal kenna Frey? Sv at kalla hann son Njarar, brur Freyju ok enn Vana gu ok Vana ni ok Vanr ok rgu ok fgjafa. Sv kva Egill Skallagrmsson: (60) vat Grjtbjrn of gddan hefr Freyr ok Njrr at fjrafli.

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Freyr er kallar Belja dlgr, sv sem kva Eyvindr skldaspillir: (61)


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er trst jarla bgi Belja dlgs byggja vildi.

Hann er eigandi Skblanis ok galtar ess er Gullinbusti heitir, sv sem hr segir: (62)
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valda synir gengu rdaga Skblani at skipa, skipa bazt,

Skldskaparml skrum Frey, ntum Njarar bur. Sv segir lfr Uggason: (63) Rr *brg til borgar bfrr sonar ins Freyr ok flkum strir fyrst ok gulli byrstum.

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Hann heitir ok Slrugtanni. Hvernig skal Heimdall kenna? Sv at kalla hann son nu mra, vr gua, sv sem fyrr er ritat, ea hvta s, Loka dlg, menskir Freyju. Heimdalar hfu heitir sver; sv er sagt at hann var lostinn manns hfi ggnum. Um hann er kveit Heimdalargaldri, ok er san kallat hfu mjtur Heimdalar; sver heitir manns mjtur. Heimdalr er eigandi Gulltopps. Hann er ok tilskir Vgaskers ok Singasteins; deildi hann vi Loka um Brsingamen. Hann heitir ok Vindlr. lfr Uggason kva Hsdrpu langa stund eptir eiri frsgu; er ess ar getit er eir vru sela lkjum; ok sonr ins. Hvernig skal kenna T? Sv at kalla hann einhenda s ok lfs fstra, vga gu, son ins. Hvernig skal kenna Braga? Sv at kalla hann Iunnar ver, frumsmi bragar ok hinn sskeggja s; af hans nafni er s kallar skeggbragi er mikit skegg hefir; ok sonr ins. Hvernig skal kenna Viar? Hann m kalla hinn gla s, eiganda jrnsks, dlg ok bana Fenrislfs, hefni-s goanna, byggvi-s furtopta ok son ins, brur sanna. Hvernig skal kenna Vla? Sv at kalla hann son ins ok Rindar, stjp Friggjar, brur sanna, hefni-s Baldrs, dlg Haar ok bana hans, byggvanda furtopta. Hvernig skal kenna H? Sv at kalla hann blinda s, Baldrs bana, skjtanda mistilteins, *son ins, Heljar sinna, Vla dlg. Hvernig skal kenna Ull? Sv at kalla hann son Sifjar, stjp rs, ndur-s, boga s, veii-s, skjaldar s. Hvernig skal kenna Hni? Sv at kalla hann sessa ea sinna ea mla ins ok hinn skjta s ok hinn langa ft ok aurkonung. Hvernig skal kenna Loka? Sv at kalla son Frbauta ok Laufeyjar, Nlar, brur Bleists ok Helblinda, fur Vnargands (at

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er Fenrislfr) ok Jrmungands (at er Migarsormr) ok Heljar ok Nara, ok la frnda ok furbrur, sinna ok sessa ins ok sa, heimski ok kistuskr Geirrar, jfr jtna, hafrs ok Brsingamens ok Iunnar epla, Sleipnis frnda, verr Sigynjar, goa dlgr, hrskai Sifjar, blva smir, hinn slgi ss, rgjanda ok vlandi goanna, rbani Baldrs, hinn bundni, rtudlgr Heimdalar ok Skaa. Sv sem hr segir lfr Uggason: (64) Rgegninn bregr ragna rein- at Singasteini frgr vi firna *slgjan Frbauta *mg -vri. Mflugr rr mra mgr hafnra fgru kynni ekr *ok einnar ttamrar ttum.

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Hr er ess getit at Heimdallr er son nu mra. N skal enn segja dmi af hverju r kenningar eru er n vru ritaar, er r vru eigi dmi til sg, sv sem Bragi sagi gi at rr var farinn Austrvega at berja trll, en inn rei Sleipni Jtunheima ok kom til ess jtuns er Hrungnir ht. spyrr Hrungnir hvat manna s er me gullhjlminn er rr lopt ok lg ok segir at hann furu gan hest. inn sagi at ar vill hann veja fyrir hfi snu at engi hestr skal vera jafngr Jtunheimum. Hrungnir s[agi] at s er gr hestr, en hafa lzk hann mundu myklu strfetara hest; s heitir Gullfaxi. Hrungnir var reir ok hleypr upp hest sinn ok hleypir eptir honum ok hyggr at launa honum ofrmli. inn hleypti sv mikit at hann var ru leiti fyrir, en Hrungnir var sv miklum jtunm at hann fann eigi fyrr en hann stti inn of sgrindr. Ok er hann kom at hallardurum, buu sir honum til drykkju. Hann gekk hllina ok ba f sr drykkju. Vru teknar r sklir er rr var vanr at drekka r, ok snerti Hrungnir r hverri. En er hann gerisk drukkinn skorti eigi str or. Hann lzk skyldu taka upp Valhll ok fra Jtunheima, en skkva sgari en drepa gu ll, nema Freyju ok Sif vill hann heim fra me sr. En Freyja fr at skenkja honum, ok drekka lzk hann mundu alt sa l. En er sum leiddisk ofrefli hans nefna eir r. v nst kom rr hllina ok hafi uppi lopti hamarinn ok

Skldskaparml

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var allreir ok spyrr hverr v rr er jtnar hundvsir skulu ar drekka, ea hverr seldi Hrungni gri at vera Valhll ea hv Freyja skal skenkja honum sem at gildi sa. svarar Hrungnir ok sr ekki vinaraugum til rs, sagi at inn bau honum til drykkju ok hann var hans grium. mlir rr at ess bos skal Hrungnir irask r hann komi t. Hrungnir segir at sar er at ltill frami at drepa hann vpnlausan; hitt er meiri hugraun ef hann orir berjask vi hann at landamri Grjtnagrum. Ok hefir at verit mikit flskuverk, sagi hann, er ek lt eptir heima skjld minn ok hein. En ef ek hefa hr vpn mn skyldu vit n reyna hlmgnguna. En at rum kosti legg ek r vi ningsskap ef vill drepa mik vpnlausan. rr vill fyrir ngan mun bila at koma til einvgis er honum var hlmr skorar, vat engi hefir honum at fyrr veitt. Fr Hrungnir braut lei sna ok hleypti kafliga ar til er hann kom Jtunheima, ok var fr hans allfrg me jtnum ok at at stefnulag var komit me eim r. ttusk jtnar hafa mikit byrg, hvrr sigr fengi; eim var ills vn at r ef Hrungnir ltisk fyrir v at hann var eira sterkastr. geru jtnar mann Grjtnagrum af leiri ok var hann nu rasta hr en riggja breir undir hnd, en ekki fengu eir hjarta sv mikit at honum smi fyrr en eir tku *r *meri *nokkvorri, ok var honum at eigi stugt er rr kom. Hrungnir tti hjarta at er frgt er, af hrum steini ok tindtt me rim hornum sv sem san er gert var ristubrag at er Hrungnis hjarta heitir. Af steini var ok hfu hans. Skjldr hans var ok steinn, vr ok jokkr, ok hafi hann skjldinn fyrir sr er hann st Grjtnagrum ok bei rs, en hein hafi hann fyrir vpn ok reiddi of xl ok var ekki dlligr. ara hli honum st leirjtunninn, er nefndr er Mkkurklfi, ok var hann allhrddr. Sv er sagt at hann meig er hann s r. rr fr til hlmstefnu ok me honum jlfi. rann jlfi fram at ar er Hrungnir st ok mlti til hans: stendr varliga, jtunn, hefir skjldinn fyrir r, en rr hefir st ik ok ferr hann it nera jru ok mun hann koma nean at r. skaut Hrungnir skildinum undir ftr sr ok st , en tvhendi heinina. v nst s hann eldingar ok heyri rumur strar. S hann r smi, fr hann kafliga ok reiddi hamarinn ok kastai um langa lei at Hrungni. Hrungnir frir upp heinina bum hndum, kastar mt. Mtir hon hamrinum flugi, heinin, ok brotnar sundr

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Snorra Edda

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heinin; fellr annarr hlutr jr ok eru ar af orin ll heinberg. Annarr hlutr brast hfi r sv at hann fell fram jr. En hamarrinn Mjllnir kom mitt hfu Hrungni ok lami hausinn smn mola ok fell hann fram yfir r sv at ftr hans l of hls r. En jlfi v at Mkkurklfa, ok fell hann vi ltinn orstr. gekk jlfi til rs ok skyldi taka ft Hrungnis af honum ok gat hvergi valdit. gengu til sir allir er eir spuru at rr var fallinn ok skyldu taka ftinn af honum ok fengu hvergi komit. kom til Magni, sonr rs ok Jrnsxu. Hann var rvetr. Hann kastai fti Hrungnis af r ok mlir: S ar ljtan harm, fair, er ek kom sv s. Ek hygg at jtun enna mundak hafa lostit Hel me hnefa mr ef ek hefa fundit hann. st rr upp ok fagnai vel syni snum ok sagi hann mundu vera mikinn fyrir sr. Ok vil ek, sagi hann, gefa r hestinn Gullfaxa, er Hrungnir hafi tt. mlir inn ok sagi at rr geri rangt er hann gaf ann hinn ga hest ggjarsyni en eigi fur snum. *rr fr heim til rvanga ok st heinin hfi honum. kom til vlva s er Gra ht, kona Aurvandils hins frkna. Hon gl galdra sna yfir r til ess er heinin losnai. En er rr fann at ok tti vn at braut mundi n heininni, vildi hann launa Gr lkningina ok gera hana fegna, sagi henni au tindi at hann hafi vait noran yfir livga ok hafi borit meis baki sr Aurvandil noran r Jtunheimum, ok at til jartegna at ein t hans hafi stait r meisinum ok var s frerin sv at rr braut af ok kastai upp himin ok geri af stjrnu er heitir Aurvandilst. rr sagi at eigi mundi langt til at Aurvandill mundi heim, en Gra var sv fegin at hon muni nga galdra, ok var heinin eigi lausari ok stendr enn hfi r; ok er at boit til varnanar at kasta hein of glf vert, vat hrrisk heinin hfu r. Eptir essi sgu hefir ort jlfr hvinverski Haustlng. Sv segir ar: (65) Er of sr er jtna tti lt of *sttan hellis *brr hyrjar haug Grjtna baugi;

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Skldskaparml k at sarnleiki Jarar sunr, en duni mr svall Meila brur mna vegr und hnum. (66) Knttu ll, en Ullar endilg fyrir mgi grund var grpi hrundin, *ginnunga v *brinna er hofregin *hafrar hgreiar fram drgu ser gekk Svlnis ekkja sundrat Hrungnis fundi. yrmit Baldrs of barmi bergslgnum ar dlgi hristusk, bjrg ok brustu, brann upphiminnmanna; mjk fr ek mti hrkkva *myrkbeins *Haka reinar, er vgligan, vgna *vtt, sinn bana *tti. Brtt fl bjarga gti bnd ollu vranda munflr *und iljar ss; vildu sv dsir. Varat hggs fr hrum *hraundrengr aan lengi trjnu trlls of rna *ts fjllama at ba. Fjrspillir lt falla fjlfrs lgra gjlfra blverungar Belja blm randar hlmi. ar hn grundar gilja gramr fyrir skrpum hamri en berg-Dana bagi brjtr vi jrmunrjti.

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Snorra Edda Ok harbrotin herju heiminguar Vingnis hvein *hjarna mni hein at grundar sveini, ar sv er ins laus burar hausi stla *vikr of stokkin st Eindria bli, r r hneigihlum hrs l-Gefjun sra reiitrs it raua rys hlibl gli. Grla lt ek Geitis gari *r of farir. Baugs ek *bifum fa bifkleif at orleifi.

(71)
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mlir gir: Mikill tti mr Hrungnir fyrir sr. Vann rr meira rekvirki nokkvot er hann tti vi trll? svarar Bragi: Mikillar frsagnar er at vert er rr fr til Geirrargara. hafi hann eigi hamarinn Mjllni ea megingjarar ea jrngreipr, ok olli v Loki. Hann fr me honum, vat Loka hafi at hent er hann flaug einu sinni at skemta sr me valsham Friggjar at hann flaug fyrir forvitni sakar Geirrargara ok s ar hll mikla, settisk ok s inn of glugg. En Geirrr leit mti honum ok mlir at taka skyldi fuglinn ok fra honum. En sendimar komsk nauuliga hallar vegginn, sv var hann hr. at tti Loka gott er hann stti erfiliga til hans ok tlai sr stund at fljga eigi upp fyrr en hann hafi farit alt torleiit. En er marinn stti at honum beinir hann fluginn ok spyrnir vi fast ok eru ftrnir fastir. Var Loki tekinn ar hndum ok frr Geirri jtni. En er hann s augu hans grunai hann at mar mundi vera ok ba hann svara, en Loki agi. lsti Geirrr Loka kistu ok svelti hann ar rj mnur. En er Geirrr tk hann upp ok beiddi hann ora, ok sagi Loki hverr hann var, ok til *fjrlausnar vann hann Geirri ess eia at hann skyldi koma r Geirrargara sv at hann hefi hvrki hamarinn n megingjarar. rr kom til gistingar til ggjar eirar er Grr er kllu. Hon var mir Viars hins gla.

Skldskaparml

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Hon sagi r satt fr Geirri at hann var jtunn hundvss ok illr vireignar. Hon li honum megingjara ok jrngreipr er hon tti ok staf sinn er heitir Grarvlr. fr rr til r eirar er Vimur heitir, allra mest. spenti hann sik megingjrum ok studdi forstreymis Grarvl, en Loki helt undir megingjarar. Ok er rr kom mija na x sv mjk in at uppi braut xl honum. kva rr etta: (72) Vaxattu n, Vimur, alls mik ik vaa tir jtna gara ; veiztu ef vex at vex mr smegin jafnhtt upp sem himinn.

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sr rr uppi gljfrum nokkvorum at Gjlp, dttir Geirrar, st ar tveim megin rinnar ok geri hon rvxtinn. tk rr upp r nni stein mikinn ok kastai at henni ok mlti sv: At si skal stemma. Eigi misti hann ar er hann kastai til. Ok v bili bar hann at landi ok fekk tekit reynirunn nokkvorn ok steig sv r nni. v er at ortak haft at reynir er bjrg rs. En er rr kom til Geirrar var eim flgum vsat fyrst geitahs til herbergis, ok var ar einn stll til stis ok sat ar rr. var hann ess varr at stllinn fr undir honum upp at rfri. Hann stakk Grarveli upp raptana ok lt sgask fast stlinn. Var brestr mikill ok fylgi skrkr mikill. ar hfu verit undir stlinum dtr Geirrar Gjlp ok Greip, ok hafi hann brotit hrygginn bum. lt Geirrr kalla r hllina til leika. ar vru eldar strir eptir endilangri hllinni. En er rr kom hllina gagnvart Geirri tk Geirrr me tng jrnsu glandi ok kastar at r, en rr tk mti me jrngreipum ok frir lopt suna, en Geirrr hljp undir jrnslu at fora sr. rr kastai sunni ok laust ggnum sluna ok ggnum Geirr ok ggnum vegginn ok sv fyrir tan jrina. Eptir essi sgu hefir ort Eilfr Gurnarson rsdrpu: (73) Flugstalla r *felli *fjrnets goa at *hvetja

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Snorra Edda drjgr var Loptr at ljga lgseims fair heiman. Gereynir kva *grnar Gauts herrumu brautir vilgi tryggr til veggjar viggs Geirrar liggja.

(74)

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Gestrangrar lt gngu gammlei rr skmmu fstusk eir at rsta *orns nijumsik bija, er *garvenjur grisk Gandvkr Skotum rkri endr til Ymsa kindar Ija setrs fr rija. Grr var fr fyrri *farmr meinsvrans arma sknar hapts me svipti sagna galdrs en *Rgnir. yl ek *granstrauma Grmnis. Gall- mantlir halla -pnis ilja gaupnum Endils m *spendi. Ok *gangs vanir gengu gunnvargs; himintrgu Frar vers til flja frumseyris kom dreyra, er blkveitir brjta bragmildr Loka vildi bri vndr bri bg sef-Grmnis mga. Ok vegverrir *varra vann fetrunnar Nnnu hjalts af *hagli oltnar hlaupr um ver gaupu. Mjk lei r sta stkkvir stikleiar veg breian

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Skldskaparml urar rjts ar er eitri str jr fnstu. (78) ar mrk fyrir markar mlhvettan byr settu (ne hvlvlur hlar) hf- skotnara (svfu). Kntti hreggi hggvin hlyml vi ml glymja en fellihryn fjalla Feju aut me steja. Harvaxnar sr herir halllands of sik falla (*gatat mar) njtr (hin neytri) njar- (r fyrir sr) -gjarar. verrir ltr nema yrri orns *barna sr Mrnar snerribl til svra salaks megin vaxa. u fast (en) *frir (flaut) eisvara Gauta setrs vkingar snotrir (*svarrunnit fen) gunnar. uri hrnn at heri haurs runkykva nauar jarar skafls af afli ss hretviri blsin, unz me ta sinni (aflraun var at) skaunar seil [(himinsjla) sjlflopta kom jlfi. *Hu stli stran straum Hrekkmmis ekkjur. Stophnsu] fr stey[pir strlundr me v]l Grar.

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Snorra Edda Ne djp- *akrn drpu dlgs vamms firum gl[amma strkvijun]dum stvar stall vi rastar *-falli. gndjarfan hlaut *Atli *eir[fjaran hug] meira. Skalfa rs n jlfa rttar steinn vi tta. Ok sifuna san svers lihatar geru hlfar bors vi Hra hargleipnis dyn *bara, r hylriar *hi hrjendr fjru jar vi skyld-Breta skytju sklleik Heins reikar. Dreif me drttar kneyfi (dlg- Svjar *klgu, stti -fer fltta) flesdrtt v nesja, er funhristis fasta (flrifs Danir) stu (knttu) Jlnis ttir (tvs fyrir lta). *ars rttar hersar *ornrann hugum bornir, hlymr var *hellis Kumra hringblkar, fram gingu. *Lista var frr fasta (frisein var ar) *hreina gnpu hlr greypan (grn) htt *risa kvnar. Ok (hm) loga himni hall- (fylvingum) -vallar (trusk r) vi tri tungls br *salar rungu.

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Skldskaparml Hfstjri braut hvru hreggs vfreiar tveggja hltrellia hellis *hundfornan kjl *sprundi. (87) Fta nam fri (fjareplis) kon Jarar (Mrar legs ne mgu menn lteiti) kenna. lmtaugar laust gir angrjf *sega *tangar *ins afli sonum ttrur gin Sura. Sv at hraskyndir handa hrapmunnum svalg gunnar *lyptisylg lopti langvinr su *rngvar, er *rrasis *eisa *s Hrmnis fl drsar til rmnis rar jst af greipar brjsti. Bifisk hll er hfi Heireks of kom breiu und fletbjarnar *fornan ftlegg urnis veggjar. tr gulli laust Ullar jtrs vegtaugar rjti meina nir mijan mest bgyril nestu. Glaums nijum fr grva gramr me dreyrgum hamri; of salvani-Synjar sigr hlaut *arinbauti. Komat tvviar tvi tollur karms s er harmi brautarlis of beitti bekk- fall jtuns -rekka.

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Snorra Edda *Herbltinn v hneitir hgbrotningi skgar undirfjlfrs af *afli lfheims bliku klfa. Ne lifstum Lista ltrval-Rygjar mttu aldrminkanda *aldar Ellu steins of bella.

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Hvernig skal kenna Frigg? Sv at kalla hana dttur Fjrgyns, konu ins, mur Baldrs, elju Jarar ok Rindar ok Gunnlaar ok Gerar, svra Nnnu, drottning sa ok synja, Fullu ok valshams ok *Fensala. Hvernig skal Freyju kenna? Sv at kalla dttur Njarar, systur Freys, konu *s, mur Hnossar, eigandi valfalls ok Sessrmnis ok fressa, Brsingamens, Vana go, Vana ds, it grtfagra go. Sv m kenna allar synjur at nefna annarrar nafni ok kenna vi eign ea verk sn ea ttir. Hvernig skal kenna Sif? Sv at kalla hana konu rs, mur Ullar, it hrfagra go, elja Jrnsxu, mir rar. Hvernig skal kenna Iunni? Kalla hana konu Braga ok gtandi eplanna, en eplin ellilyf sanna; hon er ok rnfengr jaza jtuns, sv sem fyrr er sagt at hann tk hana braut fr sum. Eptir eiri sgu orti jlfr hinn hvinverski Haustlng: (92) Hv skal ek gott gjldum gunnveggjar b[r leggja ................... raddkleif] at o[rleifi]. Tframra s ek tva trygglaust *of *far [riggja hreing]ru hlri hild[ar] *fats ok jaza. Segjndum fl sagna sn[tar lfr at m]ti gemlis ha[m] gmlum glamma *- fyr -skmmu. Settisk rn ar er s[ir] r *Gefnar mat bru

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Skldskaparml (vara byrgitr bjarga bleyi *vndr) seyi. (94) *Tormilar var tvum tlhreinn meal beina. Hvat *kva hapta snytrir hjlmfaldinn v valda. Margspakr of nam mla mr valkastar bru vara Hnis *vinr hnum hollraf fornum olli. Fjallgylir ba *fyllar fet-Meila sr deila hlautaf helgum skutli hrafn-sar vin blsa. Ving-Rgnir lt vagna vgfrekr ofan sgask ar er vlsparir vru varnendr goa farnir. Fljtt ba foldar drttinn Frbauta mg *Vrar ekkiligr me egnum rymseilar hval deila. En af breiu bji bragvss at at lagi svifrandi sa upp jrhluti fjra. Ok slrliga san svangrvar at fyrir lngu t af eikirt[um] okbjrn fair Mrnar r djphugar drpi dlg ballastan vallar hir[i]tr meal hera herfangs ofan stngu.

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Snorra Edda var fastr vi fstra farmr *Sigynjar arma s er ll regin eygja ndurgus bndum. Loddi r vi ramman reimu Jtunheima en holls vinar Hnis hendr vi stangar enda. Fl me frgum tvi fangsll of veg langan sveita nagr sv at slitna sundr *lfs *fair mundi. var rs of rni *ungr var Loptr of sprunginn *mlunaut hvats mtti *Mijungs friar bija. Sr ba sagna hrri sorgran mey fra er ellilyf sa, ttrunnr Hymis, kunni. Brunnakrs of kom *bekkjar Brsings goa dsi girijfr gara grjt-Naar san. Urut bjartra bora byggvendr at at hryggvir var I- me jtnum -ur nkomin sunnan. Grusk allar ttir Ingi-Freys at ingi vru heldrok hrar hamljt regingamlar, unz hrynsvar hrva *hund l-Gefnar fundu leiir ok lv[a] lund l-Gefnar bundu.

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Skldskaparml skalt vltr nema vlum, reir mlir sv, *leiir munstrandi mra mey aptr, Loki, hapta. (103) *Heyrak sv at san sveik *apt sa *leiku hugreynandi Hnis *hauks flugbjlfa aukinn, ok lmhugar lagi leikblas reginn fjarar ern at glis barni arnsg fair Mrnar. Hfu skjtt (en skfu) skpt (ginnregin) brinna en son *biils svinar sveipr var frGreipar. ats of ftt fjalla Finns ilja br minni. Baugs ek bifum fa bifkleif at orleifi.

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su er sv rtt at kenna at kalla einnhvern annars nafni ok kenna vi verk sn ea eign ea ttir. Hvernig skal kenna himin? Sv at kalla hann Ymis haus ok ar af jtuns haus ok erfii ea byri dverganna ea hjlm Vestra ok Austra, Sura, Norra, land slar ok tungls ok himintungla, vagna ok vera, hjlmr ea hs lopts ok jarar ok slar. Sv kva Arnrr jarlaskld: (105) Ungr skjldungr stgr aldri jafnmildr vi skjaldar ess var gramsund gmlum gng rausnYmis hausi.

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Ok enn sem hann kva: (106) Bjrt verr sl at svartri, skkr fold mar dkkvan,

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Snorra Edda brestr erfii Austra, allr glymr sjr fjllum.

Ok enn sem kva Kolli: (107)


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Alls engi verr Inga undir slar grundu bvar hvatr n betri brr landreki ri.

Ok sem kva jlfr inn hvinverski: (108)


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k at isarnleiki Jarar sunr ok duni mr svall Meila bla mna vegr und hnum.

Sv sem kva Ormr Barreyjaskld: (109)


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Hvgi er, Draupnis drgar ds, ramman spyr ek vsa, s rrvaldrfyrir veldi vagnbrautar mr fagnar.

Sv sem kva Bragi skld: (110)


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Hinn er varp va vinda ndurdsar yfir manna sjt margra munnlaug fur augum.

Ok sem Marks kva: (111)


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Fjarri hefir at fisk drri flotna vrr lkers botni hva leyfir hverr mar vi hringvarpaargjlfri kringum.

Sv sem kva Steinn Herdsarson:

Skldskaparml (112) Hs kve ek helgan rsi heimtjalds at brag eima *mr rzk framen fyra fyrr vat hann er drri.

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Ok sem kva Arnrr jarlaskld: (113) Hjlp drr konungr drum dags grundar Hermundi.

Ok enn sem kva Arnrr: (114) Sar stillir hjlp snjllum sltjalda Rgnvaldi.

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Ok sem kva Hallvarr: (115) Kntr verr jr *sem tran alls *drttinn sal fjalla.

Sem Arnrr kva: (116) Mkll vegr at er misgert ikkir mannvits frr ok alt it ga, tiggi skiptir san seggjum slar hjlms dmistli.
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Hvernig skal jr kenna? Kalla Ymis hold ok mur rs, dttur nars, bri ins, elju Friggjar ok Rindar ok Gunnlaar, svru Sifjar, *glf ok botn vera hallar, sj dranna, dttir Nttar, systir Aus ok Dags. Sv sem kva Eyvindr skldaspillir: (117) N er lfrull elfar jtna dlgs of flginn r eru rammrar jar rk mur lki.

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Sem kva Hallfrr vandraskld: (118) R lukusk at s san snjallrr konungs spjalli

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Snorra Edda tti eingadttur nars vii grna.

Ok enn sagi hann: (119)


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Breileita gat bri Bleygs at sr teygja stefnir stvar hrafna stla rkismlum.

Sv sem fyrr er ritat, Fjarri hefir at fisk drri . . . Sv sem kva jlfr:
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tan bindr vi enda elgvers glur hersa hreins vi hfi rnum hafs botni *far gotna.

Sem Hallfrr kva:


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v hygg fleygjanda frgjan ferr jr und menverri tra eina lta Aus systur mjk trauan.

Sv kva jlfr:
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Dlgljss hefir dsi darrlatr stait fjarri endr er elju Rindar *mynda tk skyndir.

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Hvernig skal s kenna? Sv at kalla hann Ymis bl, heimskir guanna, verr Rnar, fair gis dtra eira er sv heita: Himinglva, Dfa, Blughadda, Hefring, Ur, Hrnn, Bylgja, Bra, Klga; land Rnar ok gis dtra ok skipa ok sskips heita, kjalar, stla, sa, sju, fiska, sa, skonunga lei ok brautir, eigi sr hringr eyjanna, hs sanda ok angs ok skerja, dorgar land og sfogla, byrjar. Sv sem kva Ormr *Barreyjarskld:

Skldskaparml (123) tan gnr eyri Ymis bl fara gra.

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Sv kva Refr: (124) Vgrsta berr vestan vtti ek lands fyrir brandi, *hvalmni skefrhna hgdr of lg bgu.

Sv sem kva Sveinn: (125) er lreifar fu gis dtr ok teygu *fls vi frost of alnar fjallgars rokur harar.

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Ok sem kva Refr: (126) Frir bjrn, ar er bra brestr, undinna festa opt gis kjpta *rsvl Gymis vlva.

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Hr er sagt at alt er eitt, gir ok Hlr ok Gymir. Ok enn kva hann: (127) En sjgnpu Sleipnir sltr rdrifinn hvtrar Rnar rauum steini runnit brjst r munni.

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Sem kva Einarr Sklason: (128) Harr hefir rt fr jru lvindrsvana strindar blakkr *ltr sog skkva sngrundskipi hrundit.

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Ok enn sem hann kva:

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Snorra Edda Margr rss en drfr dorgar dynstrnd svig lndum spend vera *stg stundum stirr *keiprfira greipum.

Ok enn kva hann: (130) *Grams bera gollna spnu gfug fer er s jfri; sktr hlmfjturr Heita hrafnisnekkju stafnar.

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Enn sem hann kva: (131) Haustkld skotar hldum hlmrnd varrar ndri.

Ok enn sv: (132)


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Sundr springr svalra landa sverrigjr fyrir brum.

Sem Snbjrn kva: (133) Hvatt kvea hrra Grotta hergrimmastan skerja t fyrir jarar skauti eylrs nu brir, r erlungsfyrir lngu limeldrskipa hlar baugskerir rstr bari blAmla mlu.

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Hr er kallat hafit *Amla kvern. Enn sem kva Einarr Sklason: (134) Viknar ramr (Rakna) reksaumr flugastraumi dks hrindr blar bleikir bifgrund* stag rifjum.

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Hvernig skal kenna sl? Sv at kalla hana dttur Mundilfra, systur Mna, kona Glens, eldr himins ok lopts. Sv sem kva Skli orsteinsson: (135) Glens beja ver gyju gubl v, san ljs kemr gott me geislum grnserks ofan mna.

Sv kva Einarr Sklason: (136) Hvargi er Beita borgar *blgrimmustum skla hr *of hnossvin vrum heims vafrlogi sveimar.

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Hvernig skal kenna vind? Sv at kalla hann son Fornjts, brur gis ok elds, brjt viar, skai ok bani ea hundr ea vargr viar ea segls ea seglreia. Sv sagi Sveinn Norrsetudrpu: (137) Tku fyrst til fjka Fornjts synir ljtir.

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Hvernig skal kenna eld? Sv at kalla hann brur vinds og gis, bana ok grand viar ok hsa, Hlfs bani, sl hsanna. Hvernig skal kenna vetr? Sv at kalla hann son Vindsvals ok bana orma, *hrml. Sv kva Ormr Steinrsson: (138) R ek enna mg manni Vindsvals una blindum.

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Sv kva sgrmr: (139) Sigrgir var san seimrr *rndheimi j veit nar ir ann orms tregasannar.
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Hvernig skal kenna sumar? Sv at kalla son Svsaar ok lkn ormanna, grr manna. Sv sem kva Egill Skallagrmsson:

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Snorra Edda Upp skulum rum sverum, lfs tannlitur, glitra; eigum d at drgja dalmiskunn fiska.

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Hvernig skal kenna mann? Hann skal kenna vi verk sn, at er hann veitir ea iggr ea gerir. Hann m ok kenna til eignar sinnar eirar er hann ok sv ef hann gaf, sv ok vi ttir r er hann kom af, sv r er fr honum kmu. Hvernig skal hann kenna vi essa hluti? Sv at kalla hann vinnanda ea fremjanda ea til fara sinna ea athafnar, vga ea sfara ea veia ea vpna ea skipa. Ok fyrir v at hann er reynir vpnanna ok vir vgannaalt eitt ok vinnandi; vir heitir ok tr, reynir heitir traf essum heitum hafa skldin kallat menn ask ea hlyn, lund ea rum viar heitum karlkendum ok kent til vga ea skipa ea fjr. Mann er ok rtt at kenna til allra sa heita. Kent er ok vi jtna heiti, ok er at flest h ea lastmli. Vel ykkir kent til lfa. Konu skal kenna til alls kvenbnaar, gulls ok gimsteina, ls ea vns ea annars drykkjar ess er hon selr ea gefr, sv ok til lgagna ok til allra eira hluta er henni samir at vinna ea veita. Rtt er at kenna hana sv at kalla hana selju ea lg ess er hon milar, en selja ea lg, at eru tr. Fyrir v er kona kllu til kenningar llum kvenkendum viar heitum. En fyrir v er kona kend til gimsteina ea glersteina, at var forneskju kvinna bnar er kallat var steinasrvi er r hfu hlsi sr. N er sv frt til kenningar at konan er n kend vi stein ea vi ll steins heiti. Kona er ok kend vi allar synjur ea nornir ea dsir. Konu er ok rtt at kenna vi alla athfn sna ea vi eign sna ea tt. Hvernig skal kenna gull? Sva at kalla at eld gis ok barr Glasis, haddr Sifjar, hfuband Fullu, grtr Freyju, munntal ok rdd ok or jtna, dropa Draupnis ok regn ea skr Draupnis ea augna Freyju, otrgjld, slggjald sanna, *s Frisvalla, haugak Hlga, eldr allra vatna ok handar, grjt ok sker ea blik handar. Fyrir hv er gull kallat eldr gis? essi saga er til ess, er fyrr er getit, at gir stti heimbo til sgars, en er hann var binn til heimferar bau hann til sn ni ok llum sum riggja mnaa fresti. Til eirar ferar var fyrst inn ok Njrr, Freyr, Tr, Bragi, Viarr, Loki; sv ok synjur, Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Skai, Iunn, Sif. rr var eigi ar. Hann var farinn Austrveg at drepa trll. En er goin hfu sezk sti lt gir bera inn hallarglf lsigull at er birti ok lsti hllina sem eldr ok at var

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ar haft fyrir ljs at hans v[eiz]lu sv sem Valhllu vru sverin fyrir eld. senti Loki ar vi ll go ok drap rl gis ann er Fimafengr ht. Annarr rll hans er nefndr *Eldir. Rn er nefnd kona gis, en nu dtr eira, sv sem fyrr er ritat. At eiri veizlu vannsk alt sjlft, bi vist ok l ok ll reia er til veizlunnar urfti. uru sir ess varir at Rn tti net at er hon veiddi menn alla er s kmu. N er essi saga til ess hvaan af at er, gull er kallat eldr ea ljs ea birti gis, Rnar ea gis dtra. Ok af eim kenningum er nu sv sett at gull er kallat eldr svar ok allra hans heita, sv sem gir ea Rn eigu heiti vi sinn. Ok aan af er n gull kallat eldr vatna ea ok allra rheita. En essi heiti hafa sv farit sem nnur ok kenningar, at hin yngri skld hafa ort eptir dmum hinna gmlu sklda, sv sem st eira kvum, en sett san t hlfur r er eim ttu lkar vi at er fyrr var ort, sv sem vatnit er snum en in vatninu en lkr nni. v er at kallat ngervingar alt er t er sett heiti lengra en fyrr finnsk, ok ykkir at vel alt er me lkindum ferr ok eli. Sv kva Bragi skld: (141) Eld of k af jfri lna bekks vi drykkju at gafFjlnis fjalla me fulli mr stillir.

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Hv er gull kallat barr ea lauf Glasis? sgari fyrir durum Valhallar stendr lundr s er Glasir er kallar, en lauf hans alt er gull rautt, sv sem hr er kveit at (142) Glasir stendr me gullnu laufi fyrir Sigts slum.
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S er vir *fegrstr me goum ok mnnum. Hv er gull kallat haddr Sifjar? Loki Laufeyjarson hafi at gert til lvsi at klippa hr alt af Sif. En er rr var ess *varr, tk hann Loka ok mundi lemja hvert bein honum r hann svari ess at hann skal f af svartlfum at eir skulu gera af gulli Sifju hadd ann er sv skal vaxa sem annat hr. Eptir at fr Loki til eira dverga er heita valda synir, ok geru eir haddinn ok Skblani ok geirinn er inn tti er Gungnir heitir. *vejai Loki hfi snu vi ann dverg er Brokkr heitir, hvrt brir hans Eitri mundi gera jafnga

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gripi rj sem essir vru. En er eir kmu til smiju, lagi Eitri svnskinn aflinn ok ba blsa Brokk ok ltta eigi fyrr en at tki at r aflinum er hann lagi . En egar er hann gekk r smijunni en hinn bls, settisk fluga ein hnd honum ok kroppai, en hann bls sem r ar til er smirinn tk r aflinum, ok var at gltr ok var burstin r gulli. v nst lagi hann aflinn gull ok ba hann blsa ok htta eigi fyrr blstrinum en hann kvmi aptr. Gekk braut. En kom flugan ok settisk hls honum ok kroppai n hlfu fastara, en hann bls ar til er smirinn tk r aflinum gullhring ann er Draupnir heitir. lagi hann jrn aflinn ok ba hann blsa ok sagi at ntt mundi vera ef blstrinn felli. settisk flugann milli augna honum ok kroppai hvarmana, en er blit fell augun sv at hann s ekki, greip hann til hendinni sem skjtast mean belgrinn lagisk nir ok sveipti af sr flugunni. Ok kom ar smirinn at, sagi at n lagi nr at alt mundi ntask er aflinum var. tk hann r aflinum hamar. Fekk hann alla gripina hendr brur snum Brokk ok ba hann fara me til sgars ok leysa vejunina. En er eir Loki bru fram gripina, settusk sirnir dmstla ok skyldi at atkvi standask sem segi inn, rr, Freyr. gaf Loki ni geirinn Gungni, en r haddinn er Sif skyldi hafa, en Frey Skblani, ok sagi skyn llum gripum, at *geirrinn nam aldri staar lagi, en haddrinn var holdgrinn egar er hann kom hfu Sif, en Skblanir hafi byr egar er segl kom lopt, hvert er fara skyldi, en mtti vefja saman sem dk ok hafa pung sr ef at vildi. bar fram Brokkr sna gripi. Hann gaf ni hringinn ok sagi at ina nundu hverja ntt mundi drjpa af honum tta hringar jafnhfgir sem hann. En Frey gaf hann gltinn ok sagi at hann mtti renna lopt ok lg ntt ok dag meira en hverr hestr, ok aldri var sv myrkt af ntt ea myrkheimum at eigi vri rit ljst ar er hann fr, sv lsti af burstinni. gaf hann r hamarinn ok sagi at hann mundi mega ljsta sv strt sem hann vildi, hvat sem fyrir vri, ok eigi mundi hamarrinn bila, ok ef hann vyrpi honum til mundi hann aldri missa, ok aldri fljgja sv langt at eigi mundi hann skja heim hnd. Ok ef hann vildi, var hann sv ltill at hafa mtti serk sr. En at var lti at forskeptit var heldr skamt. at var dmr eira at hamarrinn var beztr af llum gripum ok mest vrn fyrir hrmursum, ok dmu eir at dvergrinn tti vefit. bau Loki at leysa hfu sitt. Dvergrinn svarar, sagi at ess var engi vn.

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Taktu mik , kva Loki. En hann vildi taka hann; var hann vs fjarri. Loki tti ska er hann rann lopt ok lg. ba dvergrinn r at hann skyldi taka hann, en hann geri sv. vildi dvergrinn hggva af Loka hfu, en Loki sagi at hann tti hfu en eigi hlsinn. tk dvergrinn veng ok knf ok vill stinga rauf vrrum Loka ok vill rifa saman munninn, en knfrinn beit ekki. mlti hann at betri vri ar Alr brir hans, en jafnskjtt sem hann nefndi hann, var ar alrinn ok beit hann varrarnar. *Rifai hann saman varrarnar ok reif r sunum. S vengr er murinn Loka var saman rifar heitir Vartari. Hr heyrir at gull er kent til hfubands Fullu, er orti Eyvindr skldaspillir: (143) Fullu skein fjllum fallsl br vallar Ullar kjls of allan aldr Hkunar skaldum.

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Gull er kallat grtr Freyju sem fyrr er sagt. Sv kva Skli orsteinsson: (144) Margr of hlaut of morgin morelds ar er vr feldumsk Freyju tr at fleiri frbjr. At ar vrum.

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Ok sem kva Einarr Sklason: (145) ar er Mardallar milli meginhurar liggr skura Gauts berum galla rtinn grtr dalreyar ltra.

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Ok hr hefir Einarr enn kent sv Freyju at kalla hana mur Hnossar ea konu s; sv segir hr: (146) Eigi verr fyrir augna s bevinu Ra rfseignisk svregni *ramsvellkonungr elli.
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Snorra Edda Hrrbarni kn ek Hrnar hlutum dran gripstra, brandr rymr gjlfrs grandi gullvfiu *hlfar; -ssberr sinnar mur svans unni mr gunnar fstr- gandi Fra Freys nipt br driptir.

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Hr getr ok ess at Freyju m sv kenna at kalla hana systur Freys. Ok enn sv: (148) Nt buumkNjarar dttur (*nlgt var at skla) vel of hrsa ek vvsa varn (sjvar) llbarni.

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Hr er hon kllu dttir Njarar. Ok enn sv: (149) Gaf s er erring ofrar gnprr Vanabrar ing- Vfaar -rngvir rttflga mr dttur. Rkr leiddi mey mkis mtvaldr *be *skaldi Gefnar glum drifna Gautreks svana brautar.

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Hr er hon kllu Gefn ok Vana brr. Til allra heita Freyju er rtt at kenna grtinn ok kalla sv gullit, ok marga lund er essum kenningum breytt, kallat hagl ea regn ea l ea dropar ea skrir ea forsar augna hennar ea kinna ea hlra ea br ea hvarma. Hr m at heyra at kallat er or ea rdd jtna gullit, sv sem fyrr er sagt. Sv kva Bragi skld: (150) ann tta ek vin verstan *vazt- *rdd en mr baztan la -undirklu *niraan rija.

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Hann kallai stein vazta undirklusteinninnen jtun *la steinsins, en gull rdd jtuns. S er sk til ess at gull er kallat otrgjld: sv er sagt at er sir fru at kanna heim allan, inn ok Loki ok Hnir, eir kmu at nokkvorri ok gengu me nni til fors nokkvors, ok vi forsinn var otr einn ok hafi tekit lax r forsinum ok t blundandi. tk Loki upp stein ok kastai at otrinum ok laust hfu honum. hrsai Loki veii sinni, at hann hefi veitt einu hggvi otr ok lax. Tku eir laxinn ok otrinn ok bru me sr, kmu at b nokkvorum ok gengu inn. En s bandi er nefndr Hreimarr er ar bj. Hann var mikill fyrir sr ok mjk fjlkunnigr. Beiddusk sir at hafa ar nttsta ok kvusk hafa me sr vist rna ok sndu bandanum veii sna. En er Hreimarr s otrinn, kallai hann sonu sna, Ffni ok Regin, ok segir at Otr, brir eira, var drepinn ok sv hverir at hfu gert. N ganga eir fegar at sunum ok taka hndum ok binda ok segja um otrinn at hann var sonr Hreimars. sir bja fyrir sik fjrlausn sv mikit f sem Hreimarr sjlfr vill kvea, ok var at at stt me eim ok bundit svardgum. var otrinn fleginn. Tk Hreimarr otrbelginn ok mlir vi at eir skulu fylla belginn af rauu gulli ok sv hylja hann allan ok sv skal at vera at stt eira. sendi inn Loka Svartlfaheim ok kom hann til dvergs ess er heitir *Andvari. Hann var fiskr vatni, ok tk Loki hann hndum ok lagi hann fjrlausn alt gull at er hann tti steini snum. Ok er eir koma steininn, bar dvergrinn fram alt gull at er hann tti, ok var at allmikit f. svipti dvergrinn undir hnd sr einum litlum gullbaug. s Loki ok ba hann fram lta bauginn. Dvergrinn ba hann taka eigi bauginn af sr ok lzk mega xla sr f af bauginum ef hann heldi. Loki kva hann eigi skyldu hafa einn penning eptir ok tk bauginn af honum ok gekk t, en dvergrinn mlti at s baugr skyldi vera hverjum hfusbani er tti. Loki segir at honum tti at vel ok sagi at at skyldi haldask mega fyrir v, s formli, at hann skyldi flytja eim til eyrna er tki vi. Fr hann braut til Hreimars ok sndi ni gullit. En er hann s bauginn sndisk honum fagr ok tk hann af fnu, en greiddi Hreimari gullit. fyldi hann otrbelginn sem mest mtti hann ok setti upp er fullr var. Gekk inn til ok skyldi hylja belginn me gullinu, ok mlir hann vi Hreimar at hann skal sj hvrt belgrinn er allr hulr. En Hreimarr leit til ok hugi at vandliga ok s eitt granahr ok ba at hylja, en at rum kosti vri

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lokit stt eira. dr inn fram bauginn ok huli granahrit ok sagi at vru eir lausir fr otrgjldunum. En er inn hafi tekit geir sinn en Loki ska sna ok urftu ekki at ttask, mlti Loki at at skyldi haldask er Andvari hafi mlt, at s baugr ok at gull skyldi vera ess bani er tti, ok at helzk san. N er at sagt af hverju gull er otrgjld kallat ea naugjald sanna ea rgmlmr. Hvat er fleira at segja fr gullinu? Hreimarr tk gullit at sonargjldum, en Ffnir ok Reginn beiddusk af nokkvors brurgjld. Hreimarr unni eim enskis pennings af gullinu. at var r eira brra at eir drpu fur sinn til gullsins. beiddisk Reginn at Ffnir skyldi skipta gullinu helminga me eim. Ffnir svarar sv at ltil vn var at hann mundi mila gullit vi brur sinn er hann drap fur sinn til gullsins ok ba Regin fara braut, en at rum kosti mundi hann fara sem Hreimarr. Ffnir hafi tekit hjlm er Hreimarr hafi tt ok setti hfu sr er kallar var gishjlmr er ll kvikvendi hrask er sj, ok sver at er Hrotti heitir. Reginn hafi at sver er Refill er kallar. Fli hann braut, en Ffnir fr upp Gnitaheii ok geri sr ar bl ok brsk orms lki ok lagisk gullit. Reginn fr til Hjlpreks konungs ji ok gerisk ar smir hans. tk hann ar til fstrs Sigur, son Sigmundar, sonar Vlsungs, ok son Hjrdsar, dttur Eylima. Sigurr var gtastr allra herkonunga af tt ok afli ok hug. Reginn sagi honum til hvar Ffnir l gullinu ok eggjai hann at skja gullit. geri Reginn sver at er Gramr heitir at sv hvast var at Sigurr br nir rennanda vatn ok tk sundr ullarlag er rak fyrir strauminum at svers egginni. v nst klauf Sigurr steja Regins ofan stokkinn me sverinu. Eptir at fru eir Sigurr ok Reginn Gnitaheii. grf Sigurr grf veg Ffnis ok settisk ar . En er Ffnir skrei til vatns ok hann kom yfir grfna, lagi Sigurr sverinu ggnum hann ok var at hans bani. Kom Reginn at ok sagi at hann hefi drepit brur hans ok bau honum at at stt at hann skyldi taka hjarta Ffnis ok steikja vi eld. En Reginn lagisk nir ok drakk bl Ffnis ok lagisk at sofa. En er Sigurr steikti hjartat ok hann hugi at fullsteikt mundi ok tk fingrinum hv hart var, en er frauit rann r hjartanu fingrinn brann hann ok drap fingrinum munn sr. En er hjartablit kom tunguna kunni hann fugls rdd ok skili hvat igurnar sgu er stu vinum. mlti ein:

Skldskaparml (151) ar sitr Sigurr sveita stokkinn, Ffnis hjarta vi funa steikir. Spakr tti mr spillir bauga ef fjrsega frnan ti. ar liggr Reginn (kva nnur), rr um vi sik, vill tla mg ann er trir hnum, berr af reii rng or saman, vill blvasmir brur hefna.

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gekk Sigurr til Regins ok drap hann, en san til hests sns er Grani heitir, ok rei til ess er hann kom til bls Ffnis, tk upp gullit ok batt klyfjar ok lagi upp bak Grana ok steig upp sjlfr ok rei lei sna. N er at sagt hver saga til er ess, gullit er kallat bl ea byg Ffnis ea mlmr Gnitaheiar ea byrr Grana. rei Sigurr til ess er hann fann fjallinu hs. ar svaf inni ein kona ok hafi s hjlm ok brynju. Hann br sverinu ok reist brynjuna af henni. vaknai hon ok nefndisk Hildr. Hon er kllu Brynhildr ok var valkyrja. Sigurr rei aan ok kom til ess konungs er Gjki ht. Kona hans er nefnd Grmhildr. Brn eira vru au Gunnarr, Hgni, Gurn, Gun. Gothormr var stjpsonr Gjka. ar dvalisk Sigurr langa hr. fekk hann Gurnar Gjkadttur, en Gunnarr ok Hgni srusk brralag vi Sigur. v nst fru eir Sigurr ok Gjkasynir at bija Gunnari konu til Atla Bulasonar, Brynhildar, systur hans. Hon sat Hindafjalli ok var um sal hennar vafrlogi, en hon hafi ess heit strengt at eiga ann einn mann er ori at ra vafrlogann. riu eir Sigurr ok Gjkungar (eir eru ok kallair Niflungar) upp fjallit ok skyldi Gunnarr ra vafrlogann. Hann tti hest ann er Goti heitir, en s hestr ori eigi at hlaupa eldinn. skiptu eir litum Sigurr ok Gunnarr ok sv nfnum, vat Grani vildi undir ngum manni ganga nema Siguri. hljp

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Sigurr Grana ok rei vafrlogann. at kveld gekk hann at brlaupi me Brynhildi. En er au kvmu sing dr hann sverit Gram r slrum ok lagi milli eira. En at morni er hann st upp ok klddi sik, gaf hann Brynhildi at lnf gullbauginn ann er Loki hafi tekit af Andvara, en tk af henni annan baug til minja. Sigurr hljp hest sinn ok rei til flaga sinna. Skipta eir Gunnarr aptr litum ok fru aptr til Gjka me Brynhildi. Sigurr tti tvau brn me Gurnu, Sigmund ok Svanhildi. at var eitt sinn at Brynhildr ok Gurn gengu til vatns at bleikja hadda sna. er r kmu til rinnar Brynhildr t na fr landi ok mlir at hon vildi eigi bera hfu sr at vatn er rynni r hri Gurnu, vat hon tti banda hugaan betr. gekk Gurn na eptir henni ok sagi at hon mtti fyrir v v ofar sinn hadd nni at hon tti ann mann er eigi Gunnarr ok engi annarr verldu var jafnfrkn, vat hann v Ffni ok Regin ok tk arf eptir ba . svarar Brynhildr: Meira var at vert er Gunnarr rei vafrlogann, en Sigurr ori eigi. hl Gurn ok mlti: tlar at Gunnarr rii vafrlogann? S tla ek at gengi rekkju hj r er mr gaf gullbaug enna, en s gullbaugr er hefir hendi ok tt at lnf, hann er kallar Andvaranautr, ok tlak at eigi stti Gunnarr hann Gnitaheii. agnai Brynhildr ok gekk heim. Eptir at eggjai hon Gunnar ok Hgna at drepa Sigur, en fyrir v at eir vru eisvarar Sigurar eggjuu eir til Gothorm, brur sinn, at drepa Sigur. Hann lagi Sigur sveri ggnum sofanda, en er hann fekk srit kastai hann sverinu Gram eptir honum sv at sundr snei miju manninn. ar fell Sigurr ok sonr hans rvetr er Sigmundr ht er eir drpu. Eptir at lagi Brynhildr sik sveri ok var hon brend me Siguri, en Gunnarr ok Hgni tku Ffnis arf ok Andvaranaut ok ru lndum. Atli konungr Bulason, brir Brynhildar, fekk Gurnar er Sigurr hafi tta, ok ttu au brn. Atli konungr bau til sn Gunnari ok Hgna, en eir fru at heimboinu. En r eir fru heiman flu eir gullit Ffnis arf Rn, ok hefir at gull aldri san fundizk. En Atli konungr hafi ar li fyrir ok barisk vi Gunnar ok Hgna ok uru eir handteknir. Lt Atli konungr skera hjarta r Hgna kykvum. Var at hans bani. Gunnari lt hann kasta ormgar, en honum var fengin leyniliga harpa ok sl hann me

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tnum vat hendr hans vru bundnar, sv at allir ormarnir sofnuu nema s nara er rendi at honum ok hj sv fyrir flagbrjskat at hon steypti hfinu inn holit ok hangi hon lifrinni ar til er hann d. Gunnarr ok Hgni eru kallair Niflungar ok Gjkungar. Fyrir v er gull kallat Niflunga skattr ea arfr. Litlu sar drap Gurn tv sonu sna ok lt gera me gulli ok silfri borker af hausum eira, ok var gert erfi Niflunga. At eiri veizlu lt Gurn skenkja Atla konungi me eim borkerum mj ok var blandit vi bli sveinanna, en hjrtu eira lt hon steikja ok f konungi at eta. En er at var gert sagi hon honum sjlfum me mrgum fgrum orum. Eigi skorti ar fenginn mj sv at flest flk sofnai ar sem sat. eiri ntt gekk hon til konungs er hann svaf ok me henni sonr Hgna ok vgu at honum. at var hans bani. skutu au eldi hllina ok brann at flk er ar var inni. Eptir at fr hon til sjvar ok hljp sinn ok vildi tna sr, en hana rak yfir fjrinn, kom at land er tti Jnakr konungr. En er hann s hana tk hann hana til sn ok fekk hennar. ttu au rj sonu er sv htu: Srli, Hamir, Erpr. eir vru allir svartir sem hrafn hrslit sem Gunnarr ok Hgni ok arir Niflungar. ar fddisk upp Svanhildr, dttir Sigurar sveins. Hon var allra kvinna fegrst. at spuri Jrmunrekkr konungr hinn rki. Hann sendi son sinn Randv at bija hennar sr til handa. En er hann kom til Jnakrs var Svanhildr seld honum hendr. Skyldi hann fra hana Jrmunrekk. sagi Bikki at at var betr fallit at Randvr tti Svanhildi, er hann var ungr ok bi au en Jrmunrekkr var gamall. etta r lkai eim vel inum ungum mnnum. v nst sagi Bikki etta konungi. lt Jrmunrekkr konungr taka son sinn ok leia til glga. tk Randvr hauk sinn ok plokkai af fjararnar ok ba senda fer snum. var hann hengr. En er Jrmunrekkr konungr s haukinn kom honum hug at sv sem haukrinn var fleygr ok fjarlauss, ok sv var rki hans frt er hann var gamall ok sonlauss. lt Jrmunrekkr konungr, er hann rei r skgi fr veium me hir sna, en Svanhildr drottning sat at haddbliki, riu eir hana ok tru hana undir hesta ftum til bana. En er etta spuri Gurn eggjai hon sonu sna til hefndar eptir Svanhildi. En er eir bjoggusk til ferar fekk hon eim brynjur ok hjlma sv sterka at eigi mundi jrn festa. Hon lagi r fyrir at er eir kvmi til Jrmunrekks konungs, at eir skyldu ganga of ntt at honum sofanda. Skyldi Srli ok Hamir hggva af honum hendr ok ftr en Erpr hfuit. En er eir kmu

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lei spuru eir Erp hver lisem eim mundi at honum ef eir hitti Jrmunrekk konung. Hann svarar at hann mundi veita eim vlkt sem hnd fti. eir segja at at var alls ekki at ftr styddisk vi hnd. eir vru sv reiir mur sinni er hon hafi leitt t me heiptyrum, ok eir vildu gera at er henni tti verst ok drpu Erp, vat hon unni honum mest. Litlu sar er Srli gekk skrinai hann rum fti, studdi sik me hendinni. mlir hann: Veitti n hndin ftinum. Betr vri n at Erpr lifi. En er eir kmu til Jrmunrekks konungs of ntt ar sem hann svaf, ok hjoggu af honum hendr ok ftr, sv vaknai hann ok kallai menn sna, ba vaka. mlir Hamir: Af mundi n hfuit ef Erpr lifi. stu upp hirmenninir ok sttu ok fengu eigi stt me vpnum. kallai Jrmunrekkr at skal berja grjti. Var sv gert. ar fellu eir Srli ok Hamir. var ok dau ll tt ok afkvmi Gjka. Eptir Sigur svein lifi dttir er slaug ht er fdd var at Heimis Hlymdlum, ok eru aan ttir komnar strar. Sv er sagt at Sigmundr Vlsungsson var sv mttugr at hann drakk eitr ok sakai ekki, en Simfjtli, sonr hans, ok Sigurr vru sv harir hna at sakai ekki eitr at tan kvmi bera. v hefir Bragi skld sv kveit: (153) er forns Litar flotna fangboa ngli hrkkvill of hrokkinn hekk Vlsunga drekku.

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Eptir essum sgum hafa flest skld ort ok tekit ymsa ttu. Bragi hinn gamli orti um fall Srla ok Hamis drpu eiri er hann orti um Ragnar lobrk:
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Kntti er vi illan Jrmunrekkr at vakna me dreyrfr drttir draum svera flaumi. Rsta var ranni Randvs hfunija er hrafnblir hefndu harma Erps of barmar.

Skldskaparml (155) Flaut of set vi sveita sknar *lfs glfi hrva dgg *ars hggnar hendr sem ftr of kendu. Fell bli *blandinn brunn lskakki runna at er Leifa landa laufi fttat haufi. ar sv at geru gyran glfhlkvis s *fylkis segls naglfara siglur saums annvanar standa. Uru snemst ok Srli samra eir Hamir hrum herimlum Hergauts vinu barir. Mjk lt stla stkkvir styja Gjka nija flaums er fjrvi *nma Foglhildar mun vildu, ok *blserkjar birkis *ballfgr gtu allir ennihgg ok eggjar Jnakrs sonum launa. at segik fall fgrum flotna randar botni. Rs gfumk reiar mna Ragnarr ok fjl sagna.

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Hv er gull kallat mjl Fra? Til ess er saga sj at Skjldr ht sonr ins er Skjldungar eru fr komnir. Hann hafi atsetu ok r lndum ar sem n er kllu Danmrk en var kallat Gotland. Skjldr tti ann son er Frileifr ht er lndum r eptir hann. Sonr Frileifs ht Fri. Hann tk konungdm eptir fur sinn ann t er Augustus keisari lagi fri of heim allan. var Kristr borinn. En fyrir v at Fri var allra konunga rkastr Norrlndum var

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honum kendr fririnn um alla Danska tungu, ok kalla Normenn at Fra fri. Engi mar grandai rum tt hann hitti fyrir sr furbana ea brurbana lausan ea bundinn. var ok engi jfr ea rnsmar, sv at gullhringr einn l Jalangrsheii lengi. Fri konungr stti heimbo Svj til ess konungs er Fjlnir er nefndr. keypti hann ambttir tvr er htu Fenja ok Menja. r vru miklar ok sterkar. ann tma fannsk Danmrk kvernsteinar tveir sv miklir at engi var sv sterkr at dregit gti. En s nttra fylgi kvernunum at at mlsk kverninni sem s mlir fyrir er ml. S kvern ht Grotti. Hengikjptr er s nefndr er Fra konungi gaf kvernina. Fri konungr lt leia ambttirnar til kvernarinnar ok ba r mala gull ok fri ok slu Fra. gaf hann eim eigi lengri hvld ea svefn en gaukrinn agi ea hlj mtti kvea. er sagt at r kvi lj au er kallat er Grottasngr. Ok r ltti kvinu mlu r her at Fra sv at eiri ntt kom ar s skonungr er Msingr ht ok drap Fra, tk ar herfang mikit. lagisk Fra frir. Msingr hafi me sr Grotta ok sv Fenju ok Menju ok ba r mala salt. Ok at miri ntt spuru r ef eigi leiddisk Msingi salt. Hann ba r *mala lengr. r mlu litla hr r nir sukku skipin ok var ar eptir svelgr hafinu er srinn fellr kvernaraugat. var sr saltr. (159) N erum komnar til konungs hsa framvsar tvr Fenja ok Menja. r r at Fra Frileifssonar mttkar meyjar at mani hafar. r at lri leiddar vru ok grjts grj gangs of beiddu. Ht hann hvrigri hvld n yni r hann heyri hljm ambtta.

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Skldskaparml (161) r yt ulu gnhorfinnar. Leggjum lra, lttum steinum. Ba hann enn meyjar at r mala skyldu. Sungu ok slungu sngasteini sv at Fra man flest sofnai. kva at Menja (var til meldrs komin): Au mlum Fra, mlum alslan, mlum fjl fjr feginslri. Siti hann aui, sofi hann dni, vaki hann at vilja, er vel malit. Hr skyli engi rum granda, til bls ba n til bana orka, n hggva v hvssu sveri at bana brur bundinn finni. En hann kva ekki or it fyrra: Sofi eigi it n of sal gaukar ea lengr en sv lj eitt kveak.

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Snorra Edda Varattu, Fri, fullspakr of ik, mlvinr manna, er man keyptir. Kauss at afli ok at litum, en at tterni ekki spurir. Harr var Hrungnir ok hans fair, var jazi eim flgari, Ii ok Aurnir, okkrir nijar, brr bergrisa: eim erum bornar. Kmia Grotti r grj fjalli n s hinn hari hallr r jru n mli sv mr bergrisa ef vissi vit vtr til hennar. Vr vetr nu vrum leikur, flgar, alnar fyrir jr nean. Stu meyjar at meginverkum, frum sjlfar setberg r sta. Veltum grjti of gar risa sv at fold fyrir fr skjlfandi.

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Skldskaparml Sv slngum vit sngasteini hfgahalli, at halir tku. (171) En vit san Svju framvsar tvr flk stigum. Beiddum bjrnu en brutum skjldu, gengum gegnum grserkjat li. Steyptum stilli, studdum annan, veittum gum Gothormi li. Vara kyrrseta r Kni felli. Fram heldum v au misseri at vit at kppum kendar vrum. ar skoru vit skrpum geirum bl r benjum ok brand ruum. N erum komnar til konungs hsa miskunnlausar ok at mani hafar. Aurr etr iljar en ofan kuli, drgum dlgs sjtul. Daprt er at Fra.

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Snorra Edda Hendr skulu hvlask, hallr standa mun, malit hefi ek fyrir mik, mitt of ltti. N muna hndum hvld vel gefa r fullmalit Fra ykki. Hendr skulu hla harar trjnur, vpn valdreyrug. Vaki Fri! Vaki Fri ef hla vill sngum okkrum ok sgum fornum. Eld s ek brenna fyrir austan borg vgspjll vaka at mun viti kallar. Mun herr koma hinig af bragi ok brenna b fyrir bulungi. Munat halda Hleirar stli, rauum hringum n regingrjti. Tkum mndli, mr, skarpara, eruma valmar valdreyra. Ml mns fur mr ramliga vat hon feig fira fjlmargra s.

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Skldskaparml Stukku strar ster fr lri, *jrni *varar. Mlum enn framar! (180) Mlum enn framar! Mun Yrsu sonr vi Hlfdana hefna Fra. S mun hennar heitinn vera burr ok brir. Vitum bar *at. Mlu meyjar, megins kostuu. Vru ungar jtunmi. Skulfu skapttr, skauzk lr ofan, hraut hinn hfgi hallr sundr tvau. En bergrisa brr or um kva: Malit hfum, Fri, sem munum htta. Hafa fullstait flj at meldri.

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Einarr Sklason kva sv: (183) Fr ek at Fra meyjar fullgliga mlu ltr stillir gri gulli Grafvitnis beslitna. Mjksbera minnar xar meldr ann vi hlyn *feldrar konungs drkar fFenju fgr hlrbragar stri.

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Snorra Edda

Glaar flotna fjl vi Fra mjl.

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Konungr einn Danmrk er nefndr Hrlfr kraki. Hann er gtastr fornkonunga fyrst af mildi ok frknleik ok ltillti. at er eitt mark um ltillti hans er mjk er frt frsagnir at einn ltill sveinn ok ftkr er nefndr Vggr. Hann kom hll Hrlfs konungs. var konungrinn ungr at aldri ok grannligr vxt. gekk Vggr fyrir hann ok s upp hann. mlir konungrinn: Hvat viltu mla, sveinn, er sr mik? Vggr segir: er ek var heima, heyrak sagt at Hrlfr konungr at Hleiru var mestr mar Norrlndum, en n sitr hr hsti kraki einn ltill ok kalli r hann konung sinn. svarar konungrinn: , sveinn, hefir gefit mr nafn, at ek skal heita Hrlfr kraki, en at er ttt at gjf skal fylgja nafnfesti. N s ek ik enga gjf hafa til at gefa mr at nafnfesti er mr s gilig. N skal s gefa rum er til hefir, tk gullhring af hendi sr ok gaf honum. mlir Vggr: Gef allra konunga heilastr, ok ess strengi ek heit at vera ess manns bani er inn banamar verr. mlir konungr ok hl vi: Litlu verr Vggr feginn. Annat mark var at sagt fr Hrlfi kraka um frknleik hans at s konungr r fyrir Uppslum er Ails ht. Hann tti Yrsu, mur Hrlfs kraka. Hann hafi stt vi ann konung er r fyrir Nregi er li ht. eir stefndu orrostu milli sn si vatns ess er Vni heitir. Ails konungr sendi bo Hrlfi kraka, mgi snum, at hann kvmi til liveizlu vi hann ok ht mla llum her hans mean eir vri ferinni, en konungr sjlfr skyldi eignask rj kostgripi er hann kaus r Svj. Hrlfr konungr mtti eigi fara fyrir frii eim er hann tti vi Saxa, en sendi hann Ailsi berserki sna tlf. ar var einn Bvarr bjarki ok Hjalti hugpri, Hvtserkr hvati, Vttr, *Vseti, eir brr Svipdagr ok Beigur. eiri orrostu fell li konungr ok mikill hluti lis hans. tk Ails konungr af honum dauum hjlminn Hildisvn ok hest hans Hrafn. beiddusk eir berserkir Hrlfs kraka at taka mla sinn, rj pund gulls hverr eira, ok um fram beiddusk eir at flytja Hrlfi kraka kostgripi er eir kuru til handa honum. at var hjlmrinn Hildigltr ok brynjan

Skldskaparml

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Finnsleif er hvergi festi vpn ok gullhringr s er kallar var Svagrss er tt hfu langfegar Ails. En konungr varnai allra gripanna ok eigi heldr galt hann mlann. Fru berserkirnir braut ok unu illa snum hlut, sgu sv bit Hrlfi kraka ok jafnskjtt byrjai hann fer sna til Uppsala. Ok er hann kom skipum snum na Fri rei hann til Uppsala ok me honum tlf berserkir hans, allir grialausir. Yrsa, mir hans, fagnai honum ok fylgi honum til herbergis ok eigi til konungs hallar. Vru gervir eldar strir fyrir eim ok gefit l at drekka. kmu menn Ails konungs inn ok bru skin eldinn ok geru sv mikinn at kli brunnu af eim Hrlfi ok mltu: Er at satt at Hrlfr kraki ok berserkir hans flja hvrki eld n jrn? hljp *Hrlfr kraki upp ok allir eir. mlti hann: Aukum enn elda at Ails hsum!tk skjld sinn ok kastai eldinn ok hljp yfir eldinn mean skjldrinn brann ok mlti enn: Flra s elda er yfir hleypr. Sv fr hverr at rum hans manna, tku er eldinn hfu aukit ok kstuu eim eldinn. kom Yrsa ok fekk Hrlfi kraka drshorn fult af gulli ok ar me hringinn Svagrs ok ba braut ra til lisins. eir hljpu hesta sna ok ra ofan Frisvllu. s eir at Ails konungr rei eptir eim me her sinn alvpnaan ok vill drepa . Tk Hrlfr kraki hgri hendi gullit ofan hornit ok sri alt um gtuna. En er Svar sj at, hlaupa eir r slunum ok tk hverr slkt er fekk, en Ails konungr ba ra ok rei sjlfr kafliga. Slungnir ht hestr hans, allra hesta skjtastr. s Hrlfr kraki at Ails konungr rei nr honum, tk hringinn Svagrs ok kastai til hans ok ba hann iggja at gjf. Ails konungr rei at hringinum ok tk til me spjtsoddinum ok rendi upp falinn. veyk Hrlfr kraki aptr ok s er hann laut nir. mlir hann: Svnbeygt hefi ek n ann er rkastr er me Svum. Sv skilusk eir. Af essi sk er gull kallat s Kraka ea Frisvalla. Sv kva Eyvindr skldaspillir: (185) Brum, Ullr, of *alla, munlauks, hauka fjllum Frisvalla fr Hkunar vi.

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60 Sv sem jlfr kva: (186)

Snorra Edda

r sr Yrsu burar inndrtt jfurr sinni bjartplgaan bauga brattakr vluspakra. Eyss landreki ljsu lastvarr Kraka barri hlmildar holdi hauks klfur mr sjlfum.

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Sv er sagt at konungr s er Hlgi er kallar, er Hlogaland er vi nefnt, var fair orgerar Hlgabrar. au vru bi bltu ok var haugr Hlga kastar, nnur fl af gulli ea silfri (at var bltfit) en nnur fl af moldu ok grjti. Sv kva Skli orsteinsson: (187) er rfrvita Reifnis rau ek fyrir Svl til auar, *herfylgins *bar ek Hlga haugk saman baugum.

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Bjarkamlum inum fornum eru tl mrg gulls heiti. Sv segir ar:


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Gramr hinn gjflasti gddi hir sna Fenju forverki, Ffnis migari, Glasis glbarri, Grana fagrbyri, Draupnis drsveita, dni Grafvitnis. *tti rr hilmir, aldir vi tku, Sifjar svarfestum, svelli *dalnauar, tregum Otrs gjldum, trum Mardallar,

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Skldskaparml eldi runar, Ija glysmlum. (190) Gladdi gunnveitir gengum fagrbnir jaza ingskilum jir hermargar Rnar raumlmi, rgi Niflunga, vsi hinn vgdjarfi. Vari hann Baldr gli.

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Gull er kallat kenningum eldr handar ea lis ea leggjar vat at er rautt, en silfr snr ea svell ea hla vat at er hvtt. Me sama htti skal ok kenna gull ea silfr til sjs ea diguls ea lauar. En hvrttveggja silfr ok gull m vera grjt handar ea hlsgjr nokkvors ess manns er ttt var at hafa men, ok hringar eru bi silfr ok gull ef eigi er annan veg greint, sem kva orleifr fagri: (191) Kastar gramr glstar gegn valstvar egnum ungr vsir gefr eisu armleggsdigulfarmi.

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Ok sem kva Einarr sklaglamm: (192) Librndum kn Lundar landfrkn jfurr granda. Hykka ek rsis rekka Rnar grjt of rjti.

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Sv kva Einarr Sklason: (193) Bleisu liggr bi bjargs tveim megin geima sjs ek skkva stri snr ok eldrat mra.

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Ok enn sem hann kva:

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Snorra Edda Dgr rymr hvert[en hjarta hlrskildir rr mildu Heita blakksof hvtum hafleygr digulskaf]li. Aldri m fyrir eldi ls hrynbrautar skla ll vir flka [fellir framrisn] bra.

Hr er gull kallat snr sklanna. Sv kva rr mauraskld:


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[Sr sei]ma rri sigis ltrs ok tti hrauns glasendir handa Hermr fur gan.

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Mar er kallar brjtr gullsins, sv sem kva ttarr svarti: (196) Gmennis arf ek gunnar gulls brjtanda at njta. Hr er alnennin inni inndrtt me gram svinnum.

Ea gullsendir, sem kva Einarr sklaglamm:


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Gullsendir ltr grundar glaar engill herdrengi, hans mti kn ek hljta hljt Yggs mjaar njta.

Gullvrpur, sem kva orleikr:


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Hir vir grams me gerum gullvrpur sr holla.

Gullstrir, sem kva orvaldr blnduskld: (199) Gullstrir verpr glum gefr au konungr rauan;

Skldskaparml jar bregr eyir armleggsGrana farmi. Gullskati, sem hr er: (200) Gat ek gullskata. Gr er leygs of br gtu gunnvita grps *tgdrpa.

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Kona er kend til gulls, kllu selja gulls, sem kva Hallar-Steinn: (201) Svalteigar mun selju salts Viblinda galtar rafkastandi rastar reyrvengs muna lengi.

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Hr er kallat hvalir Viblinda geltir. Hann var jtunn ok dr hvali hafi t sem fiska. Teigr hvala er sr, rf svar er gull. Kona er selja gulls ess er hon gefr ok samheiti vi selju er tr, sem fyrr er ritat at kona er kend vi alls konar trjheiti kvenkend. Hon er ok lg kllu ess er hon gefr. Lg heitir ok tr at er fellr skgi. Sv kva Gunnlaugr ormstunga: (202) Alin var rgr at rgi runnr olli v gunnar, *lg var ek aus at eiga gjarnfira brnum.

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Kona kallask mrk. Sv kva Hallar-Steinn: (203) Ek hefi ar lokri lstafna *Bil skafna, *vn mrk skla, verki vandr, stefknarrar branda.
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Tra, enn sem kva Steinn: (204) munt frs sem fleiri fls hiri-Sif *trur
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Snorra Edda grnn vi gfu inni grjts Hjaninga brjtask.

Skora; sv kva Ormr Steinrsson: (205)


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Skora var ft fr fjarbeins afar hrein. Nri slng nadd-Freyr nisting of mjaar Hrist.

Sto, sem Steinarr kva: (206)


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Mens hafa mildrar Synjar mjkstalls *logit allir sj hfumk *veltisto stiltan straumtunglsat mr draumar.

Bjrk, enn sem Ormr kva: (207)


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vat hols hrynbls hramma ats ek berk fram Billings burar full bjarkar hefi ek lagit mark.

Eik, sv sem hr er: (208)


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Aura stendr fyrir rum eik fagrbin leiki.

Lind, sv sem hr er: (209) gnrakkr skalat okkur lmr dynskrar mlma sv bau lind landi lnshugrekki dvna.

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Mar er kendr til via sem fyrr er rita, kallar reynir vpna ea vga, fera ok athafnar, skipa ok alls ess er hann [rr ok reynir. Sv] kva lfr Uggason:

Skldskaparml (210) En stirinull stari storar leggs [fyrir bori fr]ns flka reyni frnleitr ok bls eitri.

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Vir ok meir, sem [kva Korma]kr: (211) Meir er mrgum ri *morteins dyn fleina. Hjrr fr *hildibrrum hjarl Siguri jarli.

Lundr; sv kva Hallfrr vandraskld: (212) Askollum stendr Ullar austr at miklu trausti rkilundr hinn rki randfrs brumar hri.

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Hr er ok ollr nefndr. Bss; sv kva Arnrr: (213) Rkr ndurt ba randir reggbss saman leggja rgskja heltRygja *regni haustntt gegnum.

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Askr, sem Refr kva: (214) Gekk gulli stokkna gjfrfrHrs drfu askr vir rinn roska *as-Freyr sing meyjar.

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Hlynr: (215) Heill kom , handar svella hlynr! Kvaddi sv brynja.

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Brr, sem Refr kva:

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Snorra Edda Alls *bgis *bja brr rr til ess hjrva gnstvar hefi ek gi einrit orsteini.

Stafr, sem ttarr kva: (217) Heltu ar er hrafn ne svalta hvatrr ertuli gnar stafr fyr jfrum gr tveimrvi kyn beima.

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orn, sem Arnrr kva: (218) Hlen hla tu hirmenn arngrenni auar orn fyrir rnu ungr valkstu unga.

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Hvernig skal kenna orrostu? Sv at kalla ver vpna ea hlfa ea ins ea valkyrju ea herkonunga ea gn ea glym. Sv kva Hornklofi: (219) Hi gramr, ar er gnu, geira hregg vi seggi, rau fnstu ben bli benggl at dyn Skglar.

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Sv kva Eyvindr: (220)


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Ok s halr at Hrs veri hsvan serk hrsgrsnis bar.

Sv kva Bersi: (221)


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tta ek er ri rsagt er atvrum hfr at Hlakkar drfu hyrrunnum vel Gunnar.

Skldskaparml Sv kva Einarr: (222) Glymvindi ltr Gndlar gnestr hjrrtaka mestum Hildar segl ar er hagli, hraustr engill, drfr strengjar.

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Sem kva Einarr sklaglamm: (223) Ne sigbjarka serkir smmijungum rmu Hrs vi Hgna skrir hlut fast of sir.

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Sv sem hr: (224) Odda gns vi si oddnets inul setja.

Ok enn etta: (225) Hnigu fjndr at glym Gndlar grams und arnar hramma.
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Vpn ok herkli skal kenna til orrostu ok til ins ok valmeyja ok herkonunga, kalla hjlma hjlm, htt ea fald, en brynju serk ea skyrtu, en skjld tjald, ok skjaldborgin er kllu hll ok rfr, veggr ok glf. Skildir eru kallairok kendir vi herskipsl ea tungl ea lauf ea blik ea garr skipsins. Skjldr er ok kallar skip Ullar ea kent til fta Hrungnis er hann st skildi. fornum skjldum var ttt at skrifa rnd er baugr var kallar, ok er vi ann baug skildir kendir. Hggvpn, xar ea sver, er kallat eldar bls ea benja. Sver heita ins eldar en xar kalla menn trllkvinna heitum ok kenna vi bl ea benjar ea skg ea vi. Lagvpn eru vel kend til orma ea fiska. Skotvpn eru mjk kend til hagls ea drfu ea rotu. llum essum kenningum er marga lund breytt vat at er flest ort lofkvum er essar kenningar arf vi. (226) Lattisk herr me httu Hangats at ganga

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Snorra Edda *ttit eim at htta ekkiligtfyrir brekku.

Sv kva Einarr sklaglamm: (227)


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Hjlmfaldinn bau hildi hjaldrrr ok Sigvaldi, hinn er fr gn Gunnar, gunndjarfr Bi, sunnan.

Ra serkr, sem Tindr kva: (228)


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er hringfm Hanga hrynserkvium brynju hruusk rimarar Ra rastarvar at kasta.

Hamis skyrta, sem Hallfrr kva: (229)


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ltit brestr ti unndrs sumum runnum hart Hamis skyrtum hryngrp Egils vpna.

Srla ft, enn sem hann kva: (230)


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aan vera ft fyra fregn ek gerla atSrla rjask *bjrt bli *benfr milskrum.

Sem Grettir kva: (231)


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Heldu Hlakkar tjalda hefjendr saman nefjum Hildar veggs ok hjoggusk hregg-Nirir til skeggjum.

Ra rfr, sem Einarr kva:

Skldskaparml (232) Eigi verr fyrir augna s bevinu Ra rfrseignisk sregni *ramsvellkonungr elli.

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Hildar veggr, sem kva Grettir ok r er ritat. Skipsl, sem Einarr kva: (233) Leyg rr tt gi lfs skipa slar.

Hlrtungl, sem Refr kva: (234) Dagr var frr s er fgru fleygjendr alinleygjar hangferil hringa hlrtungli mr rungu.
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Garr skips, sem hr er: (235) Sv skaut gegn ggnum gar steinfarinn bara s var gnstrir geira gunnar frsem nfrar.
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Askr Ullar, sem hr er: (236) Ganga l of yngva Ullar skips me fullu ar er samnagla siglur slrdkaar ra.
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Ilja bla Hrungnis, sem Bragi kva: (237) Vili, Hrafnketill, heyra hv hreingrit steini rar skal ek ok engil jfs ilja bla leyfa?
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Bragi skld kva etta um bauginn skildinum:

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Snorra Edda Nema sv at g ins gjalla gjld *baugnafas vildi meyjar hjls inn mri mgr Sigurar Hgna.

Hann kallai skjldinn Hildar hjl, en bauginn nf hjlsins. Baugjr, sem Hallvarr kva: (239) Rauljsa sr rsir rt brestr sundr hin hvta baugjr brodda ferar bjgrend tvau fljga.

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Sv er enn kveit: (240) Baugr er beru smstr en boga rvar.

Sver er ins eldr, sem Kormakr kva:


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(241)

Svall er gekk me gjallan Gauts eld hinn er styr beldi glafandi Grar gunnr. Komsk Urr r brunni.

Hjlms eldr, sem kva lfr Uggason:


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(242)

Fullflug lt fjalla fram haf-Sleipni ramma Hildr, en Hropts of gildar *hjlmelda mar feldu.

Brynju eldr, sem kva Glmr Geirason:


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(243)

Heinyntan lt hvna hryneld at at brynju *foldar vrr s er fyrum fjrnharan sik vari.

Randar ss ok grand hlfar, sem Einarr kva:

Skldskaparml (244) Rvndum ek raura randa s at vsa grand berum hjlms hendi hvarmey drifinn Freyju.

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x heitir trllkona hlfa, sem Einarr kva: (245) Sj megu rtt hv Rfils rendr vi br Grar fjrnis fagrt of skornir foldviggs drekar liggja.

Spjt er ormr kallat, sem Refr kva: (246) Kn myrkdreki marka minn ar er tar finnask fr aldar lfum eikinn *bors at leika.

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rvar eru kallaar hagl boga ea strengjar ea hlfa ea orrostu, sem Einarr kva sklaglamm: (247) Brak-Rgnir *skk bogna barg yrmir varga *hagl r Hlakkar seglum hjrsrakkliga fjrvi.

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Ok Hallfrr: (248) Ok geirrotu gtvar gagls vi strengjar hagli hungreyundum Hanga *hlut jrni sar.

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Ok Eyvindr skldaspillir: (249) Ltt *kvu *ik lta landvrr er brast Hra brynju hagl benjum bugusk lmarge flma.

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Snorra Edda

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Orrosta er kllu Hjaninga ver ea l ok vpn Hjaninga eldar ea vendir, en saga er til ess. Konungr s er Hgni er nefndr tti dttur er Hildr ht. Hana tk at herfangi konungr s er Heinn ht Hjarrandason. var Hgni konungr farinn konunga stefnu. En er hann spuri at herjat var rki hans ok dttir hans var braut tekin fr hann me snu lii at leita Heins ok spuri til hans at Heinn hafi siglt norr me landi. er Hgni konungr kom Nreg spuri hann at Heinn hafi siglt vestr of haf. siglir Hgni eptir honum alt til Orkneyja, ok er hann kom ar sem heitir Hey var ar fyrir Heinn me li sitt. fr Hildr fund fur sns ok bau honum men at stt af hendi Heins, en ru ori sagi hon at Heinn vri binn at berjask ok tti Hgni af honum ngrar vgar vn. Hgni svarar stirt dttur sinni, en er hon hitti Hein sagi hon honum at Hgni vildi nga stt ok ba hann bask til orrostu. Ok sv gera eir hvrirtveggju, ganga upp eyna ok fylkja liinu. kallar Heinn Hgna mg sinn ok bau honum stt ok mikit gull at btum. svarar Hgni: Of s bautu etta ef vill sttask, vat n hefi ek dregit Dinsleif er dvergarnir geru, er manns bani skal vera hvert sinn er bert er ok aldri bilar hggvi ok ekki sr grr ef ar skeinisk af. segir Heinn: Sveri hlir ar en eigi sigri. at kalla ek gott hvert er drttinholt er. hfu eir orrostu er Hjaningavg er kallat ok brusk ann dag allan ok at kveldi fru konungar til skipa. En Hildr gekk of nttina til valsins ok vaki upp me fjlkyngi alla er dauir vru. Ok annan dag gengu konungarnir vgvllinn ok brusk ok sv allir eir er fellu hinn fyrra daginn. Fr sv s orrosta hvern dag eptir annan at allir eir er fellu ok ll vpn au er lgu vgvelli ok sv hlfar uru at grjti. En er dagai stu upp allir dauir menn ok brusk ok ll vpn vru nt. Sv er sagt kvum at Hjaningar skulu sv ba ragnarkrs. Eptir essi sgu orti Bragi skld Ragnars drpu lobrkar: (250) Ok *oferris *a sk-Rn at at snum til frhuga fri fer ver *boga hugi, er hristi-Sif hringa hls *in bls of fylda

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Skldskaparml bar til byrjar drsla baug rlygis draugi. (251) Baua s til bleyi bti-rr at mti mlma mtum hilmi men dreyrugra benja. Sv lt ey tt etti sem *orrostu letti jfrum lfs at sinna me algfris lifru. Letrat la stillir landa vanr sandi svall heipt Hgna h glamma *mun stva, er rymregin remja rttig *Hein s[ttu] heldr en Hildar *svra hringa eir of fingu. m skn Svlnis salpenningi kenna. Rs gfumk reiar mna Ragnarr ok fjl sagna. Ok fyrir hnd hlmi Hveru brynju Viris fengeyandi flja forda nam ra. Allr gekk herr und hurir Hjarranda fram kyrrar reir *af Reifnis skeii *ralfs *af mar brum.

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(252)

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(253)

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(254)

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Orrosta er ver ins sem fyrr er ritat. Sv kva Vga-Glmr: (255) Rudda ek sem jarlar or *lk vforum

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Snorra Edda me verstfum Viris vandar mr til *landa.

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Viris ver er hr kallat *orrosta en vndr vgs sverit en menn stafir sversins. Hr er bi orrosta ok vpn haft til kenningar mannsins. at er rekit kallat er sv er ort. Skjldr er land vpnanna en vpn er hagl ea regn ess lands ef ngjrvingum er ort. Hvernig skal kenna skip? Sv at kalla hest ea dr ea sk skonunga ea svar ea skipreia ea vers. Bru fkr, sem Hornklofi kva: (256) Hrjr lt hztrar tar harrr skipa brum bru fks ins bleika barnungr lg rungit.

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Geitis marr (hestr); sv kva Erringar-Steinn:


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(257)

Enn tt *fri sunnan ll j segir skaldi hlum Geitis mar grjti glair nennum vr enna.

Sveia hreinar:
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(258)

Slngum komt *Sveia sunds liu dr fr grundu sigrakkr Slsa bekkjar Sveins mgr tr hreinum.

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Sv kva Hallvarr. Hr er ok kllu sunds dr ok srinn Slsa bekkr. Sv kva rr *Sjreksson: (259) Sveggja lt fyrir Siggju slbors goti noran. Gustr skaut Gylfa rastar Glaumi sur fyrir Aumar. En slgoti san sings fyrir skut bi

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Skldskaparml hestr lauks fyrir Lista lagi Krmt ok Agir.

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Hr er skip kallat slbors hestr ok sr Gylfa land, sings sl srinn ok hestr skipit ok enn lauks hestr (laukr heitir siglutr). Ok enn sem Marks kva: (260) Fjarlinna fannir fast vetrlii rastar; hljp of *hna -gnpur hvals *rann- ugtanni. Bjrn gekk fram fornar fls hafska slir; skrrigr braut skoru skers glymfjtur bersi.

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Hr er skip kallat bjrn rasta. Bjrn heitir vetrlii ok ugtanni ok bersi ok bjrn skoru er hr kallat skip; er ok kallat hreinn (sv kva Hallvarr sem r er ritat) ok hjrtr, sem kva Haraldr konungr Sigurarson: (261) Snei fyrir Sikiley va s; vrum prir; brnt skrei vel til varnar vengis hjrtr um drengjum.

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Ok elgr, sem Einarr kva: (262) Baugs getr me r eygi r drengr vera lengi elg bum flsnema fylgi fristkkvir v nakkvat.

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Sem Mni kva: (263) Hvat muntu hafs [ot]ri hengiligr me drengum karl, vat kraptr inn frlask, kinngrr mega vinna?

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76 Vargr, sem kva Refr: (264)

Snorra Edda

En hoddvnur hlddi hlunnvitnis em ek runni hollr til hermarspjalla heinvandilsorsteini.

Ok oxi. Skip er ok kallat sk ea vagn ea rei. Sv kva Eyjlfr daskld: (265)


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Meita var at mti mjk s um dag ski ungr me jfnu gengi tvers frmum hersi.

Sv kva Styrkrr Oddason: (266)


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Ok ept trum stkkvi k Hgna li vgnum hlunns Heia fannir hyrjar fls af mi.

Ok sem orbjrn kva: (267)


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Hafreiar var hlir hlunns skrnar brunni Hvta-Krists s er hsta hoddsviptir fekk giptu.

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Hvernig skal Krist kenna? Sv at kalla hann skapara himins ok jarar, engla ok slar, stranda heimsins ok himinrkis ok engla, konung himna ok slar ok engla ok Jrsala ok Jrdnar ok Griklands, randi postola ok heilagra manna. Forn skld hafa kent hann vi Urar brunn ok Rm, sem kva Eilfr Gurnarson: (268) Setbergskvea sitja sur at Urar brunni sv hefir ramr konungr reman Rms banda sik lndum.

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Skldskaparml Sv kva Skapti roddsson: (269) Mttr er munka drttins mestr; aflar gu flestu. Kristr skp rkr ok reisti Rms hll verld alla.

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Himna konungr, sem Marks kva: (270) Gramr skp grund ok himna glyggranns sem her dyggjan. Einn stillir m llu aldar Kristr of valda.

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Sv kva Eilfr klnasveinn: (271) Hrts ltr helgum krzi heims fer ok li beima, snn er en ll dr nnur einn *slkonungr *hreinni.

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Mru sonr, enn sem Eilfr kva: (272) Hir ltr himna drar hrein Mru sveini, mtt vir mildingr drttar mar er hann ok guok sannan.

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Engla konungr, enn sem Eilfr kva: (273) Mttr er en menn of hyggi mtr gus sonar betri. er engla gramr llu rr helgari ok drri.

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Jrdnar konungr; sv kva Sighvatr: (274) Endr r engla senda Jrdnar gramr fjra

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Snorra Edda fors hans hersi heilagt skoptr lopti.

Grikkja konungr, sem Arnrr kva: (275)


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Bnir hefi ek fyrir beini bragna falls vi snjallan Grkja vr ok Gara; gjf *launak sv jfri.

Sv kva Eilfr klnasveinn: (276)


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Himins dr lofar hla hann er alls konungrstilli.

Hr kallai hann fyrst Krist konung manna ok annat sinn alls konung. Enn kva Einarr Sklason: (277)
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Lt s er landflks gtir lkbjartr himinrki umgeypnandi opna alls heims fyrir gram snjllum.

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ar koma saman kenningar, ok verr s at skilja af sto, er rr skldskapinn, um hvrn kveit er konunginn, vat rtt er at kalla Miklagars keisara Grikkja konung, ok sv ann konung er rr Jrsalalandi, at kalla Jrsala konung, sv ok at kalla Rms konung Rmaborgar keisara ea Engla konung ann er Englandi rr. En s kenning er r var ritat, at kalla Krist konung manna, kenning m eiga hverr konungr. Konunga alla er rtt at kenna sv at kalla landrendr ea lands vru ea lands ski ea hirstjra ea vr landflks. Sv kva Eyvindr skldaspillir: (278) Farmats fjrvi nmu *jarrendr gli.

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Ok sem Glmr kva Geirason:

Skldskaparml (279) Hilmir rau und hjlmi heina laut * Gautum. ar var gn geira grundar vrr of fundinn.

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Sem jlfr kva: (280) Hr skyli *hirar stjri hugreifr sonum leifa arf ok altorfu sk mn er atsna.

Sem Einarr kva: (281) Snks berr fald of *frknu foldvrrkonungs Hra frama telr greppr fyrir gumnum gesnjallr skarar fjalli.

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Rtt er ok um ann konung er undir honum eru skattkonungar at kalla hann konung konunga. Keisari er ztr konunga, en ar nst er konungr s er rr fyrir jlandi jafn kenningum llum hverr vi annan skldskap. ar nst eru eir menn er jarlar heita ea skattkonungar, ok eru eir jafnir kenningum vi konung nema eigi m kalla jkonunga er skattkonungar eru. Ok sv kva Arnrr jarlaskld of orfinn jarl: (282) Nemi drtt hv sj stti snarlyndr konungr jarla. Eigi raut vi gi ofvgjan gram bgja.

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ar nst eru kenningum skldskap eir menn er hersar heita. Kenna m sem konung ea jarl sv at kalla gullbrjta ok aumildinga ok merkismenn ok flks stjra ea kalla hann oddvita lisins ea orrostu, fyrir v at jkonungr hverr s er rr mrgum lndum setr hann til landstjrnar me sr skattkonunga ok jarla at dma lands lg ok verja land fyrir frii eim lndum er konungi liggja fjarri, ok skulu eir dmar ok refsingar vera ar

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Snorra Edda

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jafnrttir sem sjlfs konungs. Ok einu landi eru mrg heru ok er at httr konunga at setja ar rttara yfir sv mrg heru sem hann gefr vald yfir ok heita eir hersar ea lendir menn Danskri tungu, en greifar Saxlandi en barnar Englandi. eir skulu ok vera rttir dmarar ok rttir landvarnarmenn yfir v rki er eim er fengit til stjrnar. Ef eigi er konungr nr, skal fyrir eim merki bera orrostum ok eru eir jafnrttir herstjrar sem konungar ea jarlar. ar nst eru eir menn er hlar heita. at eru bendr eir er gildir eru *at ttum ok rttum fullum. m sv kenna at kalla veitanda fjr ok gtanda ok stti manna. essar kenningar megu ok eiga hfingjar. Konungar ok jarlar hafa til fylgar me sr menn er hirmenn heita ok hskarlar, en lendir menn hafa ok sr handgengna menn er Danmrku ok Svj eru hirmenn *kallair, en Nregi hskarlar, ok sverja eir eia sv sem hirmenn konungum. Hskarlar konunga vru mjk hirmenn kallair forneskju. Sv kva orvaldr blnduskld: (283) Konungr heill ok sv snjallir sknrrvi lof gjrvan hafa menn munni minnhskarlar nir.

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etta orti Haraldr konungr Sigurarson: (284) Fullafli bei fyllar finn ek *opt at drfr minna hilmis stls hla hskarla li jarli.

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Hirmenn ok hskarla hfingja m sv kenna at kalla inndrtt ea verung ea *heimenn. Sv kva Sighvatr: (285)
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at fr ek vg vatni verung jfurs geru, nadda l at, nla, nst tel engin smstu.

Ok enn etta:

Skldskaparml (286) gi var sem essum engils j strengjar mj fyrir mlma kveju mr heiegum bri.

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Heif heitir mli ok gjf er hfingjar gefa. Sv kva ttarr svarti: (287) Gmennis arf ek gunnar glbrjtanda at njta; hr er alnennin inni inndrtt me gram svinnum.

Jarlar ok hersar ok hirmenn eru sv kendir at kallair konungs rnar ea mlar ea sessar. Sv kva Hallfrr: (288) Grams rni ltr glymja gunnrkr hinn er hvt lkar Hgna hamri slegnar heiptbrr of sik vir.

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Sem Snbjrn kva: (289) Stjrvijar ltr styja stls bulunga mli hlemmisver vi harri hflangan *sk dfu.

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Sv kva Arnrr: (290) Bera *sn *of mik mnir morkends taka enda ess of engils sessa ung mein synir ungir.

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Konungs spjalli, sem Hallfrr kva: (291) R lukusk at s san snjallmltr konungs spjalli tti eingadttur nars *vii grna.

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Snorra Edda

Sv skal menn kenna vi tt, sem Kormakr kva: (292) Heyri sonr (Srar) sannreynis (fentanna rr greppa *ltk uppi jast-Rn) Haralds (mna).

Hann kallai jarlinn sannreyni konungsins, en Hkun jarl son Sigurar jarls. En jlfr kva sv um Harald: (293)
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Vex lfs fer Jrnsaxa ver harrit hvert sv at hrrs er vert.

Ok enn sv: (294)


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Jarizleifr of s hvert jfri br, hfsk hlri frams ins helga grams.

Ok enn kva hann: (295)


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Andar er s er of alla br haukstalla konr Haralds brursonr.

Enn kva sv Arnrr Rgnvaldsdrpu: (296)


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R Heita konr *hleyti herarfr vi mik gjrva. Styrk lt oss of orkat jarls mg af v frgar.

Ok enn sem hann kva of orfinn jarl: (297) Bitu sveren ar *uru unngjr fyrir Mn sunnan

Skldskaparml Rgnvalds kindund randir ramlig flkins gamla. Ok enn kva hann: (298) ttbti *firr tran allrksen ek bi lkna trra tiggja drum Torf-Einars, gu, meinum.

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Ok enn kva Einarr sklaglamm: (299) Ne ttstuill ttar gnherir mun vera skyldr em ek hrri at halda Hilditanns in mildri.

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Hvernig er kend setning skldskapar? Sv at nefna hvern hlut sem heitir. Hver eru kend heiti skldskaparins? Hann heitir bragr ok hrr, r, *mr, lof. etta kva Bragi hinn gamli er hann k um skg *nokkvorn s um kveld, stefjai trllkona hann ok spuri hverr ar fr: (300a) Trll kalla mik tungl sjt-Rungnis, ausg jtuns, lslar bl, vilsinn vlu, vr nfjarar, hvlsvelg himins. Hvat er trll nema at?

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Hann svarar sv: (300b) Skld kalla mik *skapsmi Viurs, Gauts gjafrtu, grepp hneppan, Yggs lbera, s skap-Ma,

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Snorra Edda *hagsmi bragar. Hvat er skld nema at?

Ok sem Kormakr kva: (301)


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Hrr geri ek of mg mran meir Sigrar fleira; haptsnis galt ek hnum hei. Sitr rr reium.

Ok sem kva rr Kolbeinsson: (302)


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Mjk lt margar snekkjur mrar rrsem knrru *r vex sklds*ok skeiar skjldhlynr brim dynja.

Mr, sem lfr Uggason kva: (303)


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ar kmr , en ri endr bar ek mr af hendi ofra ek svtil svar, sverregnslofi egna.

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Hr er ok lof kallat skldskapr. Hvernig eru nfn goanna? au heita ok bnd, sem kva *Eyjlfr daskld: (304) Dregr land at mun banda Eirkr und sik geira vermildr ok semr hildi.

Ok hpt, sem kva jlfr inn hvinverski:


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(305)

*Tormilar var tvi tlhreinn meal beina. Hvat *kva hapta *snytrir hjlmfaldinn v valda.

Rgn, sem Einarr kva sklaglamm:

Skldskaparml (306) Rammaukin kve ek rki rgn Hkunar magna.

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Jlnar, sem Eyvindr kva: (307) Jlna sumbl enn vr gtum stillis lof sem steina br.

Dar, sem Kormakr kva: (308) Eykr me ennidki *jarhljtr dafjarar breyti, *hn s er *beinan bindr. Sei Yggr til Rindar.

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essi nfn himins eru ritu, en eigi hfum vr fundit kvum ll essi heiti. En essi skldskaparheiti sem nnur ykki mr skylt at hafa skldskap nema r finni hann verka hfusklda vlk heiti: Himinn, hlrnir, heiornir, hregg-Mmir, Andlangr, ljsfari, drfandi, skatyrnir, vfemir, vet-Mmir, leiptr, hrjr, vblinn. Sl: sunna, rull, eygla, alskr, sni, fagrahvl, lknskin, Dvalins leika, lfrull, ifrull, *mlin. Tungl: mni, n, ni, rtali, mlinn, fengari, glmr, skyndir, skjlgr, skrmr. Jr, sem jlfr kva: (309) Jarl ltr odda skrar opt herir gjr vera hrings r hann of ryngvi hr l und sik jru.

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Fold, sem ttarr kva: (310) Fold verr flk-Baldr, fr m konungr sv; rnu reifir leifr, er framr Sva gramr.

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86 Grund, sem Haraldr kva: (311)

Snorra Edda

Grund liggr und br bundin brei hlmfjturs leiar *heinlands hoddum grandar Hr*eitrsvlum *nari.

Haur, sem Einarr kva: (312) Verja haur me hjrvi hart dglinga bjartir hjlmr springr opt fyrir lmri egghrframir seggir.

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Land, sem rr Kolbeinsson kva: (313) En ept vg *fr Veigu vant er or at styrnoran land ea lengra stundu lagisk sur til Aga.

15

L, sem ttarr kva: (314) Helztu ar er hrafn ne svalta hvatrr ertuli gnar stafr fyrir jfrum gr tveimrvi kyn beima.

20

Hlyn, sem kva Vlu-Steinn: (315) Man ek at er jr vi ora endr myrk Danar *sendi grnnar grfnum munni gein Hlynjar beina.

25

Frn, sem lfr kva Uggason: (316) En stirinull stari storar leggs fyrir bori

Skldskaparml frns flka reyni frnleitr ok bls eitri. Fjrgyn: (317) *rgildi var ek (Eldis) ls Fjrgynjar (mla) dyggr; s heir ok hreggi (hrynbes) r steja.

87

Vargr heitir dr. at er rtt at kenna vi bl ea hr sv at kalla ver hans ea drykk. Eigi er rtt at kenna sv vi fleiri dr. Vargr heitir ok lfr, sem jlfr kva: (318) Gera var gisting byrju gng en lfr r skgi sonr sr at spenja Sigurarkom noran.

58 10

Hr er hann ok Geri kallar. Freki, sem Egill kva: (319) er oddbreki sleit und Freki gni hrafni hfustafni.

15

Vitnir, sem Einarr kva: (320) Elfr var unda gjlfri eitrkld roin heitu. Vitnis fell me vatni varmt lr men Karmtar.

20

Ylgr, sem Arnrr kva: (321) Svalg ttbogi ylgjar gren var bli grir grnn at rauum grandauknum nblandinn.

25

88 Vargr, sem Illugi kva: (322)

Snorra Edda

Vargs var munr at er margan menskerir stakk sveri myrkaurria markar minn drttinn rak fltta.

Bjrn: fetvinir, hnn, vetrlii, bersi, fress, ugtanni, ifjungr, glmr, jlfur, vilskarpr, bera, jrekr, riti, frekr, blmr, ysjungr. Hjrtr: *mtronir, dalarr, dalr, Dinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Durarr. etta er enn vargs heiti sem Hallr kva:
10

(323)

Heiingja sleit hungri, hrr *gylir naut sra, granar rau gramr Fenri, gekk lfr *ben drekka.

Ok enn sem rr kva:


15

(324)

en rnu ni ms sveit Freka hveiti, Gera *lra naut gylir Gjlpar st bli.

essi eru heiti hesta tali; essi eru hesta heiti orgrmsulu:
20

(325)

25

Hrafn ok Sleipnir, hestar gtir Valr ok Lttfeti var ar Tjaldari, Gulltoppr ok Goti, getit heyrak Sta, Mr ok Lungr me Mari. Vigg ok Stfr var me Skvai, egn kntti Blakkr bera, Silfrtoppr ok *Sinir, sv heyrak Fks of getit, Gullfaxi ok Jr me goum.

(326)

30

Skldskaparml (327) Blughfi ht hestr ok bera kvu flgan Atria. Gils ok *Falhfnir, Glr ok Skeibrimir; ar var ok *Gyllis of *getit.

89

essir r enn talir Alsvinnsmlum: (328) Dagi rei Drsli en Dvalinn Mni, H Hjlmr en Haki Fki; rei bani Belja Blughfa en Skvai skati Haddingja. Vsteinn Vali en Vifill Stfi, Meinjfr Mi en Morginn Vakri, li Hrafni, til ss riu en annarr austr und Ailsi, grr hvarfai geiri undar. Bjrn rei Blakki en Bjrr Kerti, Atli Glaumi en Ails Slungni, Hgni Hlkvi en Haraldr Flkvi, Gunnarr Gota en Grana Sigurr.

10

15

(329)

20

25

(330)

30

90

Snorra Edda

rvakr ok Alsvir *draga slina sem fyrr er ritat. Hrmfaxi ea Fjrsvartnir draga nttina. Skinfaxi ea Glar fylgja deginum. essi xna heiti eru orgrmsulu: (331)
5

Gamalla yxna nfn hefi ek *gerla fregit eira Raus ok Hfis; Rekinn ok Krr, *Himinhrjtr ok Apli, Arfr ok Arfuni.

10

15 59

essi eru orma heiti: dreki, Ffnir, Jrmungandr, nar, Nhggr, linnr, nara, Ginn, Minn, Grafvitnir, Grbakr, fnir, Svfnir, grmr. Naut: kr, klfr, yxin, kvga, vetrungr, griungr, boli. Saur: hrtr, bekri, r, lamb, ver. Svn: sr, gylta, runi, gltr, grss. Hver eru heiti lopts ok veranna? Lopt heitir ginnungagap ok mealheimr, foglheimr, *verheimr. Ver heitir hregg, byrr, glygg, hret, gjsta, vindr. Sv segir Alsvinnsmlum: (332) Vindr heitir me mnnum en *vnsur me goum, kalla gneggju ginnregin, pi kalla jtnar en lfar gnfara; heitir Helju hlummur.

20

25 60

Ver heitir ok gustr. Tveir eru fuglar eir er eigi arf at kenna annan veg en kalla bl ea hr drykk eira ea ver, at er hrafn ok rn. Alla ara fugla karlkenda m kenna vi bl ea hr ok er at nafn rn ea hrafn, sem jlfr kva: (333) Blorra ltr barri bragningr ara fagna, Gauts berr sig sveita svans r konungr Hra. Geirs oddum ltr greddir grunn hvert stika sunnar

30

35

Skldskaparml hir at er hann skal vara hrgamms ara svar.

91

essi eru nfn hrafns: krkr, Huginn, Muninn, borginmi, rflognir, rtali, holdboi. Sv kva Einarr sklaglamm: (334) Fjallvnum gaf fylli fullr var(en spjr gullu) herstefnandi hrfnum hrafn ylgjar tafni.
5

Sv kva Einarr Sklason: (335) Dlgskra kn drum drr magnandi stra Hugins fermu bregr harmi harmrblikslar garmi.
10

Ok enn sem hann kva: (336) En vi hjaldr ar er hlar, hugrtit svellr, lta Muninn drekkr bl r benjum blsvartrkonungs hjarta.
15

Sem kva Vga-Glmr: (337) er *dynfsir *dsar dreyra mens eyri br fekk borginmi blsskjaldair stum.
20

Sem Skli kva orsteinsson: (338) Mundit efst ar er undir rflogni gaf ek srar Hlkk hundras flokki hvtinga mik lta.
25

92

Snorra Edda

rn heitir sv: ari, gemlir, hreggskornir, egir, ginnarr, undskornir, gallpnir. Sem Einarr kva: (339)
5

Smleitum rau sveita sleit rn Gera beitu, fekksk arnar matr jrnum Jrnsxu grn *faxa.

Sem ttarr kva: (340)


10

rn drekkr undarn, ylgr fr at hrm sylg, opt rr lfr kpt, ari getr ver ar.

Sem jlfr kva: (341)


15

Segjundum fl sagna sntar *lfr at mti gemlis ham gmlum glamma - fyr -skmmu.

Ok sem hr er: (342) Hreggskornis vil ek handa hleitan mj *vanda.

20

Ok enn sem Skli kva: (343) Vaki ek (ar er vel leizk) ekka (vis) r ok san; greppr hlir gu (gallpnis *val) spjalli.

61 25

Hver r svar heiti? Hann heitir marr, gir, gymir, hlr, haf, lei, ver, salt, lgr, grir, sem Arnrr kva ok fyrr var ritat: (344) Nemi drtt hv s *stti snarlyndr konungr jarla.

Skldskaparml Eigi raut vi gi vginn fram bgja. Hr er nefndr sr ok sv gir. Marr, sem Hornklofi kva: (345) er t mar *mtir mannskr *lagar tanna rsinar til rausnar rak vbrautar Nkkva.

93

Lgr er ok hr nefndr. Sv kva Einarr: (346) Lgr vr flaust en fagrir fls vaskar brim *stum ar er sr hli hvra hlymr, vervitar glymja.

10

Hr er fl kallat. Sv kva Refr, sem fyrr var ritat: (347) *Frir bjrn, ar er bra brestr, undinna festa opt gis kjapta *rsvl Gymis vlva.

15

Haf, sem Hallvarr kva: (348) Vestr lztu haf, *hristir, harviggs, *sikulgjarar, umbands allra landa, ss, framstafni vsat.

20

Lei, sem hr er: (349) Erum lei fr li *linir Finnum skrinu. Austr s ek fjll af flausta ferli geisla merlu.

25

Sem Egill kva, ver:

94 (350)

Snorra Edda Vestr fer ek of ver en ek Viris ber munstrandar mar. Sv er mitt of far.

Marr, sem Einarr kva: (351) Kaldr vr marr und mildum mart dgr viu svarta grefr lsninjfri lmsorg Manar jlma.

10

Salt, sem Arnrr kva: (352) Salt skar hfi hltum hraustr jkonungr austan. Bru brimlogs rri brn ver at Sigtnum.

15

Grir, sem Blverkr kva: (353) Leiangr bjttu af li lgr gekk of skipfgru. Gjlfrstum reistu gri glstum r it nsta.

20

Hr er ok gjlfr kallat srinn. Vir, sem kva Refr: (354) Barristinn nemr brjsti *borheim drasill skoru nau olir viren vi verpr inn of rm stinnan.

25

Hmr, sem Brennu-Njll kva: (355) Senn jsu vr, svanni, sextn en brim vexti dreif hafskips hfa hm fjrum rmum.

Skldskaparml

95

essi eru enn svar heiti sv at rtt er at kenna til skips ea gulls: Rn, er sagt er at var kona gis, sv sem hr er: (356) Hrau himin upp glum hafs; gekk sr af afli; br hygg ek at sk *skeru; skaut Rnar vegr mna.

Dtr eira gis ok Rnar eru nu ok eru nfn eira fyrr ritu: Himinglva, Dfa, Blughadda, Hefring, Ur, Hrnn, Bylgja, Drfn, Klga. Einarr Sklason tali essi vsu er fyrr var ritat (357) sir hvast at hraustum Himinglva yt svar
10

sex nfn eira: Himinglva, Ur, Dfa, Blughadda, Klga, Hefring. Hrnn, sem Valgarr kva: (358) Laur var lagt beja, lk sollit haf golli, en herskipum hrannir hfu gurlig gu.

15

Bylgja, sem ttarr svarti kva: (359) Skru skfnu stri skautsylghr bylgjur lk vi hn hreini hlunns *at er drsir spunnu.

20

Drfn, sem Ormr kva: (360) Hrosta drgir hvern kost hauk lrs gi-rr en drafnar loga Lofn lstu rkir vinfst.

25

Bra, sem orleifr fagri kva:

96 (361)

Snorra Edda Sjr tr en berr bra bjart laur of vi rauan *grnn ar er gulli bnum gnn hlunnvsundr munni.

L, sem Einarr kva: (362) Ne framlyndir fundu fyrrhykkat l kyru ar er sjr vi *varra vini rafell strum.

10

Fyllr, sem Refr kva: (363) Hrynja fjll fyllar fram sisk n Glamma skei vetrlii ska skautbjrn Gusis nauta.

15

Boi, sem hr er: (364) Boi fell mik brlla; bau heim me sr geimi; *ek eigi l lgis.

Breki, sem ttarr kva:


20

(365)

Brauten breki aut borx viar mor, mer fengu mikit ver mj fyrir ofan sj.

Vgr, sem Bragi kva:


25

(366)

Vildit rngum ofra vgs byrsendir gi hinn er mjtygil mva Mrar skar fyrir ri.

Sund, sem Einarr kva:

Skldskaparml (367) Skar ek sum sund fyrir sunnan Hrund; mn prddisk mund vi mildings fund.

97

Fjrr, sem Einarr kva: (368) Nst s ek orm jastar trserki vel merktan nemi bjr hv ek ferflar fjarbls of hlyn mli.

Sgr, sem Marks kva: (369) Sgs mun ek sr en eigi s er illr er brag spillir slar sverri mlan slrls reginnna.

10

Hver r elds heiti? Sv sem hr er: (370) Eldr brennat s sjaldan svr dyggr jfurr byggir, blsa rnn fyr rsi reyker Magns kveykvir.

15 62

Logi, sem Valgarr kva: (371) Snarla skaut r sti sveyk of hs ok reykir stu stopir san steinr logi glum.

20

Bl, sem hr er: (372) Haki var brendr bli ar er brimslir u . . .

25

Glr, sem Grani kva:

98 (373)

Snorra Edda Glr hygg ek Glamma slar gramr eldi svfeldu . . .

Eisa, sem Atli kva: (374)


5

x rskeisur vaxa, allmrgloga hallir hs brenna, gim geisar, gmennit fellrbli.

Hr er ok gim kallat eldrinn. Eimr, sem hr er: (375)


10

Brunnu allvalds inni eldr hygg ek at sal feldi, eimr skaut her hrmi hlfgjr vi Ni sjlfa.

Hyrr, sem Arnrr kva: (376)


15

Eymit r vi Rauma reir Ey-Dana meiir. Heit dvnuu *Heina. Hyrr geri kyrra.

Viti. Funi, sem Einarr kva: (377)


20

Funi kyndisk [flj]tt en fli skjtt Hsingar herr s er hafi verr.

Brmi, sem Valgarr kva: (378)


25

Bjartr sveimai brmi brutu vkingar fkjum vsa styrks *of virki varp [sorg meyborgar.

Leygr, sem Halldrr *skvaldri kva:

Skldskaparml (379) r knttu ar eira vart aldrigi (skjaldar *leygr aut of sjt) sigri sviptrgrsimum skipta.

99

essi eru nfn stundanna: ld, forum, aldr, fyrir lngu, r, misseri, vetr, sumar, vr, haust, mnur, vika, dagr, ntt, morginn, aptann, kveld, rla, snemma, sla, sinn, fyrra dag, nst, gr, morgun, stund, ml. essi eru enn heiti ntrinnar Alsvinnsmlum: (380) Ntt heitir me mnnum en njla Helju, kllu er grma] me goum, sorg kalla jtnar, lfar svefngaman, dvergar draum-Njrun.

5 63

10

Fr jafndgri er haust til ess er sl sezk eyktarsta. er vetr til jafndgris, er vr til fardaga, er sumar til jafndgris. Haustmnur heitir inn nsti fyrir vetr, fyrstr vetri heitir gormnur, er frermnur, er hrtmnur, er orri, gi, einmnur, gaukmnur ok st, eggt ok stekkt, er slmnur ok selmnur, eru heyannir, er kornskurarmnur. Hver eru manna nfn kend? Mar er hverr fyrir sr. It fyrsta ok it zta heiti manns er kallat mar keisari, v nst konungr, ar nst jarl. essir rr menn eigu saman essi heiti ll. Allvaldr, sv sem hr er kveit: (381) Allvalda kann ek alla austr ok sur of flausta Sveins er sonr at reyna setrhverjum gram betri.

15

20 64

25

Hr er ok gramr kallar. v heitir hann allvaldr at hann er einvaldi alls rkis sns. Fylkir, sem Gizurr kva: (382) Fylkir gler flki flags blakk ok svan Hlakkar. lfr of vir lum Yggs ggl fegin Skglar.

30

100

Snorra Edda

Fyrir v er fylkir kallar konungr at hann skipar fylkingar herlii snu. Vsi, sem kva ttarr svarti: (383)
5

Vsi tekrvg-Freys vst austr munlaust aldar hefir allvaldr ska vfgott lf.

Harri ea herra, sem kva Arnrr: (384)


10

Harri fekk hverri Hjaltlands rumu branda greppr vill grams dr yppa gagn, s er *hstr er bragna.

Hertogi heitir jarl ok er konungr sv kallar ok fyrir v er hann leiir her til orrostu. Sv kva jlfr: (385)
15

Ok hertoga hneykir herfengnum lt stinga leyf ber ek hansr haufi haugs skundai augu.

Sinnjr ea senjr, sem Sighvatr kva: (386)


20

Lt auman n njta, Nregs, ok gef strum ml haltsv sem slan, sinnjr, laga inna.

Mildingr, sem Marks kva: (387)


25

Mildingr fr of j eldi, auit var flotnum daua; hstan kyndu, hlenna rstir, hyrjar ljma sur at Jmi.

Mringr, sem Hallvarr kva:

Skldskaparml (388) Erat und jarar hslu orbrjtr Dnum forar moldreksmunka valdi mringr en nrri.

101

Landreki, sem jlfr kva: (389) Eyss landreki ljsu lastvarr Kraka barri,

sem fyrr var ritat. v heitir hann sv at hann rekr her um land annara konunga ea rekr her r snu landi. [Konungr er nefndr Hlfdan gamli er allra konunga var gtastr. Hann gri blt mikit at mijum vetri ok bltai til ess at hann skyldi lifa konungdmi snum rj hundru vetra. En hann fekk au andsvr at hann myndi lifa ekki meir en einn mikinn mannsaldr, en at mundi vera rj hundru vetra er engi mundi vera tt hans kona ea tiginn mar. Hann var hermar mikill ok fr va um Austrvegu. ar drap hann einvgi ann konung er Sigtryggr ht. fekk hann eirar konu er kllu er Alvig in spaka, dttir *Emundar konungs r] Hlmgari ins rka. au ttu sonu tjn ok vru nu senn bornir. eir htu sv: einn var engill er kallar var Manna-engill, annarr Rsir, rii Gramr, fjri Gylfi, fimti Hilmir, stti Jfurr, sjaundi Tiggi, tti Skyli ea Skli, nundi Harri ea Herra. essir nu brr uru sv gtir hernai at llum frum san eru nfn eira haldin fyrir tignarnfn sv sem konungs nafn ea nafn jarls. eir ttu engi brn ok fellu allir orrostum. Sv sagi ttarr svarti: (390) engill var egar ungr reks gjrr vgrr. Haldask bi ek hans aldr, hann tel ek yfirmann.

10

15

20

25

Sv kva Marks: (391) Rsir lt af ronum hausi Rnar sl marfjll skna.

30

Sv kva Egill:

102 (392)

Snorra Edda Gramr hefir gerihmrum grundar upp of hrundit . . .

Sv kva Eyvindr: (393)


5

Lk vi ljmgu, skyldi land verja, gylfi inn glavri st und gullhjlmi.

Sv kva Glmr: (394)


10

Hilmir rau und hjlmi heina laut gtum.

Sv kva ttarr svarti: (395) Jfurr heyri upphaf ofrask mun konungs lof, httu nemi hann rtt hrrs mnsbragar sns.

15

Sem Stfr kva: (396) Treggjar hj tiggi tveim hndum li beima; reifr gekk herr und hlfar hizig sur fyrir Nizi.

20

Sv kva Hallfrr: (397) Skilir em ek vi skylja, sklmld hefir v valdit; vtti ek vira drttins; vil er mest ok dul flestum.

25

Sv kva Marks: (398) Harra kve ek at hrrgjr drri hauklundaan Dana grundar.

Skldskaparml

103

Enn ttu au Hlfdan ara nu sonu er sv heita: Hildir, er Hildingar eru fr komnir; annarr Nefir, er Niflungar eru fr komnir; rii Aui, er lingar eru fr komnir; fjri Yngvi, er Ynglingar eru fr komnir; fimti Dagr, er Daglingar eru fr komnir; stti Bragi, er Bragningar eru fr komnir (at er tt Hlfdanar ins milda); sjaundi Buliaf Bulunga tt kom Atli ok Brynhildr; tti er Lofi, hann var herkonungr mikill, honum fylgi at li er Lofar vru kallair, hans ttmenn eru kallair Lofungar, aan er kominn Eylimi, murfair Sigurar Ffnisbana; nundi Sigarr, aan eru komnir Siklingar, at er tt Siggeirs er var mgr Vlsungs ok tt Sigars er hengi Hagbar. Af Hildinga tt var kominn Haraldr inn granraui, murfair Hlfdanar svarta. Af Niflunga tt var Gjki. Af linga tt var Kjrr. Af Ylfinga tt var Eirkr inn mlspaki. essar eru ok konunga ttir gtar: fr Yngvari er Ynglingar eru fr komnir, fr Skildi Danmrk er Skjldungar eru fr komnir, fr Vlsungi Fraklandi (eir heita Vlsungar). Skelfir ht einn herkonungr ok er hans tt kllu Skilfinga tt. S kynsl er Austrvegum. essar ttir er n eru nefndar hafa menn sett sv skldskap at halda ll essi fyrir tignarnfn. Sv sem Einarr kva: (399) Fr ek vi hlm at heyja hildingar fram gingu lind var grninn grna *geiring tvau springa.

10

15

20

Sem Grani kva: (400) Dglingr fekk at drekka danskt bl ara ji.
25

Sem Gamli kva Gnvaarskld: (401) lingr drap sr ungum ungr naglfara tungu innan bors ok ora *aflgjr mealkafla.

30

Sem Jrunn kva:

104 (402)

Snorra Edda Bragningr r bli bei herr konungs reii, hs lutu opt fyrir eisum *jar slg rja.

Sv kva Einarr: (403) Beit bulungs hjrr, bl fell drr. Raufsk Hildar sk vi Hvtab.

10

Sv kva Arnrr: (404) Siklinga venr snekkjur sjltar konr ti. Hann litar herskip innan hrafns g er atbli.

15

Sem jlfr kva: (405) Sv lauk siklings vi snjalls at vrom allir lofungr bei inn leyfi lfs grand sta vandum.

20

Lofa konungi fylgi at li er Lofar heita. Sem Arnrr kva: (406) Skjldungr mun r annarr aldri ri, gramr, und slu fask.

Vlsungr, sem kva orkell hamarskld: (407)


25

Mr r senda of svalan gi Vlsunga nir vpn gullbin.

Ynglingr, sem kva ttarr svarti:

Skldskaparml (408) Engi var jru gnbrr, r r ni, austr, s er eyjum vestan, ynglingr, *und *sik ryngvi.

105

Yngvi; at er ok konungs heiti, sem Marks kva: (409) Eirks lof verr ld at heyra, engi mar veit fremra engil yngvi helt vi orstr langan jfra sess verld essi.

Skilfingr, sem Valgarr kva: (410) Skilfingr, helztu ar er skulfu skeir fyrir lnd hin breiu au var sur um sir Sikileylii miklu.

10

Sinnjr, sem Sighvatr kva: (411) Lt auman n njta, Nregs, ok g[ef strum].

15

Skld heita greppar ok rtt er skldskap at kenna sv hvern mann ef vill. Rekkar vru kallair eir menn er fylgu Hlfi konungi ok af eira nafni eru rekkar kallair hermenn ok er rtt at kenna sv alla menn. Lofar heita ok menn skldskap sem fyrr er ritat. Skatnar vru eir menn kallair er fylgu eim konungi er Skati mildi var kallar. Af hans nafni er skati kallar hverr er mildr er. Bragnar heita eir er fylgu Braga konungi inum gamla. Virar heita eir menn er meta ml manna. Fyrar ok firar ok verar heita landvarnarmenn. Vkingar ok flotnar, at er skipa herr. Beimar: sv htu eir er fylgu Beimuna konungi. Gumnar ea gumar heita flokkstjrar, sv sem gumi er kallar brfr. Gotnar eru kallair af heiti konungs ess er Goti er nefndr er Gotland er vi kent. Hann var kallar af nafni ins ok dregit af Gauts nafni, vat Gautland ea Gotland var kallat af nafni ins, en Svj af nafni Sviursat er ok heiti ins. ann tma var kallat alt meginland at er hann tti Reigota-

65 20

25

30

106

Snorra Edda

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15

20

land, en eyjar allar Eygotaland. at er n kallat Danaveldi ok Svaveldi. Drengir heita ungir menn blausir mean eir afla sr fjr ea orstr, eir fardrengir er milli landa fara, eir konungs drengir er hfingjum jna, eir ok drengir er jna rkum mnnum ea bndum. Drengir heita vaskir menn ok batnandi. Seggir eru kallair ok knar ok liar, at eru fylgarmenn. egnar ok hlar (ok hla), sv eru bendr kallair. Ljnar heita eir menn er ganga um sttir manna. eir menn eru er sv eru kallair: kappar, kenpur, garpar, *snillingar, hreystimenn, harmenni, afarmenni, hetjur. essi heiti standa hr mt at kalla mann blauan, veykan, jarfan, irfing, blotamann, skau, skreyju, *skrj, vk, vm, leyra, sleyma, teya, dugga, dsi, dirokkr, dusilmenni, lmusa, auvir, vlmgr. rr mar heitir mildingr, mringr, skati, jskati, gullskati, mannbaldr, slingr, slkeri, aukfingr, rkmenni, hfingi. Hr mt er sv kallat: hnggvingr, glggvingr, mlingr, vesalingr, fningr, gjflati. Heitir spekingr rvaldr, heitir ok vitr mar ffl, afglapi, gassi, ginningr, gaurr, glpr, snpr, fli, rr, r, galinn. Snyrtimar: oflti, drengr, glsimar, stertimar, primar. Heitir hraumi, skrpr, skrokkr, skeiklofi, flangi, slinni, fjsnir, slpr, drttr. Lr heitir landflk ea ljr. Heitir ok rll kefsir, jnn, nnungr, rr. Mar heitir einn hverr, t ef tveir r, orp ef rr r, fjrir r fruneyti, flokkr eru fimm menn, sveit ef sex eru, sjau fylla sgn, tta bera mlisskor, nautar eru nu, dnn ef tu eru, rir eru ellifu, togl er ef tlf fara, yss eru rttn, fer er fjrtn, fundr er er fimtn hittask, seta eru sextn,

66 25

30

35

Skldskaparml skn eru sjautjn, rnir ykkja vinir eim er tjn mtir, neyti hefir s er ntjn menn hefir, drtt er tuttugu menn, j eru rr tigir, flk eru fjrir tigir, fylki eru fimm tigir, samnar of eru sex tigir, srvar eru sjau tigir, ld eru tta tigir, herr er hundra.

107

10

Enn eru au heiti er menn lta ganga fyrir nfn manna. at kllum vr vikenningar ea sannkenningar ea fornfn. at eru vikenningar at nefna annan hlut rttu nafni ok kalla ann er hann vill nefna eiganda ea sv at kalla hann ess er hann nefndi fur ea afa; i er hinn rii. Heitir ok sonr ok arfi, arfuni, barn, j ok mgr, erfingi. Heitir ok brir bli, barmi, hlri, lifri. Heitir ok nir nefi, ttungr, konr, kundr, frndi, kynstafr, nijungr, ttstuill, ttbarmr, kynkvsl, ttbogi, afkvmi, afspringr, hfubamr, ofskpt. Heita ok mgar sifjungar, hleytamenn. Heitir ok vinr ok runautr, rgjafi, mli, rni, spjalli, aldaopti, einkili, sessi, sessunautr. opti er *hlfrmis flagi. Heitir ok *vinr dlgr, andskoti, fjndi, skkvi, skaamar, banamar, rngvir, skkvir, svifrur. essi heiti kllum vr vikenningar ok sv tt mar s kendr vi b sinn ea skip sitt at er nafn ea eign sna er einkarnafn er gefit. etta kllum vr sannkenningar at kalla mann spekimann, *tlunarmann, orspeking, rsnilling, aumilding, slkinn, gimann, glsimann. etta eru fornfn. essi eru kvinna heiti kend skldskap: Vf ok brr ok flj heita r konur er manni eru gefnar. Sprund ok svanni heita r konur er mjk fara me dramb ok skart. Sntir heita r er ornfrar eru. Drsir heita r er kyrrltar eru. Svarri ok svarkr, r eru mikilltar. Ristill er kllu s kona er skruglynd er. Rgr heitir s kona er rkust er. Feima er s kllu er frm er sv sem ungar meyjar, ea r konur er djarfar eru. Sta heitir s kona er bandi hennar er af landi farinn, hll er s kona kllu er bandi hennar er veginn. Ekkja heitir s er bandi hennar var sttdaur. Mr heitir fyrst hver, en kerlingar er gamlar eru. Eru enn au kvinna heiti er

67

15

20

25

68 30

35

108

Snorra Edda

5 69

10

15

20

70 25

30

71 35

til lastmlis eru ok m au finna kvum tt at s eigi ritat. r konur heita eljur er einn mann eigu. Snr heitir sonar kvn. Svra heitir vers mir. Heitir ok mir, amma, rija edda. Eia heitir mir. Heitir ok dttir ok barn, j. Heitir ok systir ds, jds. Kona er ok kllu beja, mla, rna banda sns ok er at virkenning. Hfu heitir manni. at skal sv kenna at kalla erfii hls ea byri, land hjlms ok hattar ok heila, hrs ok brna, svarar, eyrna, augna, munns; Heimdalar sver, ok er rtt at nefna hvert svers heiti er vill ok kenna vi eitthvert nafn Heimdalar. Hfu heitir kent hauss, hjarni, kjannr, kollr. Augu heita sjn ok lit ea virlit, rmjt. au m sv kenna at kalla sl ea tungl, skjldu ok gler ea gimsteina ea stein br ea brna, hvarma ea ennis. Eyru heita hlustir ok heyrn. au skal sv kenna at kalla land ea jarar heitum nokkvorum, ea munn ea rs ea sjn ea augu heyrnarinnar ef ngjrvingar eru. Munn skal sv kenna at kalla land ea hs tungu ea tanna, ora ea gma, varra ea vlkt, ok ef ngjrvingar eru kalla menn munninn skip en varrarnar borit, tunga rit ea strit. Tennar eru stundum kallaar grjt ea sker ora, munns ea tungu. Tunga er opt kllu sver mls ea munns. Skegg heitir bar, grn ea kanpar er stendr vrrum. Hr heitir l, haddr at er konur hafa. Skopt heitir hr. Hr er sv kent at kalla skg ea viar heiti nokkvoru, kenna til hauss ea hjarna ea hfus, ea skegg kenna vi hku ea kinnr ea kverkr. Hjarta heitir negg. at skal sv kenna, kalla korn ea stein ea epli ea hnot ea ml ea lkt ok kenna vi brjst ea hug. Kalla m ok hs ea jr ea berg hugarins. Brjst skal sv kenna at kalla hs ea gar ea skip hjarta, anda ea lifrar, eljunar land, hugar ok minnis. Hugr heitir sefi ok *sjafni, st, elskugi, vili, munr. Huginn skal sv kenna at kalla vind trllkvinna ok rtt at nefna til hverja er vill ok sv at nefna jtnana ea kenna til konu ea mur ea dttur ess. essi nfn eru sr. Hugr heitir ok ge, okki, eljun, rekr, nenning, minni, vit, skap, lund, tryg. Heitir ok hugr reii, fjndskapr, fr, grim, bl, harmr, tregi, skap, grellskap, lausung, tryg, geleysi, unngei, gessni, hragei, veri. Hnd m kalla mund, arm, lm, hramm. hendi heitir *alnbogi, armleggr, lflir, lir, fingr, greip, hreifi, nagl, gmr, jaarr, kvikva. Hnd m kalla jr vpna ea hlfa, vi axlar ok ermar, lfa ok hreifa, gullhringa jr ok vals ok hauks ok allra hans heita, ok ngjrvingum ft axlar, bognau. Ftr m kalla tr ilja, rista, leista ea vlkt, renniflein brautar ea gngu, fets. M kalla ftinn tr ea sto essa. Vi sk

Skldskaparml

109

ok ska ok brkr eru ftr kendir. fti heitir lr, kn, klfi, bein, leggr, rist, jarki, il, t. Vi etta alt m ftinn kenna ok kalla hann tr ok kallat er sigla ok r ftrinn ok kent vi essa hluti. Ml heitir ok or ok ortak ok orsnilli, tala, saga, senna, rta, sngr, galdr, kveandi, skjal, bifa, hjaldr, hjal, skval, glaumr, jarka, gyss, rapt, sklp, hl, skraf, dlska, ljska, hgmi, afgelja. Heitir ok rdd hljmr, rmr, mun, ytr, gll, gnr, glymr, rymr, rymr, brak, svipr, svipun, gangr. Sv skal orrostu kenna vi sver ea nnur vpn ea hlfar. Vit heitir speki, r, skilning, minni, tlun, hyggjandi, tlvsi, langsi, bragvsi, orspeki, skrungskapr. Heitir undirhyggja vlri, flri, *brigri. Lti er tvent. Lti heitir rdd, lti heitir i, ok i er ok lund. Reii er ok tvkent. Reii heitir at er mar er illum hug, reii heitir ok fargervi skips ea hross. Far er ok tvkent. Fr er reii, far er skip. vlk ortk hafa menn mjk til ess at yrkja flgit ok er at kallat mjk ofljst. Li kalla menn at manni er leggir mtask, li heitir skip, li heitir mannflk. Li er ok at kallat er mar veitir rum *lisinni. L heitir l. Hli heitir gari ok hli kalla menn oxa, en hl er brekka. essar greinir m setja sv skldskap at gera ofljst at vant er at skilja ef ara skal hafa greinina en r ykki til horfa in fyrri vsuor. Slkt sama eru ok nnur mrg nfn au er saman eigu heitit margir hlutir. (412) Atli Fri li Glammi Beiti ti ok Beimuni Aumundr Gumundr Atall ok Gestill Geitir Gauti Gylfi Sveii. Gir Eynefr Gaupi ok Endill Skekkill Ekkill Skefill ok Slvi Hlfr ok Hemlir Hrekr ok Gorr Hagbarr Haki Hraun[ir Meiti.]

72 5

73 10 74

15

20

75 25

30

(413)

35

110 (414)

Snorra Edda Hjrlfr ok Hrauungr Hgni Msingr Hundingr Hvtingr Heiti [M]vill Hjlmarr Mir Hmir Mvi Ri Rakni Rerr ok Leifi. Randvr Rkni Rknir Reifnir Leifnir Nfill Rfill Nri Lyngvi Byrvill Kilmundr Beimi Jrekr Jsmundr vinnill Yngvi Teiti. Virfill Vinnill Vandill Slsi Gautrekr ok Hnn Gjki Buli Hmarr Hnefi Hyrvi Syrvi. Skkat ek fleiri skonunga.

(415)

(416)

(417)

Ek mun jtna inna heiti: Ymir Gangr ok Mmir Ii ok jazi Hrungnir Hrmnir Hraunir Grmnir Hverungr Hafli Hripstor Gymir. Harverkr Hrkkvir ok Hstigi

(418)

Skldskaparml Hrsvelgr Herkir ok Hrmgrmnir Hymir ok Hrmurs Hvalr rgeitir rymr rgelmir istilbari. (419) Geirrr Fyrnir Galarr *rvaldi Fjlverkr Geitir Fleggr Blapvari Fornjtr Sprettingr Fjalarr Stgandi Smr ok Svsur Svrangr Skrati. Surtr ok Strverkr Skarlsmli Skorir Skrmir Skerkir Salfangr skrur ok Svartr Andur Stmi Alsvartr Aurnir mr ok Skalli. Kttr sgri ok Alfarinn Vindsvalr Vparr ok Vafrnir Eldr ok Aurgelmir gir Rangbeinn Vindr Viblindi Vingnir Leifi. Beinvir Bjrglfr ok Brandingi Dumbr Bergelmir Dofri ok Mijungr Nati Sekmmir.

111

(420)

(421)

(422)

112

Snorra Edda N er upp tali mttligra jtna heiti.

(423)

Skal ek trllkvinna telja heiti: Grr ok Gnissa Grla Brja Glumra Geitla Grma ok Bakrauf Guma Gestilja Grottintanna. Gjlp Hyrrokkin Hengikepta Gneip ok Gnepja Geysa Hla Hrn ok Hrga Hargreip Fora Hryga Hvera ok Hlgabrr. Hrmgerr Hra Herkja Fla Im Jrnsaxa ma Fjlvr *Mrn vija mgerr Simul Svr Skrkja Sveipinfalda. flugbara ok Jrnglumra *mgerr ma ok Jrnvija Margerr Atla Eisurfla Leikn Munnharpa ok Munnria.

(424)

(425)

(426)

Skldskaparml (427) Leirvr Ljta ok Loinfingra Krka Varrn ok Kjallandi Vggl urbr. Viljum nefna Rgi sarst ok Rifingflu.

113

(428)

rr heitir Atli ok sabragr, s er Ennilangr ok Eindrii Bjrn Hlrrii ok Harvorr Vingrr Snnungr Vur ok Rymr.
17

sa *heiti: (429) Burir eru ins Baldr ok Meili Viarr ok Nepr Vli li rr ok Hildlfr Hermr Sigi Skjldr Yngvi-Freyr ok treksj Heimdallr Smingr.

(430)

Enn eru eptir jtna heiti: Eimgeitir Verr mr Hringvlnir Viddi Vingrpr Vandill Gyllir Grmnir Glaumarr Glmr Smendill.

114 (431)

Snorra Edda Vrnir Hargreipr ok Vagnhfi Kyrmir Suttungr ok Kallgrani Jtunn glanir ok Aurgrmnir Grimlingr Gusir fti Hli Ganglati ok Helreginn Hrossjfr Durnir Hundallr Baugi Hrauungr Fenrir Hrarr ok Mii. Enn skal telja sa heiti: ar er Yggr ok rr ok Yngvi-Freyr Viarr ok Baldr Vli ok Heimdallr. er Tr ok Njrr. Tel ek nst Braga Hr Forseti. Hr er efstr Loki. N skal synj[ur] allar nefna: Frigg ok Freyja Fulla ok Snotra Gerr ok Gefjun Gn Lofn Skai Jr ok Iunn Ilmr Bil Njrun. Hln ok Nanna Hnoss Rindr ok Sjfn Sl ok Sga Sigyn ok Vr.

(432)

(433)

(434)

Skldskaparml er Vr, ok Syn verr at nefna en rr ok Rn eim nst tali.

115

(435)

Grt ok at i gulli Freyja. Heiti eru hennar [Hjrn rungra Sr Skjlf Gefn ok it sama Mardll. Dtr eru hennar] Hnoss ok Gersimi. Enn eru arar ins meyjar: Hildr ok Gndul Hlkk Mist Skgul. er Hrund ok Mist Hrist Skuld tali. Nornir heita r er nau skapa. Nipt ok dsi n mun ek telja.

(436)

(437)

(438)

Snt brr svanni svarri sprakki flj sprund kona feima ekkja rgr vf ok drs ristill sta man svarkr ok hll mr ok kerling.

(439)

Ml er at segja manna heiti:

116

Snorra Edda greppar ok gumnar gumar ok drengir gotnar rekkar garpar seggir sveit snillingar ok slkerar.

(440)

Bragnar egnar beimar hlar firar ok flotnar fyrar hlar fruneyti drtt flokkr harmenni knar ok kappar kenpur nautar. ld ok rir ok afarmenni liar ok lofar lr ok sagnir ljr *ofltar ljnar ok ferir mildingr mringr mannbaldr spekingr. er glsimar ok gullskati, eru snyrtimenn ok aukfingar ok ofltar herr ok helmingr ok hfingjar. Flk ok fylki fundr almenning, n er rng ok yss orp auskatar drtt ok syrvar dnn primenn

(441)

(442)

(443)

Skldskaparml sgn ok samnar seta stertimenn fjrr ok brjnar.

117

(444)

Enn eru eptir aldar heiti: hir ok gestir ok hskarlar inndrtt ok hjn. Ef ek alt segi: rni ok opti ok rgjafi. Innhsingar aldaoptar sessi ok mli serlar ok fylgir. er flagar ok frndr saman vinr einkili verung halir. i ok ttungr afi sonr fair brir barmi bli ok lifri j burr nefi ok arfuni. eru hlrar ok hfubamar. Nir hleytamar nijungr ok barn konr ok kynkvsl kundr ttbogi mgr mlunautr mgr ok spjalli ttbamr ttsl ofskpt ok sveinn.

(445)

(446)

(447)

118 (448)

Snorra Edda Sessunautar ok sifjungar, afspringr er ok ttstuill, er runautr, jnar rlar rr nnungar verkmenn kefsar.

(449)

au eru heiti: hjaldr ok rimma gll geirah ok geirriful rg ok rma ranngr ok stor svipul ok snerra sig flk jara. Sta mor ok vg skn ok dlg gn tara drima ok mun. er orrosta ok rlygi hr ok etja hergn rima.

(450)

(451)

Ek mun segja svera heiti: hjrr ok Hrotti hgur Dragvandill Gra Gramr gellir gjallr ok neanskarr sigr ok snyrtir smi skjmi. Sklkr skerkir stfr Skrmir Laufi

(452)

Skldskaparml ltirr langbarr ok ormvari Leggbiti ok kyrr ok Leifnis grand herberi Hneitir ok hafrakan. (453) Lotti hrndur lgir mkir mndur mundrii ok Mistilteinn mlmr rr ok marr ok mifinn Fetbreir *grindlogi ok fjrsonir. Vgir veigarr vallangr ok brandr verlfr valnir vinnbjartr ok kvl askr Angrvaill eggjumskarpi svipur ok svipaljtr salgarr hnefi. Hvati hf[uhv]essingr *hausamlvir hrva-Gautr herbri ok hold-Mmir bensgr brigir Brim[ir] huglognir skygir skreifir skarr grindlogi. Mmungr ok fellir ok mlvitnir taurarr hrvarr trani vindvari linir kvernbiti ljmi herir

119

(454)

(455)

(456)

120 vitnir yfrir veggjalestir. (457)

Snorra Edda

Skelkvingr fylvingr flmingr skeringr skotningr skilfingr Skfnungr rifjungr brotningr hvtingr Bsingr Tyrfingr hkingr ok hringr. Hittask mun nttingr. Logi ok munngjallr langhvass ok eldr rn ok eygir ok naglfari brigir mrnir blr ok skerir hyrr ok helsingr hrir atti. Fellir flvir Ffnir raufnir mnir eimnir afspringr inurr sigir snyrtir svelgr skarr ok nr Ginn gest-Minn ok grr rimarr nhggr.

(458)

(459)

(460)

Oddr blvarta ok benknar blrefill blvarp ok blia blvaka ljgfengr ok blhnefi ihvarf ok brandr eggteinar flk.

Skldskaparml (461) Emjar remjar ok lrarnautr merki vttrim ok missifengr nn ok skafningr undirdregningr vargr ok Kaldhamarsnautr valbst ok herr. Sver ok gelmingr ok samnagli hugr sigrhno hjalt ok tangi mundrir hggfr ok mealkafli.

121

(462)

(463)

x ok jarspara hyrna skjfa ok skeggja skrma ok genja reginspnn Gnepja ggr ok Fla snaga ok blda bara ok vggl veita ok enja. er arghyrna, hon er zt tali xar heita.

(464)

Darr spjt ok nt df lenz ok vigr snata fleinn ok svf svia hrmki geirr spjr nata gefja kesja gaflak Frakka Gungnir Peita.

122 (465)

Snorra Edda r er ok akka oddr hvtmlingr fenja ok drfa flug dynfara bsl bl blda broddr ok Hremsa ggnflaug ok rs ggn ok skaptsnr. Fluggl flugsvinn Ffa ok skeyti; geta skal fenna ok Gusis smis. Jlfs smi er en fst ura.

(466)

(467)

lmr dalr bogi r ok tvvir sveigr glr ok rymr smr skalgelmir. Enn kve ek heita ll vpn saman jrn r ok slg sarn ok spjr.

(468)

(469)

Skjldr runginsalr skaunn salbendingr bognir hlbarr ok buklari vttlimi targa verglar ok hlf vbleiknir rt vgglar ok lind Gjallr dggskafi ok gimsklir

(470)

Skldskaparml *bljs grta ok bsklir svalinn ok randi saurnir bori skuttingr bari skrr tvbyringr. (471) Yrlygr ok svarmr eilfnir heir baugr fagrblinn bera mifjrnir.

123

(472)

Hropts hattar skal ek segja heiti: hjlmr gullfinn hraunn valhrmnir hallhrmnir *sklkr ok hlfandi fjrnir okki ok fk-Minn. Hildigltr kellir herkumbl ok velgr grma gir glvir stefnir.

(473)

(474)

Brynja kund hjlmgll hrau ok nati kld Finnsleif bfra sn ok blleika.

(475)

Sr slgja salt gir haf lgr sumr lgir lgr stop ok vgr

124

Snorra Edda gjallr gnap geimi gnarr svfr ok marr sgr sog sami svelgr rst ok fjrr.

(476)

Sund gr [velf]rr s[imi] ok vir hr ver breki hm fl ok brim grir gljur gymir ok vg[ir] gnir ok rr gjlfr fen snapi. Gnat vrr vika vzt hp ok mi vatn djp ok kaf vk tjrn ok sk stormr dki hylr straumr lkr ok bekkr ll brur kelda ia fors ok kll. Hefring alda hvtingr ok l Hrnn Rn kelda ok Himinglva Drfn Ur ok slmr Dfa Bylgja boi ok Bra Blughadda.

(477)

(478)

(479)

Gjll Glit Gera Gl ok Valskjlf Vn V Vimur Ving ok sa S Sur Freka Skin Einstika

Skldskaparml Elfr R Ekla Ekin Rennandi. (480) yn Rn ok Ni ll Rimr Ysja Dun gn Dna Dyn Hllfara run ok Br Auskjlg Lodda Mun Merkria Mein ok Saxelfr. Tifr Durn Vna Tems Vnd ok Strnd *Mrn Ma rym Morn ok Gautelfr Alin Ur Alkoga ok Eufrates gn Eirennir ok Apardjn. Rgn Hrnn ok Raun Raumelfr Hnipul Hnpul Hjlmunl Humra Vna Vil Vin Vella Valin Sem Salin Nepr Drfn Strauma Nis Mynt Gnapa. Gilling ok Nl Ganges Tvedda Luma Vervaa Leira ok Gunnr Visvl Vegsvinn Yn jnuma Fjrm Strnd ok Sp ok Fimbulul.

125

(481)

(482)

(483)

126 (484)

Snorra Edda Nyt Hrnn ok Nau Nt Slr ok Hr Krmt Leiptr ok rmt Kerlaugar tvr Gmul Sylgr ok Yn ok Geirvimul Ylgr V ok Fold. Jrdn er lesti.

(485)

Lax ok langa lsa brosma birtingr hingr bust ok hrygna humarr hrognkelsi hvenir flki lunn aurrii ok Andvari. Sld seir skata sl reyr ok gr skreiungr ok skr sklgi flyra fyldingr styrja ok furyskill hmerr steinbtr ok hskeringr. Fjrsungr rmmungr ok marvara slungr skelfingr sverfiskr ok lr hamarr sandhverfa ok horngla markntr glmmungr ok fengrani. yrslingr ufsi orskr vartari

(486)

(487)

(488)

Skldskaparml grunnungr gedda gjlnir keila ll ok karfi krabbi geirsl hr ok golax hornsl gull.

127

(489)

Hafrhvalr geirhvalr ok hafgufa hnsa hafstrambr ok hningar reyr reyarklfr ok raukembingr bunungr rostungr bljuhvalr. Norhvalr krhvalr nhvalr ok leiptr skeljungr fiskreki ok sktuhvalr slttibaka skjaldhvalr ok sandlgja hrosshvalr andhvalr hrafnreyr ok vgn.

(490)

(491)

N mun ek skra of skipa heiti: rk rakl askr Sessrmnir skei skta skip ok Skblanir nr Naglfari nkkvi snekkja. Byringr bza Barkaldr ok Hreinn bakki hmlungr Hlugbari

(492)

128

Snorra Edda rst btr ok regg r Hringhornir lung kjll langskip Leifnir karfi.

(493)

Hringr Gno freki hrau Mri hemlir bari ok hylbauti ugla leja ok Askvitull kna ketla kati rei ok Sklpr. Knrr kuggr kni keipull eikja dreki Ellii drmundr ok prmr fura vigg galei ferja skalda fley flaust ok ekkr fartr ok li.

(494)

(495)

Segl skr sigla svivs stri sjur saumfr s ok skautreip stag stafn stjrnv[i stuill sikul]gjr snotra ok slbor sess skutr ok strengr. Sx stinga[r] sviptingr ok skaut spkr siglutr saumr lekstopar laukr siglutoppr lna eyru

(496)

Skldskaparml flaug flaugarskegg ok farnagli. (497) Hnn hnbora ok hjlmunvlr hfr hlr hremni ok hlsstemni hefill hls hanki ok hfubendur hir hll hamarr hjlpreip ok lk. R rakki rif rengr ok hmlur vindss vengi vndr langnefjur vlt beitiss varta brandar bitar bglna blkastokkar. Bar kn bygi belti ok kinnungr kjlbor keili ok kjlsja kraptar kerling klr ok optur kalreip rimir klofar ok iljur. Drengir dragreip dla rar aktaumar rr arinn ok nlar aurbor kjalarhll ok akkeri *hnakkmii ausker ok hnspnir.

129

(498)

(499)

(500)

130 (501)

Snorra Edda Jr fjrn rufa eskja ok Hlyn gyma Sif Fjrgyn grund haur ok rnd fold vangr ok *Ff frn hjarl ok *barmr land bj ruma ok merski. Holt hls ok fjll hl ok leiti hll heir ok hvilpt hvll ok brekka hr dalr ok vllr hvammr ok tunga mold flag rimi mr laut ok sandr.

(502)

(503)

Enn skal segja xna heiti: rvakr drjni ok Jrmunrekr simi Freyr Reginn smir eyvari Raur ok rekningr ok rkkvihlir viggi *bautur Vingnis stjri. Himinhrjtr simir ok harfari *Hfir digni hjllur simull Hlir Stfr ok Litr Hrr forsimi *Arfr Jrmuni ok eikismir.

(504)

Skldskaparml (505) Gneisti Apli ok gollinhorni aur kvgr ldungr ok Arfuni griungr lgr gellir glymr ok hreii tungr boli tarfr aurgefinn. Kr heitir skirja kvga ok frenja ok Auhumbla: hon er zt ka.

131

(506)

(507)

Hrtr ofrhyrningr hornumskvli gumarr hornglinn ok gjaldhrinn hveurr Hallinski berr hornhrinn ok Heimdali bekri mijungr blr Mrr ok ver.

(508)

Hafr heitir Grmnir ok Geirlnir Tanngnjstr kjappi ok Tanngrsnir skimur ok brsi; bokkr Grmr *talir. Heitir ok Heirn hana ok kilingr. Er *kolmla ok ki saman.

(509)

132 (510)

Snorra Edda Bjrn bersi blmr bera elgvinir bljaxl slfr ok breivegi bestingr bassi balti hlbarr fr frekr vilnir jrekr msni. Fetvinir hnn fress vetrlii ugtanni jlfur ifjungr vilskarpr. *Hjrtr Durarr hlir Eikyrnir Duneyrr Dinn Dvalarr *mtronir.

(511)

(512)

(513)

Gltr valglitnir grss ok *Hrmnir svntarr runi Shrmnir *brgr tarr valbassi rr dritroi rr vigrir skunpr rndr vaningi.

(514)

Vargr lfr Geri vitnir ok hninnir ok grdri H[ati] Hrvitnir ok heiingi Freki ok vinir Fenrir hlbarr Goti gildr glammi gylir marr mr egir ok sklkinni.

Skldskaparml (515) Enn heitir sv ylgr: vargynja borkn ok ma svimul.

133

(516)

10

15

20

Nu [eru himnar] h talit. Veit ek hinn nezta, s er Vindblinn s er Heiyrnir ok H[regg]-Mmir. Annarr heitir Andlangr himinn at mttu skilja rii Vblinn; Vfemi kve ek vera hinn fjra, Hrjr, ok Hlrni hygg inn stta, Gimir, Vet-Mmir. Get ek n vera tta himna upp um tala. Skatyrnir stendr skjum efri. Hann er tan alla heima.

(517)

Sl ok sunna sn fagrahvl leiptr hrjr leika lknskin rull leiptr ifrull ok ljsfari drfandi lfrull ok Dvalins leika.

TEXTUAL NOTES
The spelling of manuscript readings is normalised in the same way as the text, except that when necessary the spelling of the manuscript is quoted in inverted commas and italics are used for the expansion of abbreviations.

P. 1/12 No heading in RTW, but both R and W have a large ornamental capital E; T has a line space. U has the heading Fr heimboi sa me gi. The name Skldskapar ml appears in U in its heading to its first version of ch. 3 (SnE 184887, II 302) and the words Hr hefr (or hefir) mjk setning skldskapar in its heading to ch. G57 (SnE 184887, II 295). Many words in the first few lines in R are unclear due to damage to the page. 9 THor R. 13 ar] in margin R. 18 dal] perhaps dalinn (with -inn abbreviated by a horizontal stroke) R. P. 2/7 spuri hverr annan W, spyrr hverr eira annan T. 8 t is supplied after gekk in SnE 184887, I 212 and 1931, 80, but although there is a tear in the parchment and a space in the text, it is not certain that anything is missing. The word is not in the other MSS. 14 (2) TW; o R. 34 ] so apparently R; though it might be read . P. 3/2 ef] repeated and the second time deleted R. 10 Hvaan] large capital in R, W (ornamented in these two) and T, which also has the heading Fr Kvasi. 15 snum TWU, sna R. 21 heita WU, heitu R (perhaps for htu, see Introduction p. liv; abbreviated h. in T). P. 4/15 er written twice over page division R. 20 kvazk T, kvezk W, lzk U; kva R. r TWU, rs R. 24 til Suttungs TWU. 35 l hj T, lj hj R, hvldi hj U, lj W (omits hj). 37 all R. 39 Suttungr TU, jazi RW. P. 5/2 eir (abbreviated) TW, R. 6 lut (i. e. hlut) TW, lit R. 11 Large capital in R, and space (2 lines) for one in W. 15 er TWB, eru R. 18 er TWB. 38 klluu] abbreviated kall with a stroke through -ll R. P. 6/12 Rodduus ?R, Roduus W, Rodirus T. Verse 4/4 hrafnsar W, hrafna sr T, hrafn sr U, hranna lr B; hrafnlar R. Verse 5/3 hrka TWUB, hrka R. 7 jarrendr TWUB, jarrrndr R. Verse 6/2 go B, g[..] U, kyn T, lacking RW. Verse 8/1 blu RTWB, vu U. Blu would make sense (with vilgi as neg.), but ought to alliterate. Verse 9/2 vitinn W (verse 9 omitted in T, and in U, which has an open space for it, though both include line 12).

136

Skldskaparml

Verse 10/2 snarr TUB, varr R, svarr W. 3 barrhaddaa WB, barr hr haddaa T, barr hodduu U; bjarr haddaa R. 4 bikvn und U, bifkvn und TWB; bifkvn of R. Verse 11/6 hinig altered from hniginn R. Verse 12/2 jarhlutr RTWU; jarhljtr Konr Gslason (see Skj A I 79). Verse 13/4 ltinn T, litlum RWUB. Verse 16/3 vanr TWUB, vamr R. P. 9/28 vinr with abbreviation for vinir R. Verse 20/10 perhaps kmi R (o written for ; W also has kom); kmi UB, abbreviated in T. Cf. Introduction p. liii. Verse 25/3 tekit hefi TWU, tekit hefir B; vri R. Verse 28/4 gvmil R, i. e. geymil? (Konr Gslason 1889, 3023; u or v interchange with y in the orthography of R, see Introduction p. liv); grymil TU, grymi l W, grynni l B. Verse 30/1 rr R, tr TB, tr (i. e. tr?) W, tel ek U (cf. verse 39/1). 4 la R (over line division: lya | a). Verse 31/2 at R (abbreviated), ar B (abbreviated), n U; W omits; T has ar er, but omits ek. Verse 32/3 bijum WUB, biju T, bjum R. 4 at TWUB, af R. Verse 33/2 Hrs TWUB, hans R (abbreviated). Verse 34/1 vgr TW, vargr RUB. 2 hagna] emendation; hgna RTWUB. Verse 36/1 Veri r WUB, Verit r T, Verr ei R. 2 mran U; mrar RWB; morar T, i. e. mrar, cf. BM 651. Verse 37/1 mna TWB, mnar U; mma R. 4 Egill WUB, Egils RT. Verse 38/1 urfut ala WU, urfa at ala T, urfu at ala B; urfu at sa R. 2 sn WUB, snr RT (snr is a late form of the 1st pers. sg., see Noreen 1923, 531.1). Verse 39/1 Hoddmildum tr RTWB (all four omit ek), Hjaldrgegnis tel ek U; tk SnE 184887, III 14; perhaps telk? (cf. verse 30/1) 4 ge-Njarar R, gefjarar TWUB. Verse 41/1 Bi WUB, Ti R. T reads bedia ec. P. 14/30 Hlru TWB, Lru U; Hjru R. Verse 45/1 brattrar brautar W, brattar brautir RU. T omits this verse. Verse 48/4 endiseis of TW, endiseis um U, endiskeis af R. Verse 49/1 sami RTW, samit U. Verse 51/1 borrins TWU, bortins R. 3 So T; haussprengi Hrungnis W, haus prengju Hrungnis U.

Textual notes

137

Verse 52/2 rvalda TW, rvaldra R. Verse 54/2 farin mikla W, firing mikla R, fyrir miklum U. 3 hfgum W (blank space in R). T omits this verse. Verse 55/3 at TWU. 4 reyrar TWU, reyrz R. Verse 57/2 lamir TWU, limir R. 3 Starkei W, Starkai TU, Stalkei R. Verse 58/5 heptir W, hepp ok RT, heptu U. 8 lfi TWU, lifa R. P. 18/3 vagna] vanga W. Vana altered from vpna R. 4 gefjanda R; fgjafa TWUB. 15 hann] + vagna gu deleted R. Verse 63/1 borg W, baurg TU, bgr R. P. 19/30 son TWU, sons R; illegible in B. Verse 64/3 slgjan TW, slgjum R. 4 mg W, mgr RT. 7 ok T, at W, en R. P. 21/21 r meri nokkurri TWU, ok mann nokkvorn R. 28 -iotun R, jtunninn TW. P. 22/20 rr TWU, Tror R. 27 frerin written frer with abbreviation for -ir R. Verse 65/2 sttan TW, sttum R. 3 bjr (written bir) R, brva W, maur T (see note on p. 170). 7 mr with abbreviation for -ur R. Verse 66/4 ginnivnga R. brinna W, brinra T, hrinna R. 5 hafrir R, hafi T, hfu W. Verse 67/6 myrkbeins Haka W, meinorns Haka T, myrk hreins baka R. 8 vtt . . . tti TW, varr . . . arri R (or vatr . . . atri; r and t have very similar shapes). Verse 68/3 und TW, ok R. 5 hru RTW. 6 hraundrengr TW, hraundrengs R. 8 tr RTW. Verse 69/8 jrmunrjti W, jrman T. Verse 70/1 R appears to have harr brotinn. 3 hina (perhaps with abbreviation for -ar- obliterated, i. e. hjarna) W, hinka RT. 7 vikr TW, virtr R. Verse 71/6 eir (abbreviated) RW, eyr T. 7 bifum T, bif R (and baugs written twice), bifa W. P. 24/34 fjrlausnar TWU, fjrlauslar R. Verse 73/1 fellir RTW. 2 fjrnjts RT, fjr | nats over line break W. hvetja TW, hverja R. 5 grnar TW, greinar R. Verse 74/3 written fyrstvz R. 4 oms RT, ins W. 5 gjarRTW. Verse 75/2 farmr TW, farms R. 3 hapts written hafsz R. 4

138

Skldskaparml

Rgnir TW, tgnir R. 5 gran- W, gram- T, grunnstrauma R (with abbreviation for -ru-). 7 opniz R, apns W, opins T. 8 spendu RTW. Verse 76/1 gangs TW, gagns R. Verse 77/1 vrru RTW. 3 hagli altered from hiallti, but first i not deleted R; hagli TW. Verse 79/3 gatat TW, gatar R. 4 gjarar altered from fjarar ?R. 6 ons ljarna R; ons barna T, rs barna W. Verse 80/1 frar RTW. 4 sverrunnar R, sver runnit TW. 5 spelled hrN R, hraun T, hron W. Verse 81/38 Top of page damaged in R; gaps supplied from TW. 5 Hu stli] stli T, a ostali W. 6 Hrekkmmis] bekk Mmi T. 8 -lyndr T. Verse 82/1 akarn RTW. 23, 6 R damaged, gaps supplied from TW. 3 st[. .] W. 4 falli W, palli RT. 5 arfi RTW. 6 eis[. . .] R, eisfjarar hug TW. Verse 83/4 bari RTW. 5 heii RTW. 8 skal eik RT; skleik W. Verse 84/2 klgu TW, klga R. Verse 85/1 eirs RTW. hersa T, bersa W. 2 ornranns RTW. 3 hellis W (the ending abbreviated and unclear), hellir RT (perhaps bellir T?). 4 hrin RW, hrim- T. 5 Listi RTW (TW also lack var). 6 hreini RTW. 8 res (i. e. rs?) RTW. Verse 86/4 slar R, -slir TW. 6 -reya RTW. 8 hundfornan kjl sprundi W, horn fornan kjl sprundi T, hornfornan kjl sporna R. Verse 87/6 segu tngu R, segi tngu W, sega tungu T. 7 nis RTW. Verse 88/3 lypti- TW, sypti- R. 4 langvinr su rngvar TW, su langvinr rungvar R. 5 avrvrsis eisv R, aurrasir esju W, aurrasir eisu T. 6 os T, s RW. Verse 89/3 fornan TW, fornar R. Verse 90/4 arinbauti TW, arinbrauti R. 7 beiti RTW. Verse 91/1 Hel bltin R, Helbltinn W, Hilbltinn T. 4 afli T, lfi RW. 6 Rygir TW. 7 aldar W, eldar R, elda T. P. 30/11 Fensala TB, Fun- R, W illegible. 13 s WTB, ins R, altered from ins U. Verses 92104 and p. 33/223 in a different (contemporary) hand from the rest of the text in R. Verse 92/14 Largely illegible in R, where line 3 has completely disappeared. Gaps in lines 2 and 4 supplied from TW. Line 3 is

Textual notes

139

omitted in both T and W (space is left in W). 1 at in TW before gjldum (gjldu T); at may have been written in R too. 2 gunnveigar T. 4 nadd- T, first letter illegible in W. 5 framma T. 6 ok far W, ok fjr T, ok fia[. . .] R. Gap in lines 67 is supplied from TW (of is emendation). 7 hlein- T. 8 hildar TW. fats emendation; vets RTW (vez or uez in all three). Verse 93/23 Gaps supplied from TW. Cf. verse 341. 4 RW, T. 6 r Gefnar T, rgefnar W, r gnfar R. mat] mar T; perhaps mar R; ma with perhaps an erased letter W. 8 vndr R (perhaps intended as vndr a. wicked?), vendr TW; cf. Introduction p. liii. seyi altered from sendi ?T, seii W. Verse 94/1 Tormilar TW, Tormilaar R. 3 koo R, kvu W, kveu T; cf. verse 305/3 and t. n. 7 vinr W, vior R; [.]inr T. Verse 95 omitted in T. 1 fyllar W, fullan R. 23 fet-Meila sr deila hlaut af helgu W. 5 vagna W. 6 Perhaps siga R. Verse 96/2 vru R (vru), uara W, [..]ra T. 8 jrir hluti fjra T, jr hlfi ra R, r hluti fjra W. Verse 97/3 -rtum T, -rtu W. 4 niorna T, morna W. 7 hiriTW. 8 herfangs ofan T, herfang ofan W, herfangs ofangs ofan R. stngu altered to (or from) strngu ?R. Verse 98/2 Sigynjar TW, Signjar R. Verse 99/4 lfs fair TW; lfs fur R (fr could be a possible nom. form, see note to 6/37). 5 rni TW, runni R. 6 ungrs R, ungs TW. 7 mlunautr R and T (with -r altered to -z) and W. 8 Mijungs TW, mildings R. Verse 100/2 sorg eyra RTW. 5 bekkjar TW, kekkjar R. Verse 102/2 hund TW, hrund R. 3 lva TW. The a is invisible in R and was perhaps never written. 6 leiar RT. From this line to the end of the poem was omitted in W, with space left vacant. 8 hapta lacking in both R and T. Verse 103/1 heyra ek T, heyrat R. 2 ept RT. leiku T, leikum R. 4 hauks T, haus R (= Hs?) Verse 104/3 biiss R, biils svinar T. 7 er T; cf. verse 71. P. 33/212 partly illegible R. 21 su TB, sa U, []sa W. 22 ttir B, tt TWU. 23 Large ornamental initial in R and space for one in B. Verse 112/3 mr TWUB; mei ?R. Verse 115/1 sem TWUB, me R. 2 drttinn TWUB, drtni R. P. 35/20 elju written eleiv R. 21 glf TWU, gefl R, glflok B.

140

Skldskaparml

Verse 118/2 snjallrr TWUB, snjallar R. Verse 120/4 far TWB, fjr R. Verse 121/3 tran TWUB, tra R. einn at TB, ein at W, eina at U, ein a (perhaps altered from ein at) R. 4 systur U; erssa B, lacking RTW (space left in W). Verse 122/4 ymynda RTW, illegible B; milda U. P. 36/30 Bareyjarskld TW (but Barr- (BaR-) at 34/13 in W), Barreyja- UB (also at 34/13), Darreyjarskld R. Verse 124/3 hvalmni TWB, hvalmris U; hvalmuni (or perhaps hvalmoni, i. e. hvalmni; see Introduction, p. liii) R. Verse 125/3 fls emendation (Konr Gslason 1889, 361, 60910); fals RTWB (cf. Hreinn Benediktsson 1963). Verse 126/4 r svl U; tsvl RTWB (written as two words in RTW). Verse 128/3 blakkr ltr WUB, bla er letr?T, blakkleitr R. 4 snTWB. Verse 129/3 stg TWUB, stng R. 4 stirr TWUB; stir R. keipr TWB, kipr U; skeipr R. Verse 130/1 Grams U, Grans (i. e. Grns or Granns?) RTW, gras B. gollna] spelled goldna R (this may be a genuine form; cf. Noreen 1923, 275); gullna TWB, gyllta U. 3 hlm- WB; hjlm- T, hvm or hom R, hlomn- U. 4 stafna RTWUB. Verse 131/2 varar RTB (this verse omitted in WU; W also omits verse 132). P. 38/25 Amla TWU, Amlona R. Verse 134/4 bifgrund TWU, bifgrunda B, bifgrundar R. Verse 136/2 blgrimmastan RTWB, bar grimmustum U. 3 of TB, um W, vin U, af R. P. 39/21 hrml TWUB, hrmdal ?R. Verse 139/2 rndheimi TUB, [r]ndheimi W, ramheimi R. P. 40/9 ea til W, ea RB, verka sinna ea U; T omits. farar B. 19, 20 lg and lg both written log in RTW ( W in line 19; see note on p. 184) and lg, lag in U, lg in B. 212 er kona kend TUB; R adds er after kona; W has at kona er kend. 30 s Frisvallar U; ok Frisvalla RTB, fr Frisvalla, s Kraka W. 3941/1 Missing text supplied from W; T lacks ar (and sem, 41/1). P. 41/3 Eldir T, El[d]ir W, Reseldr R. Verse 141/4 fulli WT; written fylli R (where u/v alternates with y in the scribes orthography, see Introduction p. liv).

Textual notes

141

P. 41/28 fegrstr TW, fegrst er R, frgr U. 30 varr TWU, var R. 35 vejai TWU, veaai R. 36 The name Brokkr in W; left blank and filled in later R; also blank in T. Unnamed in U. Similarly on the later occurrences, where T simply omits the name or uses a pronoun: 42/2 (Brokk brur sinn here in W), 42/17, 25; at the last occurrence the name before fram in W. Eitri W; left blank in R and filled in later as Sindri; not named in TU. Similarly at 42/2. P. 42/16 hamar TWU; added in lower margin in a later hand with indicative sign R. 22 geirrinn TWU, greirrinn R. P. 43/9 rifai TWU (W omits beit hann varrarnar), rifjai (with stop before) R. Verse 146/4 ramsvel U, ramsvelli RW, ramsvells T (altered from -snells). Verse 147/3 gjlfrs T, gjlfs W. 4 hlfar T, hlar RW. 6 svans] s above line (or the abbreviation for -us or -ir?) R. Verse 148/2 nlgt WU, ne legt R, nelegt T. Verse 149/6 be skaldi TU, bei skjaldi R, bei skaldi W. Verse 150/1 verstan first written vsarstan or vstrstan R (?cf. Skj A I 5). 2 [v]atzt rodd U, vazraud T, uaz rodd W; vatzravla R (all these spellings probably imply a first element vatns-). 4 niraan TW, nijan R, o[...]iaan U. P. 45/12 la steinsins TW, la steins U, asa stensins R. 3 Chapters 3943 omitted in W. 22 Andvari T, Andvarri U, Andvari R. 27 taka repeated after bauginn af sr, which is written af sr bauginn with transposing signs R; bauginn af sr T, af sr bauginn U. P. 46/5 at repeated above line after helzk R. P. 50/8 hndin TC; added above line in later hand R. P. 50/20 Sim- RT, Sin- C (snfiotli). Verse 155/2 lfs TC, afls R. 3 ars] of RT, ar er C. 5 blandin C, brunninn RT. Verse 156/2 fylkis C, fylkir RT. Verse 157/3 nma C, nma RT. 5 blserkjar C, blserkjan R, blserkja T. 6 baullfagr gtu RT, ballfagr gauta C. P. 52/19 mala TC, mla R. Verse 162/2 snga altered from stivga- ?R. Verse 163/3 mlum T. Verse 179/7 jrni varar T, jrnar fjarar R. Verse 180/8 at T, ar R.

142

Skldskaparml

Verse 183/6 feldrar T, feldrat R. P. 58/32 Vseti TWC, Viseti R. P. 59/14 Hrlfr TWU, Hlofr R; abbreviated in C. Verse 185/1 alla TWU, allan RC. 2 -lauks written -lecs (or -lets) with written above (if this is not the sign for -ur-, giving letvrs) R; leiks C, -lauks TWU. Verse 187/3 -ins TWAB, -nis RUC. bar TWUAB, ba R, haug C. 4 saman UABC, sama RTW. Verse 189/1 tti TWUBC, ti A, Veitti R (the emendation is required for the alliteration, and veitti would require the acc. in lines 38). 3 Sifjar WUA, Sif[...] C, sviar R, suuar T, sjfar B. 4 dalnauar TWUABC, dalnaunar R. Verse 190/1 gunnveitir UABC, gunnveiti RTW. Verse 194/14, 78 Words in brackets supplied from TWCAB. A line has gone from the top of the page in R. 2 -skildis C. ru T. mildi C. 3 of] um CU. 4 hafley B. 7 follir T, fellis C. 8 ra C. Verse 195/1 Gap supplied from TWUABC. Verse 198/2 holla apparently altered from olla R. Verse 200/4 tgdrapu R, taug drapo T, taugdrapu C, tgdrapu A, taugdrapa W. P. 63/16 lg R, i. e. lg; written lag WAC, lg U, log T. 17 Lg written log RT; lg WA, la[g] U, lag C; cf. p. 40/1920. Verse 202/3 lg CUA, R; space left open in W, T omits. Verse 203/2 Bil A, r RTWUC. 3 vn TWUAC, vetz R. Verse 204/2 trur A, trar R, tra TWC, tro[.] U. Verse 205/3 slng A, sng RTWUC. Verse 206/2 logit TWC, abbreviated in A, logvt R. 3 velti(-) TWAC, vilti R. P. 64/278 Gap supplied from TWC; rr ea reynir UA. Verse 210/23 Gap supplied from TW(U)AC (fyrir abbreviated in TWUA; fr C). P. 65/5 Gap supplied from TW; Kormakr kva AC. Verse 211/2 morreins RTWUAC. 3 hildibrrum WA, hildum brrum R, hildibarrum ?T (altered to -brrum), hildar brrum C, [. . .]brrum U. Verse 213/4 regni A, r[..]ni U, regn C, rgni W, rogni or regni T, regin R. Verse 214/3 vir TW, vinnr A, vi RUC (abbreviated in R and C). 4 as- W, es- RT, l- CA, egg- U.

Textual notes

143

Verse 216/1 bgi bja TWUA, baud auglis galla C, bgi gja R. Verse 217/1 hrafn ne TWUA, hrafn of C, hrafne R. 3 gnar stafr UAC (C lacks the rest of the verse); lacking RT, open space filled in a later hand W. Cf. verse 314. Verse 220/4 hrsgrsnis RT, hrsnis W, hrmgrmnis A, hergrmnis C, Hrungnis U. Verse 222/2 gnast C, gnestr TWUA. Verse 223/2 sm- written svm R. Verse 226/3 ttit TWUA, ttir R; abbreviated C. Verse 227/1 -faldinn UA, RT omit; -eldum C. W also omits -faldinn and has lmum after hildi. 2 ok TWUA; me C. Sigvalda WC. Verse 230/3 bjrt TWUA, bjrk RC. 4 benfr T, ben fur WU, ben fyrir R; benfr fyrir C, ben benfr vi A. Verse 232/3 rfrs TW (altered from rfs in T?), rfr RCUA. 4 -svell TWUA, -svells RC. Verse 236/1 yngva TAC (-va abbreviated in A), yng[..] U, unga W, vnga R (this would normally be read unga; v and y alternate, however, in the scribes orthography, see Introduction p. liv) and W. Verse 238/2 baugnafas TA, baugnafar W, baugnars (altered to -nafrs) U, gaugn nafads C, baugnafagrs R. Verse 241/4 Urr W, ur RTA, rur U; C illegible. Verse 242/4 hjlmldum RW, hjlmeldum T, hjlmeldar A, hjlmseld er U; C lacks this line. Verse 243/3 foldar WUA, fyldar R, fylda T. Verse 246/4 bors A (borz), [b]ors U, bezt R, bez T, bozt W. Verse 247/1 skk TA, skaut R, skg WU. 3 hagl TWU, hagl at A, hagls R. Verse 248/4 hlut RT, hlut W, hlur A. Verse 249/1 kvu ik TWA, qovt it R. P. 72/2 Konungr has a large ornamental capital in R and space for one in W. 11 menstt R, stt TWU. Verse 250/1 um eris a R (though the last a may belong to the next word, which may then be avsc- rather than osc-, giving the phrase at sk- rather than a sk-), um erris a W, um erris an T. 2 snum abbreviated sin with superior stroke R. 4 boga altered from boa W, boa RT. 6 en TW, of R. Verse 251/3 hilmi TW. 4 dreyrugar T (ending abbreviated), dreyrugra W. 6 orrostu TW, orrosta R.

144

Skldskaparml

Verse 252/4 glammr or glamms ?R, glamma TW. mun W, man RT. 6 Heins RTW. sttu TW; R is illegible, but may have read sttu. 7 svra W, svika R; T omits. Verse 253/4 Line supplied from verse 158; R has e(tc.), WT omit. Verse 254/7 at RTW. 8 ralfr of R, ralfr af TW. Verse 255/2 lk TWUA, lr R. 4 landa WA, handa RTU. P. 74/3 orrosta TWUA, orrostu R. 5 sv er TWUA. P. 74/14 hestr T, hest R, WUA omit. Verse 257/1 fri UA, frir RTW (written with abbreviation for -ur R). 2 R adds at after segir. Verse 258/1 Sveia TWA, sveita R. P. 74/25 Sjreks- W, Sjrreks T, siaRaks altered from snaRaks R (U and A omit this sentence). Verse 259/2 noran WUA, norra T. Verse 260/3 hna W, hrtar (or hvtar?) T, hvta RA. 4 rann] emendation (SnE 184887, I 4423); ann R; T omits; W has hranna after ugtanni, A has hvallands ugtanna (apparently altered to -tanni). U omits the first half of this verse. Verse 262/4 nakkva RW, nkkva T, nockvt U and A (abbreviated). Verse 263/1 muntu W, montu T, m tv U, mantu A, written mundu R. otri TWA; akri U. Verse 264/4 -vandil RWTUA. Verse 266/1 stkkvi WUA, strkkvi T. Verse 267/1 hlir WU, hli A; written hloir R, hlodir T. P. 76/23 heims R. Verse 271/4 slkonungr hreinni UA; Mru sveini (cf. verse 272/2) RTW. Verse 272/3 mildingr UA, milding RWT. Verse 274/2 gramr WTUA. 3 hans UA, hann RTW (abbreviated in all five manuscripts). 4 heilagt TUA (W illegible). Verse 275/4 launat R (or perhaps launac) and T, launag W, launa ek UA. P. 78/17 ok] R adds var. Verse 278/3 jarrendr TWU, jararndr R (cf. verse 5/7). Verse 279/2 TWU, und R. Verse 280/1 hirar TWU, hildar R. Verse 281/1 frknu U, frknum RTW. P. 79/20 Ok T, WU omit; perhaps written in margin in R; it is not visible in photographs.

Textual notes

145

P. 80/9 at TWU, af R. 13 kallair TWU, kalla eir R. Verse 283/1 snjallir TWU. Verse 284/2 opt TWU, optr R. P. 80/27 heimenn TW, hirmenn R, hei[e]ng U. Verse 285/3 at R, en W, enn T, it U. Verse 289/4 sk TU, sr R, s W. Verse 290/1 sn um U, sn en RTW. Verse 291/2 -mltr TW, -rr U. 4 vii TW, vini (for vni?) R. grna W; grna T, perhaps givna R (U omits lines 34). Verse 292/3 ltr RT, ltk W, [l]et ek U. Verse 296/1 hleyti U, hljti R, hlti T (written with ), hlti W. 2 herarfr TWU. Verse 297/1 uru TW, urir R, uri U. Verse 298/1 firr U, fir RTW. Verse 299/4 mildi RW, mildri U, mild i T. P. 83/13 Most of the rest of Skldskaparml is lacking in W; the fragments that remain are not close enough to the text of R to be usable for emendation. 15 mr TU, mr ok A, mrr R. 16 nokkurn TUA, nokkvonr R. Verse 300b/2 skapsmi TUA, skipsmi C, skapsk R. 7 hagsmi TUAC, hagsk R. Verse 302/3 r TUA, r RC. ok TUA, at RC. skeiar U, skeia RTCA. P. 84/19 Eyjlfr TUA, Eyvindr R, eyuuind C. C gives the nickname as skldaspillir (abbreviated). Verse 305/1 Tormilar TUAC, Tormildar R. 3 kva UC, kveu RTA (i. e. imperative sg. with suffixed pron.?but R is abbreviated unclearly and may have kvu, which might be interrogative pl.; cf. verse 94/3 t. n.). snytrir T (altered from snyrtir) and UAC, snyrtir R. Verse 308/2 jarhlutr R (abbreviated -hlr with superscript curl) and TA, jarhlut C (abbreviated), iardr lvtr U. 3 hn A, hvn U, hns RTC. beinan TUC, beinir A, beian R. P. 85/20 mlin TA, msin RC. P. 86/1 Haraldr] abbreviated Har with superscript stroke RC, Hallvarr T, Hallv(arr) A. Verse 311/3 heinlands CA, leinlands RT. 4 eitrsvlum nari C, eitrsvlun nauri (with u subpuncted) R, eitrsvalu nari T, eitir (ending abbreviated) svlum nari A.

146

Skldskaparml

Verse 313/1 fr CA, fram RT. Verse 315/2 sendi] emendation (Konr Gslason 1874, 45861 (269); 1879, 189; 1892, 115); sendu RA, senda TC. Verse 316/4 frnleitr] with abbreviation for -ir R. Verse 317/1 rgildis RTAC (spelled with Au- or Av- in all four; ending unclear in T). Eldi RTA, aldri C. Verse 318/1 byrju UC; omitted in RTAB. Verse 320/2 roin TUA, ro with abbreviation sign R; drifinn C. P. 88/8 motraudnir TU, mraunir RC. Verse 323/2 gylar R (almost certainly). 4 fen RTAB, ben CU. Verse 324/3 lra ABC, lri R, aldra T, ylir U. Verse 326/4 Sinir T, synir RC; Simr U, snar (sna) A. Verse 327/4 Falhfnir T, Falljafnir RC, Falfnir UA. 6 Gyllis of getit TA (-it abbreviated in A), Gyllis um getit UC, Gullir of getinn R (though the name is written gvll with abbreviation sign i. e. perhaps for Gullinn?but v may be for y, and it should perhaps be expanded Gyllis). Verse 328/1 Dagi R and T, Dagr UAC (verse not in B). 3 H U, H T, lacking in R; the line reads haulda huatra in C, hialmr hfta (i. e. -feta) in A. P. 90/1 draga TCA, dragu R. 2 fylgja deginum C; RT omit; daginn A. Verse 331/2 grla (or gerla) fregit T, gjrla fregit U, gjrla talit C; gera R. 5 Himinhrjr CU, Himins hrjtr R, himins riotr T. P. 90/17 verheimr TC, veiheimr R, vheimr A. Verse 332/2 vnsur TA, vnsundr R, me vfur (altered later to vnsur) C. 4 pi AC; written opi R, pi T. 6 hlummur] written hlav- with a subpuncted R; hlumur T, hlmmur A; (kalla . . .) hviu C. Verse 335/2 magnandi TUAB, magnai RC. 3 bregr written with abbreviation for -ir or -er R; berr C. Verse 337/1 dynfsir dsar] emendation (Konr Gslason 1879, 191); dynfsar dsir RTUABC. Verse 339/2 Gera beitu TUC, Gera beitur A, geira beitur B; apparently altered from (or to?) gra eitu R. 4 faxa TUAB, fxu RC. Verse 340/2 at R, af TABC. hrm RC, hrum TA, hri B. Verse 341/2 lfr TUABC; ylgr R. Verse 342/2 vanda TUABC; vandla R. Verse 343/4 val written vel RTUBC, vl A. Cf. the common Norwegian form val for vel (Noreen 1923, 168).

Textual notes

147

P. 92/26 R adds sem Arna after salt. Verse 344/1 hv TAC. stti TA; sveiti R, s. C. Verse 345/1 mtir A, Meita RTC. 2 lagar TA, laar R (written la with superior curl) and C. Verse 346/1 vr TA, er RC. 2 glum RTAC (written with o in all MSS, i. e. perhaps for glum). Verse 347/1 Frisk RTAC; cf. verse 126. 4 rsvl TA, tsvl RC; cf. verse 126. Verse 348/1 hristir TA, hristum RC. 2 sikul- TA, svikul- RC. Verse 349/2 linir TA, linum RC. Verse 354/2 borheim] emendation (SnE 184887, I 498); borheimr RTAC. Verse 356/3 skeru C, skeru or skoru T, skeri AB, skora (or skori or skoru) R. Verse 358/1 bi R, bei TB, bdi C; the usual normalisation of these forms would be bi or bei; the latter word would be the normal acc. pl. of be but in this position in the line a long syllable is required. A has be; beja is an emendation (Konr Gslason 1879, 194). Verse 359/4 at A (abbreviated), ar RTC and B (abbreviated). P. 95/23: Verse 360 attributed to Kormakr, altered to Ormr R; Ormr TAC; B illegible. 28 orleifr RC, orleikr TAB (cf. 62/24, where T has orleifr but RWAC orleikr). Verse 361/2 laur TA, lau RC; B illegible. 3 grnn] emendation; grns RTCA; [. . .]s B. Verse 362/3 varra] emendation (Konr Gslason, cf. Skj A I 482); vru RA and B (abbreviated), vara C, fru T. Verse 364/3 ek T, er RA; BC omit line 3, A has space for a fourth line. Verse 365/34 Supplied from TA(B) (T lacks mikit ver; B only partly legible: mr ar (or r) fengu miir (or miki) ve[. . .] fyrir ofan sj); lacking RC. Verse 366/3 written tygill R, -tygil TABC. Verse 367/1 sum BC, suo with nasal stroke (?) R; s um TA. Verse 371/2 sveit C, su eik T; lacking in UA, illegible in B. Verse 373/1 slar C; altered from flir R(?); flu T, flar AB. Verse 376/1 Eymit UA; spelled with in R, in T; Eimi C, B illegible. 3 Heina UAB, hveina RT, hna C. Verse 377/1 fljtt TUAB, skjtt C (the beginning of the word is erased in R; tt is a possible word, see r (2) in Glossary).

148

Skldskaparml

Verse 378/1 Bjartr UC, Bjart RT, Bratt or Brtt AB (A has an accent). 3 of A, af RTC, r B (U lacks lines 24). P. 98/27 Part of a leaf of R has been removed (it must have been separate from what remains of the leaf, which does not have a line of writing above the top one extant), leaving a gap in the text to 99/11which is supplied from T(U)AC (B does not include ch. 63). 28 skvaldri ABC, Sklason T; U omits. Verse 379/1 En knttusk U. 2 written alldrei T, alldregi ABC, alldreginn U. 3 leygr UAC, laugr T (perhaps for lgr?). of T, um UAC. sj U. P. 99/57 C has the words in this list in a different order (r aptan after line 7). 5 essi stundanna] Stunda heiti A. r] U omits. 6 vr, haust transposed U. mnur lacking in C. vikur C. 7 morgin AC; U omits. 8 enn] U omits. nttarinnar C (after next two words). Alvssmlum AC, lvismlum U. Verse 380/2 en] lacking in UA. mola ?T. Helju] so U, but the added above line in a later hand; me goum AC. 3 kllu er] kalla AC. grma me goum] grmu ginnregin AC. 6 Njrun TAC; the r is perhaps written in the margin of R; U omits. P. 99/21 Large ornamental capital H in R and space for one in B (which omits the first sentence) and C; B has the heading Hfingja heiti. Capitulum. 22 kallat] + er C. Verse 382/2 flags blakk emendation (Konr Gslason 1889, 3058); flakk RTB, fleinblakk C. Verse 383/4 sk vf RT, skvf C; [. . .]fr B. Verse 384/4 hstr C, nstr RT. Verse 385/1 hneykir T; n altered from a or e ?R; hnykkir B, hnekkir C. Verse 386/3 halt ek RTB (the a unclear in T and B), helt ek C. P. 101/1018 Text lacking in R due to part of page being missing (see t. n. to 98/27); supplied from T. 18 Emundar UC, Eymundar B, Eyvindar T. hins rka C, in rka R, lacking in TUB. Verse 395/4 hrr RTC, hrrs U. P. 103/3 ling- spelled with au- or av- in RTABC here (o in U) and at p. 103/12 in RTC (o with inferior or superior hook AB; U omits) and in verse 401 in RUBCT (- R, Av- U, - A, Au- BCT). 8 eru] so TUA; vru B, clause omitted in C; altered from (or to?) vru R. 10 Vlsunga TC and ?R, Vlsungs U; omitted in AB. 13 large ornamental capital R.

Textual notes

149

Verse 399/4 geiring TUAB, geirings RC. Verse 401/2 TUA, lacking RC (B illegible). 4 aflgjr T, aflger UAB, aflgjr RC (l added later in R, i. e. the word is altered from afgjr). Verse 402/4 jar TUA, jar R (i. e. jar slg?), yiodar C. Verse 405/1 vi altered from gi R; efi T, fi A, fe B, fC, vi U. 2 vr om R, vr erum TUC, verrm A, uerru B. Verse 408/4 und sik TUABC, vi ik R. Verse 410/3 au] so TABC (aud); apparently altered from auld (i. e. ld) R (though perhaps audd = eydd is intended? Cf. SnE 184887, III xxvi; it might also be read auu); auit U. Verse 411/2 Remainder of line cut off in margin R. Cf. verse 386. T completes the quatrain with a slightly different wording (line 3 ml helt sem slan); AC quote line 1 only and add ok fyrr er (var) ritat (before line 1 in C). The verse is omitted entirely in U; in B it is omitted here, but included at verse 386. P. 105/26 eir A; repeated over line division R; eir menn TUBC. P. 106/9 snillingar TUABC, slillingar R. 12 skrj TA, skjr RC, skrj B; U omits. 18 Snyrti- TUABC, Stnyrti R. P. 107/3 hefr T, hefir BC; RAU omit. 8 samnar eru TC, samnar UA, sfnur B, samnrof eru R (sanr of; of may be a mistake for ef). 22 hlfrmis UCA, hlfrynis (hlfrnis?) R, hlfmmis T. vinr TB, vin A, vitr R, vitr mar C; U omits. 27 tlunarmann T, tlanarmann UABC (written as two words in UAC), tlunarmar R (written -m with r above; cf. note to p. 106/1118, p. 224 below). P. 108/3 Heitir ok mir TAB (mostly illegible in B), RC omit. 5 rna UC, rn RT, A omits. 27 sjafni TAB, sjlfs RC; lacking in U. 34 alnbogi A, aulnbogi C, Avlbogi U, albogi B, lmbogi RT. 37 hauks apparently altered from havs R. P. 109/1 ska TUAB (C omits). ] written twice, small with a point after, then large, i. e. kendir . fti RT. 2 il TUAB; lacking RC. 3 ftinn ok kent T, ftrinn ok kenn R; (kalla hann tr . . ) ok kenna U, (kallar . . .) ftrinn ok kenna C, (kalla . . .) ok kenna hann B, (kall [with curl for ending] . . .) ftinn ok kenna A. 4 ok orsnilli] ok or written above line R; but TUAB omit these two syllables; C has orsnilli but omits ok. 5 hjaldr TABC. 11 brigri UABC, brig, reii RT. 17 veitir] so TAB; altered from heitr R; heitr C. lisinni TAB, lii snu R, lisinni snu C. Verse 412 Heading: Hr eru ritu heiti skonunga A, S[. . .]eiti B.

150

Skldskaparml

Verse 413/8 Gap supplied from TABC. Verse 414/4 Mvill AC, mvill B, Meuill altered to Mefill T. Verse 416/3 Gautrekr C, Gaurekr RT; Gavr AB. Verses 41718 Jtnar written in margin R (probably in a later hand). TAB have the heading Jtna heiti (added in margin in C). Verse 419/2 rvaldi T, vvaldi R; rfaldi AC. Verse 423 has the heading Trllkvenna heiti in TAB. Verse 425/5 Njrn T; written niavrn R; mrn A, mrn B, Morunn C. Verse 426/3 mgerr TA, Ungerr RC; B illegible. Verse 428 has the heading rs heiti in T. P. 113/17 sa hetja RT (as last line of preceding verse). As heading to verse 429, C has sa heiti, T has Snir ins, and A and B have Heiti sona ins. Cf. next note. Verse 432 Heading (after verse 428, cf. p. 113/17): sa heiti AB (+ capitulum B). Verse 433 Heading: Heiti synja A, synju heiti B. Verse 435/47 Written in margin with indicative sign in R, but now cut away; supplied from TCAB. 4 Hrn ok ungra ABC. 5 ok Gefn AB, ok Gjf C. 6 hit ABC. 8 Gersimi A, Grsimi T, Gessem C; B illegible. Verse 438 Heading: Kvenna heiti kend A, Kvenna heiti B. 7 man svarkr C, mansvarkr RT; the line reads svarkr drs ok man in A, illegible in B. Verse 439 Heading: Manna heiti AB. Verse 441/5 ofltar TAC, ofla[...] B, afltar R. Verse 449 Heading: Orrostu heiti AB. 8 flk jara C, flkjara RTA; fjlkara B. Verse 451 Heading: Svera heiti AB. Verse 452/7 Hneitir TAB, heitir R and C, where it is placed before herberi. Verse 453/7 grindlogi TAB, grindlagi R; garinn lagi C. Verse 455/1 hfuhvessingr TAB, hfus spesingr C; page damaged in R. 2 hausamlvir TAB, hausa mjlvir C, hausamlnir R. 6 brimir T, brimarr AB, brumr C. 7 written skreiver in R, skreyvir T, skryvir A, skry[ir] B, skruir C. Verse 456/8 written vgia lstir R, vegia lestir T, vgialstir A (with dot above g for gg?), [..]eggia l[..]ir B, vexga (or vega) lestir C. Verse 460 Heading: Heiti sveri AB.

Textual notes

151

Verse 463 Heading: xa heiti A, xar heiti B. Verse 464 Heading: Spjts heiti AB. 2 df len R (with accent over e; perhaps as one word) and T (doflen), df lenz AB, dauflenn C. Verse 465 Heading: rvar heiti AB. Verse 466/5 Jlfs A, Jlfs B, Jls RT, i auls C. Verse 467 Heading: Boga heiti AB. Verse 469 Heading: Skjaldar heiti AB. Verse 470/3 baljs RT; bljs AB, bar ljs C. Verse 471/4 -fornir RCA, perhaps for -frnir, -frnir T; -fjrnir B. Verse 472 Heading: Hjlms heiti AB. 5 skolir R, sklkr T, sklkr A, sklkr B, skollr C. Verse 474 Heading: Brynju heiti AB. 4 borofa T, bfara A (-fa), blfara B, bofda C. sn T (with a stop between) and C, sn R; yn syn AB (though B may have y). Verse 475 Heading: Sjar heiti A, Sjfar (or Sjfar?) heiti B. 7 sog sami AC, sogsami RT, sogsa[..]i B. Verse 476/12 Gaps supplied from T. velfrr sm (or -sni) A, [. . .]l ferr (or frr?) saman B, vel forsm C. 6 vgir TABC. Verse 478/3 Rnkelda R; Rn Klga AB, Rn. Kelda TC. Verse 479 Heading: heiti A (V written and deleted before ), Vatna heiti B. Verse 480/5 bro RTA, bra B, bro or bra C. See Introduction, pp. liiiliv. Verse 481/3 written mavra RC; Mrn T (Maurn), A (mrn) and B (mrn). Verse 485 Heading: Fiska heiti AB. Verse 486/3 skr TA, skr or sitr R; litr C (?), lkr B. Verse 488/1 yrsklingr TA, ysklingr C, [...]klingr B. Verse 489 Heading: Hvala heiti AB. Verse 491 Heading: Skipa heiti AB. Verse 495 Heading: Heiti skipi AB. 56 Gap supplied from TABC; top of page damaged in R. stjrnvi TAB, stjrnvir C (ABC also add ok after stuill). Verse 496/12 Letters supplied from TC. ok stingr AB. Verse 497/1 Hnn TAB, lacking in RC. Verse 500/5 kjalar- TABC, kilar- R (with i above line). 7 hnokkmii R, hnakkmii TABC. ausker RT, austker AB, austsker C. Verse 501 Heading: Jarar heiti AB. 1 rvfa RTB, rofa AC. 5 Ff

152

Skldskaparml

AB, Sif R, lacking TC. 6 barmr TAB, barmr R (perhaps for bamr (so C); cf. ttbarmr, ttbamr in Glossary). Verse 503 Heading: xna heiti AB (perhaps Yxna in A as in line 2). 9 bautar A, bautur B, baurur RT, baurrur C. Verse 504/3 Hfir C, Bfir R (bevir), begir T, Kfir (or Kfir) AB. 6 Hrr AB, Hr RT, Her- C. 7 Arfr AB; Arnr RT, Arn C. Verse 505/6 hreii C, hrei RTAB (see Introduction p. liv). Verse 506/2 kvigia with second i subpuncted R. Verse 507 Heading: Hrts heiti A, Hrta heiti B. Verse 508 Heading: Hafrs heiti A, Hafra heiti B. 6 talir TA; talalir RC (B illegible). Verse 509 Heading: Geitar heiti A, Geita heiti B. 3 kolmla TAC; kolmsa R, kolm[..]a B. Verse 510 Heading: Bjarnar heiti AB. 3 written islfr R, isolfr TABC. Verse 512 Heading: Hjartar heiti AB. This verse follows on from the previous list without a break in RTC, and the names in it thus seem to be taken as names for a bear. 1 Hjrtr AB (with the space for the initial H left blank in B), jrtr T, jrir RC. 4 mtronir AB, mjhronir C; metronir RT. Verse 513 Heading: Galtar heiti A. 2 Hrmnir T; Hrinnir R, irminir A, jvimnir B, hrinir C. 4 brgr TC (baurgr) and AB; baugr R. 5 tarr] rarr or rare T, and R may also have rarr; rar C, rai A, ras B. 6 rr (or rr, rr?cf. BM under rur) T, ror AB; lacking RC. Verse 514 Heading: Vargs heiti AB. 3 Hati TABC. 10 skavllkini RTC, skolkini A, skollkine B. Verse 516 has the heading Himins heiti in T, Heima heiti in AB. 1 Gap supplied from T; eru heimar ABC; top of page damaged in R. 5 Hei|yrnir over line division R; Heiyrnir TC, Heiornir AB. 6 Hregg- TABC. 19 Skatyrnir TA, scattvrnir R (v perhaps for y, see Introduction p. liv), skaturnir C, skathynir B. Verse 517 has the heading Slar heiti in AB. 8 Httatal follows in RT, without any heading in R, though it there begins with a large ornamented capital. In T there is the heading Upphaf Httatals and a large capital H in Hvat.

GENERAL NOTES
P. 1/2 In SnE 184887, I, ch. 1 of Skldskaparml begins at 5/9; 5/256/29 is placed immediately before, and entitled Eptirmli (Epilogue); and 1/25/8, entitled Bragarur (the speeches of Bragi), is made into a continuation of Gylfaginning (which is what it appears to be in U, which begins at 1/2 essir sir; cf. 20/18 n.), and given ch. nos 558 (here G558). P. 1/8 dmendr : it is not clear what they are going to be judges of in this episode, but the use of the word suggests that the conversation might have at some stage been conceived as a contest like that in Gylfaginning; cf. 42/1920. P. 1/911 Baldr and Hr are absent (though no reason is given), but Nanna is present, so this must be before the death of Baldr (cf. Gylf. 46/33), and thus before the events of Gylfaginning. Compare the list of sir in Gylf. 216 (which also includes inn and twelve other sir including Baldr and Hr, but omits Hnir). P. 1/31 This whole story corresponds closely with the account in Haustlng (verses 92104 below), and there is verbal correpondence here with verse 98/8. P. 1/32 ftr : i. e. Loka (so TWU). P. 1/37 at sinni probably refers to the sirs journey home rather than to the conversation between gir and Bragi (i. e. it goes with fer rather than sg). P. 2/24 The narrator assumes knowledge of the account of Iunn and her apples in Gylf. 25/238; it is odd that though the narrator here is her husband Bragi, there is no hint of the fact in his narration. It looks as though it was first compiled for a different speaker. P. 2/33 Though the description is not absolutely clear, it looks as though the author is implying that Loki was having oral intercourse with the goat. Bestiality would then be added to Lokis other sexual perversions. P. 3/67 felum rnum: cf. 3/9, 5/27, 109/1920. On poetic language as concealment cf. Spearing 1987, 97. P. 3/35 brurson: probably an error for son (WU; W has Suttungr jtunn son Gillings). P. 5/924 The analysis of poetic diction in U (SnE 184887, II 296) is quite different, and contains some details similar to parts of ch. 31 below.

154

Skldskaparml

P. 5/13 No question is asked here about httir, and no explanation is given. Verse-forms are discussed in Httatal, and the topic is clearly being reserved for there. P. 5/18 Second er redundant, though there are other examples of ok being used to introduce a main clause after a subordinate one; see Glossary under ok. P. 5/24 Since Snorri is discussing kennings which substitute the name of one god for the name of another it is clear that in this passage the element -tr is to be understood as the name of the god Tr (i. e. the Tr of victory = inn; the Tr of the chariot = rr). Nevertheless it is likely that in early poetry the element would have been understood to be the common noun tr = god. See Glossary s. v. tr and Index s. v. Tr. P. 5/25 It is difficult to say precisely what etta refers to. It may refer to what went before rather than to what follows (cf. Wessn 1940, 13). P. 5/325 Cf. the rather longer reference to the Prologue to Snorra Edda in B (SnE 184887, II 533; quoted in the Introduction, p. xlv above); von See 1988, 289, argues that upphafi bkar could refer to the beginning of Gylfaginning rather than to the Prologue. But U omits the reference to the beginning of the book, B only mentions the contents of the Prologue, and RWT all continue er sagt er fr atburum eim er mannflkit viltist fr rttri tr, which must refer to the Prologue. And anyway the reference of the rest of the sentence is more specifically to the last chapter of Gylfaginning. P. 5/366/29 Some details in this account correspond to Trjumanna saga (compare 6/237 with Trjumanna saga 1963, 209, 229, 2368), but others are rather different (e. g. compare 6/312, 289 with Trjumanna saga 1963, 17980, 237). P. 6/518: see Gylf. ch. 48 (cf. note to Gylf. 45/10). P. 6/257: cf. Vafrnisml 51. P. 6/28 str verk: perhaps a reference to the Aeneid and other accounts of Aeneas as founder of the Roman nation (e. g. those in Breta sgur, Hauksbk 18926, 231302, especially p. 233). P. 6/32 hann: inn (TUB). The text at 6/30 follows on from 5/24, although Reiartr is actually a name for rr. Cf. the ula of names for inn in A and B, SnE 184887, II 4723, 5556. Verse 1 Skj A I 344, B I 316; verse 4 of orfinnsdrpa, composed in honour of Earl orfinnr of Orkney, probably soon after his

General Notes

155

death in 1064. Only in SnE. Other quotations from this poem are verses 290, 282 [= 344], 297, 384, 106, 298. See Fidjestl 1982, 1312, who points out that some of the verses Finnur Jnsson assigns to this poem could in fact be from Rgnvaldsdrpa (see note to verse 114), especially verses 1, 290 and 384. Cf. also note to verse 105. There are also verses from orfinnsdrpa quoted in Orkneyinga saga, Morkinskinna, Fagrskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna, Hkr and H. P. 6/37 fur is the regular gen. form of fair both as a simplex and as a second element in a compound (spelled -r in R at 6/37). In compounds, however the nom. can be -fr (6/32) and the gen. -frs or -fr. See Noreen 1923, 420 n. 2. The first element is spelled All- each time in R. Verse 2 Skj A I 191, B I 182; cf. NN 2256. Only in SnE; probably from a lausavsa, of which 13 others attributed to the same poet are quoted in Hvarar saga sfirings (cf. F VI xcii). Verse 3 Skj A I 11920, B I 114; also quoted as verse 226. The second half of the verse is quoted as verse 337. The whole verse appears as one of 11 lausavsur attributed to Vga-Glmr in VgaGlms saga (F IX 95) and is also in Landnmabk (rarbk, see Skarsrbk 1958, 114 n.); half of one of the others appears in Skldskaparml as verse 255; one (half-)stanza is also quoted in Reykdla saga, F X 234. For the narrative contexts of the two verses quoted in Skldskaparml see F IX 95, 89. Verse 4 Skj A I 319, B I 295. On this poem see Frank 1978, 978. Thought to be from a poem in memory of Gizurr Gullbr(rskld), who fell at the battle of Stiklarstair in 1030; only in Snorra Edda. Verse 17 (also only in SnE) is taken to be from the same poem, and a third quotation is found in Hkr II 382 and H 572. Quotations from at least four other poems by Refr are found as verses 30, 124, 126, 127, 214, 216, 234, 246, 264, 347, 354, 363, and in Httatal after verse 8. A further couplet is attributed to him in Edda Magnsar lafssonar (294 and 377). In Hkr II 358 and H 543 Gizurr gullbr is described as this poets fstri, which may mean that Refr was Gizurrs pupil (cf. verse 4/34: see Glossary under koma). Cf. Gizurr in Index. See also Landnmabk (F I 10001, 1045), Eyrbyggja saga, Njls saga. In line 2 alliteration falls on er, see NN 2070 D, 2338; Kuhn 1983, 11620, 1645, 1734; and the a in skaldi has to be short to provide aalhending (see Glossary under skld).

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Verse 5 Skj A I 6970, B I 61; verse 11 of Hleygjatal. The reference is to Earl Sigurr Hkonarson, who died in 962. Also in Hkr I 207, Fagrskinna 101, Flb I 67 (where the poem is called Hleygjadrpa); lines 58 also quoted as verse 278 and in TGT 27 and 103 (in W). Other verses of this poem are quoted as verses 33, 40, 23, 61, 220, 307. Further quotations appear in Hkr, Fagrskinna and Flb. The poem is largely a list of rulers, and clearly an imitation of Ynglingatal (hence perhaps Eyvindrs nickname), though less of it is preserved than of that poem; both use the metre kviuhttr, cf. Httatal 102. Hleygjatal was composed about 985 for Earl Hkon Sigurarson and traced his ancestry back to Smingr son of Yngvi-Freyr, according to Snorris Prologue to Hkr (I 4; H 4; according to these sources Yngvi-Freyr (Ingunar-Freyr H ) was son of Njrr, like Freyr in the Prose Edda); but Smingr was son of inn according to the Prologue to Gylf., p. 6, and also Hkr I 21, where his mother is said to be Skai. WTBU have the acc. in line 1, but the nom. is perhaps explicable as anacoluthon (It was S. whom . . .). It is the obj. of nmu. Cf. Hkr I 2067. Verse 6 Skj A I 78, B I 68; taken to belong to Glmrs Grfeldardrpa in memory of Haraldr grfeldr of Norway who fell at Limfjorden in 970 (in spite of the appearance of inn to aid a Christian king; see Fidjestl 1982, 91, who thinks it somewhat doubtful whether this verse belongs in the poem). The striking idea that inn was in the king in battle is also commented on by Finnur Jnsson (192024, I 526). There are other quotations from Grfeldardrpa in verses 32, 279 (uncertain according to Fidjestl 1982, 91), 394 (= 279/12), 243 and in Hkr, TM, Fagrskinna, TGT and Landnmabk. See Fidjestl 1982, 23033 for an appreciation of this poem. Glmr Geirason appears in Landnmabk and a number of sagas of Icelanders, including Laxdla saga and Reykdla saga. Verse 7 Skj A I 64, B I 57; verse 1 of Hkonarml, probably composed shortly after Hkon gis death c. 961 (or perhaps a few years later, see Fidjestl 1991, 124). Like the anonymous Eirksml (quoted in verse 20 below), of which it is evidently an imitation (cf. note to verse 5), it is one of the skaldic poems composed in eddic style and/or using mythological and legendary motifs that seem to have been in vogue in Norway in the tenth century (cf. also notes to verses 9 and 407, and see Fidjestl 1982, 17980; 1991; de Vries 19647, I 13646; Httatal pp. 834); the

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metre is a mixture of mlahttr and ljahttr (Httatal 95, 100). Further verses from the poem are quoted in verses 11 and 393, but most of the surviving poem, including this verse, appears in Hkr I 18697 and Fagrskinna 8695. Hkon was a Christian, but did not succeed in making his country Christian, and this poem celebrates him as one of inns heroes (cf. Gylf. 21, 32). Verse 8 Skj A I 137, B I 129; from Hsdrpa, of which 11 verses are quoted in Skldskaparml : verses 39, 64, 54 (this verse is attributed to Bragi except in U), 210 (repeated as verse 316), 55 and 56, 63, 8, 14, 19, 242, 303; one further quotation (verse 4) is only in the redaction of the second part of Skldskaparml in W, SnE 1924, 112. The poem is not known from elsewhere, though its composition in honour of lfr pi is described in Laxdla saga ch. 29 (F V 80), where it is said that the descriptions in it were of scenes depicted on the panelling of lfrs house at Hjararholt in western Iceland (c. 985). The subjects in the poem are all mythological, and that quoted here is one of several devoted to the funeral of Baldr (Gylf. ch. 49); the other topics treated in the surviving verses are Heimdallrs conflict with Loki (see note to verse 64 below) and rrs fishing for the Midgard serpent (see Gylf. ch. 48). Cf. Turville-Petre 1976, 678. Lines 12 have the same aalhending in each line, cf. Httatal 24 and 47. There is a lausavsa attributed to lfr in Njls saga (F XII, 263), TM II 158 and Kristni saga (1905, 234) in which he refuses to side with the heathens against the missionary angbrandr. Verse 9 Probably by orbjrn hornklofi, and from his poem Haraldskvi or Hrafnsml (verse 12; the poem contains a dialogue between a valkyrie and a raven) rather than jlfr (several verses thought to be from this poem are ascribed to jlfr in manuscripts, see Jn Helgason 1962, 1014); Skj A I 26, B I 24; lacking in B and T (which attributes verse 10 to jlfr instead), open space in U (though U has 8/12). There is another quotation from Haraldskvi in Gylf. 7 (there also attributed to jlfr), but the majority of the surviving verses are found in Fagrskinna and some in Hkr, TM and Haralds ttr in Flb II 5363. The poem is mostly in mlahttr (Httatal 95) and much of it is about Haraldr hrfagris most important victory, that at Hafrsfjrr c. 885, but the poem as a whole may have been composed much later in Haraldrs reign. Cf. note to verse 7 and Fidjestl 1982, 556.

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Verse 10 Skj A I 155, B I 147. The number of scribal errors perhaps indicates that scribes had difficulty with the language of this verse; in line 4 bifkvn trembling wife is a possibility, but might be more applicable to Iceland (a volcanic country) than Norway, and it would not provide the expected hending. It is thought to be from Hkonardrpa, composed in honour of Earl Hkon Sigurarson c. 990 (cf. Hallfrear saga 151); on this poem see Fidjestl 1982, 1026 and Frank 1978, 856 (it could as well be about some other earl). All the surviving verses are found as quotations in Skldskaparml and nowhere else (verses 212, 248, 10, 121, 118 [= 291], 119, 288, 229, 230). The poem is marked by a series of images of the earl gaining the land of Norway as a husband gains or subdues a wife (inns wife Jr); such sexual imagery is found in verses 10, 11819, 121 too, and also in verses 122, 214, 304, 309, 311, 408 (cf. also verse 149). Another poem by Hallfrr is quoted in verse 397. Verse 11 Skj A I 667, B I 59; verse 14 of Hkonarml, also in Hkr I 195; see note to verse 7. Verse 12 Skj A I 79, B I 69; also quoted as verse 308. Taken to be from Kormakrs Sigurardrpa, composed c. 960 in honour of Earl Sigurr Hkonarson, like the other quotations attributed to Kormakr in Skldskaparml (except for verse 360, see note): verses 292, 211, 241, 301, 21. Some of these verses may, however, be from a poem about his son Hkon (see notes to verses 292 and 301), and Fidjestl (1982, 924) and Frank (1978, 117) question whether all the quotations are from the same poem; moreover Kormakr is said in Skldatal (SnE III 274, 280) to have composed also for Haraldr grfeldr. Apart from the quotations in Skldskaparml, the only other verse preserved from Sigurardrpa is in Hkr I 168, which is the only source to give the name of the poem. The poem is distinguished by the forn minni (references to ancient myths or legends) inserted at the end of most quatrains (Httatal 13, hjstlt). Kock (NN 2511; cf. 261) tries to take beitihn as baited bear, but the interpretation is forced and requires further emendation. Verse 13 Skj A I 417, B I 387. This is all that survives of the poetry of Steinrr, about whom nothing further is known. The lines seem to be the beginning of a poem, since they have the conventional reference to the poets talent. Line 1: perhaps emend to

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forngervum?hrsa usually takes the dative case and most manuscripts have litlum in line 4. Verse 14 Skj A I 138, B I 129; verse 9 of Hsdrpa, see note to verse 8. This verse is again about Baldrs funeral. Line 4 appears to be part of a stef (klofastef ); the other part would have provided the subject of hlaut, presumably lfr pis hall, and an object; see Glossary under hljta. Verses 1516 Skj A I 43, B I 37, F II 2556; verse 2324/4 of Sonatorrek, Egills poem about the loss of his sons. The whole poem is found in one independent manuscript only of Egils saga and may not have been in the original (see F II 245). The 12 lines quoted here constitute the only quotation from the poem outside the saga. The comment after verse 16 indicates that the text of verse 15/3 ought to read gujaar; manuscripts of Egils saga mostly have gos (or gs) jaar. Verse 17 Skj A I 319, B I 295. See note to verse 4. The verse-form is alhent (Httatal 44) The poet seems to be expressing his gratitude to inn for the gift of poetry. See Frank 1978, 978; Kuhn 1983, 3056. Verse 18 Skj A I 123, B I 117. See Foote and Wilson 1970, 366. Verse 3 of Vellekla (the title is given in Hkr I and Egils saga). Other quotations in verses 27, 28, 25, 34, 35, 247, 306, 197, 227, 223, 334; many other verses are quoted in Hkr, Fagrskinna, TM; one couplet in TGT. Verse 222 (attributed to Einarr) may also be from this poem. The poem was addressed to Earl Hkon Sigurarson and composed c. 986. The title (lack of gold) is probably an ironic hint that the poet expects reward. Verse 19 Skj A I 138, B I 129; verse 10 of Hsdrpa (see note to verse 8), again about Baldrs funeral. Verse 20 Skj A I 174, B I 164; verse 1 of the anonymous Eirksml on the death of Eirkr blx (died in England 954). Otherwise the poem survives only in Fagrskinna 779, where it states that it was commissioned by Eirkrs queen Gunnhildr. Cf. note to verse 7. It is not clear why this verse should be included in this chapter, as the only reference to inn is by his proper name, and there are no kennings of any kind. Line 10: perhaps read kmi (as U and B; cf. blta in Glossary and Introduction p. liii). Verse 21 Skj A I 80, B I 70; Frank 1978, 11718; see note to verse 12. Allvaldr Yngva aldar he who has complete power over

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the people of Norway is the kind of language more usually applied to a king, and is rather a flattering title for a jarl, even one as powerful as Sigurr Hlaajarl or Earl Hkon. See Yngvi in Index. Verse 22 Skj A I 418, B I 388. Only known from here, and nothing further is known of the poet, whose name is given as rlfr in WB, as orvaldr in U. His date is uncertain, and the context of the verse is obscure. Verse 23 Skj A I 68, B I 60. This quotation, which is thought likely to be from Eyvindrs Hleygjatal (see note to verse 5), does not include a complete sentence, only a relative clause; the antecedent is probably (a kenning for) the mead of poetry, and the subject of the clause must be inn (farmagnur), who, in the form of an eagle, bore the mead back to the gods from where it had been kept under a mountain by the giant Suttungr (pp. 45). The name Surtr must be a giant-name used as a common noun to refer to Suttungr, and may be part of a kenning for the mead of poetry rather than dependent on skkdlum. Verse 24 Skj A I 3, B I 3; from Bragis Ragnarsdrpa, according to Snorri addressed to Ragnarr lobrk, and evidently an expression of gratitude for the gift of a splendid shield, depictions of myths and legends on which are described in the poem. This poem, except for verse 13, which is quoted both in Gylf. ch. 1 and Hkr I 15, and verse 3, which is also in FoGT (see note to verse 154 below), is only preserved in SnE. Other quotations are found as verses 237, 238, 1548, 25054, 48, 42, 51, 153, 366, 110. See also notes to verses 54 and 150. The topics of the extant verses are the fall of Hamir and Srli (cf. Hamisml), Hjaningavg (cf. ch. 50 on p. 72 above), rr fishing for the Midgard serpent (see Gylf. ch. 48), the death of the giant jazi and Gefjuns winning land from the sir (cf. Gylf. ch. 1). See Turville-Petre 1976, 1, and cf. lfr Uggasons Hsdrpa, see note to verse 8. This verse is about rrs fight with the Midgard serpent. Verse 25 Skj A I 123, B I 117; from Einarr sklaglamms Vellekla, see note to verse 18. Verse 26 Skj A I 492, B I 464. Not known from elsewhere, but evidently from the end of a poem. Cf. note to verse 199. P. 11/26: presumably a reference back to 3/105/8. In U another list (somewhat different from the one here) of kennings for poetry precedes ch. 2 (SnE 184887, II 302) which is compiled from

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4/15 and 5/78, see Introduction p. xli. The list of names here (11/269) mixes accusatives and nominatives, though they are all objects of kalla; cf. note to 14/2530. Verses 278 Skj A I 122, B I 117; verses 12 of Vellekla, not found elsewhere, see note to verse 18. See Foote and Wilson 1970, 3656. Verse 29 Skj A I 415, B I 385. Several verses are quoted in Skldskaparml from a poem attributed to Ormr Steinrsson that seems to be in praise of a certain woman (the others are verses 38, 205, 207, 360). Apart from verse 205, the first couplet of which is also in TGT, this poem is not known from elsewhere, though there may be another verse in Edda Magnsar lafssonar 397, see below. But it has been plausibly argued by lafur Halldrsson (1969) that the verses belong with the fragment said in Flb II 70 to be from Haraldr hrfagris Snfrardrpa or Snjfrardrpa (Skj A I 5) and that together they are part of a drpa by Ormr Steinrsson addressed to an unknown woman. Verses 38, 207 and 360, as well as the verse in Flb, are probably from a mansngr, though verse 360 may be a stef. Nothing further is known about the poet, but he was probably composing in the latter part of the twelfth century (or maybe earlier, c. 1130, see below) and based his poem on a fairy-tale in which Haraldr hrfagri may have been a principal character. The story of Haraldrs love for Snfrr in Flb II 6970 may be based on Ormrs drpa and give a better idea of its original content than the parallel version of the legend in grip (F XXIX 56; Driscoll 1995, 47). Two other fragments are attributed to Ormr, verse 138 and a half-stanza quoted in U at 84/18 (see notes to verses 138 and 303); a third is perhaps to be found in an anonymous verse in Edda Magnsar lafssonar 397 (see Jn Helgason 1966, 177; lafur Halldrsson 1990, 23032; Poole 1982, 12632). If this verse also belongs to Snjfrardrpa, it may give a hint as to the recipient (cf. Poole 1982, 128), and perhaps indicates a date of c. 1130, see lafur Halldrsson 1990, 231. The sentence quoted in verse 29 is incomplete; the whole of the half-verse (except the parenthesis) is an at-clause. The remainder of the sentence is not extant. It is perhaps more likely that the sentiment applies to the character in the story rather than to the poet (see lafur Halldrsson 1969, 155). Verse 30 Skj A I 320, B I 296. One of four half-verses in SnE (and nowhere else) that seem to be from a poem by Refr about a certain

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orsteinn, perhaps the son of Snorri goi mentioned in Landnmabk and Eyrbyggja saga; the other verses are Skldskaparml verses 216, 264 and Httatal 8/347. Cf. note to verse 4 above. Verse 31 Skj A I 356, B I 31. Part of verse 2 of Egills Hfulausn, in praise of Eirkr blx; see Egils saga ch. 60. The poem is found in the Wolfenbttel manuscript of Egils saga and in the fragment but is not in Mruvallabk and so is unlikely to have been included in the original version of the saga (texts of the poem also appear in Worm 1636, 22741, and in a transcript by rni Magnsson). There are further quotations from the poem as verses 350, 319, 184. Verse 32 Skj A I 75, B I 66. The opening stanza of Grfeldardrpa, see note to verse 6 above; only found here. It confirms that the poem is a memorial poem, and to judge from the pl. mildinga in line 2 seems to be addressed to an assembly of rulers (or at least to more than one of the dead kings brothers; cf. verse 11 of the poem, Hkr I 243, and see Fidjestl 1982, 230). Verse 33 Skj A I 68, B I 60; verse 1 of Hleygjatal, see note to verse 5 above. The second half of the verse is also quoted as verse 40. Verse 34 Skj A I 123, B I 117; verse 5 of Vellekla, see note to verse 18 above. The syntax of this verse is uncertain: vgr is clearly the base-word in a kenning for poetry, and is the subject of eisar ; Kock (NN 2916) takes aldrhafs as the determinant, rather than Rgnis, which he takes with verk, though the kenning vgr aldrhafs would be unparalleled. It would surely require another determinant (inns) to be an acceptable kenning for poetry. If the determinant is taken to be Rgnis this leaves aldrhafs (if taken as a single word) unattached; in NN 391 Kock takes the kenning alda rris ldrhafs as the subject of tr, leaving vgr unattached as subject of eisar. Verk Rgnis aldrhafs might also be an acceptable kenning for poetry. Alternatively, aldr could be adverbial (always), and hafs has been taken as part of the kenning alda hafs reris (so Reichardt 1928, 199, where verk is taken as absolute and Rgnis with vgr), though it is unnecessary, since alda reris is a complete kenning for poetry in itself (subject of tr vi fles galdra; so NN 2916). It seems natural to take vsa with fyrir, Rgnis with verk (subj. of hagna) and mr with hagna, but if Rgnis is required as the determinant in the kenning vgr Rgnis, fyrir must go with mr and vsa with verk, and hagna must be absolute.

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Verse 35 Skj A I 123, B I 117; verse 6 of Vellekla, see note to verse 18. Fley, if dat. as is to be expected after hli, ought to be fleyi, but possibly the -i is elided before j- (cf. Noreen 1923, 369 n.). Konr Gslason (1872, 1314 (2956)) suggests emending hli in line 3 to heyri, which takes the acc. Verse 36 Skj A I 148, B I 139; taken to be from an otherwise unknown poem about Earl Hkon Sigurarson, since there appears to be a pun on his name (of kon mran: ofljst, cf. mrr in Glossary; compare the verse attributed to Queen Gunnhildr in Fagrskinna 75 and see NN 249). It may have been composed c. 990. Cf. Skldatal (SnE 184887, III 280). Kock (NN 441) reads ora s oss grr sefreinu Snar (cf. Frank 1978, 967). Verse 37 Skj A I 98, B I 93. Together with verse 315, this is all that survives of the poetry of Vlu-Steinn, which is only found in Snorra Edda. The verses seem to be fragments of a poem about his dead son gmundr addressed to his other son Egill (see Landnamabk, F I 15960, 184, 186; Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 51011). On the attribution see Frank 1978, 95: Landnamabk 184 could be taken to mean that this verse was actually composed for VluSteinn by Gestr Oddleifsson (on whom see Gsla saga, Hvarar saga, Laxdla saga, Njls saga). Verse 38 Skj A I 415, B I 385; see note to verse 29 above. Verse 39 Skj A I 136, B I 128; verse 1 of Hsdrpa, see note to verse 8 above. In SnE 184887, III 14, this verse is interpreted without emendation. Most commentators use the text of U (see t. n.), and in line 1 telk might be preferable to tk. P. 14/13: see verse 33/58. Verse 40 is lacking in TW. It has already been quoted in verse 33/58, see note to this verse. P. 14/1820 A different explanation (and one this time involving word-play between li (1) and l, cf. p. 109/1618) from the metaphorical one at 4/35, where the mead of poetry was the means by which the dwarfs obtained a passage to the shore; here the mead of poetry is simply the possession of the dwarfs, and is called ship because of the similarity of the words for vessel and strong drink. P. 14/19 li heitir skip: cf. 109/16. Verse 41 Skj A I 183, B I 173. Anonymous; perhaps from a lovepoem. According to 108/28, trllkvinna vindr can mean thought, and maybe giants wind can too. See Glossary under bergjarl; F II 251.

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P. 14/2530 Note that in the lists of names here and elsewhere the nom. is sometimes used when grammatically the acc. would normally be required; some manuscripts (U and, in part, T) regularise the cases. Cf. also 11/269, 17/2830, 18/1516, 19/3520/7, 39/12, 1315, 40/2731, 106/1113. The variation in case perhaps implies that some lists were added to after being first written. P. 14/30 Verse 42 seems to be part of Bragis instruction of gir, and thus he seems to be either quoting his own verse or that of his namesake the human poet. The distinction is perhaps implied by the use of the word skld after Bragis name (see Bragi (1) and (2) in Index). Verse 42 Skj A I 4, B I 4. Another verse from Ragnarsdrpa about rrs fight with the Midgard serpent; see note to verse 24. Kock, NN 219, takes at sandi with l slakr and line 3 with rakisk; cf. Turville-Petre 1976, 5. Verse 43 Skj A I 6, B I 6. This also seems to be from a poem about rrs fight with the Midgard serpent (Gylf. ch. 48). The only other verse surviving from lvir hnfa is a lausavsa in Skldasaga in Hauksbk (18926, 447). Sonr Jarar may be subj. of stisk (parallel to umgjr ) or the sentence may have continued in the following (lost) lines. Verse 44 Skj A I 152, B I 144. From Eilfrs rsdrpa, only known from SnE, and quoted in extenso as verses 7391, see note to these verses. Another half-verse appears in verse 53. This one is placed by Finnur Jnsson at the end of the extant poem (Skj A I 152). Lines 12: the alliteration requires the archaic forms Vreir, Vrsku. Cf. verse 82: the last two lines of these two verses presumably form a stef. Cf. verses 36 and 268 and notes. Verses 457 Skj A I 140, B I 131. Also from a poem about rrs fight with the Midgard serpent (Gylf. ch. 48), and only preserved here. Nothing else by Eysteinn has been preserved, and he is not referred to elsewhere. Verse 45 is lacking in T. Verse 47 Finnur Jnssons arrangement of the syntax (Skj B I 131) is very tortuous, and rendi must be emended to rendu if sjur is the subj., cf. NN 421. It might be more natural to take br vir as impers. (it came about) and seir jarar as subj. of rendi fram (though actually seir could be the subj. of both verbs), and although renna usually has a dat. obj., it can take an acc. obj. with the sense of cause (something) to flow, though generally this

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will then refer to pouring a liquid (see Fritzner 188696 under renna (nd) 3, 8; there are no unequivocal examples of the acc. under 8). Verse 48 Skj A I 3, B I 3. Another verse from Ragnarsdrpa about rrs fight with the Midgard serpent; see note to verse 24. Verse 49 Skj A I 140, B I 132. Also from a poem about rrs fight with the Midgard serpent (Gylf. ch. 48), and only preserved here. Part of another poem by Gamli is found as verse 401. Verse 50 Skj A I 144, B I 135. Together with verse 58, this seems to be part of a poem celebrating rrs victories over giants and giantesses. Verse 267, however, if it is by the same poet, must have been composed after his conversion to Christianity (cf. Eilfr Gurnarson). The poet is not referred to elsewhere. Verse 51 Skj A I 4, B I 4. Another verse from Ragnarsdrpa about rrs fight with the Midgard serpent; see note to verse 24. Verse 52 Skj A I 4, B I 4. Not found elsewhere. Since this verse seems to be addressed to rr, it may be from a separate poem about him, rather than from Ragnarsdrpa. Mrum simbli sumbls is taken to be a kenning for a giant, and the dat. to mean that rr is returning from an encounter with him (or of could be emended to af ). A word simbill or simblir is unknown (symblir would be more plausible; the feaster of the feast?); the word sumbl suggest a connection with the mead of poetry, though rr is not usually associated with that. On the interpretation given in the Glossary s. v. simblir see SnE 1952, 345. Verse 53 Skj A I 151, B I 143; Frank 1978, 11213. Lihent (Httatal 41, cf. notes to verses 88/4 and 334 below). See notes to verses 44 and 7391. This quatrain seems to belong in the poem between verses 87 and 88 below. Verse 54 Skj A I 137, B I 128. In spite of the attribution to Bragi, this is thought to be more likely part of lfr Uggasons Hsdrpa, see note to verse 8 (it is attributed to lfr Uggason here in U; both verse and attribution are lacking in T). It relates to the story told in Gylf. ch. 48, like several verses of Ragnarsdrpa, so the attribution in R and W is an understandable error. Verses 556 Skj A I 137, B I 129, there taken to be two halves of the same verse from Hsdrpa about rrs fight with the Midgard serpent (they are not separated in U, though the capital V is out in the margin at 17/9, as well as a v = vsa); see note to verse 8 and Frank 1978, 11012. In verse 56 (and the prose comment at 17/13)

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rr is referred to in terms of his opponents, the giants (cf. the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, where both the hero and the monster Grendel are referred to as aglca, and where the hero, like his opponent, fights without weapons; see Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg 1950, 298 under aglca and lines 43540 and note); cf. ch. 31 (40/15) where Snorri says it is inappropriate to refer to people in terms of giants unless one wants to be satirical. On the other hand terms for giant or troll (though more commonly those for giantesses) can simply mean enemy or opponent or destroyer (e. g. 71/5 and verse 245; cf. Hvera in Index and note to verse 68; Egils saga Skalla-Grmssonar verse 32, F II 172; see also SnE 1931, 256/57, 257/710; Meissner 1921, 1478; note to verses 45162). rr can be seen as the opponent of the river Vimur (cf. 25/613, 1518). Verse 57 Skj A I 135, B I 127. A rare example of a verse addressed to rr (cf. verse 52): all the verbs are 2nd pers. sg. In verse 58, too, four of the verbs are 2nd pers. sg. Nothing more of Vetrliis work is preserved, but see Njls saga (F XII 26061) and Hkr I 320, where he appears as a determined opponent of Christianity; also Kristni saga, Landnmabk (F I 348) and Egils saga SkallaGrmssonar (F II 59); and Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 471. Verse 58 Skj A I 144, B I 135. See note to verse 50. P. 18/1 dmi: a story giving the reason for something; a reference to Gylf. ch. 49. P. 18/3 On Njrrs association with waggons see Turville-Petre 1964, 17073; Wyatt and Cook 1993, xviiixix. Verse 59 Skj A I 330, B I 3034; vers rapports. Lines 1 and 5, 2 and 6, 3 and 7, 4 and 8 make up respectively four different independent sentences about mythology or legend. If sonar is emended to sona in line 1 (as in WT), there is not only a more perfect rhyme, but it accords better with other sources about Gurn, who is said in e. g. Hamisml 8 to have killed two of her sons (cf. p. 49 below). The verse is only known from here, and its context is unknown. It is in runhent (Httatal 8094). Cf. notes to verses 259 and 375. P. 18/14: a reference to Gylf. ch. 23. P. 18/1516: alternation of nom. and acc. in R and W, though T and U have Van for Vanr. Cf. 14/2530 n. Verse 60 Skj A I 46, B I 40; lacking in T and U as well as in B. Part of verse 17 of Arinbjarnarkvia (Arinbjrns name is included in

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a pun, Grjtbjrn), which is preserved (incompletely legible) in Mruvallabk, where it is written at the end of the text of Egils saga (in a different hand from the main text). The poem was probably not included in the saga originally. Four lines of verse 8 are also quoted in the redaction of the second half of Skldskaparml in W (SnE 1924, 112), and verses 15, 24 and 25 in TGT. The poem was composed in honour of the Norwegian nobleman Arinbjrn, celebrating Egills friendship with him. See Egils saga SkallaGrmssonar ch. 78. Verse 61 Skj A I 68, B I 60; the quotation consists only of a subordinate clause (when . . .). The context (and so the identity of the earls enemy and the locality of trst) is unknown, though the lines are probably part of Hleygjatal, see note to verse 5. Finnur Jnsson (Skj B 60) suggests that the subject may be bgi Belja dlgs (Surtr?see Gylf. 50/30) and that jarla goes with trst. Verse 62 = Grmnisml 43. The only quotation in Skldskaparml from a mythological poem in the Codex Regius of the eddic poems except for the two quotations from Alvssml. Verse 63 Skj A I 137, B I 129. From Hsdrpa, about Baldrs funeral; see note to verse 8. P. 19/10 fyrr : cf. Gylf. ch. 27, where a verse from the poem mentioned at 19/12 is quoted. Menskir Freyju: cf. 19/15, 20/34 and note and verse 64 n. On the theft of Brsingamen see Srla ttr (Flb I 3045). P. 19/11 sver is subj. Cf. 108/89 and note on p. 225. P. 19/1819: cf. Gylf. ch. 34. P. 19/2021 The title frumsmir bragar might be expected to apply to Bragi gamli the human poet (the earliest known in Scandinavia) rather than to the god; inn is elsewhere credited with being the divine originator of poetry (3/105/8). Cf. Hvaml 1057; Ynglinga saga ch. 6 (Hkr I 17); Sonatorrek 24 (F II 256). If the god Bragi is still the speaker, as at the beginning of Skldskaparml, the statement is even odder (cf. notes to 2/24 and 14/30). P. 19/32 See Gylf. ch. 31. On Ullrs shield cf. 67/21 and note. Ullrs ship is a kenning for shield (cf. Ullr in Index and see Meissner 1921, 166), but it is possible that Skjldr was the name of his ship, rather than that Ullr used a shield as a ship, since there is no story known to provide the origin for this idea. Cf. Turville-Petre 1964, 182, and Tolley 1996, 223 and 44 n. 53,

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where it is suggested that the reference is to the use of a shield as a means of transport (i. e. as a ski or skate, cf. ndur-ss and Saxo Grammaticus 197980, I 79, II 58). P. 19/3520/7 Note alternation between nom. and acc. in lists after kalla; cf. 11/269, 14/2530 n. above. P. 20/1: cf. Gylf. ch. 34. P. 20/2 li is elsewhere in SnE said to be son of inn (Gylf. 26; Skldskaparml verse 429; cf. Skldskaparml 6/20, 27), though he is not mentioned as a god in PE. In Gylf. 26 he is said to be the same as Vli. There appears to be a Vli son of inn as well as a Vli son of Loki (Gylf. 49 and 53; Vafrnisml 51, Vlusp 34), though the texts are not entirely certain (see Gylf. 1778), and maybe Snorri took the names Vli and li to be alternatives for both persons, though they are listed separately in verse 429 (see Gylf. Index, li, Vli). The present passage can be punctuated to give various meanings: Loki may be called fur . . . la or la frnda ok furbrur ; la frnda ok fur, brur, sinna ok sessa ins; to call him either furbrur la or ins, or brur ins is however problematical, though in Lokasenna 9 he claims to be inns sworn brother. The reading quoted in SnE 184887, I 268, giving Vli here instead of li in W, is wrong. P. 20/24 sinna ok sessa ins: cf. Lokasenna (note also rgjanda goanna and other titles below); heimski ok kistuskr Geirrar: cf. ch. 18; jfr jtna: i. e. one who steals from giants, e. g. in his stealing back of Iunn, see below and cf. his theft of Sleipnir, Gylf. ch. 42; or maybe one who steals on behalf of giants, as in the theft of Iunns apples; jfr hafrs: cf. Hymiskvia 37; jfr Brsingamens: see note to 19/10 above and verse 64 below (Hsdrpa 2) and note; jfr Iunnar epla: see p. 2 above and verses 100103 below (Haustlng, verses 911); Sleipnis frnda: see Gylf. ch. 42. As can be seen, several of these descriptions of Loki correspond to parts of Haustlng and Hsdrpa. P. 20/5 hrskai Sifjar : cf. ch. 35. P. 20/6 rbani Baldrs, hinn bundni: cf. Gylf. chs 4950. rtudlgr Heimdalar is a reference to the conflict described in verse 64 about which nothing further is known; but cf. Lokasenna 478. rtudlgr Skaa presumably refers to Lokasenna 4952 and the concluding prose. Verse 64 Skj A I 1367, B I 128. From Hsdrpa, about the conflict

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between Loki and Heimdallr (cf. 19/1011, 1415; Turville-Petre 1964, 1289). There is no more detailed version of this story extant; see 19/10 n. and verse 100. See note to verse 8. P. 20/18 Though it could be a reference to Gylf., and thus be intended as a supplement to it, it is perhaps more likely that this is just a continuation of (and a reference to) the narratives of the first four chapters of Skldskaparml. In either case it seems to mark the following passages as afterthoughts. In fact these stories in chs 1718 have little to do with the origins of kennings and have not given rise to many of them (except for shield = Hrungnirs pedestal, see Meissner 1921, 166), and they contain few references to poetic diction. The references to Bragi and gir in them link them with those at the beginning of Skldskaparml, however, which is where they also appear in U (before ch. 2; in U Skldskaparml is marked as beginning after ch. 18), and this may have been the original arrangement. The frame may have been imposed on Skldskaparml later, though ch. 4 and many later chapters also begin with questions and answers, and Skldskaparml seems to have been conceived from the start as a dialogue. Cf. Introduction pp. xviiixx. P. 20/31 rrs exploits as a drinker are referred to in Gylf. ch. 46. P. 21/24 ristubrag : a sign for cutting or carving (cf. rsta). Hrungnis (or Hrungners) hjarta is mentioned by Gsli Brynjlfsson (1823, 141; see Blndal 192024, 361), but it is doubtful whether his information is derived from a medieval source (other than Snorra Edda), since there is no other early mention of this sign. P. 22/32 One would expect hfi; but cf. 22/23. Either the cases are being used inconsistently (cf. Fritzner 188696, II 194b, under (1) ; Cleasby and Vigfusson 1957, 31617) or hfu is a rare example of an endingless dative (otherwise known for certain only in the word gz, see Noreen 1923, 361 n. 2). Verses 6571 Skj A I 1920, B I 1718, Haustlng verses 1420. Haustlng is a shield-poem (sr baugi verse 65/1, 34, i. e. on the shield or shield-boss or its surround, cf. 67/224), cf. note to verse 24. It describes a shield given the poet by a certain orleifr (thought to be inn spaki, son of Hra-Kri) c. 900 (or somewhat later if it was the same orleifr who was involved in the setting up of the Alingi in Iceland in 930; cf. Hkr I 9091, 1267, 163, 304; F I 7 (cf. n. 5), 313; grip and Fagrskinna); see verses 71/78,

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92/4, 104/8. The poem is only preserved in SnE; there are further quotations as verses 92104 and parts of these two passages are repeated in verses 341, 305, 108. The topics of the extant verses are the theft of Iunn and the death of jazi (cf. 1/162/23 above), and rrs encounter with Hrungnir. See Turville-Petre 1976, 89. Verse 65/3 hellis hyrjar brr is presumably a kenning for (generous) man, and probably vocative, since the rest of the sentence seems complete in sense; MS bir clearly needs emending, and the tree-name brr is perhaps the most plausible (W has baur a (Skj A I 19) or borua (SnE 1924, 64; this looks the more likely reading), T maur , but hellis hyrr is not a known kenning for gold, and the separation of from baugi is unsatisfactory. Kock, NN 139, takes hellis br = giant (acc.), hyrjar baugi = on the shield (hyrr is a sword-name in verse 458/7; see NN 2722): also on the swords circle can be seen how the terror of giants visited the cave-tree, the mound of Grjttn. Verse 66/14 Kock (NN 140) takes (en) Ullar fyrir mgi with line 3 rather than with lines 1 and 4 (or with both, cf. NN 1812?). Reichardt (1928, 161) and Finnur Jnsson (1924, 324) take en endilg with line 3 and knttu ll Ullar fyrir mgi with line 4 (cf. Skj B I 17). Verse 67/23 Finnur Jnsson (Skj B I 17) reads bjrg hristusk ok berg brustu rather than berg hristusk ok bjrg brustu (cf. Reichardt 1928, 116); this perhaps links the nouns with more suitable predicates as well as being stylistically preferable in spite of making the word-order slightly more tortuous. Kock NN 141 reads line 3 as a complete sentence, in line 2 bjargslgnum greedy for food (or bergflgnum rock-sheltered NN 2506; bergs with dlgi, enemy in the mountain NN 2409); in line 4 upphiminn with manna. Thus he makes lines 12, 3 and 4 three separate statements with bjargslgnum dlgi the obj. of yrmit and upphiminn manna the subj. of brann. Verse 67/58 It is clear that the three words in line 6 together with vgna and vtt must be a kenning (or perhaps two kennings, see NN 226) for giant, acc. with fr ek, though the elements can be taken in various orders. Reichardt 1928, 102 reads myrkbeins Haka reinar vagna (or vagnar) vttr, watcher of whale(s) of dark bone of land of Haki (whales of cliffs = giants) as subj. of tti. See vttr in Glossary. Verse 68/58 Keeping hraundrengs as gen. dependent on trlls

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(varat would then be impers., there was not long to wait) would give the kenning hraundrengs rna trll (rock-gentlemans friends enemy = Mjllnir) dependent on trjnu; hrum would need to be emended to harri (with trjnu) as suggested by Meissner 1921, 427. Although this gives a full rhyme in the odd line, it does make the meaning easier. Verse 71/1 r links with st er laus in verse 70, a rare example of a sentence continuing over the stanza-division. Cf. verses 81/1, 102/1; Httatal 15. Line 3: though some whetstones are reddish in colour, it is likely that it raua refers to blood. P. 24/1719 The motivation for including these stories seems to be similar to that in Gylf.: they have little to do with poetic diction. Cf. 20/18 n. This is the last reference to gir and Bragi as speakers in Skldskaparml. P. 25/2 lj can take either a gen. or acc. obj.; here the first of the three objects is gen. pl., the other two are acc. (in W and U the first two are gen.). Cf. 106/23 and afla in Glossary. Verse 72: evidently a quotation from an otherwise unknown eddic poem (PE 317). P. 25/27 Here U adds a further otherwise unknown verse, perhaps from the same poem (PE 318):
kva rr: Einu sinni neytta ek alls me[gin]s jtna grum er Gjlp ok Gneip dtr Geirraar vildu hefja mik til himins.

Verses 7391 Skj A I 148151, B I 13944. The only record of rsdrpa (apart from further quotations probably also from this poem in verses 44 and 53). It is the most detailed skaldic account of any of rrs exploits (all the extant verses are about his journey to and encounter with Geirrr), though the series of strange kennings, especially those for giants, suggests it is only partly serious. This use of kennings for giant that use words referring to human beings (cf. giant-kennings that use names of gods as base-words), which is one of the main effects in this poem, is an extension of the frequent use of self-contradictory images in kennings (cf. Httatal 6/1516 n.), but the result is

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rather comic. There may have been a stef (verse 44/34, verse 82/78), see note to verse 44. Eilfr also composed Christian verse (see verse 268 and cf. note to verse 50) as well as a poem about Earl Hkon (verse 36), but all that survives of his work is preserved in SnE only. See Finnur Jnsson 1900; Reichardt 1948. Verse 73/12 DD interprets fellir fjrnets flugstalla goa as tightener of the lifenet of the gods of precipitous altars, taking fjrnet as a device for killing giants. Verse 74/1 DD takes gestrangrar with gngu, a journey strenuous to the spirit; Finnur Jnsson (Skj B I 139) emends to gestrangr, adjective with rr. Kock, NN 2502A, 2756D, reads gestrangra as gen. pl. with gngu, of the determined ones. Verse 75/2 farmr meinsvrans arma looks like a kenning for Loki (meinsvrans with arma, referring to one of Lokis mates; or meins vrans (vri defender), whether or not sknar hapts is part of it. Kocks meinsvarrans (harmful woman, i. e. Angrboa, NN 2106) is quite attractive. DD reads mein-Svrangs as a term for a giant, the burden of whose arms is a giantess; farms gen. with fr sknar (a journey of attack against), and Hapt = jlfi (ofljst, jlfi m. = fetter) as the subject (though it is n.). Galdrs Rgnir = inn (NN 445) does not, however, fit well into the story, and DD takes it as a kenning for Loki. Kock also suggests (NN 2106) that sknar hapts (i. e. Gunnarr (cf. Atlakvia) = gunnar battle, gen. sg.) goes with svipti sagna, meaning leader of the battle-crew, i. e. rr. Line 8 Endils m is taken by Kock (NN 1080) to mean on the sea, in the water (river), and the subject of spendi (spendu) as gallpnis halla manntlir (-endr), the destroyer(s) of the men of the eagles halls (of the giants, i. e. rr and his companion). Verse 76 Kock (NN 446) takes gunnvargs himintrgu as a kenning for giant, genitive of destination; and frumseyrir dreyra = rr as subject of kom til vers frrar flja. DD takes Gangr as the name of a giant, his vnir as hunting-grounds (acc. of route travelled with gengu, the subject of which would then be unexpressed), til vers gunnvargs frrar himintrgu as the destination (to the fishing-haunt of the war-wolf of heavens fair targe (i. e. of the sun, the wolf of which means giant); and flja frumseyris kom dreyra as a separate statement, the womens first rank spill of blood came. Verse 78 Kock (NN 447) interprets there on the bottom before the meeting-keen son (bur) of Jr (markar = earth) they set shoot-

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ing-snakes net; the smooth round stones did not rest. DD also takes mrk to mean into the ground, byr hf-markar storm of the fish-snare land. Verse 79/14 Reichardt 1928, 89, 208 reads mar (for mar) as obj. of leit, which is substituted for sr in line 1, as in Skj B I 141 (W and T have lt, see Introduction p. liv), and punctuates (gatat) mar njtr in neytri njar- (r fyrir sr) -gjarar, thus taking in neytri with njtr. Cf. in in Glossary. Verse 79/58 Kocks interpretation (NN 450) simplifies the syntax: The diminisher of orns children (rr) said (lt instead of ltr) that unless the surge of Mrns blood diminished for him, his might would grow to the height of heaven (til svra salaks). Verse 80/14 Kocks suggestion that svarrunnit fen is the object of u is attractive, but the rest of his interpretation is unconvincing (NN 451). Gunnar setr might, however, be a kenning for shield (see LP under setr). Kock adduces Vlusp 36, fellr . . . sxum ok sverum, as a parallel to sverrunnit fen (NN 2250). DD takes sverrunnit (knife-streaming) fen Frar (liquid of the woman = river) as the subject of flaut. Verse 80/58 Possibly Against the causer of trouble for the earths swift runners (giants) surged a wave mightily blown by the storm of the ss of the earths snowdrift (giant; see ss in Index), see NN 452. DD reads runkykva enliveners of the running stream, i. e. the giantesses causing the river to swell (cf. Reichardt 1948, 357: jarar skafls haurs runkykva, enliveners of the flow of the land of the world of snow-drift). Finnur Jnsson (Skj B I 141) emends to rmbyggva (with ss haurs as a kenning for giants). Verse 81/14 Kock (NN 453) takes skaunar ta sinni as governed by me, seilhimin sjla as on the lords shield. Reichardt 1928, 53 reads skaunar seilhimin (on the shield) and takes sjla with aflraun (i. e. a test of strength for rr). seil skaunar himin sjla might be better. Verse 81/78 fr strlundr me : strlundr is probably used as a virtual adverb, and fara me may have the sense of use sthing (in a certain way). See me and strlundr in Glossary. Verse 82/14 Kock (NN 454) takes glamma stvar dolgvamms firum as a kenning for giants, dat. with strkvijundum; and djpakarn as a word for heart. The last at any rate is better than Finnur Jnssons tmesis (Skj B I 141; see djp in Glossary).

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Verse 82/56 arfi in RTW looks like the base-word of a kenning (for rr); if so, eis fjarar ought to represent a description of inn in the gen.; eis of fjars of one remote from, i. e. lacking regard for, his oath (cf. Hvaml 110)? But this fails to rhyme. Possibly a kenning for Jr (cf. NN 2502B)? Kocks suggestion that it is a kenning for Loki is improbable (NN 455). Lines 78 seem to be a stef ; cf. verse 44 and note. Verse 83/14 Kock (NN 456) takes svers sfuna (swords continual flame, i. e. blade) with lihatar ; hlfar bors Hrar as a kenning for warriors (i. e. in this context giants) and dyn hargleipnis bara (noise of the hard fetter of the ship, i. e. of shields) as the kenning for battle. DD reads hlar for hlfar (which is probably unnecessary to the battle-kenning, which she takes as dyn bara har-Gleipnis, din of the wolf of the shield, i. e. of the sword) as part of the kenning for giants (Hrar hlar bors Hralanders of the slope of the river-bank (this is not one of the usual meanings of bor). RTW have -hattar in line 2, but this is probably just a spelling for -hatar, see Introduction p. liv. In lines 68 there seem to be two kennings for giants, one dependent on hrjendr, the other on vi ; if hrjendr governs fjru jar skytju (those who lay waste the refuge of the beach-people), skyld-Breta might be taken as also governing fjru jar (the Briton who is kin to the beach-people; cf. verse 78, where hf- seems to belong with both mrk and markar). Kock (NN 457) reads hylria fjru (wolfs beach = desert) jar as meaning of the giants (gen. with hrjendr), and skjald-Breta skytju as meaning female defenders of shield-Britons, i. e. giantesses. Verse 84/14 There seem to be three phrases that mean giants here. Kock changes me to fyr governing kneyfi drttar dlg-Svjar klgu and takes line 3 as a parenthesis, flesdrtt as the subj. of dreif v nesja: Because of the crusher of the troops of the wave of hostile Sweden (the giants)the company took to flightthe rock-troop fled to the safety of the nesses (NN 458). Reichardt (1928, 210) explains: Flesdrtt dreif fyr kneyfi Svjar dolgkolgu drttar (before the crusher of the band of the dangerous stream, i. e. of the giants); fer nesja stti fltta v. DD: At the approach of the oppressor of the hosts of the hostile Sweden of the icy wave, the rock-company fled; the troop of the headlands took to flight in danger. It is better to take flesdrtt as subject of dreif

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v; Svjar klgu with drttar kneyfi; and the parenthesis as dlgfer nesja stti fltta; or flesdrtt as subject of dreif v, nesja with drttar, and the parenthesis as dlgfer Svjar klgu stti fltta. Verse 84/58 In this half-verse there is a kenning for rr and one or perhaps two for giants. Kock (NN 459) takes fasta as a noun: When the flood-rib-Danes stood (facing, up to) the flame-shakers (rrs) flame (fasti), the family of the Jlnir of the outlying sanctuary (the giants) had to give way. DD takes fyrir funhristis fasta before the lightning of the fire-brandisher with knttu lta. Verse 85 Kocks readings provide simpler syntax (see NN 46061): Where among ( ) the mighty (rttar) lords (hersa) of the giants dwelling (ornranns) the ones gifted with courage went forward there was noise among the Cymri of the caves round wallthe feller of peak-Lister reindeer (rr) was put into a fixthere was lack of peace thereon the dangerous grey (evil) hat of the wife of giants. Greypan and grn (grr a. grey) ought to go with htt if possible. DD takes hugumbornir as the subject of the first sentence, and [vi] hersa rttar ornranns (against the chiefs of the sport of orns cave) as (apparently) an accusative phrase indicating the destination after gingu. It might be preferable to read rttar with hugum and take ornrann as acc. of the route. It is awkward to have separated from ornrann; cf. note to verse 65/3. Verse 86/14 Fylvingr as a sword-name in the ula (verse 457/1) may well be a deduction from this verse, cf. Falk 1914, 50, and thus cannot confirm that that was the original meaning. Fylvingar, he points out, means nuts according to SnE 184887, II 430, 514, and here may be part of a kenning for heads. Kock takes hm loga himni the high heaven of the fire, i. e. the roof as dat. after rungu, and hallfylvingum vallar the fields leaning brown ones (rods), i. e. walking-sticks, as instrumental. Lines 34: the spheres of the brow-sun (tungl brslar, i. e. heads) pushed themselves there against the roof (according to NN 462; cf. NN 2107: hmloga dark flame, tungls brsalir halls of the eyelash-moon). DD reads ar in line 3, and brsalir as one word in line 4, so that the parenthetical statement becomes tungls brsalir trusk ar vi tri (the halls of the eyelashes moon, i. e. the giantesses heads, were trodden down there under the roof, and the object of rungu is hm himni loga (the ceiling), the instrumental phrase

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hallvallar fylvingum with the swords of the stone-plain, i. e. walking-sticks. Verse 86/58 hfstjri hreggs vafr-eia controller of the hull of the stormy shifting necks of land, i. e. of the clouds according to NN 463. Verse 87/14 Possibly The son of Earth began to learn the hateful one of the fjord-apples (giants) gamethe men of Mres bone (giants; reading leggs for legs) did not repress their merriment (cf. NN 464, 1833). Kenna fri does not, however, mean to learn a game. Verse 88/4 su langvinr R, langvinr su WT; the latter order has the alliterating sound at the beginning of the line, where it should be. Lines 56: lihent (but not quite like Httatal 41: linked rhymes over the two lines, but not with alliteration falling on the same syllables as the rhymes; cf. notes to verses 53 and 334). See Frank 1978, 11213. Verse 89/4 Kock (NN 2253) reads rasir (cf. urnir in Index) veggjar (wedge-stormer) as a kenning for rr (subject of kom); if this is what is meant, it may refer to the function of a hammer as a tool, though some words for thunderbolt also mean wedge. Cf. Motz 1997, 3378. Verse 90/12 The expected hending is lacking in line 1. Emending grva to gumna (or grija) as gen. with gramr would provide one (see NN 466, 3056). Verse 90/34 salvani-Synjar arinbauti = salvanibauti arin-Synjar, assumed to be a kenning for rr and the subject of the clause. This may be interpreted as double tmesis, or perhaps rather as interchange of the elements of the kenning. Cf. note to verse 255. But of would be better as a preposition with acc. than as the pleonastic adv., and the following words perhaps contain a kenning for giant or giantess; then the subj. must be understood from the preceding clause. In NN 467 it is suggested that Arinbauti may be a name for a giant, so that reading Arinbauta as gen. with salvanis would make a kenning for giant in general, whose Synjar (goddesses) are giantesses, acc. with of. Verse 90/58 Kock (NN 468) takes tvviar tvi and tollur karms as parallel kennings for rr (dat. with komat) and brautarlis bekkfall as subject. In line 6 s ought to be dat. too (Nygaard 1905, 260, 264a); if er were omitted it could be a subj. pron. introducing an independent statement.

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Verse 91/56 Kock (NN 2254) points out that ltrval-Rygir (ltrs val-Rygir = val[s] ltrs Rygir) would be a complete kenning for giants, and lista could be gen. pl. of list f. art with lifstum, mighty in skills. P. 30/10 elja (rival) here perhaps implies that only Frigg was inns proper wife; the others were illicit unions, and the four were probably all taken to be with giantesses (cf. 30/18; but such an implication is clearly not present at 35/20 or verse 122/3; cf. 108/2). Gerr is elsewhere mentioned only as having a union with Freyr, so that the name here may be an error for Grr mother of Viarr (in U the name looks as though it has been altered from Rindar to Grar (actually geiar, see facsimile II 56, 138), but Gerar is written in the margin). P. 30/1314 eigandi valfalls . . . ok fressa: see Gylf. ch. 24 and p. 47/3. P. 30/20 Understand kalla before eplin. P. 30/21 Another reference to Gylf. (25/29)? Or to the narrative at the beginning of Skldskaparml (2/123)? Verses 92104 Skj A I 1619, B I 1417. Haustlng verses 113, see note to verses 6571. They may be an interpolation: they are only in R, W (which, however, omits verse 102/6104) and T (which omits verse 95), and though the poem was clearly known to Snorri, it may be that he did not intend to include the whole text in Skldskaparml. He may, however, have kept a written text of it with his work on Skldskaparml, and that may be how a scribe came to include it. The vocabulary of his prose account (1/16 ff.) corresponds to that of the verses, showing that Snorri knew the whole poem; e. g. the phrases leggja upp (1/28, verse 96/68); sgask (1/27, verse 95/6); cf. note to verse 98/8. Verse 93/14 is also quoted as verse 341, verse 94/14 as verse 305. Verse 92/1 add at after gott ? Finnur Jnsson (SnE 1931, 111; Skj A I 16) thought at was maybe written in R, as in W (which has gs) and T. But it is perhaps not necessary: leggja gott gjldum gunnveggjar br = provide something good as repayment for the shield? Kock (NN 157) points out that if the first two lines are made complete in sense (he suggests by emending br to brag or or; or hrr NN 2985 D), lines 34 could be filled out with the stef from verses 71/78 and 104/78. Line 8: perhaps nets, as suggested by Kock (NN 1809), which also can be the base-word in a kenning for shield, see LP.

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Verse 93/14 = verse 341. Line 6: Kock (NN 135) suggests taking Gefnar (or r-Gefnar) with mat, meaning the ox (cf. rymskvia 24), leaving byrgitr bjarga (god of the rock-refuge) as a kenning for the giant. See also NN 2004 (reading rgnfa mar steed of giants = ox). Reichardt (1928, 1634) takes rgefnar marr as a kenning for ox (r-Gefn = Gefjun (r fruitfulness); cf. Gylf. ch. 1), comparing rymseilar Vrar hvalr (Skais whale = ox, see verse 96). Ingegerd Fries (1994), pointing out that the reading of R may in fact be mar rather than mat, suggests that r gnfa mar is Orions horse = Taurus, i. e. ox. Verse 94/14 = verse 305. Kock, NN 1015, interprets lines 14:The ox (tlhreinn) was difficult to carve among the bones for the gods; inn said there was something that caused it. Verse 96/4 Kock (NN 137) points out that according to Edda Magnsar lafssonar 266, rymseilar hvalr is a kenning for ox (whale of the mighty tackle?) and that Vru (so R, vrv) should therefore be taken separately, with ekkiligr (dear to Vr). Verse 97/5 One might have expected the present subjunctive drepi (so R and T; drp W), but the metre demands a long vowel. Verse 98/8 has unusually close correspondence in wording with Snorris prose account at 1/31. Verse 99/4 lfs, the apparent reading of R, would scarcely make sense; but fr is perhaps a possible nom. form, see t. n. and cf. 6/37 n. Line 6: Kock (NN 3038) suggests nam to provide (a sort of) assonance with rni. Verse 99/8 Rs mildings might perhaps be a word referring to inn, though mlunautr mildings would then be an unusual way to refer to jazi; but there is perhaps a reference implied to ch. G56. Verse 100/1 sagna hrrir has been interpreted as starter of stories, i. e. Lokian attractive but improbable idea (cf. Turville-Petre 1976, 10). Verse 101/5 Mttusk would give a hending. Verse 102/4 The repetition of l-Gefnar looks like corruption. Cf. Kocks suggestion in NN 2721 (lund-allgegnir straightforward in character, of the gods; lva descriptive gen. with leiir). Verse 102/6 The older form vreir would provide normal alliteration. Verse 102/7 The spelling mora in R (and mra in T) perhaps indicates the form mra (cf. LP under mrr and mrr ; BM under mrr (3)). Lines 1 and 5 also have aalhending.

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Verse 104/1 Kock (NN 1811) emends skjtt to skf (shavings) as subject of hfu brinna, with skpt as object of skfu. This also provides a skothending in line 1 (but in addition to the aalhending). In NN 225 he had suggested taking skpt as subj. of hfu skjtt brinna and at the same time as obj. of en skfu ginnregin. Verse 104/78 = verse 71/78 (stef ). Cf. note to 92/1. Verse 105 Skj A I 343, B I 315. Taken to be from Arnrrs Magnsdrpa, composed about Magns gi, and if this is correct the poem must have been composed after his death in 1046 or 1047; the verse may have been the last in the poem. The poem is also quoted in verses 213, 218, 352. Further substantial quotations from it are found in various versions of Kings Sagas, particularly Hkr, H, HuldaHrokkinskinna, Flb and Fagrskinna. Fidjestl (1982, 130; see also 132) thought it uncertain that verse 105 really belonged to this poem; it has been taken to belong to orfinnsdrpa (cf. note to verse 1). Kock (NN 806, 825) understands und gmlum Ymis hausi with ess var grams gng rausn. Verse 106 Skj A I 348, B I 321. From Arnrrs orfinnsdrpa, see note to verse 1. The lines also appear (twice) in Flb III 21 and 41 (Orkneyinga saga 83, 122) as the first half of a full stanza which goes on to say that these events will happen (i. e. the world will end) before a ruler finer than orfinnr will be born in Orkney. The four lines here quoted are reminiscent of Vlusp 57. Verse 107 Skj A I 505, B I 478. These lines are taken to be in fact from Bvarr baltis Sigurardrpa; they are attributed to Bvarr balti in U, but to Arnrr in T and W (anonymous in both according to Fidjestl 1982, 159, but T has ok enn sem hann [i. e. Arnrr] kva, and though there is no explicit attribution in W, it looks as though there too they are taken to be by the same poet as the preceding verse); they are attributed to Kolli only in R and B. Sigurardrpa was composed c. 1150 about King Sigurr munnr Haraldsson, d. 1155. Other verses from the poem are found only in Morkinskinna. Bvarr balti is listed as having composed about Sigurr munnr in Skldatal (SnE 184687, III 277). Verse 108 Skj A I 19, B I 17. See verse 65/58 and note to verses 65 71. Note the variant in line 3. Verse 109 Skj A I 143, B I 135. Only this quatrain and the couplet in verse 123 (perhaps from the same poem) are found of this poets work; the contexts are unknown, though verse 109 may be

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about inn (and perhaps refers to the poets reception in Valhll or heaven). A saga Orms Barreyjarsklds with many verses is mentioned in orgils saga ok Haflia (Sturl. I 27) as having been recited at a wedding at Reykjahlar in 1119. Kock (NN 427) suggests that ramman spyr ek vsa and s valdr rr fyrir veldi vagnbrautar should be taken as two independent (parenthetical) statements and that the subject of hvgi mr fagnar should be understood. Verse 110 Skj A I 4, B I 4. The quatrain consists only of a relative clause; the half-verse that contained the main clause is not extant. The antecedent should be inn: the fragment is taken to be part of Ragnarsdrpa (see note to verse 24) and is evidently about the killing of jazi and inn making his eyes into stars; cf. 2/367. Verse 111 Skj A I 445, B I 414. Taken to be from Eirksdrpa, in memory of King Eirkr inn gi Sveinsson of Denmark (d. 1103), like verses 398, 409, 391; cf. also 36/8. This verse may be a stef, see Fidjestl 1982, 1523. Most of the surviving poem, which is in the hrynhent metre (see Httatal 624, cf. pp. 823), is preserved in Kntlinga saga. Cf. notes to verses 270, 387 and 398. Verse 112 Skj A I 409, B I 379. Taken to be verse 1 of Steinns lfsdrpa about King lfr kyrri, composed about 1070 (cf. Fidjestl 1982, 147). More of the poem is found in Morkinskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna and Flb; there are also some quotations in Hkr and Fagrskinna. Verse 113 Skj A I 343, B I 316. Assumed to be from a poem (otherwise unknown) about Gunnlaugr ormstungas brother Hermundr Illugason, who died c. 1055 (see SnE 184887, III 568). Verse 114 Skj A I 332, B I 306. From Rgnvaldsdrpa, on Earl Rgnvaldr of Orkney after his death c. 1045. Verse 296 is also from this poem, and there is also a quotation in H and in Orkneyinga saga (F XXVII 440, XXXIV 54). See Fidjestl 1982, 1312 and note to verse 1. Verse 115 Skj A I 318, B I 294. The stef from Hallvarrs Kntsdrpa (on Kntr inn rki), only found here, from which there are further quotations (only found in Snorra Edda) in verses 258, 348, 311, 239, 388, and others in Kntlinga saga and Hkr (and H). This is the only work of his of which anything has survived. It is mainly about Kntrs expedition to England and his becoming king there in 101516.

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Verse 116 Skj A I 353, B I 326. The poem of which this is a fragment is otherwise unknown, though it might be from Hrynhenda (see note to verse 387). See Fidjestl 1982, 128. Verse 117 Skj A I 73, B I 64. The second half of a lausavsa composed c. 965 (or somewhat later), after the fall of Hkon gi and the coming to power of the sons of Eirkr blx and Gunnhildr. The first half appears as verse 143, which is given twice in U, see SnE 184887, II 315, 319, 358. The whole stanza is also quoted in Hkr I 201, Fagrskinna 99100 and TM I 49. N: i. e. since Hkons death wealth has been withheld. The parenthesis in lines 34 probably means the rulers policies are having a great effect. Cf. verses 185 and 249. Verses 11819 Skj A I 1556, B I 148. Verse 118 is also quoted as verse 291 with variants. Part of Hkonardrpa, see note to verse 10 (and Frank 1978, 856.) On bird-names used in kennings for ships (verse 119/3) see Den lille Sklda, SnE 1931, 255/4, and cf. Hrafn in Index and Glossary. P. 36/8 The first line of a verse is here used to refer to a quatrain (verse 111), as in modern usage. Cf. verse 357 n. Verse 120 Skj A I 376, B I 346. Taken to be part of jlfr Arnrssons Sexstefja, composed in honour of Haraldr harri c. 1065, like verses 122, 385, 186, 389, 309, 318, 333, 236, 280. There are two further quotations in TGT, but the major part of the extant poem is preserved in Hkr (and H ), Fagrskinna, Morkinskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna. It is an ambitious poem (the title implies it had six stef ) covering many of Haraldrs exploits, including his part in the battle of Stiklarstair and his campaigns in the Mediterranean, as well as the major battles of his own reign. Fidjestl (1982, 136) is however doubtful whether any of the verses that are only in Skldskaparml or TGT (i. e. verses 25 and 2735 in Finnur Jnssons arrangement of the poem in Skj; these include all the verses that are in Skldskaparml except verse 122, which is also in Fagrskinna and is less doubtful) are necessarily from Sexstefja, even though several of them are clearly about Haraldr harri, but he provisionally includes verses 25 and 35 (= verses 385 and 280 in Skldskaparml ); cf. Fidjestl 1982, 172. Some of these verses in Skldskaparml and TGT, however, share similarities which suggest that they form a group (Fidjestl 1982, 142, 172).

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Verse 121 Skj A I 155, B I 147. See note to verse 10. Fleygjanda is incomplete as a kenning for ruler; Finnur Jnsson (Skj B I 147) emends frgjan to frakna (of spears; so also Frank 1978, 86). Verse 122 Skj A I 369, B I 339. The whole stanza is in Fagrskinna 231 and HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 140). See note to verse 120. The second half of the verse places it among Haraldr harris campaigns in Africa, and the darrlatr dsi is the king of Africa. Cf. Fidjestl 1982, 4041. P. 36/256 Note the different list of girs daughters at 95/89 (Drfn instead of Bra; cf. also verse 357 and note). Both Drfn and Bra appear in verse 478, though there they are mixed with common nouns and it is difficult to be certain whether they are all ten to be taken as names. There is a further list (the same as at 95/89) in a verse in A, SnE 184887, II 493. P. 36/28 hringr eyjanna: cf. the verses of Einarr Sklason and the ula of island-names in A, SnE 184887, II 4912 (and Edda Magnsar lafssonar 2678). Verse 123 Skj A I 143, B I 135. See note to verse 109. Verse 124 Skj A I 320, B I 296. One of 5 fragments (the others as verses 126 and 347, 127, 354, 363) that seem to be from a travel poem, only known from Skldskaparml. Verse 125 Skj A I 418, B I 387. From a poem known as Norrsetudrpa (39/15), apparently about an expedition to somewhere to the northwest in Greenland. Other fragments in verse 137 and TGT 30, 113 (compare this with Hsdrpa 12, verse 303 below), 114. Nothing else is known of this poet. Verses 1267 Skj A I 320, B I 296. Verse 126 is also quoted as verse 347. See note to verse 124. Verses 12832, 134 Skj A I 4812, B I 453. Fragments from an unknown poem or poems about a sea journey. Verses 346, 351, 357, 362 may also belong; perhaps also verse 339. Cf. Fidjestl 1982, 2078. If verse 128/4 is correctly emended to sngrund (so WTUB) and this means Iceland, it is difficult to see all these verses as belonging to an account of Sigurr Jrsalafaris journey to Jerusalem; but some of them may. See Fidjestl 1982, 156. Verse 133 Skj A I 211, B I 201. Only this verse and verse 289 are known of this poets work. See Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 520 and Snbjrn in Index. On the interpretation cf. Tolley 1995, 6971. Kock (NN 572) interprets Grotti skerja as breakers; Tolley

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1995, 69 suggests whirlpool, and for brir eylrs brides of the island quern-frame, i. e. the waves, though brir eylrs skerja might be the kenning for waves and Grotta might on its own be a metaphor for the churning sea. In the second half of the verse Kock (NN 573) takes skipa hlar (the waves) lyngs as a description of the foam on the surface of the sea, gen. with lmeldr. Skipa hliar bl the dwelling of the ships sides would make a good kenning for sea (see Tolley 1995, 72 n.), but hlar is required by the metre; on hendings between vowels of different quantity see Httatal p. 54). Cf. Saxo Grammaticus 197980, I 85 (and II 59 and 60), where it is implied that Amla meldr could mean sand. Verse 135 Skj A I 306, B I 284. A fragment of unknown context. An unusual example of nature poetry. Cf. note to verse 144. Verse 136 Skj A I 479, B I 451. A fragment of unknown context, evidently about a ruler, but the sentence is incomplete: the main clause must have been in the other half of the stanza. Cf. notes to verses 12832, 1459 and 233. P. 39/1315 (ch. 27) and 1819 (ch. 28): cf. 14/2530 n. On Fornjtr see Holtsmark 1967, 734; Clunies Ross 1983. In Flb I 22 and Orkneyinga saga ch. 1 (F XXXIV 3) the three sons of Fornjtr are Hlr (= gir, the sea), Logi (= fire) and Kri (a name for the wind; cf. BM and the ula of vera heiti in A, SnE 184887, II 486). See Fornjtr, Eldr, Logi and Vindr in Index. There is also a Kri in Hyndlulj 19. Verse 137 Skj A I 418, B I 388. See note to verse 125. P. 39/1819 With ch. 28 compare the ula of elds heiti in A and B, SnE 184887, II 486, 56970. Verse 138 Skj A I 416, B I 386. A fragment of an unknown poem, to which the verse quoted in U only at 84/18 (see note to verse 303) may also belong. The lack of alliteration here implies that the two lines do not belong to the same couplet. Verse 139 Skj A I 540, B I 521. The only known fragment by this poet (taken to be the sgrmr Ketilsson of Sturl. I 166, 168, 203 and Skldatal, cf. SnE 184887, III 6468), which may be from a poem about King Sverrir composed c. 1200. See Fidjestl 1982, 160. Verse 140 Skj A I 50, B I 43; Frank 1978, 1479; Turville-Petre 1976, 19. From a lausavsa quoted in full in Egils saga ch. 47 (F II 119). Cf. verse 392. The second half of this verse locates the event referred to at Lund, and according to the saga this would

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have been before the Battle of Vnheir, i. e. in the mid 930s, but the verse is one of those thought by some not to be genuine. Cf. Httatal 11: each couplet forms a separate sentence. Glitra can perhaps be taken as intrans., as it ought to be: we shall shine with our swords aloft. P. 40/9 kalla . . . ea til: presumably to be understood kalla . . . ea kenna til (cf. t. n.). Alternatively omit ea til, but some of the genitives in the list are unsuitable as dependent on vinnanda ea fremjanda. P. 40/12 Like many of the suggestions in Snorra Edda about kennings originating in word-play, this explanation is unlikely to be correct (cf. p. 63/1517 n.). Tree-names are used widely in kennings for both men and women and probably originally related to comparison of the shape of a tree with that of a human being. Cf. the ula of tree-names in A and B, SnE 184887, II 4823, 566. P. 40/15 Cf. SnE 1931, 257/235; 1924, 105/35; and see Mijungr in Index and LP ; and Glossary under smmijungr. P. 40/20 lg spelled log in R (like lg at 40/19; other manuscripts have log (lg) or lag (lg) in both cases). See 63/1517 and note and lg in Glossary. P. 40/21 Cf. the ula of tree-names in A and B, SnE 184887, II 4823, 566. P. 40/2731 Alternation of nom. and acc., cf. note to 14/2530. P. 40/28 Cf. Gylf. 29/22. P. 40/32 fyrr : see the beginning of Skldskaparml. If the whole of Skldskaparml is supposed to be part of the dialogue beginning there, we have the illogicality of its including narratives of events that took place after the feast at which the dialogue took place had ended. P. 41/4 Understand vru after nu or eru nefndar after eira? Fyrr : see 36/256 and note. P. 41/9 In the kenning-type fire of the sea = gold, gir was probably originally used as a common noun for sea, so that the story is unlikely to be the origin of the kenning, which most likely began with beliefs about gold being able to be found under water. Cf. Meissner 1921, 225; Faulkes 1994, 171. P. 41/15 Understand lkt after er (1) and er lk after in and er lkr after lkr? Verse 141 Skj A I 4, B I 45. Only here; a fragment of unknown context, except that this also seems to be in response to a gift from

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a king. Line 4 fulli could be read fylli (fyllr f. a cupful); see Introduction p. liv and NN 221. Verse 142: from an otherwise unknown eddic poem in ljahttr (PE 318). P. 41/34 Cf. Gylf. ch. 43 and verse 62 above. P. 42/26 Cf. Hyndlulj 7, where Freyja says that the dwarfs Dinn and Nabbi made her a boar called Hilldisvni. While her boar is not mentioned elsewhere, however, Freyrs appears also in Hsdrpa (verse 63 above) and at 18/27, and in Gylf. ch. 49. P. 42/3 Either understand hann before tki or the verb is impers. P. 42/10 Cf. Gylf. ch. 49; cf. note there to 47/4. There is another ring that can reproduce itself at 45/278 below. P. 42/15 Finnur Jnsson (SnE 1931, 123) emends at (1) to ok (so TWU), but as it stands it could either be an adverb with kom ar or a relative. P. 42/18 vejunina is written veiu | na over the line division. The emendation may be unnecessary, since the first vowel of the article could perhaps sometimes be omitted in such forms (see Noreen 1923, 472). P. 42/35 serk sr : i. e. on a cord around his neck? If so, this remark may be related to the finds of small medieval representations of hammers designed to hang round the neck as amulets, e. g. those illustrated in Turville-Petre 1964, pl. 1617. The shortness of the forskepti in the next sentence (q. v. in Glossary) is perhaps an allusion to rrs hammer having been perceived as similar to a Christian cross with a short top. This might well have been regarded as a lti (flaw). Verse 143 Skj A I 73, B I 64. Quoted twice in U (see SnE 184887, II 319, 358). From a lausavsa also quoted in Hkr I 201, Fagrskinna 99100, TM I 49. The second half is quoted as verse 117, see note to that verse. In line 2, the uncontracted form bra would give a sixth syllable, cf. Httatal 7 and note. Similarly verses 77/8, 86/4, 147/8, 154/3, 228/1, 317/4, 359/2; perhaps also verse 77/4, though this line already has six syllables, and verse 214/2. See under (2) in Glossary and Introduction p. liv; Noreen 1923, 130. P. 43/17 fyrr : cf. Gylf. ch. 35, as well as p. 40/28 above and verse 435 below. Verse 144 Skj A I 306, B I 284. Taken to be from a poem on the poets various exploits, including the Battle of Svl (AD 999 or

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1000), probably composed many years later (cf. Hkr I 358, verse 157/3 and note 2), perhaps c. 1020. Other quotations as verses 343, 338, 187; otherwise there survives only the one stanza in Hkr I 358, Fagrskinna 154 and other versions of the saga of lfr Tryggvason (including that of Oddr Snorrason); see TM II 264 and Fidjestl 1982, 166. There is another quotation from a poem by Skli as verse 135. At ar vrum is taken by Kock (NN 770) to be correlative with at fleiri (the more, in that we were there; perhaps an ironical reference to those who were not). Verses 1459 Skj A I 4778, B I 44950. These verses seem to be part of a poem thanking a king for the gift of an inlaid weapon (perhaps an axe; cf. Hnoss, Gersimi in Index); thus the wish for long life for the king in verse 146. Verse 146 is repeated as verse 232. Other verses probably from the same poem are verses 183, 193, 194, 244, 245 and possibly the anonymous verse in TGT 19, 80. On this poem see NN 2057. See Fidjestl 1982, 156, who suggests that the poem may have been about a series of gifts and that verses 136 and 368 may have belonged to the same poem. Verse 147/8: cf. note to verse 143. Verse 148/4 varn: unmutated form in R, as frequently in verse, for vrn. Rhyme of a and is not uncommon (see Hreinn Benediktsson 1963). Since this verse also seems to be about the gift of a weapon, it is tempting to follow Finnur Jnsson (Skj B I 450) and emend ll (spelled vl in R, l in W, avl in U, aul in T) to x as subject of buumk (with nt) and vsa vrn as the object (a useful axe afforded me certain or secure protection). Otherwise buumk must be taken as 3rd sg. pass. P. 44/29 fyrr : cf. 3/58. Verse 150 Skj A I 5, B I 5. A fragment of an otherwise unknown poem, though since it seems to be praising a ruler for generosity it could be part of Ragnarsdrpa, see note to verse 24. P. 45/12 The text seems to imply some hesitation (the redundant word steinninn is in RWT (steininn W), though not in U); vazt(which belongs with undirklu) could perhaps be read vatns in the verse (cf. textual note) in spite of the prose. Chs 3943 are lacking in U here (SnE 184887, II 321), but the summary in U of kennings for gold derived from the stories in these chapters implies that the narratives were known to the compiler of the U redaction (so Boer 1924, 1656, 192), unless the

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narratives are an expansion based on the list of kennings in U. The beginning (only) of the story of otrgjld and the Gjkungar comes in U much later (SnE 184887, II 35960). P. 45/32 fyrir v : with at ; i. e. Loki would repeat the curse to whoever next took possession of the ring; maybe implying that he would take malicious pleasure in passing on the curse. Verses 1512 = Ffnisml 323. P. 49/31 lt has no complement in R, leaving the construction incomplete (anacoluthon); riu eir in line 33 could be regarded as the virtual complement, or read leit instead of lt (there are other examples of e instead of ei in R, see Introduction, p. liv), and either regard en Svanhildr drottning sat as the implied object (leit abs.), or read hvar Svanhildr drottning sat. T has leit Jrmunrekr konungr Svanhildi . . . hvar hon sat. The whole sentence is rephrased in C. Verse 153 Skj A I 4, B I 4. Taken to be from Ragnarsdrpa, about rrs fishing for the Midgard serpent (see note to verse 24). Verses 1548 Skj A I 12, B I 12. See note to verse 24; this is evidently the section of the poem that corresponds in content to Hamisml. See von See 1981, 2336. Verse 154 is also in FoGT 129; on verses 1547 see Turville-Petre 1976, 14. Verse 155 Cf. Dronke 1969, 2056. lskakki runna is perhaps the equivalent of skakki lrunna: generous giver (one who pours out) to ale-trees (which then includes a complete kenning for men, cf. runnr in Glossary). Line 8: the form haufi (Noreen 1923, 98.1) provides aalhending, though rhymes are not regular in this poem anyway; cf. Gylf. 7/19, Hkr I 15. Verse 156/34: explained as naglfara siglur (masts of the sword = warriors) standa andvanar saums segls (without sails of the rivets = shields) in NN 2720. Edith Marold (1994, 575) suggests naglfara means ship or ships planking (see Index), and that the kenning is masts of the sails of the ships planking (i. e. of shields), which do not have nails, i. e. warriors (cf. note to verse 401). Cf. von See 1981, 2334. Verse 157/58 Cf. Reichardt 1928, 234. Verse 158/4 Hendiadys: shield and (i. e. with) with many stories; cf. 157/7 (forehead- and edge-blows) and NN 2002. Verses 15982 Grottasngr, an eddic-type poem, but only found here (in R and T; verse 1 only in C, in the middle of the preceding

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prose (52/14), introduced by the words ok er etta upphaf at ; C and U also omit verses 1834). Apparently a literary reworking of what may originally have been an actual work-song. Verse 161/34 The proposal may be to stop grinding rather than to start. Verse 165/34: Kock suggests reading Sofi eigi sar en . . . ea lengr en sv . . . (NN 71). Verse 167/8 late alliteration; change word-order to bornar erum eim? See also verse 176/6, where T reads vill hla. Verse 183 Skj A I 478, B I 450. See note to verses 1459. Line 7: Kock (NN 958) takes f Fenju as the subject of drkar, leaving ann meldr as an expression for gold on its own as the object of bera. Verse 184 Skj A I 39, B I 33. Hfulausn 17/78, see note to verse 31. P. 58/11 heyrak : archaic suffixation of first person pronoun, perhaps to indicate provincial speech?though such a form may not yet have seemed archaic at the time Snorri was writing. P. 58/12 mestr : deliberate play on the two meanings of the word (tallest, largest in build and greatest in reputation or achievement). P. 59/15 and 17: perhaps these two speeches are lines of verse. P. 59/32 Cf. the ula of ss heiti in A, SnE 184887, II 493. Verse 185 Skj A I 73, B I 64. Appears twice in U, SnE 184887, II 321, 362. Part of a lausavsa the whole of which appears in Hkr I 201 (see note there on p. 200) alongside verses 117 and 143 above (which are given in Hkr as the two halves of a single stanza; see note to verse 117 above). Also in Fagrskinna 19, TM I 49, and lines 12 in TGT 16, 71. (See Frank 1978, 823, and Ullr in Index.) Verse 186 Skj A I 375, B I 345. Lines 56 also quoted as verse 389. See note to verse 120. Fidjestl (1982, 1379) suggests brattakr vala (so WTU) spakra should be taken as (on) the steep field of the quietly resting falcons (i. e. arm(s)), with bauga emended to bjgri (a. with r). Verse 187 Skj A I 306, B I 284. See note to verse 144. Verses 18890 Skj A I 181, B I 17071. Only fragments survive of the eddic poem Bjarkaml in fornu, one of the few such poems known that had Danish content. Besides these three verses, there are two quoted from the beginning of the poem in Hkr II 3612 and H 547 (cf. Fstbrra saga, F VI 2613), and two fragments of four and two lines respectively in Edda Magnsar lafssonar 265, 272. But Saxo Grammaticus includes a Latin version

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of the poem in Book 2 (197980, I 5663, cf. II 57). The original poem is thought to have been from the tenth century, though all the lines attributed to it may not be original. Bvarr bjarki was one of the principal speakers in the poem (hence its name), and the subject of the verses quoted here was presumably Hrlfr kraki. The poem relates to the kings last battle. Verse 190/8: Baldr gli is not known and Baldr may be part of a kenning for warrior; vaki (vakti ) . . . eygi (WTAU) suggest that the line has something to do with the episode of the apparently inactive Bvarr in the last battle of Hrlfr kraki (Hrlfs saga kraka 1960, 118; Saxo Grammaticus 197980, I 5960). P. 61/1112 It seems natural to assume that snow and ice in kennings would refer only to silver (cf. verse 193 and note to 62/9), but cf. Den lille Sklda, SnE 1931, 256/22. P. 61/16 eru: i. e. can be (referred to as, taken as); but it is not clear which is the subj. and which the complement, cf. 61/14 and Glossary under vera). Verse 191 Skj A I 399, B I 368. Taken to be from orleikr fagris flokkr on King Sveinn lfsson, composed c. 1051 (see Hkr III 113, Kntlinga saga 130, Fagrskinna 253, Morkinskinna 161), like the fragment in verse 198 and verse 361, where the poets name is again given as orleifr in RC, but orleikr in TAB (U omits the chapter). Here TCU give the name as orleifr, though it is orleikr in WAB; at verse 198 only T has orleifr (U has orleikr there); see Index. There are further quotations from the poem in Kntlinga saga and Hkr, Fagrskinna, Morkinskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna. Verse 192 Skj A I 122, B I 116. Together with verse 299 thought to be all that remains of a poem about a king who must have been Danish (in view of the mention of Lundr here and his being said to be of the kin of Haraldr hilditnn in verse 299); it was possibly Haraldr bltnn, and the poem may have been composed c. 985. See Fidjestl 1982, 96. Verses 1934 Skj A I 4789, B I 45051. See note to verses 1459. With the word-order of verse 193 (sjs goes with snr and geima with eldr ; both phrases are the subject of liggr) compare Httatal 98. Snr ok eldr in line 4 constitute refhvarfa brir (Httatal 23), as well as paradox. P. 62/9 The sentence is fuller in AB: Hr er gull kallat eldr ls (B omits) hrynbrautar, en silfr snr sklanna (SnE 184887,

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II 433 (the text here omits the word silfr, but it is in the manuscript), 517). Cf. 61/1112 n. Verse 195 Skj A I 419, B I 388. Part of an otherwise unknown poem by an otherwise unknown poet, probably in praise of some ruler. There seem to be two nominatives in apposition as the subj. of tti, both referring to the same person as seima rri; glasendir, however, could be the subject of sr (though it would seem unlikely to refer to the poet; cf. verse 197 n.), or perhaps, if sr is impers., vocative (see Skj B I 388). Some manuscripts have at for ok in line 2, see under ok in Glossary. Verse 196 Skj A I 290, B I 268. Quoted again as verse 287, with differences. Taken to be from ttarrs head-ransom poem addressed to King lfr Haraldsson of Norway (c. 1022), see Hkr II 5 n. (the context of the poem is given by Styrmir fri, Flb IV 67). Further quotations as verses 359 and 408 and in FGT, but most of the surviving poem is found in Hkr and H (some brief quotations also in Fagrskinna, Orkneyinga saga, Kntlinga saga, Legendary saga, etc.). Whether reading gull- (WTUB), gulls (RC) or gl(with A and verse 287), the kenning gunnar gull(s) (gl-)brjtandi can only mean sword-breaker; if the lines are not wrongly copied, the commentator must have overlooked the fact that there is not here a kenning of the type gold-breaker = generous man (62/14; cf. verse 228 n.). Verse 197 Skj A I 130, B I 123. From Vellekla, see note to verse 18. Kocks interpretation (NN 410) avoids giving the poet the inappropriate kenning gullsendir (see Faulkes 1993b, 1718; cf. verse 195 n.), but makes him the receiver of land as a gift (improbable though not impossible) and describes him as receiver (i. e. of the mead of poetry) rather than maker of poetry (cf. Gauts gjafrtur in verse 300b). Verse 198 Skj A I 399, B I 368. See note to verse 191. Verse 199 Skj A I 492, B I 464. Together with verse 283, this is all that remains of a poem presumed, because of the mention in Skldatal (SnE 184887, III 276) of the poet having composed about him, to have been about Sigurr Jrsalafari (d. 1130). These and verse 26 are all that remains of this poets work. Finnur Jnsson (192024, II 72) suggests the possibility that the nickname is derived from his having composed a poem (from which verse 26 may come) about someone with the nickname blanda (perhaps the Norwegian

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Brynjlfr blanda, d. c. 1180; see Sverris saga 51). See Fidjestl 1982, 158. Verse 200 Skj A I 324, B I 299. Thought to be the last verse of rarinn loftungas Tgdrpa (the poet is named in A), composed for Kntr inn rki c. 1028, otherwise known only from quotations in Kntlinga saga, Fagrskinna, Hkr, H, Legendary saga and other versions of lfs saga helga. See F XXXV 1256. The word tgdrpa may be used as a common noun here (for the first time?), but subsequently it has come to be taken as the name of rarinns poem. This may have been the first major poem to use this metre (tg(drpu)lag is given as the name of the metre in Httatal 689; tgdrpuhttr in Httatal 70), but it is uncertain whether the name relates to the metre or to the subject of the poem (Kntrs journeys or expeditions to Norway). Cf. tgdrpa in Glossary. Verse 201 Skj A I 552, B I 534. From a poem about an unknown woman which is also quoted in verses 203 and 204 and TGT 21, 85. Besides the poem quoted here Hallar-Steinn composed Rekstefja (preserved in Bergsbk (see note to verse 277) and TM ) about lfr Tryggvason and there survive fragments of a poem thought to be perhaps about Skld-Helgi in Edda Magnsar lafssonar 307, 398 (see Finnur Jnsson 192024, II 1067). P. 63/13 kallat : written thus without abbreviation in RWT; such lack of concord is not unusual when the participle precedes the subject (Nygaard 1905, 66 n. 3; 67 n. 2, 3). U and C have kallair. Cf. 67/23. P. 63/1517 samheiti: homonym; i. e. selja can be a word for a tree (a kind of willow) as well as a word meaning dealer, server, giver. Fyrr : i. e. ch. 31. Lg is written lg at 63/16 and lg is written log at 63/17 (in R; the other manuscripts generally have a (or ) in both words, though T has o; at 40/1920 R and T have log, W has log (the first time with ), U and B lag or lg). The play is on the two words lg and lg (lg) which would have been distinct in pronunciation but could both be written log or lg (see lg and lg in Glossary). Cf. 40/1920 and note. The explanation Snorri gives is improbable, cf. note to 40/12. On lg in kennings for woman cf. skora, tra; all three are likely to be variations of kennings with names of trees as base-words. P. 63/16 Cf. 40/21 and note. Verse 202 Skj A I 197, B I 188. From a lausavsa in Gunnlaugs saga

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ch. 11 (F III 96), about Helga in fagra after her marriage to Hrafn (c. 1006), though it is doubtful whether it is genuine. The man referred to in line 2 is Helgas father, orsteinn Egilsson. Verses 2034 Skj A I 5523, B I 534. See note to verse 201. Verse 205 Skj A I 415, B I 385. See note to verse 29. Lines 12 are quoted in TGT (in W) 28, 104. This verse seems to refer to what was done with Snfrrs dead body. Verse 206 Skj A I 417, B I 386. Apparently a fragment of a poem about an unknown woman; nothing further is known of this poet (called Steinn in A and T). Alliteration on the second half of a compound as in line 3 is unusual (cf. Kuhn 1983, 34, 49, 108), but although sto straumtungls would be a sufficient kenning, velti (vlti ?) will not fit in as a verb without hfu- being omitted (cf. NN 2314: mik villti sto stilltan). The line is anyway rather heavy. Verse 207 Skj A I 416, B I 385. See note to verse 29. Ek hefi lagit mark (konunnar) (kvi) may mean simply I have dedicated the poem to the woman rather than I have fixed the image of the woman in the poem. Verse 208 Skj A I 185, B I 175. Anonymous fragment of an otherwise unknown love poem. It is doubtful whether Finnur Jnsson is right to class it as tenth century in Skj A I 185 (see Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 522). Verse 209 Skj A I 184, B I 174. Anonymous fragment of an otherwise unknown poem. Cf. verses 2245, 235, 317 and Fidjestl 1982, 167. P. 64/26 reynir : play on reynir trier (cf. reyna try, test) and reynir rowan; cf. ch. 31. It is more likely that in fact tree-names were used in kennings because of the similarity in appearance between a man and a tree. Cf. selja (2) and (3), and lg, lg in Glossary, and notes to 40/12 and 63/1517. Verse 210 Skj A I 137, B I 129. Another verse about rr fishing for the Midgard serpent (see note to verse 8), also quoted as verse 316. Verse 211 Skj A I 79, B I 69. From Sigurardrpa, see note to verse 12. Verse 212 Skj A I 155, B I 147. From Hkonardrpa, see note to verse 10. Verse 213 Skj A I 341, B I 314. Second half of verse 12 of Magnsdrpa, see note to verse 105. The complete stanza is quoted in Hkr III 567, Fagrskinna 224, HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 83), the first half in Flb IV 53. Verse 214 Skj A I 321, B I 297. A fragment of unknown context, see

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note to verse 4. Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 600, suggests that it relates to Vagn kason, cf. Jmsvkinga saga 1962, 29, 423. In line 4, R appears to have es-Freyr, though it perhaps could be read l-Freyr, which would be synonymous with as-Freyr. The phrase gekk meyjar sing may be metaphorical if the woman concerned is symbolic (e. g. of death (= Hel) or battle (= Hildr (1) in Index), cf. Httatal 49 and note). Kock (NN 1128) takes Hrs drfu askr as subject of gekk (parallel to l-Freyr) and vi as a preposition with rinn roska (rather than present tense of vinna), though vi would not normally be used with this meaning; cf. NN 2988H. Verse 215 Skj A I 601, B I 601. Anonymous and of unknown context. If brynja is the subject of kvaddi, handar svella hlynr is vocative; it is sometimes emended to brynju, making hlynr the subject. (Kock NN 3132 points out that then heill ought to be feminine.) The remainder of the verse is not extant, and brynja may belong in sense to something in the following lines. Verse 216 Skj A I 320, B I 296. See note to verse 30. Lines 1 and 3 4 do not comprise a complete sentence, and the main clause must have been in the other half of the stanza. Verse 217 Skj A I 298, B I 275. From Kntsdrpa, addressed to Kntr inn rki c. 1027; also quoted as verse 314; the whole stanza of which this is the second half appears in Hkr II 2801, H 438 and the Legendary saga; the first half only in Fagrskinna 186. It is about the battle at in helga which Kntr fought against King nundr lfsson of Sweden and King lfr Haraldsson of Norway (the tveir jfrar) in 1027. Ten other stanzas from the poem are quoted in Kntlinga saga which mostly relate to Kntrs campaigns in England around 101516. Verse 218 Skj A I 343, B I 315. The second half of verse 17 of Arnrrs Magnsdrpa, see note to verse 105. The complete stanza appears in Hkr III 62, HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 89), the first half only in Fagrskinna 225 and Flb IV 53. P. 66/1516 I. e. at kalla hana ver vpna . . . ea gn ea glym eira. Verse 219 Skj A I 23, B I 21. From Glymdrpa, the first half of verse 5. The whole stanza is found in Hkr I 1056 (cf. 101 n. 2), Fagrskinna 70, and in Flb II 59 (Haralds ttr hrfagra), where the lines of verse 219 appear as the second half of what is verse 9 of the poem in Skj. There are further quotations as verses 345, 256, and several verses appear in Hkr, Fagrskinna, TM, Haralds ttr

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hrfagra (Flb II 589). The poem is mainly about Haraldr hrfagris battles by which he became ruler of all Norway. It may have been composed c. 890900. Verse 220 Skj A I 69, B I 61. See note to verse 5. It is unclear whom this verse is about. Verse 221 Skj A I 93, B I 87. The first half of a lausavsa preserved like all Hlmgngu-Bersis verse in Kormaks saga (see F VIII 251). For the context see Kormaks saga ch. 12 Verse 222 Skj A I 480, B I 452. From an unidentified praise-poem. Cf. note to verse 136. Perhaps by Einarr Sklaglamm (Vellekla?); see note to verse 18 and Fidjestl 1982, 99100, where other ambiguous attributions are examined (e. g. verse 281). Verse 223 Skj A I 131, B I 123. Taken to be from Vellekla, see note to verse 18. It is difficult to see how the words rmu Hrs fit into the sentence; since the other three kennings (sigbjarka serkir, smmijungum, Hgna skrir) seem complete without any further genitives, it is perhaps best to take rmu Hrs as an adverbial phrase, in battle. See smmijungr and rma in Glossary. Verses 2245 Skj A I 184, B I 173. Anonymous and of unknown context. See note to verse 209. Verse 224 is not a complete sentence and a main verb must have been included in an unquoted line. Cf. Fidjestl 1982, 167. P. 67/18 If hjlm is not an error, it is the first heiti in the list of names for helmet, though it would be unusual to use it as the base word in a kenning for helmet. R, W and T all include both hjlma (as first object of kalla) and hjlm (T has hjlma ea hjlmhtt). P. 67/21 It seems that Ullr had a ship called Skjldr, though this is not mentioned elsewhere (cf. 19/32 and note); but kennings based on it (calling shields Ullrs ship) are common. See Glossary under askr, ask- and Ullr in Index. P. 67/23 er (2): lack of concord when verb precedes subject (T and U have eru, C reads skjldrinn kendr). Cf. 63/13 n. But there is also similar lack of concord in the next sentence where the subject comes first (and the complement is also plural). But it is possible that there hggvpn is to be taken as sg. and xar ea sver as a parenthesis. U, however, has eru kllu in line 24. P. 67/289 Apparently because it is mostly in what is composed as eulogy [i. e. of warrior kings] that these kennings are required. Since most poems are eulogies which require many terms for warfare

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and its attributes, there are many variations of such terms. Snorris particular concern is to encourage the writing of traditional eulogies, and to encourage the use of the traditional diction associated with them. P. 67/29 Sv kva Vga-Glmr add AC. Verse 226 See verse 3 and note. The attribution in AC is lacking here in RTWU, probably omitted by a scribe (or scribes). Verse 227 Skj A I 130, B I 123. Taken to be from Vellekla, see note to verse 18. Reichardt 1928, 138 reads me Sigvalda with fr. Verse 228 Skj A I 145, B I 136. From a drpa about Earl Hkon Sigurarson composed c. 987 (cf. Fagrskinna 131). The whole stanza of which this is the second half is preserved in Hkr I 281, TM I 18990 and Jmsvkinga saga 1879, 812, and these sources preserve several further verses from the poem. The verse contrasts the hardships of battle with the luxury of sleeping with a beautiful woman (cf. verse 286 and Krkuml 20 (Skj A I 6467)). Though Ra serkr could well be a kenning for coat of mail, it does not seem to be recorded as such in any extant verse, and in this verse it is difficult to see how Ra can belong with any other word than rastar. The heading to the quotation must be due to the writers inattention. Cf. verse 196 n. Verse 22930 Skj A I 156, B I 148. From Hkonardrpa, see verse 10 n. Verse 230 If benfr is n., it might be the (pl.) subject of rjask (indicative rather than inf.) and bjrt might go with it; then it is necessary to read fyrir before milskrum (as in C; A has vi, and R has fyrir instead of fr ; cf. t. n.) to provide a complement for vera. Cf. Reichardt 1928, 613: aan vera Srla ft fyra [fyrir] milskrum; bjrt benfr rjask bli. Verse 231 Skj A I 313, B I 290. First half of a lausavsa preserved in Grettis saga ch. 72 (F VII 2345), supposed to have been composed during his visit to Hegranessing, depicting the farmers reaction to the discovery that Grettir is their unknown guest. Verse 232 = verse 146, see note to verses 1459. Verse 233 Skj A I 480, B I 452. Two more lines are quoted in U:
ylgr brunar hvatt ins helga hrgjrn spor rnum.

From an unidentified poem by Einarr Sklason, cf. notes to verses 136, 222 and see note to verse 312. Parts of the description seem to imply a land battle, other parts a sea battle.

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Verse 234 Skj A I 318, B I 295. From a poem addressed to a ruler or chieftain thanking for a gift; perhaps from the same poem as verse 246. Verse 235 Skj A I 184, B I 173. Anonymous and context unknown. See note to verse 209. Verse 236 Skj A I 376, B I 346. Thought to be from jlfr Arnrssons Sexstefja (it is attributed to jlfr in A and U), see note to verse 120. Verse 2378 Skj A I 1, B I 1. Verses 12 of Ragnarsdrpa, see note to verse 24. Verse 237/3: see rr in Index. Verse 239 Skj A I 317, B I 294. Another verse from Kntsdrpa, see note to verse 115. Are there two shields (of different colours) or just one? Is it the kings own? Verse 240 Skj A I 182, B I 172. Anonymous fragment of unknown context. Kock (NN 85) compares the Old English Gnomic poems (Maxims I and II, ASPR III 162, line 153 and VI 56, line 37). Verse 241 Skj A I 79, B I 69; Frank 1978, 11718. From Sigurardrpa, see note to verse 12. Line 4 contains a fornt minni. Verse 242 Skj A I 138, B I 12930. From Hsdrpa, about Baldrs funeral (Gylf. ch. 49). See note to verse 8. Verse 243 Skj A I 77, B I 67. From Grfeldardrpa, see note to verse 6; also quoted in Fagrskinna 108. Fidjestl (1982, 912) suggests that this half-stanza belongs with stanza 10 of the poem in Skj (which in Fagrskinna is the first half of another stanza). P. 70/29 grand hlfar : the kenning in verse 244/3 is grand hjlms. Hlf protection can refer to either shield or helmet, or indeed to any protective armour; cf. verse 472/6. Cf. also note to verse 245/3. Verses 2445 Skj A I 479, B I 451. See note to verses 1459. Verse 245/3 In view of the commentary, fjrnir perhaps here means shield rather than helmet (cf. verse 471/4); the axe as enemy of the shield is also a more usual image. Kock NN 959 takes rendr as vocative, megu as indefinite (one can). Verse 246 Skj A I 319, B I 295. See note to verse 234. Kock (NN 783) keeps the reading bezt (adv. best) in line 4, though bors seems necessary to complete the spear-kenning: myrkdreki marka might mean spear on its own if ofljst is being used (myrkdreki marka = ormr = spear; or eikinn could be taken as oaken and thus qualifying the meaning of myrkdreki. This seems unlikely, as the only example in LP of ormr as a heiti for spear is in Krkuml

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12 (Skj A I 644). Several serpent-names are, however, also names for swords (see Ffnir, Ginn, Minn in Index; langbarr, nhggr in Glossary; nar in LP ) Verse 247 Skj A I 124, B I 118. Second half of verse 8 of Vellekla, see note to verse 18. The whole stanza appears in Hkr I 209 and TM I 556. Verse 248 Skj A I 155, B I 147. From Hkonardrpa, see note to verse 10. Verse 249 Skj A I 723, B I 634. From a lausavsa about Haraldr grfeldr (composed c. 962; cf. verse 117); the complete stanza appears in Hkr I 200, Fagrskinna 58, TM I 48. P. 72/11 It is possible that the scribe of R intended menstt a settlement in the form of a neck-ring. P. 72/16 mg sinn: presumably ironical, since Heinn did not actually marry Hgnis daughter. Verses 25054 Skj A I 23, B I 23. See note to verse 24. Verse 250 Kock NN 1505 takes fri as a noun, object of hugi (thought there was opportunity (to experience)), til frhuga verboa (for) the storm-offerers (i. e. Heinns?) hostile intent. There are various possibilities with at: at at in this, after this; at snum fer; at fri at ver boga. Verse 251/58 Kock, NN 1853 I (cf. 19469, I 2), apparently reads Sv lt ey, tt etti, sem orrostu letti jfrum, with lfs . . . lifru parallel to orrostu. But letja takes an accusative object of the person, and jfrum must go with etti. Note the end-rhyme. Verse 252/14 glamma mun is the object of stva; stopping the wolfs desire, i. e. hunger, means fighting a battle and providing carrion. If glamma mun means wolfs pleasure, i. e. carnage, Letrat must be read as Ltrat does not cause). H is either in apposition to mun (battle, the wolfs pleasure) or dat., in battle (or instr., by battle); or possibly the first element of the compound hglamma (battle-wolf; this might be a kenning for sword). See h in Glossary. Verse 253/34 Cf. verse 158 (stef ). The stanza is perhaps complete, since a stef does not necessarily have to come in a full 8-line stanza. Verse 254/78 It is uncertain whether these two lines contain one prepositional phrase or two. In any case at in line 7 is hard to reconcile with the context (at = close by, i. e. along the shore, is proposed by Kock, NN 217) and af Reifnis skeii from the sea would make better sense. In line 8 ralfs af mar would presum-

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ably mean from the ship. Finnur Jonsson in Skj B I 3 takes skeii with brum, swift in sailing (with Reifnis mar[i]; and brum at skeii might also be possible, though brum could also be adverbial, swiftly), and reads raarlfs (with herr), omitting the preposition in line 8. If one reads of (of (3) in Glossary) in line 8 (or omits the word), it is possible to interpret the phrase af ralfs Reifnis mar brum skeii, from the sea-kings swiftrunning Reifnirs horse (i. e. ship). P. 73/31 See the beginning of ch. 48 (66/1516 and verse 220). Verse 255 Skj A I 119, B I 1134. Part of a lausavsa quoted in VgaGlms saga ch. 26 (F IX 8990). Cf. verse 3 and note. In spite of the interpretation in the commentary, it seems more natural to take the kenning to be staves of the weather of Virirs rod (and the rod to be a spear, since this is inns weapon, rather than a sword) rather than staves of the rod of Virirs weather. Though there are parallels for the attachment of the first half of a compound to another element of the kenning (e. g. dal-miskunn fiska verse 140/4), this would not be expected unless there was no more straightforward alternative (see Introduction pp. liii). See F IX 89 n. It is not clear also whether the kenning belongs in the main statement or in the parenthesis. There is poor manuscript support for landa in the last line; mr til handa (for my own benefit however leaves rudda ek without a complement. Forum can be taken with jarlar (earls of old; or the equivalent of sem jarlar geru forum) or rudda or lk, but since the adverb is probably contrasted with n . . . um sir in the second half of the verse (F IX 90), it is perhaps best to take it with rudda. P. 74/36 The author is here still basically concerned with kennings for man, even if they are made up of kennings for weapons or battle. Cf. Mller 1941, 1245. In line 3 the subjects are orrosta, sverit, menn. Verse 256 Skj A I 22, B I 20. From Glymdrpa, see note to verse 219. Also quoted in Fagrskinna 69 and Flb II 58 (Haralds ttr hrfagra); in both of these it appears as the first half of a stanza with what in Skj is Glymdrpa verse 4/14 as the second half, cf. Hkr I 103 and see Fidjestl 1982, 87. Verse 257 Skj A I 414, B I 384. This is all that survives of this poets work, and he is not mentioned elsewhere. The context is unknown. at cannot be fitted into the sentence, since fri enna is the object of segir. (But enna could go with mar (NN 897); Kock

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also takes line 3 (with enna) as the main clause and the first three words of line 4 as a parenthesis.) Keeping the manuscript readings, one might perhaps understand the verb to be in line 1 and take line 2 as a parenthesis. This would make each line a separate statement (ttmlt, Httatal 10). On the rhyming of syllables with and a (line 2) see Hreinn Benediktsson 1963. Verse 258 Skj A I 317, B I 293. From Kntsdrpa, see note to verse 115. In spite of the commentary, lines 34 Slsa bekkjar tr must mean on the path of Slsis bench, i. e. the path of the ship, though in itself Slsa bekkr could be a kenning for the sea (Slsis resting place or land, 74/245). It would also be possible to take Slsa bekkjar with hreinum (reindeer of Slsis resting place, i. e. ships) and Sveia with tr (Sveiis path, i. e. sea). Cf. notes to verses 196 and 228 for other cases of apparent discrepance between verses and commentary. Verse 259 Skj A I 329, B I 303. Perhaps a lausavsa, but the context is unknown. Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 604, suggests it may relate to lfr helgis expedition to Denmark in 1026 which culminated in the battle at in helga (Helge), and that it may be part of Radrpa (on which see Hkr II 281). There are other fragments that may be from this poem in the version of the second half of Skldskaparml in W (SnE 1924, 105) and in some manuscripts of Edda Magnsar lafssonar (see Jn Helgason 1966, 176; Faulkes 19779, I 106, 152; Skj A I 32930). Cf. verses 59 and 375 and see Fidjestl 1982, 127. Verse 260 Skj A I 452, B I 421. Probably a lausavsa; cf. verse 369. The verse-form is fjrungalok, see Httatal 11 (and t. n. there). Lines 56 are also quoted in TGT 27, 104 (in W). Lines 34 of hvtar gnpur hvals rannugtanni over the white peaks the bear of the whales house would be closer to the manuscript (T may have hvtar), though it would be unusual to use gnpur on its own of the waves. (Cf. Frank 1978, 756.) P. 75/15 In SnE 1931, 157 and SnE 184887, I 442 punctuated bjrn skoru er hr kallat. Skip er ok kallat hreinn. See kalla in Glossary. P. 75/16 r : verse 258. Verse 261 Skj A I 357, B I 329. The first half of a lausavsa quoted in Hkr III 89, Fagrskinna 237, Morkinskinna 85, HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 169). In Morkinskinna 86 and Hulda (Fms VI 170) the

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second half of this verse is also quoted as the second half of the verse attributed to Brennu-Njll in Skldskaparml verse 355, and the whole is then attributed to King Haraldr. Cf. verses 284, 355 and notes. Verse 262 Skj A I 483, B I 455. Probably part of a lausavsa by Einarr Sklason. The king referred to is likely to be King Sveinn Eirksson (d. 1157) and the verse may have been composed c. 1153. Cf. F XXXV 275, where another verse by Einarr Sklason complaining about his treatment by the king is preserved. Fidjestl (1982, 100) discusses the possibility that this verse is by Einarr Sklaglamm. Verse 263 Skj A I 539, B I 520. Probably part of a lausavsa. Also quoted in TGT 26, 100. The satirical tone is found in two other lausavsur by Mni, which are quoted in Sverris saga (1920, 91; nos 2 and 3 in Skj A I 539, B I 520; no. 4, quoted in Sturl. I 269, mentions gifts sent to Snorri Sturluson by Earl Hkon galinn). Line 2 drengum: see Noreen 1923, 389 n. 4: this may be a genuine alternative form to drengjum (WTAU). Verse 264 Skj A I 320, B I 296. See note to verse 30. Verse 265 Skj A I 200, B I 190. The first half of a stanza also quoted in Hkr I 249 and Fagrskinna 138 from Bandadrpa, the stef of which is quoted as verse 304. Otherwise the only parts of the poem preserved are in Hkr, Fagrskinna and TM. The poem, which is all that survives of Eyjlfr dasklds work, is about Earl Eirkr Hkonarson, and composed c. 1010. See Hkr I 249 n., F XXIX 165. The name of the poem probably relates to the occurrence of the word banda in the stef, the poets nickname to the fact that he composed about the earls dir. Verse 266 Skj A I 417, B I 387. Context unknown, though the lines may be about the story of Hildr Hgnadttir, ch. 50. Nothing further is known of the poet though he could be the lawspeaker who died in 1181 (Sturl. I 124, 130, 160). Verse 267 Skj A I 144, B I 135. Apparently from a Christian poem, but it is not known who the person being baptised is (it could be the poet). If this is by the same poet as verses 50 and 58, he is evidently another example of a heathen poet who became Christian (cf. note to verse 50), and the lines must be from the early eleventh century. P. 76/22. It is possible that the placing of the chapter on kennings for

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Christ was determined by the words of verse 267, and that the beginning of ch. 53 was suggested by the words of verse 276. Verse 268 Skj A I 152, B I 144. Like the previous verse, evidently part of a Christian poem by a poet known otherwise for his heathen verse. See note to verses 7391. The context is unknown; the poem may have been addressed to Christ. Eilfrs verse is only known from SnE. In line 2, the form sunnr would give a better hending. Frank (1978, 11819; see references there) takes setbergs as adverbial gen. on a table-mountain with sitja; banda lndum then becomes over (with) lands where the (heathen) gods are worshipped. It is difficult to be sure what the poet had in mind by his reference to sur at Urar brunni. It may mean at Rome, or at the centre of the world (i. e. Jerusalem?). If this extract really is from a Christian poem, the phrase presumably implies that Christ has taken over the reponsibility for fate (or providence) from the heathen norns. Cf. Gylf. chs 1516, esp. p. 17/3031: . . . Urar brunnr. ar eigu guin dmsta sinn. Verse 269 Skj A I 314, B I 291. Probably part of a poem about Christ; Finnur Jnsson (192024, I 543) suggests it was composed in connection with the dedication of a church built by Skapti (cf. F XIII 326 and n.). This is all that survives of verse by him, though he is said to have composed various poems (see Skldatal, SnE III 274, 280, 54852; lkofra ttr, F XI 91). He appears in several of the Sagas of Icelanders and in Hkr II and H, see Index. Verse 270 Skj A I 452, B I 420. Probably from a poem about Christ; another fragment may be preserved in TGT 28 and 105 (in W). But Fidjestl (1982, 153) suggests that both of these, together with a half-stanza (perhaps a stef ) that replaces verse 398 in AB (SnE 184887, II 461, 540; see note to verse 398 below) may be parts of a poem about St Kntr Sveinsson, probably composed after his death in 1086 (Marks is named as one of his poets in Skldatal, SnE 184887, III 283). Cf. note to verse 111. Line 2 dyggjan has the ia written like v and a run together, and perhaps dyggvan was intended. Cf. Noreen 1923, 430 n. 4. Verses 2713 Skj A I 572, B I 5656. The four verses attributed to Eilfr klnasveinn in Skldskaparml are thought to be from a poem about Christbesides these verses, verse 276; a verse quoted in FoGT 1312 (in W) may also belong. Otherwise all that survives of this poets work seems to be part of a lausavsa in TGT

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(14, 65); this is, however, attributed to Eilfr Gurnarson in all three manuscripts, pace Finnur Jnsson 192024, II 11617. Verse 272/4 Editors omit the second ok. Verse 273/2 sonar is emended to vinar (following TWA) in SnE 1931, 159, which would then refer to some saint; see SnE 184887, 4489 n. Verse 274 Skj A I 265, B I 245. Thought by Finnur Jnsson (192024, I 595) to be from Sighvatrs memorial poem about St lfr, composed c. 1040, perhaps a stef that emphasised the kings sanctity (according to H 553 the poem was stlt eptir uppreistarsgu, i. e. had interpolated sections referring to uppreistarsaga; uppreist here may mean the Ascension or Resurrection, or conceivably Creation). Other verses from this poem are to be found in Hkr and H (one of these also in the fragments of the second half of Skldskaparml in W, SnE 1924, 105); one fragment perhaps in TGT. Fidjestl (1982, 121) points out that verse 274 seems to be about the baptism of Christ and that there is little reason to assign it to a poem about St lfr (whatever uppreistarsaga means, it is unlikely to have referred to Christs baptism). Cf. SnE 184887, III 3456, where the verse is more plausibly assigned to an otherwise unknown religious poem about some saint. Verse 275 Skj A I 353, B I 326. Thought to be from (the final verse of) Arnrrs memorial poem about Haraldr harri (composed c. 1067). Further quotations as verses 321, 376 and in TGT 14 and 65. The other extant verses from this poem are in Hkr, Hulda Hrokkinskinna, Morkinskinna, Fagrskinna, H. Fidjestl (1982, 131, 132) is doubtful about whether any of the quotations in SnE and TGT except verse 376 really belong to this poem. In line 3 R has only one k in Grkja, though it has two at 78/3 (written ck) and 19, but it is not certain that the writer wished to distinguish the two forms of the name (W has Girkja on the first two occurrences, T and A on all three). Guardian of Greeks and Russia is an unusual title, but Garar can hardly mean anything other than the Scandinavian towns in Russia. Verse 276 Skj A I 572, B I 566. See note to verses 2713. Verse 277 Skj A I 462, B I 431. The only quotation from Einarr Sklasons Geisli in Skldskaparml (though there are others in the version of Skldskaparml in W (SnE 1924, 112), TGT and HuldaHrokkinskinna, Hkr, H ). The poem as a whole is preserved at the beginning of Flb and in Bergsbk (i. e. Royal Library

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Stockholm Perg. fol. nr 1). It was composed c. 1153 in honour of St lfr and commissioned by King Eysteinn. See Hallberg 1975, 169. P. 78/17 koma saman: overlap, i. e. they are ambiguous. Most kennings for man or warrior or king are unspecific (i. e. they are fornfn, pronominatio or antonomasia), even though generally it is an individual that is referred to (they are not usually the equivalent of common nouns). Only the context (sto ) can decide who is meant, particularly in kennings for king/God (cf. 76/22 n.). Such kennings are sannkenningar or vikenningar, but not srkenningar (proper-noun kennings) in the sense of unambiguously indicating one particular person, even though they may mean an individual. Skaldic poets go to great lengths to avoid naming the persons who are the topics of their verse. See Introduction pp. xxixxxxiii. P. 78/21 Engla konung: presumably in addition to the general ambiguity about kennings for king which in some contexts may refer to God there is the further ambiguity in the word Engla, which can be gen. pl. of engill angel. P. 78/22 ritat : agrees with a generalised notion of what was written (or ), hence n., rather than with the actual word kenning ; though the f. form ritu may be intended (the scribe of R wrote rita; ritat WA, ritu T and U; cf. 95/9); r: 78/11 (cf. hla stillir in verse 276). Verse 278 = verse 5/58, see note. Verse 279 Skj A I 76, B I 66. Assumed by Finnur Jnsson (in Skj ) to be from Grfeldardrpa, see note to verse 6, though Fidjestl (1982, 91) points out that the content is too vague for it to be certain whether it belongs to that poem. The first two lines are also quoted as verse 394. Verse 280 Skj A I 377, B I 346. Thought to be from Sexstefja (cf. Fidjestl 1982, 136), see note to verse 120. In line 1 hildar is a possible reading, but conflicts with the list at 78/24. Verse 281 Skj A I 480, B I 452. A fragment of unknown context, evidently about a king of Norway. Cf. note to verses 136 and 12832. On the attribution, see Fidjestl 1982, 100 and see also note to verse 312. Verse 282 Skj A I 346, B I 318. From orfinnsdrpa, see note to verse 1. Quoted again as verse 344 (note variants), but not elsewhere. P. 79/3280/1 Those judgments and punishments shall be there as valid as those of the king himself.

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P. 80/10 veitanda, gtanda, stti are all, surprisingly, acc. sg. (though cf. Noreen 1923, 422 n. 3). P. 80/15 forneskju: it is perhaps not necessary to add the j; fornesku may be a genuine form, see Noreen 1923, 263 n. 2; cf. verse 263/2 n. Verse 283 Skj A I 492, B I 464. From a poem about Sigurr Jrsalafari, see note to verse 199. Verse 284 Skj A I 359, B I 330. The second half of a lausavsa about the Norwegian chieftain Einarr ambarskelfir, subsequently killed by the king c. 1056. The whole stanza appears in Hkr III 124, Fagrskinna 263, HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 270). Verse 285 Skj A I 275, B I 254. From an unknown poem, context uncertain; though it is likely to be from a poem about St lfr. There is insufficient evidence to connect this fragment with any other known poem by Sighvatr, though if it did not seem to be other than an eyewitness report it might be taken to belong to the same poem as verse 286 (see Fidjestl 1982, 123, where it is suggested that it may belong in Tryggvaflokkr). Kock (NN 683) takes the last line as a separate statement, in future I shall not tell about any minor engagements. He also takes nadda l as parallel to vg and at is emended to enn (as WT; U has it): again recently? The form engin would not be expected in verse earlier than the fourteenth century. In LP 110b it is suggested that the correct reading should be engi en (i. e. in) Verse 286 Skj A I 229, B I 218. The second half of a stanza from Nesjavsur, about King lfr Haraldssons battle with Earl Sveinn Hkonarson at Nesjar in Oslofjord in 1015. This is the only quotation from this poem in Skldskaparml; there are others in TGT, Fagrskinna, the Legendary saga, Hkr, H. The whole stanza appears in Hkr II 63 and H 93, the first half only in Fagrskinna 175. The picture painted is unusual (mead being served on board ship by a woman before the battle); but if fyrir means instead of we have the conventional contrasting of battle with peaceful activities. It also depends on how the adverbial phrases are ordered; possibly It was not then on the ship like when a maid served mead . . . instead of (or in return for?) battle. Cf. verse 228 and note. Verse 287 = verse 196, see note. P. 81/10 kallair, i. e. kallair eru. Verse 288 Skj A I 156, B I 148. From Hkonardrpa, see note to verse 10.

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Verse 289 Skj A I 211, B I 201. Context unknown, see note to verse 133. Kock, NN 574, suggests taking stjr(n)vijar with hlemmisver and stls with bulunga mli ; thus leaving hflangan sk on its own as a term for ship. Verse 290 Skj A I 344, B I 316. From orfinnsdrpa, see note to verse 1. Kock, NN 827, takes the first two lines and the last two words as one statement (sn = sight, glance) and mein as obj. of taka. At NN 2521 it is suggested that rather than of governing enda, enda may be an adverb and sessa acc. with of. Arnrrs sons do not seem to be mentioned elsewhere, any more than his marriage in verse 296. Verse 291 = verse 118, see note. Verse 292 Skj A I 79, B I 69. Assumed to be from Sigurardrpa, perhaps the first verse; see note to verse 12. It is not certain to whom the poem is addressed. At 82/6 verse 292 is taken to be addressed to Hkon Sigurarson, but the verse in Hkr I 168, which is thought to be from the same poem, is ascribed to Sigurardrpa; Finnur Jnsson (192024, I 529) takes the recipient to be Earl Sigurr. See Haraldr (1) in Index and note to verse 12; and cf. Frank 1978, 117. rr is perhaps more likely to go with sonr than with ek; but emending greppa to greppr would make it possible to keep the MS ltr (the generous poet proclaims; cf. Kocks rgreppa, NN 2510), though the kenning ale of the giantess = poetry would be unusual. Srar could be spared from the kenning but would be difficult to fit in elsewhere. Kock (NN 2510) suggests Srar (Freyjas) sannreynir = r, cf. Gylf. ch. 35, = r (acc. with after heyri), i. e. poetry (ofljst), and takes fentanna rgreppa jastrn mna as the object of ltk uppi. This of course would make it impossible for the addressee to be either Sigurr or Hkon (it would have to be the son of some Haraldr), and conflicts with the commentary. Fentanna jast-Rn might be a parallel to Hnitbjarga lgr. Verses 2935 Skj A I 368, B I 3389. From a runhent poem on Haraldr harri (c. 1055). There is another stanza from this poem preserved in Hkr III 70, Fagrskinna 228 (lines 14 only), Hulda Hrokkinskinna (Fms VI 132), Flb IV 59. Verse 294 relates to his time in Russia after 1030 (Hkr III 6970). The king lamented in verse 295 is Magns gi (d. 1047). Verse 293: it is not clear whether harrit or ver is the subject,

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and whether vex is trans. or intrans. (see vaxa in Glossary). Kock (NN 3229) takes sv at as rel. with harrit. Verse 294 hlri: Haraldr harri (Sigurarson) and St lfr (Haraldsson) were actually only half-brothers; their mother was sta Gubrandsdttir. Verse 296 Skj A I 332, B I 306. From Rgnvaldsdrpa, see note to verse 114. This verse seems to be the only source for Arnrrs marriage with a member of the Earls family. Verse 2978 Skj A I 346, 348, B I 319, 321. From orfinnsdrpa, see note to verse 1. Verse 297 is the second half of a stanza found in Orkneyinga saga, F XXXIV 61; verse 298 is only found here. Bitu verse 297/1 is absolute; kind in line 3 dat. of advantage. Verse 299 Skj A I 122, B I 117. See note to verse 192. Verse 300ab Skj A I 5, 182, B I 5, 172. The kennings in these verses are very obscure and even the literal meanings are in many cases far from certain. They are reminiscent of Irish retoiric. If either is genuine, both are likely to be by Bragi. They are not known from elsewhere. The first is only in R and (in part) C; the second is also in TUA. In both verses the first word may be the first of the list of complements rather than the subject, They call me troll/poet rather than Trolls/poets call me . . . Verse 301 Skj A I 79, B I 69; Sigrr in line 2 is probably Earl Sigurr (1); his mgr is Earl Hkon, and this stanza at least seems to be from a poem about him, though A has Hkonar, and Finnur Jnsson (Skj A I 79; 192024, I 529) ascribes the stanza to Sigurardrpa. See notes to verses 12 and 292 and cf. Haraldr (1) in Index. The words meir and fleira imply that the verse is the beginning of a second or subsequent section of the poem, though conceivably they mean just that this is a new poem. Fidjestl (1982, 93) suggests the possibility that the poem was about both Earl Sigurr and his son Hkon. Verse 302 Skj A I 213, B I 203. From Eirksdrpa, thought to have been composed after the death of Earl Eirkr Hkonarson (probably c. 1023, though neither the date of the earls death nor that of the poem is certain; see Hkr II 32 n. and Fidjestl 1982, 116). The complete stanza appears in Hkr I 276, Fagrskinna 129, TM I 1812 and Jmsvkinga saga 1879, 6970; these sources, together with H and Kntlinga saga, altogether preserve 13 stanzas of the poem (cf. Hkr I 275 n.). Another half-stanza is quoted (probably) in

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Skldskaparml as verse 324, and half of stanza 6 appears as verse 313. Fidjestl (1982, 116) took the verses assigned by Finnur Jnsson to Belgskakadrpa (Skj A I 212; in Fagrskinna, Hkr, TM, TGT) as part of the same poem, which he thought was not necessarily a memorial poem. Kock (NN 580) takes mrar rr (eager for glory) with skjldhlynr ; this is possible, since r is the word for poetry that is being exemplified in this verse. Verse 303 Skj A I 138, B I 130; see note to verse 8. U here (after 84/18) adds a verse (perhaps the last verse of a poem) attributed to Ormr Steinrsson (Skj A I 416, B I 386; SnE 184887, II 340), see notes to verses 29 and 138:
Sv kva Ormr Steinrsson: Ek hefi orgntt *miklu (o[pt] finnum at) minni (fram tel ek leyf fyrir lofa ljsa) en ek munda kjsa.

In line 1 U has mikla, which could be taken with orgntt, though that would be uncomfortable with minni following; ljsa in line 4 could go with either orgntt or leyf, though more likely with the latter, and the omission of -a in the manuscript may simply indicate that the vowel would be elided before en. Verse 304 Skj A I 202, B I 192; see note to verse 265. There is no alliteration; the three lines are part of a klofastef, and each line appears in other stanzas (lines 2 and 3 twice) as the second part of various couplets in the poem (quoted in Hkr I 250, 337, 33940 and in two cases in TM II 242), though they belong together as a continuous statement (there are also two more lines constituting probably part of a second stef that are not quoted here). See Skj B I 1912; Fidjestl 1982, 114. Cf. also note to verse 10. Verse 305 = verse 94/14. Verse 306 Skj A I 130, B I 123; see note to verse 18. The complete stanza is preserved in Hkr I 262 and the first half of it in Fagrskinna 119. C adds here Vafrnisml 47/46 (cf. Gylf. 54). Verse 307 Skj A I 71, B I 62; see note to verse 5. The first line may belong to words in the unquoted first half of the verse (NN 2305). The next word would then be a conjunction (en). Verse 308 = verse 12. P. 85/13 It is not clear where these names are supposed to be recorded; perhaps the author has access to written lists that he is

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using in this part of Skldskaparml. A adds hr (er hr eru ritin), but this may be a scribal rationalisation. Cf. SnE 1931, 258/31; verses 51617 below; the ula of himins heiti in A and B, SnE 184887, II 4856, 569. Cf. also 108/1 and note below. It is not clear whether kvum would include ulur. Of the names for sky or the heavens at 85/1718, hlrnir, andlangr and leiptr (= lightning) appear in various (often rather late) poems (cf. LP ), hlrnir also in Alvssml 12 and the ula in verse 516; ljsfari and drfandi are found only in the ula of names for the sun in verse 517. The rest (or variants of them) all come in verse 516. P. 85/1920 Cf. Alvssml 14, 16; as well as the ula in verse 517. lfrull also appears in other eddic and skaldic poetry (also rull in the latter; see LP ). See lfrull in Index and Glossary. P. 85/212 Cf. the ula of tungls heiti in A and B, SnE 184887, II 485, 569; and Alvssml 14. Verse 309 Skj A I 375, B I 345. The Jarl is unidentified; the verse is usually taken to be part of Sexstefja addressed to Haraldr harri (see note to verse 120), and only C has the word Jarl in full; RAT have what may be the abreviation for it, I or J; editors have emended to rr (a. liberal; with herir) (or r, i. e. r (3) in Glossary, Kock NN 3085) and assumed that the person referred to is the king. In line 2 NN 2032 suggests optherir (frequent promoter). Verse 310 Skj A I 290, B I 267. From lfsdrpa snska, addressed to King lfr of Sweden in about 1018. The metre is hlfhnept (Httatal 77, cf. p. 85 there). The only remnants of this poem are the quotations in Skldskaparml ; besides this verse, verses 395, 383, 390, 340, 365. Cf. Hkr II 912; H 688; Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 574. Verse 311 Skj A I 317, B I 294. It is assumed that Haraldr (in R and C; written Har with abbreviation sign in both) at 86/1 is a mistake for Hallvarr (so T; written Hallv with superscript r in A), and that this verse belongs to his Kntsdrpa, see note to verse 115. Verse 312 Skj A I 458, B I 426. Thought to be possibly from a poem about the four sons of Haraldr gilli of Norway (note dglinga, line 2), composed after 1142 (see Finnur Jnsson 192024, II 65) but before the death of Magns Haraldsson; this cannot be dated precisely, but was probably not long after 1142 (see Hkr III 321). There is a stanza in Hkr III 3212 and HuldaHrokkinskinna

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(Fms VII 229) that is also taken to be from this poem. Fidjestl (1982, 155) argues that the verse in Hkr III 331 (also in Hulda Hrokkinskinna, Fms VII 2389) assigned by Finnur Jnsson (in Skj A I 458) to Sigurardrpa, the first verse Finnur Jnsson (in Skj A I 475) assigns to Eysteinsdrpa (in Hkr III 327, Morkinskinna 443, Hulda/Hrokkinskinna, Fms VII 235), and also verses 281, 233, 336 and possibly 335 in Skldskaparml all belong to this poem. Cf. note to verse 399. Verse 313 Skj A I 215, B I 204. The second half of verse 6 of Eirksdrpa, see note to verse 302. The whole stanza is found in Hkr I 371, Fagrskinna 166, 163 (here the two halves separated and the lines in verse 313 attached to a different half-verse), and TM II 300. Verse 314 = verse 217. Verse 315 Skj A I 99, B I 93. See note to verse 37; about gmundrs burial. Verse 316 = verse 210. Verse 317 Skj A I 184, B I 174. Anonymous fragment, perhaps tenth century. See note to verse 209. It would be possible to take hrynbes Fjrgynjar ls with hreggi and r steja Eldis mla with rgildi. Cf. Glossary under ml and hrynber. P. 87/89 The compiler is now discussing kennings, although this part of Skldskaparml is mainly about heiti. See also 90/1617, 269, and chs 6972. Vi may be adverbial in line 8: It is right to refer to blood or carrion in terms of it (i. e. the wolf) so as to refer to them as its food or drink rather than It is right to refer to it in terms of blood or carrion so as to call them its food or drink. The next sentence is then more likely to mean It is not right to refer to them thus using names of other animals than It is not right to refer to other animals in these terms. Cf. note to 90/269. Verse 318 Skj A I 376, B I 345; see note to verse 120. Finnur Jnsson (Skj B I 345, following Konr Gslason (1889, 75)) emends lfr to lf, object of spenja, and takes sr as a prepositional phrase: sonr Sigurar kom noran at spenja lf r skgi sr. Verse 319 Skj A I 37, B I 32; see note to verse 31. The text of the first two lines agrees fairly closely with the text in Worm 1636, 233 (and less closely with the fragment ) against Wolfenbttelbk, which has Sveit srs freka svalg und dreka. The kennings imply

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the hyperbole of blood described as a wave (breki ) washing over the ravens beak described in terms of a ships stem. Verse 320 Skj A I 477, B I 449. Half of one of the two stanzas surviving from Elfarvsur, composed c. 1160 about the chieftain Grgrs Dagsson and his battle on the Gta river in 1159. Both stanzas appear complete in Hkr III 3589 and HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 2667). This half-verse is also quoted in the fragment of the Fifth Grammatical Treatise in A, SnE 184887, II 397; lsen 1884, 159. Verse 321 Skj A I 350, B I 323; see note to verse 275. Verse 322 Skj A I 384, B I 354. Thought to be from a poem about Haraldr harri (cf. Skldatal, SnE 184887, III 275, 5967). There is another half-stanza in A, with the ulur (SnE 184887, II 493) and two more in HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 133, 139), one of which is also in Hkr III 756 and Fagrskinna 230, the other in Flb IV 59. Lines 23 of each half-verse constitute forn minni, in each case referring to part of the story of Sigurr Ffnisbani and the Gjkungar, chs 4042 above. Cf. Httatal 13, though the verse-form is like that of Httatal 12. P. 88/918 In U verses 3234 come immediately after verse 322, before names for bear. A and B also keep the verses illustrating kennings for wolf together, but T and C have the same order as R. Verse 323 Skj A I 535, B I 516. Thought to be possibly the only surviving fragment of a poem about King Magns Erlingsson of Norway (116184; cf. Skldatal, SnE 184887, III 277, 643). Otherwise only two verses (probably lausavsur) in Sverris saga 1920, 72 survive of this poets work. See Fidjestl 1982, 160. Each line means that the king fought brave battles, thus providing carrion for wolves (ttmlt, cf. Httatal 10). Verse 324 is similar. Verse 324 Skj A I 217, B I 206; not recorded elsewhere, see note to verse 302. This presumably belongs with Eirksdrpa, though there is nothing in particular to support this (Fidjestl 1982, 117); rrs patronymic (Kolbeinsson) is not given here (in U the verse is attributed to jlfr). Verses 3257 Skj A I 64950, B I 656; a further verse from orgrmsula as verse 331. Cf. the ula of horse-names in A and B (Skj A I 6856; SnE 184887, II 487, 571). These ulur are assumed to be from the twelfth century, but nothing further is known of their origin or authorship.

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Verses 32830 Skj A I 65051, B I 6567. Though the genre of the two poems is related, the name Alsvinnsml in RTC, lacking in U, seems to have nothing to do with the eddic poem Alvssml, also called Alsvinnsml in SnE, see Index, and is given as Klfsvsa in A. Cf. note to verses 3257. In verse 329 rei needs to be supplied in lines 15, unless the five nominatives and five datives are all to be taken with til ss riu, in which case 329/14 perhaps belongs with the same incident as that described in 329/710 (all taking part in the same battle?). It may however be pointed out that although annarr in verse 329/7 probably means annarr [hestr] (or annarr [Hrafn], cf. Hkr I 57), this horse may have been named Annarr (cf. Gylf., Index), even though Ailss horse is said to have been called Slungnir or Slngvir (see Slungnir in Index); and lines 910 could be read Grr [rei] Hvarfai, Geiri Undar, with Hvarfar and Geirr being the names of two more horses and Grr and Undar the names of their riders. The incident referred to in verse 329/510 does not seem to appear in any other source, though the battle between Ails and li on the ice of Lake Vnern appears on p. 58 above. Cf. Hkr I 579, F XXXV 29, 42. See Gering and Sijmons 192731, I 436. Verse 330 has two extra lines in A: Ullr missum | en inn Sleipni. P. 90/12 The plural verbs draga and fylgja perhaps indicate that the pairs of names are not alternative names for the same horses but pairs of horses that drag alternate nights and days. Whichever is meant, it is likely that the explanation is that the writer had two traditions about the names of the horses of night and day (or even four in the case of the latter) and wanted to reconcile them. Cf. Gylf. chs 10 and 11; sem fyrr er ritat presumably refers to ch. 11. Verse 331 See note to verses 3257. Line 1 yxna written vxna in R; cf. Hreinn Benediktsson 1986, 76. P. 90/1012 Compare the ula of orma heiti in A and B, SnE 1848 87, II 4867, 570. P. 90/16 lopt = sphere (in which a planet moves) in GkS 1812, 4to 2v, Alfri II 246: Si eru kollut lopt i bokum, au er himin tungl hverfi um. Ok er tungl i nsta lopti. P. 90/1617 Again the list includes kennings. Cf. 87/89 n. With ch. 59 compare the ula of vera heiti in A and B, SnE 184887, II 486, 569. Verse 332 Alvssml (this form of the name is found in A and C)

212

Skldskaparml

verse 20. Cf. also verse 380. Line 4 pi (see t. n.) is perhaps a genuine form (and if so must here be n. or f.); cf. Skrnisml 29; BM, s. v. P. 90/26 With ch. 60 compare the ulur of hauks heiti, hrafns heiti, hana heiti, ara heiti and fugla heiti in A and B, SnE 184887, II 4879, 5712. P. 90/269 There are two birds that there is no need to refer to in any other way than by calling blood or carrion their drink or food, that is the raven and the eagle [i. e. any bird referred to as drinker of blood or eater of carrion means raven or eagle]. All other masculine birds can be referred to in terms of blood or carrion and then it means eagle or raven. The object of kenna can be either the base word or the referent; the object of kenna vi is normally the determinant, sometimes the base word. See kenna in Glossary. Again kennings are discussed in this section mainly about heiti (see 87/89 n.). Verse 333 Skj A I 376, B I 346; see note to verse 120. Fidjestl (1982, 139) argues that the two halves do not belong together (they are made into two separate quotations in A and Cthe first adds after line 4 Sv kva hann enn, in the second ok enn is added above the line) and following Bjrn Magnsson lsen takes verse 333/14 as belonging with the four lines in TGT 106 (verse 32 in Skj ). Cf. his interpretations on pp. 1401. Verse 334 Skj A I 131, B I 1234; see note to verse 18. But the description of battle in this verse is very general and it cannot certainly be said to be about Earl Hkon (see Fidjestl 1982, 97). It uses two of the features of lihendr httr (cf. Httatal 41 and 53), i. e. there is assonance (skothending) between each pair of lines (odd and even) and the first hending in the even lines falls on the first syllable. Cf. note to verse 88/4. Verse 3356 Skj A I 480, B I 452; fragments of an unknown poem or poems, perhaps about some rulers successful warfare, like verse 339. See note to verse 312; cf. also notes to verses 12832 and 136. In verse 335/4 blikslar garmi must be a kenning for sword or other weapon (dat. with stra) but dog of the sun would not normally mean that. There has probably been some scribal confusion with Mnagarmr (see Gylf. ch. 12). Bor- or barslar garmr would make an acceptable kenning for sword (dog, i. e. damager of gunwale- or prow-sun, i. e. shield; bar could mean ship by synecdoche). Verse 335 is dunhenda (Httatal 24). On the

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metre of verse 336, cf. Httatal 8 and note there on pp. 5051; line 1 has seven syllables, but ar er may originally have been ars (bragarml, Httatal 8/20). Line 3 may have resolution in Muninn. The rhythm and placing of the hendings and alliterative staves have some similarity to Httatal 28 and 35 (skjlfhenda). Verse 337 is the second half of verse 3, see note to that verse (VgaGlms saga, F IX 95; note the extensive textual variants from the Mruvallabk text of the saga). Verse 338 Skj A I 306, B I 283. See note to verse 144. Verse 339 Skj A I 481, B I 4523. See note to verses 3356 (and cf. note to verses 12832) and Fidjestl 1982, 156. Verse 340 Skj A I 289, B I 267. See note to verse 310. The metre is again hlfhnept. Verse 341 First half of verse 93. At line 2 the emendation is perhaps not necessary, though it would be unusual to refer to a giant by using a feminine base-word, so ylgr is presumably a mistake (all other manuscripts have lfr). In verse 93 the text has lfr in TW (R is there illegible). Verse 342 Skj A I 184, B I 173. Only recorded here, and the authorship and context as well as the identity of the person addressed are unknown. In Edda Magnsar lafssonar 262, 338 it is attributed to jlfr (i. e. the texts there have idem/hinn sami instead of Ok sem hr er). Kock (NN 844E) maintains that hreggskornis handa mj is a kenning for poetry (mead of, i. e. in the hands of, inn in eagle shape) and that the two lines are complete in sense. Verse 343 Skj A I 305, B I 283. See note to verse 144. Like verse 338, this is only preserved here, so the context is uncertain, as is also the text. It seems that the poet was anxious because a battle was going to take place (it looked good to the raven), but that then he heard good news. Fidjestl 1982, 166, takes the verse to be an introductory one, in which case the good news is perhaps the poem itself and the greppr is the audience. Kock (NN 768) among other things takes vis greppr to be a kenning for seafarer, and the object of hli vel to be gu gallpnis spjalli. He also makes ekka the base-word of a kenning for battle. Verse 344 = verse 282. Verse 345 Skj A I 22, B I 20; also in Hkr I 102 as the second half of verse 34 there. See note to verse 219. Snorri (in Hkr I 103)

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Skldskaparml

clearly took Nkkvi as the name of a king against whom Haraldr hrfagri fought; if he was wrong (cf. grip (F XXIX 4), where skeiar brandr, part of a ship, is taken to be the name of a king), and it is the common noun meaning boat, it must be acc. pl., object of rak parallel to rsinar. Then the subj. would have to be mtir lagar tanna vbrautar, meeter of the sea. See Fidjestl 1982, 78. Reichardt 1928, 2024, suggests v- is the word that means standard or flag, vbraut then meaning flag-road, ship-road (since flags are characteristically carried on ships; cf. vbraut in Glossary and LP under v n. (2)). The subject of the sentence is then taken as mtir lagar tanna vbrautar, opponent or antagonist of the stones of the sea or river, i. e. spender of gold (= gullbrjtr ; the king). The object is taken to be rsinar ok rausnar, i. e. rsiok rausnarnar, with Nkkva as possessive. Verse 346 Skj A I 482, B I 453. See note to verses 12832. Fidjestl 1982, 208, argues for keeping the reading of R (and all other manuscripts) in line 2, taking fls glir (cf. Glossary s. v. glir), a kenning for gold, as referring to the ornament on the ships stem. Cf. verse 356/1. If an -- were not required by the rhyme, glum would be a possible reading, see Glar in Index. Verse 347 = verse 126. Verse 348 Skj A I 317, B I 293. See note to verse 115. Verse 349 Skj A I 185, B I 174. Only recorded here, and the authorship and context are unknown. Cf. verses 356, 364. Verse 350 Skj A I 35, B I 30. Verse 1 of Egills Hfulausn, see note to verse 31. Verse 351 Skj A I 482, B I 454. See note to verses 12832. In line 3 R has elsnuiN, i. e. lsninn, which could be m. acc. with jlma. Verse 352 Skj A I 338, B I 311. The lines appear as the second half of verse 2 in Hkr III 4; also in H 614, Hrokkinskinna (Fms VI 22), Flb IV 28. See note to verse 105. Verse 353 Skj A I 3867, B I 356; the first half of verse 102 in Hkr III 10910 (and Fagrskinna 251, Morkinskinna 156, Hulda Hrokkinskinna, Fms VI 252). Taken to be from a drpa about Haraldr harri (composed after 1048) quoted in several places in Hkr, Fagrskinna, H, Morkinskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna. The words it nsta perhaps mean that the poem listed a succession of expeditions. Verse 354 Skj A I 321, B I 297. See note to verses 124 and 4.

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Verse 355 Skj A I 139, B I 130. In Morkinskinna 86 and Hulda (Fms VI 170) these lines form the first half of a verse attributed to Haraldr harri (cf. Skj A I 357). In Hkr III 89 (and Fagrskinna 237, Morkinskinna 85 and HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 169)) verse 261 appears as the first half instead (see Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 463). No other poetry is attributed to Njll. P. 95/1 skips ea gulls: but the following names for the sea are mostly not used in kennings either for ships or for gold, at any rate in the verses quoted here, though there are examples of the second in verses 360, 368 and 369. The verses illustrating them on the whole do not contain kennings (the words for wave in verses 358, 359, 361, 362, 364, 365, at any rate, seem to be used literally as ordinary common nouns). Nevertheless the reading of A, skip ea gull, is preferable, since the meaning must be to refer to ships and gold in terms of them. Verse 356 Skj A I 184, B I 174. Also quoted in TGT 29 and 110 (in W and A), but the authorship and context are unknown. Cf. verses 349 and 364. P. 95/79 See the beginning of ch. 25 (36/246; cf. note to 36/256). Einarr Sklasons verse, however, has not been quoted before in any version of the text; both references are in RC, but neither is in AB; the first only is in T. A fairly clear indication either that the arrangement of the authors original has been altered, or that the work was under revision and never completed by the author. See Introduction, pp. xxi and xxxxi. P. 95/9 ritat: cf. note to 78/22. Verse 357 Skj A I 482, B I 454. See note to verses 12832 and cf. the verse in A, SnE 184887, II 493; also verse 478 below. A verse referred to by its opening lines (though not in T, which omits the quotation), cf. 36/8. The verse in AB (where it is placed after eira in line 12 instead of the second list of names) continues:
glymr Unnar vexgrenni Gndlar skfs ok Dfa; brdd strkr Blughadda brimslgin fellr Klga hlrar er Hefring strir haflaur um vi rauan.

B has skilr for ar er in line 7, and of for um in line 8. Verse 358 Skj A I 393, B I 3623. The first half of a verse in

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Skldskaparml

Morkinskinna 92 (and Flb IV 80 and HuldaHrokkinskinna, Fms VI 180; only the second half is in Fagrskinna 242) from a poem about Haraldr harri also quoted in verses 371, 378, 410 (these three are not found elsewhere); further verses in Fagrskinna, Morkinskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna, Hkr (see Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 623; Fidjestl 1982, 144). In line 1 R and C have bi, but although can be for e in medieval manuscripts, and A has be, this cannot be for bei (so T and B), because a long root syllable is required for the metre. See textual note and Noreen 1923, 368. Verse 359 Skj A I 296, B I 272. See note to verse 196. In line 2 the form sylghar would make up the usual six syllables (cf. Httatal 7). Verse 360 Skj A I 416, B I 385. See note to verse 29. In R first attributed to Kormakr, but then altered to Ormr. The description appears to be of the unknown recipient of the poem rather than of Snfrr. Cf. lafur Halldrsson 1990, 226 and 230. Verse 361 Skj A I 399, B I 368. See note to verse 191. Verse 362 Skj A I 482, B I 454. See note to verses 12832. Verse 363 Skj A I 321, B I 297. See note to verses 124 and 4. The verse-form here, as in verse 371, is stlt (Httatal 12). Kock (NN 785) takes fyllar skautbjrn as a kenning for ship (with fjll hrynja ), and vetrlii ska Gusis nauta (bear of the skis of arrows, i. e. of shields) as another (subject of fram sisk). As Finnur Jnsson (LP 503) points out, skautbjrn would be an adequate kenning for ship on its own, and moreover fjll needs to be qualified (i. e. by fyllar) if it is to mean waves. Gusis nauta remains difficult to fit in, but since ska vetrlii does not seem to make an adequate kenning for ship on its own, perhaps these four words do belong together (bear of skis of flags?). Cf. Glossary under nautr (2). Verse 364 Skj A I 185, B I 174. Only recorded here, and the authorship and context are unknown. Cf. verses 349, 356. Verse 365 Skj A I 28990, B I 267. See note to verse 310. Lines 34 are only in TAB. Verse 366 Skj A I 4, B I 4. See note to verse 24. This verse is again about rrs fight with the Midgard serpent (cf. Gylf. ch. 48). Verse 367 Skj A I 475, B I 447. From Einarr Sklasons Runhenda (composed after 1152), about King Eysteinn Haraldsson of Norway. There are further quotations from this poem as verses 377 and

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403, and in Morkinskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna, Hkr. It is mostly about the events of c. 115052, see Hkr III 32630. Verse 368 Skj A I 480, B I 452. It is evidently from a poem by Einarr Sklason thanking a patron for the gift of a horn. Cf. notes to verses 12832 and 136, and note to verses 1459. Verse 369 Skj A I 453, B I 421. Probably part of a lausavsa; see note to verse 260. It is not clear whether s slrls reginn refers to the poet or his opponent, and whether the spoiling of poetry means composing slander or just making bad verse. The words sr en eigi are presumably ironical: even the poets harsh criticism does not amount to slander, since it is justified. Cf. the verse of Hjalti Skeggjason in slendingabk, F I 15. P. 97/15 With ch. 62 compare the ula of elds heiti in A and B, SnE 184887, II 486, 56970. Verse 370 Skj A I 424, B I 393. Anonymous; probably from a poem about Magns gi (Fidjestl 1982, 168, 204). It may be about his burning of Jmsborg, described in Hkr III 3840; cf. verse 387. Verse 371 Skj A I 390, B I 360; see notes to verses 358 and 363. Verse 372 Skj A I 182, B I 171; anonymous fragment (and probably an incomplete sentence, see under vaa in Glossary) of unknown context, though it seems to be about the sea burial of Haki, cf. Hkr I 45. Verse 373 Skj A I 387, B I 357. Taken to be from a poem about Haraldr harri composed after 1048 (cf. Hkr III 111). Two further stanzas are found, one in Hkr III 111, Fagrskinna 252, Morkinskinna 158, HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 254), the other in Morkinskinna 1589 and HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VI 2545); part of the second appears also in verse 400 below. Nothing further is known of the poet, though he is mentioned as having composed about Haraldr harri in Skldatal (SnE 184887, III 275). The quotation here is an incomplete sentence, and the objects of feldu and eldi, and the word on which slar depends (presumably the name of an animal, giving a kenning for ship, which might have been the obj. of feldu) would have been in the unquoted lines. Kock (NN 874), however, takes Glamma slar with gramr and eldi and feldu as absolute. Verse 374 Skj A I 413, B I 383. A fragment probably of a poem about lfr kyrri composed c. 1070. The poet is presumably the Atli litli mentioned in Skldatal (SnE 184887, III 275) as one of

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lfr kyrris poets, but he is otherwise unknown. See Fidjestl 1982, 149. Verse 375 Skj A I 327, B I 302. Also in Hkr II 57 (and H 87, Fagrskinna 173), where it is said to come from a flokkr about the otherwise unknown Klngr Brsason (Brna- or Bjarnason in some manuscripts of H; some also make him the author). The name of the poet, rr Sjreksson, is given only in Fagrskinna; in Hkr and H the verse is anonymous as here. The event referred to is Earl Sveinns burning of Niarss in 1014. Verse 376 Skj A I 35051, B I 323; see note to verse 275. Verse 377 Skj A I 473, B I 446; see note to verse 367. Verse 378 Skj A I 391, B I 360; see note to verse 358. The context of the verse is unknown, but it may be surmised that the verse refers to one of Haraldr harris exploits in the Mediterranean or Russia and that he and his men (referred to as vikings) are burning an enemy town. Kock (NN 1143) takes the first line as a separate sentence and virki borgar styrks vsa as the object of brutu af broke down (af is the reading of R and TC; A has of, B r). If the vsi is Haraldr harri this is unlikely. Perhaps the genitive goes with vkingar (the strong leaders vikings rapaciously broke down the citys fortification). Verse 379 Skj A I 488, B I 460. Taken to be from Halldrrs tfarardrpa, c. 1120, about King Sigurr Magnssons expedition to Jerusalem in 1109. This verse is only found here, but others are quoted in Hkr, Morkinskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna, Fagrskinna, and one in TGT (which may be a stef ). Fidjestl 1982, 157, points out that there is actually little in verse 379 to connect it with tfarardrpa, and it may belong to another poem. Note the alternation of sg. and pl. r : the latter perhaps refers to the king and his men. There is similar alternation in verses 3 and 8 of the poem (Skj B I 458 9), though generally the king and his men are referred to in the 3rd pers. P. 99/5 With ch. 63 compare the ula of dgra heiti in A and B, SnE 184887, II 485, 569. Lines 57 appear in a passage in AM 281 4to supposed to have been part of Hauksbk (18926, 502), with the heading Nfn stundanna. The text there is more similar to that in U than to any of the other manuscripts that contain the passage (it omits r and has haust before vr), though it contains the additional word lf. Cf. Hauksbk 18926, cxxxiv.

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Verse 380 Alvssml (thus A and C; called lvisml in U) 30. Cf. verse 332. P. 99/21 Mar er hverr fyrir sr : possibly each man has a separate name rather than each one in himself is simply man or each man is an individual. Cf. 108/30 and note. With the terms for king in ch. 64 compare the ula of names for kings in A and B, SnE 184887, II 469, 551. P. 99/22 C adds er after kallat (written kalladr): [It is] the first and highest term for man when a man is called emperor; but the first phrase of the sentence can be taken as adverbial: with the first and highest term for man a man is called emperor. Verse 381 Skj A I 424, B I 394. An anonymous fragment perhaps about Sveinn lfssons son Kntr (the saint); or possibly Kntr inn rki. See Fidjestl 1982, 168. Verse 382 Skj A I 316, B I 292. From an otherwise unknown poem about a King lfr, maybe the Swedish king lfr Eirksson (died c. 1022), or St lfr Haraldsson of Norway (died 1030). See Fidjestl 1982, 1245. The poet is given the nickname svarti in B (cf. Hkr II 912, 95, 100). Otherwise only one lausavsa survives of Gizurrs work (if it is the same person; cf. Index) in Hkr II 3589, H 544 (where one manuscript gives the poet the nickname gullbr ) and the Legendary saga (where it is ascribed to ormr Kolbrnarskld). Cf. note to verse 4 and Gizurr in Index. Verse 383 Skj A I 289, B I 267; see note to verse 310. Kocks interpretation (194649, I 137; cf. 1933, 2923), takes vg-Freys (i. e. inns) munlaust (joyless?) skvf as the object of tekr, and thus a kenning similar to rija bikvn, verse 10/4; but in NN 717, Vg-Freys seems to be taken as in apposition to ska. Falk (1922, 612) reads mundlaust, cf. verse 122 and myndr in Glossary. The verse seems to be inciting the Swedish king to invade Norway; cf. Fagrskinna 178. Verse 384 Skj A I 347, B I 320; see note to verse 1. Verse 385 Skj A I 375, B I 345; see note to verse 120. This verse perhaps relates to the same episode as verse 6 of Sexstefja (Skj A I 370), see Hkr III 867, Fagrskinna 235, Morkinskinna 834 and Fidjestl 1982, 136, in which case haugs skundur refers to Constantine Monomachos; though actually it was Michael Kalafates who was blinded, see Hkr III 878 n. Verse 386 Skj A I 256, B I 238; lines 12 also quoted as verse 411;

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Skldskaparml

from Bersglisvsur, addressed to Magns gi c. 1038, warning him to be careful how he ruled Norway. There are further quotations from this poem in HuldaHrokkinskinna, Hkr, H, Fagrskinna, grip, TGT and in other manuscripts of Kings Sagas. Verse 387 Skj A I 3356, B I 309. The first half of a stanza that appears in Hkr III 3940 (with the first word there Skjldungr) attributed, undoubtedly correctly, to Arnrr jarlaskld, and taken to be from his Hrynhenda addressed to Magns gi in 1046. Another verse is quoted as verse 406 (also attributed to Marks in A), and there are more quotations in Morkinskinna, Hulda Hrokkinskinna, Hkr, H, Kntlinga saga, TGT, FoGT, and in the version of Skldskaparml in W (SnE 1924, 105; cf. also note to verse 116). Hrynhenda is the first major court poem in the hrynhent metre that survives. The error in attribution is presumably due to Marks Skeggjasons Eirksdrpa being in the same metre (cf. verse 111 n.). On the incident referred to here, cf. verse 370 and n. Verse 388 Skj A I 318, B I 294; see note to verse 115. Verse 389 = verse 186/56; see note to verse 120. The explanation of landreki (101/89) is improbable. The second element is likely to be related to Old English gerec rule and Old Norse rekja straighten out rather than to reka drive. See BM under -reki (2). P. 101/1024 Cf. the ttartlur following Hversu Noregr byggist in Flb I 257. Parts of Hyndlulj (e. g. verses 1116) seem to be based on a similar tradition; see also SnE II 469. Cf. 103/117 and note and see Introduction p. xxv. Verse 390 Skj A I 289, B I 267; see note to verse 310. Verse 391 Skj A I 445, B I 415; see note to verse 111. See Fidjestl 1982, 153. Verse 392 Skj A I 51, B I 45; lines 56 of a lausavsa from Egils saga (F II 145). The sentence and the kenning are incomplete: the words af augum mr grmu come in lines 78. For the context see Egils saga ch. 55. Verse 393 Skj A I 65, B I 57; the second half of verse 4 of Hkonarml; the whole stanza is quoted in Hkr I 1867 and Fagrskinna 88 (both have gramr instead of gylfi in line 3); see note to verse 7. Verse 394 = verse 279/12 (note the variant reading in the second line); see note to verse 6. Verse 395 Skj A I 289, B I 267; see note to verse 310. This was evidently the first stanza of the poem. Exchanging mns and sns

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(as in C) and taking bragar mns with httu and hrrs sns with upphaf would perhaps make better sense. Verse 396 Skj A I 405, B I 374; taken to be part of Stfsdrpa, the only poem of Stfr inn blindi of which anything survives (cf. Stfs ttr, F V 290 and note). Other fragments are found in Hkr, Morkinskinna, HuldaHrokkinskinna, Fagrskinna. The poem was composed c. 1067 in memory of Haraldr harri. Haraldrs battle against Sveinn lfsson of Denmark by the Niz took place in 1062. See Hkr III 14851. Verse 397 Skj A I 165, B I 156; the second half of stanza 27 of Hallfrrs lfsdrpa (erfidrpa) composed in memory of lfr Tryggvason c. 1001; see note to verse 10. The complete stanza is quoted in TM II 294, and other stanzas are quoted in TM, Hkr, Oddr Snorrason 1932, Fagrskinna, Hallfrear saga; and a halfstanza each in A (SnE 184887, II 493) and ireks saga 4. On this poem see Fidjestl 1982, 10911, 2345. Verse 398 Skj A I 444, B I 414; verse 1 (and probably the original opening) of Eirksdrpa, see note to verse 111. A and B replace this verse by:
Rkr er harra hneykir, heldr gu jfurs veldi sanndyggs, vitut seggir Sveins brr konung ra.

(Skj A I 452, B I 420; in line 3 B has sennir for seggir). This seems to be from a poem about St Kntr Sveinsson, also by Marks Skeggjason. See note to verse 270 above. Kntr apparently had two brothers called Sveinn (one a half-brother; see F XXXV 135, 366). P. 103/117 is again related to the ttartlur in Flb I 257, see note to 101/1024. Compare the ula of konunga heiti in A and B (Skj A I 671). Verse 399 Skj A I 476, B I 448; Finnur Jnsson in Skj makes this verse 1 of Ingadrpa, composed about King Ingi Haraldsson of Norway after 1155 (the battle at Holmengr took place in 1139, cf. Hkr III 316; other verses in the poem refer to the death of King Sigurr in 1155, Hkr III 34041). There are three further stanzas quoted in Morkinskinna and Fagrskinna. Fidjestl (1982, 155) assigns these four stanzas, together with another half-stanza in Hkr III 346, Fagrskinna 341 and HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VII

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251), assigned by Finnur Jnsson (Skj A I 475) to an Eysteinsdrpa (this verse apparently refers to events of 1157), to a poem about the sons of Haraldr gilli different from, and later than, the poem that verse 312 belongs to. Verse 400 Skj A I 387, B I 357. See note to verse 373. A and B have two further lines:
hir hygg ek hilmi stru Hugins jl vi nes jlar.

In line 1 B has hykk for hygg ek; in line 2 jar for jlar. The complete stanza is found in Morkinskinna 158 and Hulda Hrokkinskinna (Fms VI 2545). It is possible to take both hir and hilmi as either acc. or dat., i. e. it is difficult to see whether it is the men who provided slain for the king or vice versa. In the texts in Morkinskinna and Fms where the verb is geru it perhaps seems more likely to be the latter. Cf. stra in Glossary and SnE 184887, I 524. Verse 401 Skj A I 140, B I 132; apparently all that survives of a poem in praise of an unidentifiable king (or hero). Cf verse 49. These two fragments are all that survives of Gamlis verse; because of the subject of verse 49 he is assumed to have lived in the tenth century. See Fidjestl 1982, 165. Kock (NN 422) takes innan bors as an adverbial phrase (on a ship) and the phrase aflgjr ora tungu naglfara ok mealkafla as into the mighty activity of the speech of swords blade and hilt, i. e. of battle. Edith Marold (1994, 575) takes naglfari to mean ship (cf. Index and note to verse 156), innanbors naglfara as on board ship, mealkafla gen. with tungu ok ora and this phrase gen. with aflger (Krafttat der Sprache und der Worte des Schwertes). Lines 12 have dunhenda (Httatal 24). Lines 34 both have aalhending (cf. Httatal 42). Verse 402 Skj A I 60, B I 53. The only verse attributed to a woman in Skldskaparml. Taken to be from Sendibtr, apparently about Haraldr hrfagri, though it may have been addressed to Haraldrs son Hlfdan svarti; see Hkr I 142. There are four further halfstanzas in H 12, one of them also in Hkr I 142 and TM I 13 (the other three only in one manuscript of H). Nothing further is known about the poetess, though she must have been Norwegian and a contemporary of Guthormr sindri (early tenth century; see Hkr I 141 and Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 4456). Verse 403 Skj A I 474, B I 446, where the first two lines are lines

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12 of verse 6 and the second two are lines 34 of verse 7 of the poem, which is the arrangement in Hkr III 3289, Morkinskinna 444 and HuldaHrokkinskinna (Fms VII 2356); see note to verse 367. Verse 404 Skj A I 354, B I 326; a fragment, not found elsewhere, of an otherwise unknown poem (or perhaps belonging to the lost Blgagladrpa), possibly about Haraldr harri. See Fidjestl 1982, 132; Finnur Jnsson 192024, I 609, 611. Verse 405 Skj A I 383, B I 353; second half of a lausavsa quoted in Hkr III 190 and in Fagrskinna 288, Morkinskinna 279, Hulda Hrokkinskinna (Fms VI 420) and in Hemings ttr 1962, 53 (Hauksbk 18926, 3445); for the context see Haralds saga Sigurarsonar in Hkr III, ch. 92. Besides the lausavsur attributed to jlfr Arnrs-son in the Kings Sagas (two lines of one of which are quoted in FGT ), there is a half-verse quoted in TGT and some further quotations in Sneglu-Halla ttr (F IX 2678, 273, 293). Verse 406 Skj A I 338, B I 311; see note to verse 387. Perhaps a stef, unless it is the conclusion of the poem (see Fidjestl 1982, 191). Verse 407 Skj A I 439, B I 409. Perhaps from a poem about lfr kyrri (d. 1093). orkell is named as one of his poets in one manuscript of Skldatal (in U, perhaps as a result of dittography), though he also composed about Magns berfttr (d. 1103), see SnE 184887, III 2756; and this verse was apparently composed in Iceland (cf. of svalan gi) about a gift he had received. Kings of Norway did claim descent from Sigurr Ffnisbani (cf. Flb I 26), but Snorri seems to be taking Vlsunga nir to mean just descendant of kings, i. e. king. Fidjestl (1982, 152) points out that the metre (fornyrislag) and the reference to eddic material make the fragment an interesting anticipation of the later twelfthcentury skaldic poems influenced by eddic poetry, e. g. his no. 78 (varr Ingimundarson, Skj A I 495502) and 100c (Anonymous, Skj A I 5979); cf. Gsl Illugason, who also composed in fornyrislag about Magns berfttr c. 1104 (Skj A I 44044; B I 40913) and see note to verse 7 above. Vpn is probably sg. (the details of the gift are not known); in line 4 the manuscript spelling -bviN implies gullbinn, which might be a mistake either for gullbin (C has a single n) or for gullbit (which is what TUAB have). Emendation to -bit would give a sense closer to what one might expect, but the text as it stands is neither ungrammatical nor

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meaningless (gullbinn with nir), though it may be unusual. Pl. gullbin would also of course be possible if vpn is taken as pl. There also survive parts of a poem by orkell about Magns berfttr (composed c. 1104; in Hkr, Fagrskinna, Morkinskinna, Hulda Hrokkinskinna) and one lausavsa (see Hkr III 217, Morkinskinna 305, Fagrskinna 306). Verse 408 Skj A I 296, B I 272. The second half of verse 82 in Hkr II 1723 (also in H 254 and the Legendary saga 106, Fagrskinna 181, Orkneyinga saga 41); see note to verse 196. The reference of r is to lfr Haraldsson of Norway. gnbrr ynglingr might be vocative, or it could be taken with engi as part of the subject of var. The rel. clause presumably is to be taken with engi or as the complement, and jru as an adv. phrase meaning ever. Verse 409 Skj A I 444, B I 414; see note to verse 111. This may be a stef, see Fidjestl 1982, 1523. Verse 410 Skj A I 390, B I 360; see note to verse 358. Verse 411 See textual note and verse 386 and note. P. 105/21 Cf. 103/68. P. 105/23 Here begins the fragment of the redaction of the second part of Skldskaparml in W (SnE 1924, 103). P. 105/24 Bragi (presumably the same person) also appears at 103/4. P. 105/2932 These seem to be euhemeristic explanations of the origins of names of countries, presumably based on the assumption that they were founded by a king called inn. The hann in line 32 presumably refers to inn too. Cf. Gylf. Prologue 56. P. 106/7 ok hla is not in T, U or C (or in the version of this section of Skldskaparml in W, SnE 1924, 103), but A has hlldar ok hldar (B seems to have had the same, but is only partly legible here), and R has the spellings havlar ok havlda (the ending of the third word in R here is anomalous). U has haula (and omits ok hlar ok). Hlr and hldr are two forms of the same word, of which the first is the older (the later form first appears in fourteenth-century manuscripts in Iceland; see Noreen 1923, 238 b); some scribes seem to have interpreted them as different words. It is possible that one of them represents the Norwegian form hauld- corresponding to Icelandic hl- . Cf. verse 440 and note to verses 439442. P. 106/1118 Some of the words in these lists are adjectives. They would be what are identified as sannkenningar in Httatal p. 6,

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though in Skldskaparml ch. 67 all the examples of sannkenningar are (compound) nouns except for slkinn. There is a similar alternation between nom. and acc. in 106/1113 as in some earlier lists (cf. note to 14/2530), resulting in some ambiguity as to whether the weak nouns ending in -a are acc. masculine or nom. feminine. P. 106/30 mlisskor : possibly a piece of wood with a charge or accusation (mli ) indicated on it by a cut (skor ; English score). This perhaps needs a number of people to deliver, to prevent the person charged rejecting it with violence or to provide witnesses. The second element may, however, be skr decision, verdict; cf. Ordbog over det norrne prosasprog I (1995), 412. P. 107/8 of is perhaps an error for ef. Cf. t. n. P. 107/23 svifrur perhaps should have a long i, though before a consonant group vowels were often shortened (Noreen 1923, 127). Cf. svifrandi in Glossary and BM 1001. P. 107/29 Cf. the ulur of names for women in verse 438 and the additional ulur in A, SnE 184887, II 48991, and the verses in U, SnE 184887, II 363; and Rgsula 25. P. 108/1 eigi ritat, i. e. hr? The comment is unlikely to relate to unwritten poems, though it could relate to gaps in the writers source; cf. 85/13 and note. Or it may be that the author is squeamish about including insulting words for woman; or that he intended to add to his list later. Cf. SnE 1931, 258/48 (Den lille Sklda); and 40/15 above. P. 108/69 More kennings (see 87/89 n.). Note kent line 9; the writer is deliberately listing both kennings and heiti. There are many other examples of kennings being included in the lists in the rest of the chapter and in chs 7072. P. 108/89 On kennings linking sword and head in relation to Heimdallr see also 19/1113, Httatal 7 (and Vindhlr in Index there) and Gylf. 26/1 (see note ad loc.). The reference is clearly to a lost myth. P. 108/10 rmjt: r- intensive or = r arrow? The second element is maybe related to meta measure, evaluate; or it should perhaps be read mjtt, n. of mjr a. slender. P. 108/17 Tennar (so R, A and C) is possibly a genuine alternative form of the pl. of tnn. Cf. Cleasby and Vigfusson 1957, 648; Biskupa sgur 185878, I 641/21; Hrafns saga Sveinbjarnarsonar 1987, t. n. to 3/29. T has Tennr, B Tenn, U Tennrnar.

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Skldskaparml

P. 108/22 The syntax is rather compressed; presumably (m) kenna (at) til hauss ea hjarna ea hfus, ea skegg (m) kenna vi hku . . . U has ok kent for the first kenna and en skegg kenna menn vi hku; ABC omit ea (3) and continue Skegg skal kenna vi hku. T has the same as R except for en skegg instead of ea skegg. P. 108/2333 Cf. the ula of hugar heiti ok hjarta in A, SnE 184887, II 490 and the verse of Illugi, SnE 184887, II 493. P. 108/30 eru sr : are on their own, i. e. form a separate group. (C has eru enn sr, T and U omit the sentence.) But it is not clear whether this refers to the preceding or the following names, though in R the next word has a slightly enlarged capital. Cf. 99/21 and note. P. 108/338 Cf. the ula of heiti hendi in A, SnE 184887, II 490. P. 109/6 ljska: the second element is probably related to tt, the first to ljr, lr people; the meaning childishness is probably a later development due to the influence of ska youth. P. 109/89 The sudden introduction of comments on kennings for battle is probably because some of the words for voice in lines 78 (e. g. gnr, glymr, gangr) can be used as base-words in kennings for battle with weapons as determinants (see Meissner 1921, 187, 192). Cf. SGT 26, 27. P. 109/10 bragvsi is perhaps for bragvsi rather than having bragr as the first element. P. 109/1122 In ch. 74 word-play is recognised between words with vowels of different lengths (far and fr ; li and l; hli and hl ) as well (apparently) as between words beginning with l- and hl-, though the hl- words could be regarded as a different group. (From the references to ofljst in TGT 66 and 89, it looks as though the author of that treatise saw ofljst as consisting principally of play with words distinguished only by length of a vowel; cf. Httatal p. 54.) The writer also disregards the -r ending in the nominatives of lir (109/16) and the ox-name hlir (109/18); his awareness of this is marked by the care he takes to make sure the masculine words appear in the accusative. It seems likely that his readiness to accept imprecise equivalences arose from the fact that he was influenced by the written forms of words, where vowel length would not usually have been marked. Verses 412517 Skj A I 65379, B I 65871. These ulur are all anonymous, though assumed to be from the twelfth century; cf.

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verses 32531. The verse divisions are not always apparent in R, though they are usually marked by a point and/or a capital letter. The beginning of each list (where horizontal lines are printed in SnE 1931 and this edition) is generally marked by a large capital, usually but not always in the margin. A and B have the following additional ulur : konunga heiti (after verse 416 in A, before verse 412 in B), dverga heiti (after konunga heiti in A, after verse 416 in B), ins nfn (heiti) (after verse 427), via(r) heiti (after verse 502), and the rest after verse 517: tungls heiti, dgra heiti, himins heiti (a different list from that in verse 516), vera heiti, elds heiti, orma heiti, hesta heiti, hauks heiti, hrafns heiti, hana (hsna) heiti, ara (arnar) heiti, fugla heiti (the extant text of B ends in the first verse of this ula), kvenna heiti kend (a different list from that in verse 438), hugar heiti ok hjarta, grlu heiti, heiti hendi, heiti valkyrja, kvenna heiti kend (a third list), eyja heiti, fjara heiti, ss heiti, nfn gis dtra. Verses 41216 That these are names of sea-kings is not revealed until the end of the list in R, C and T which (generally) have no headings for the ulur, though A and B do (see textual notes). (If R originally had headings in red, they have now disappeared. Headings have been added in the margins later than the main text in T, and in some cases also in C.) Cf. the list in TGT 25, 99 (in W and A) and the ula of konunga heiti in A and B (SnE 184887, II 469, 551). Verse 416/3 For Gautrekr A has Gavr and B has Gaver, perhaps the source of the name Gavir/Gavr in Gylf. Prologue 5. Cf. also Gevarus in Saxo Grammaticus (197980, II 51). Verses 4237 Cf. Vilhjlms saga sjs 668; Einar l. Sveinsson 1942, 14043. Verses 436 Cf. Grmnisml 36 (Gylf. ch. 36) and the ula of heiti valkyrja in A (SnE 184887, II 490). Verse 438 There is the heading kvenna heiti (kend) in A and B. Cf. the ulur in A and U, SnE 184887, II 363, 48991, and Rgsula 25. Verses 439448 Some of the words in these stanzas are given as proper names earlier in Skldskaparml (chs 645), but here seem unequivocally to be taken as common nouns. Cf. the ula of konunga heiti in A and B (SnE 184887, II 469, 551) and Rgsula 12, 24, 41. Verses 44042 The repetitions presumably imply corruption. Kock,

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NN 2160, suggests aldir for one of the occurrences of hlar in verse 440 (cf. note to 106/7). Verse 442/3 There is an additional line here in T and B (ok slkerar ) and A (ok slingar ) which would make the stanza of regular length. Verses 44950 contain names for battle (headed orrostu heiti in A and B). Some (or variants of them) are found as proper names elsewhere (for example among the valkyrie-names in Grmnisml 36, and in the ula of heiti valkyrja in A, SnE 184887, II 490). Verses 45162 In the sword-names, some are kennings, some halfkennings or base-words for kennings (e. g. eldr, logi in verse 458, if these are not metaphors; fire of battle is a well known kenningtype, see Meissner 1921, 15051); some are nomina agentis apparently used in a passive sense (e. g. snyrtir, herir, skerir, verses 451, 456, 458); some are found as names of swords in sagas or poems. Some seem to be names for persons (i. e. they are personified, sometimes using giant-names). Some words under parts of sword (verses 46062) seem to be sword-names. Rather surprisingly, most sword-names seem to be masculine (they may be based on mkir rather than sver ). Many words of all these types may be artificially created and so not in accordance with natural word-formation. Verse 455/5 bensgr : perhaps sgr m. strip (cf. blrefill), but the vowel is uncertain. R uses , T , A has and B has o. The second element may be related to sax n. short sword. Verse 46062 The heading is heiti sveri in A and B (cf. note to verse 495). Some of the terms clearly are for parts of a sword, others seem to be names for the whole sword. Cf. note to verses 45162. Verse 466/78 Jlfrs artefact (made by him or owned, given by him?) is the best whizzer or perhaps ura is the best work of Jlfr. But since fst is strong, en must be an adverb or conjunction (enn?) rather than a pronoun or article, and the meaning might be there is Jlfrs artefact, but the best is ura. Verse 472/12 I. e. names for helmet. See t. n. Verses 4758 Cf. the ulur for names of waves (nfn gis dtra) and fiords (fjara heiti) in A (SnE 184887, II 493). With verse 478 compare verse 357 and note, and see note to 36/256. It is difficult to know how many of the words for wave in verse 478 are to be taken as the names of girs daughters.

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Verse 47984 contain names for rivers (the heading in A is heiti, in B Vatna heiti ). Many of the river-names are mythical, some geographical, in some cases beyond the travels of vikings (e. g. Ganges, for Old Norse occurrences of which see Index), and probably derived from books. Cf. the identifications in Cleasby and Vigfusson 1957, 780. Eufrates and several of the other rivers here are mentioned in Heimslsing in Hauksbk (18926, 150); see Index. Verse 485 contains names for kinds of fish. See t. n. Verse 487 In SnE 1931, 207 and SnE 184887, I 579, the lines are reordered to make the alliteration regular (lines 2 and 8 exchanged); they also have lines 34 as the final couplet, as in TAB (but not in C). Verses 48990 contain names for kinds of whales (see t. n.), some of which can only tentatively be identified with modern terms, and some of which are fabulous (see Glossary). There are 22 varieties of whale described in KSk 1517 (cf. also 29), of which 19 correspond more or less to items in Snorris list of 26 (cf. hrafnreyr and vgn in Glossary). 21 of the varieties in the ula correspond more or less to items in JG 513 and 28 (cf. geirhvalr, reyarklfr, krhvalr, vgn in Glossary). Three of the varieties in the ula have no equivalent either in Konungs skuggsj or in Jn Gumundsson: bunungr, probably a mistake for v. l. (in T) brungr, which is perhaps the same as brhvalr sperm whale, in Konungs skuggsj and Jn Gumundsson; bljuhvalr, according to Blndal 192024 the same as stkkull (this term is used to mean both a fabulous whale and a dolphin, see JG 3536); and sktuhvalr, which perhaps, like sktufiskur, means one caught from a skta. See also runn Valdimarsdttir 1989, 31318. Verses 495500 Heading in A and B: heiti skipi, i. e. names for parts of a ship, or in some cases for things on a ship. Cf. note to verse 460. Verses 501502 Cf. the ula of fjara heiti in A (SnE 184887, II 493). Verses 50314 With the ulur of animal names, it is particularly uncertain how many are proper names, how many common nouns for particular kinds of animals, and how many familiar terms for them. Verse 503/10 Perhaps emend to Vingnir (as in A and B), as another name for an ox; see Index.

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Verse 509/3 Kolmla (coal-muzzle) is perhaps a name. Verse 512/1 The first word in RTC (where this list appears as if a continuation of verse 511, see t. n.) could perhaps be read as a name Jrir. A and B have Hjrtr; A has a large (red) capital H, but in B there is space left for it, as elsewhere in this manuscript. The list is of names for stags (heading Hjartar heiti in A and B, see t. n.). Verse 516 The names for the heavens are here treated as proper names; in ch. 56 they seem mostly to be common nouns (heiti ) for the sky. Cf. the additional ula of Himins heiti in A and B (SnE 184887, II 4856, 569). Verse 517 On the additional ulur after this verse in A and B, see note to verses 412517.