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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 1
The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 1

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

A Satellite Image of the State of Kuwait.

A Satellite Image of the State of Kuwait.

Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 A Satellite Image of the

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

His Highness Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah The Amir of the State of Kuwait

His Highness Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah The Amir of the State of Kuwait

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

His Highness Sheikh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah The Crown Prince and Prime Minister

His Highness Sheikh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah The Crown Prince and Prime Minister

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

HH Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber The First Deputy Prime Minister, Ministr of Foreign Affairs &

HH Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber The First Deputy Prime Minister, Ministr of Foreign Affairs

&

Chairman of the Higher Council, Environment Public Authority

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Quotes from the statements of

His Highness Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah,

the Amir of the State of Kuwait:

“AsMuslims,wealwaysbeginourstatementswiththephrase“Inthe nameofAllah,themostgraciousandthemostmerciful”.Thisrevalidates our mandate with Allah to tell the truth, bring justice for all, and ensures that all our interaction between people is based on mercy, as the basis of brotherhood,humanrights,andcooperationforouradvancements.”



“Earthisthemotherofhumanityanddestroyingtheenvironmentmeans violating and abusing the trustworthy that almighty Allah has asked us to preserve. We should also preserve the heritages that our fathers have built in the past so we can deliver it more prosperous to the future generations”.



“Tolerantandcreativedialogueis the path to knowledge, and pleasant words provides the environment for good will and the best for the nationalinterest”.



“Criticism,provideditisnotfilledwithaccusationorallegations,isthe first step to reform. The most important ethics in any criticism is neither togainordivertattentionfromourownflawsnortocauseconflicts”.



“Scientificresearchisfruitfulandcanonlybegainedbythosewhowere patient and lived and spent their time and effort believing that whatever benefitspeopleremains”.



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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

“Futureresponsibilitiesaregreaterthanthepastorthepresent.The

greaterthehopes,thegreaterarethedeeds”.



“Itisanhonourtobeararesponsibility.Itisanobligationtoprotectit and deliver it. And itisasintoabuseit”.



“Thestrengthofanationismeasuredbytheabilityofitspeopletowork and cooperate in order to elevate their efficiencies through science, experience, experiment and creativity as well as their capacity for self assessmentinordertoreachthebestdecision”.



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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Project Director

Dr. Mohammad Abdul Rahman Al-Sarawi President of the Council

&

Director General Envioronment Public Authority

Dr. Eng. Sufyan Al-Tal Supervision, Editing, and Scientific Review Senior Advisor United Nations Development Program, UNDP

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Members of the Executive Board

Dr. Mohammad Al-Sarawi. President of the Council, Director General and Chairman of the Executive Office.

Dr. Bandar Mossalam Al-Raqas.

Manager, Strategy Executive Office from 20/4/99-20/4/2000.

the

Ms.Wafa’aAhmadAl-Khamees. General

Coordinator

of

strategy from 20/9/99-22/11/99.

Ms. Faten Al-Mosallam. General Coordinator of the strategy from 14/12/99-25/1/2002 and Manager, Executive Office from 26/1/2002-Recently.

Dr. Mohammad Fathi Hamooda. Project Consultant.

Eng.

Mazeedi.

Dr. Mohammad Fawzi Qasim. Member.

Ms. Alia Hasan Bu-Rhama. Researcher.

Mr. Wael Ahmad Al-Matar. Researcher.

Miss Heba Adel Al-Tabtaba’ee. Researcher.

Salah

Mohammad

Al-

Project Consultant.

Mr. Abdullah Saleh Al-Yahya. Information Coordinator.

Mr. Raed Al-Husaini. International Relations Coordinator

Dr. Hasan Al-Khardajee (Regional Consultant in the Economic and Social Committee for West Asia).

Mr.

Mahmood.

Mr. Mohammad Shams Al-Deen. Arabic Language Editing.

Ms. Tahera Abdul Rahman.

Ms. Jihan Mohammad Khalil.

Reference Standards Provision.

Mohammad

Nabawee

Map Preparations.

Typing.

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Members of the Guidance Committee

No.

Name

Authority

1

Dr. Mohammad Abdul Rahman Al-Sarawi.

President of the Council, Director General, Environment Public Authority and Project Manager.

2

Dr. Ali Yousif Al-Saif.

 

Deputy Undersecretary of the Ministry of Health, Community Health and Environment.

3

Dr. Nabhan Ibraheem Al-Nabhan CEO, Tohama Real Estate Company.

4

Eng.AsaadAhmadAl-Saad.

 

General Supervisor, Kuwait National Petroleum Company, Ahmadi Refinery.

5

Eng. Mahmood Khalid Karam. Manager, Treatment and Water Resources Department, Ministry of Public Works.

6

Dr. Mansoor Ghloom Hussain.

 

Deputy Undersecretary for Educational Development, Ministry of Education.

7

Mr. Yousef Mohammad Al-Hajri. Deputy Undersecretary for Operation and Maintenance of Power Stations and Water Desalination Plants, Ministry of Electricity and Water.

8

Eng. Jamal Al-Sayed Hashim Al- Rifai.

Deputy Undersecretary for Technical Affairs, Ministry of Oil.

9

Dr. Manaf Ismail Bahbahani. Faculty of Science, Kuwait University.

10

Dr.

Abdulrazzak

Mishari

Al-

Deputy General Manager for Applied

Nifisi.

Education and Research, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training.

11

Eng. Mousa Hussain Al-Sarraf.

 

Deputy General Manager for Projects, Affairs, Kuwait Municipality.

12

Mr.

AbdulMohsen

Nasser

Al-

Deputy General Manager, Landscape

Qallaf.

and Greening Department, Public Authority for Agriculture and Fisheries Resources.

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

13 Mr. Yousif Shehab Al-Bahar. Deputy General Manager, Specifications and Industrial Services, Public Authority for Industry.

Manager, Office of Studies and Followup, Public Authority for Housing Care.

Deputy Managing Director (operations), Kuwait Oil Company.

14 Dr. Sameer Al-Awadi.

15 Mr. Bader Nasser Al-Khashti.

16 Dr.ManeaAl-Sderawi. Manager, Environment and Earth Sciences Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research.

Acting General Manager, Department of Border Security and Sea Patrol, Ministry of Interior (MoI).

Acting General Manager, Department of Civil Defense, (MoI).

Deputy Manager, Technical Testing, General Department of Traffic (MoI).

Deputy Undersecretary for Measurment of Development Performance and Future Prediction, Ministry of Planning.

Chief Engineer, Military Installations Engineering Dept., Ministry of Defense.

22 Mr. Reyadh Ahmad Al-Sanea. Manager of Weather Forecast Department, General Directorate of Civil Aviation.

23 Mr. Theyab Farhan Al-Rasheedi.

21 Sheikh Rakan Al-Sabah.

20 Dr. Adnan Ez-Aldein Hashim Al- Refai.

17 Col.

Anwar

Abdul

Razzak

Al-

Yaseen.

18 Col Mustafa Juma Shaban.

19 Major Eisa Al-Rasheed.

Third Secretary, Legal Department, Ministry of External Affairs.

Deputy Undersecretary for Information and Press Affairs, Ministry of Information.

24 Sheikh Salman Dawood Salman Al-Sabah.

25 Eng. Khalid Ashoor Al-Marzooq.

Deputy

Undersecretary

for

Transportation,

Ministry

of

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Communication.

26 Mr. Meshal Ahmad Abdullah Al-

Judge,

Court

of

Appeal,

Ministry of

Jeraiwee.

Justice.

27 Mr. Younis Mohammad Younis

Judge,

Court

of

Appeal,

Ministry of

Al-Yaseen.

Justice.

Manager, Department of Fatwa, Directorate of Fatwa and Legislation, Cabinet of Ministers.

Deputy Manager, Department of Fatwa and Legislation, Cabinet of Ministers.

30 Dr. Bandar Al-Raqas. Seconded Advisor, Environment Public Authority, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training.

31 Ms.WafaaAhmadAl-Khamees. Manager of Planning and Environmental Impact Assessment Department, Environment Public Authority.

Seconded Advisor for the Environment Public Authority, Kuwait University.

Second

Public Authority, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research.

General Manager, Program of Public Works, Social Funds for Development, Eygpt.

Manager, Alfa Consulting Group, Syria.

Environment

33 Eng.

32 Dr. Mohammad Fathi Hamooda.

29 Mr. Haidar Taher Al-Herz.

28 Ms.

Huda

Abdulmohsen

Al-

Shayji.

Salah

Mohammad

Al-

Advisor for the

Mazeedi.

34 Dr. Mohammad Mokhales Abu- Sada.

35 Dr.

Mamoon

Al-Hamawi

Al-

Fahham.

36 Ms. Alia Hasan Bu-Rhama. Environment Public Authority .

37 Mr. Wael Ahmad Al-Matar. Environment Public Authority.

38 Ms. Faten Ali Al-Mossallam. Environment Public Authority.

39 Miss. Heba Adel Al-Tabtabae. Environment Public Authority.

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Introduction

The initiation of this strategy started by the determining certain important objectives. To continue the efforts, the first workshop in relation to the raising the pillars of the staregy was held at the end of 1998 where more than 100 representatives of various authorities and organizations, from public and private sectors, participated in its activities. At the workshop, the main strategy goals and objectives were established (Appendix 1). The formulation of action teams representing the different sectors followed. A second workshop was held, later on, in which participants delivered their inputs on the different sectors of the strategy.

In the middle of the year 2000, the Environment Public Authority of the State of Kuwait (EPA) approached the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) for assistance in order to propose reference standards to prepare the environmental strategy for the State of Kuwait. Action teams began to obtain the necessary data on which the various sectors of this strategy are based upon. Afterward, many specialists began to prepare the first edition for each given sector.

By the end of year 2000, a senior advisor from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) participated in the completion of the different sectors of the strategy. At the end of the year 2001, the advisor, along with the other teams and specialists, completed the work of the strategy which ended up by having ten sectors as its main theme contents.

In order to obtain a national endorsement for the strategy, two workshops were held again in 2001. More than two hundred authorities, from the private and public sectors, including the National Assembly, and the press were invited to provide their inputs with transparency and clarity during the discussions. The feed back was very fruitful and contributed to the final drafting of the environmental strategy of the State of Kuwait.

As agreed by the concerned officals, this part of the strategy does not include the Oil Sector. As a result, the second part of this strategy will be dedicated to this important sector as it requires enormous amount of information about its environmental aspects and the role of its various institutions. Work on this particular part is still in progress.

A great emphasis was put to systematically format information obtained from the various sectors. Each sector begins with the introduction and the assessment of its resources and capabilities including human and legislative. Then, problems and issues of concern, that faces each sector, are then assessed and included in the final document. Finally, solutions to

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

these problems were presented along with recommendations on how to protect and improve the environment in each sector of concern.

In order to adequately implement and monitor the anticipated solutions and recommendations, action plans were proposed and will be completed in the near future. In the action plan, the recommended solutions and procedures will be presented as specific projects with proposed time framework and budget estimates. Th action plan will assist various authorities and organizations in the country in planning their programs and estimate their budgets based on this environmental strategy.

Due to the availability of many highly regarded and effective scientific organizations in Kuwait, many research and studies that were carried out by these institutions, including the ones in progress, were assessed and are presented in this document at the appendices as references. Finally, it should be noted that although this work was performed with a high degree of accuracy and professionalism and because we live in a fast moving and changing world, no work is free from errors. Therefore, the doors will be always open for future development and improvements based on practice, implementation and update. We ask Allah the Merciful and Mercy Giving the success and to protect Kuwait from all threat and difficulties.

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Table of Content

INTRODUCTION

13

SECTOR ONE: NATURAL AND HUMAN CHARACTERISTICS

25

1.1Kuwait’sgeography

28

1-1-1 Location

28

1-1-2 Area

28

1-1-3 The coastline

28

1-1-4 The islands

28

1-1-5 High and low tides

32

1-1-6 Topography

32

1-1-7 Surface Geology

34

1-1-8 Geomorphology

35

1-1-9 The Soil

37

1-1-10 Sand dunes

37

1-1-11 Climate characteristics

39

1-1-12 Weather:

44

1-1-13 Rain

48

1-2 Oil and gas resources

48

1-3 Demographic characteristics of the residents of Kuwait

50

1-4 Urbanization

52

1-5 Kuwait City

54

SECTOR TWO: THE ATMOSPHERE AND AIR QUALITY

58

2-1 Introduction

60

2-1-1 Air Pollution

60

2-1-2 Air pollutants in the outer environment

61

2-1-3 Definition of the major air pollutants in the State of Kuwait, their sources and their

effects

62

2-1-4 Sources and levels of concentrations for air pollutants in Kuwait

67

2-2

Assessment of resources of the atmosphere and air quality sector

72

2-2-1 Establishments and Authorities working in the field of management, organization,

and monitoring of Air emission and Air

73

2-2-2 The governmental production and services establishments

80

2-2-3 Educational and research Institutes and Non-Governmental Organizations:

87

2-2-4 Existing Rules, regulations, and laws in relations to the protection of the environment from air pollution and emissions:

88

2-3 Major environmental issues

91

2-3-1 Outdoor air quality

91

2-3-2 Air quality in the work environment

94

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

2-4 Causes of problems in the atmosphere and air quality sector

95

2-4-1 Technical causes

95

2-4-2 Institutional causes

97

2-4-3 General causes

98

2-5 The required methods and steps needed to solve the problems of the sector

99

2-5-1 Technical and organizational steps

99

2-5-2 Legislative steps

101

2-5-3 Economic steps

101

2-5-4

Awareness steps

102

2-6 Sources of information

102

SECTOR THREE: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

106

3-1 Introduction

108

3-2 Comprehensive evaluation of resources of the sector

109

3-2-1 Ministry of Health (MOH)

109

2-2-3 Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

113

3-2-3 Kuwait Municipality

116

3-2-4

Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW)

119

3-2-5 The Environment Public Authority

120

3-2-6 The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET)

120

3-2-7 Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research

122

3-2-8 The Public Department of Customs

124

3-2-9 The Environmental Monitoring Department, PAI

124

3-2-10 The Kuwaiti Society for the Protection of the Environment

125

3-2-11 The Waqf Fund for the Conservation of the Environment

125

3-2-12 Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences

126

3-2-13 Current legislations organizing the environmental health sector

127

3-3 Environmental health issues in Kuwait

131

3-3-1 Water resources issues

131

3-3-2 Sanitary wastewater issues

131

3-3-3 Hazardous, medical, and solid wastes management issues

132

3-3-4 Healthy residence or accommodation issues

139

3-3-5 Issues related to health of the work environment

139

3-3-6 Food safety issues

141

3-3-7 Issues related to environmental health information system:

143

3-3-8 General issues in environmental health

144

3-4 Causes of problems of the environmental health sector

144

3-4-1 General causes

144

3-4-2 Quality of the drinking water

146

3-4-3 Sewage

147

3-4-4 The management of hazardous medical and solid wastes

147

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

3-4-5 Healthy accommodation

148

3-4-6

The Healthy work environment

149

3-4-7 Food safety

149

3-5 Methods and procedures required to solve environmental health problems. 150

3-5-1 In the field of food safety

150

3-5-3 In the field of hazardous, medical, and solid wastes management

152

3-5-3 Sewage

153

3-5-4 In the field of healthy work environment

154

3-5-5 In the field of water quality

155

3-5-6 In the field of healthy residence or accommodation

156

3-6 Sources of Information

157

SECTOR FOUR: FRESH WATER RESOURCES

159

4-1 Introduction

161

4-2 Comprehensive assessment of the water resources sector

162

4-2-1 Water resources

162

4-2-2 Water production, distribution, and storage in

178

4-2-3 Water production and consumption

180

4-2-4 Institutions working in the water sector

181

4-2-5 Laws and legislations related to the water sector

188

4-3 Issues of concern related to the fresh water sector

191

4-3-1 Covering future water needs, necessary for a sustainable development

191

4-3-2 Environmental issues of concern related to the reuse of treated sewage waters for

agriculture and landscaping purposes

4-3-3 Issues of concern related to water pricing, in order to reduce consumption and the

193

reuse of water in

194

4-4 Reasons of concern related to the water resources sector

194

4-5 Means and measures necessary to solve the problems of the sector

198

4-5-1 Objectives

198

4-5-2 Means

199

4-5-3

Measures

201

4-6 Sources of information

210

SECTOR FIVE:ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS AND EDUCATION

213

5-1 Introduction

215

5-2 Assessing the resources of the education sector and the sector that deals with

environmental awareness

217

5-2-1 Governmental establishments

217

5-2-2 Non-governmental establishments participating in raising environmental awareness

17

226

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

5-2-3 Programs, courses, and activities related to increasing the environmental awareness

level

228

These include the following:

228

5-2-4 The technical and institutional resources available to develop environmental awareness

230

5-2-5 Environmental awareness programs among Major Groups (children, youths, women…etc)

230

5-2-6 Environmental awareness among decision makers

231

5-2-7 Environmental awareness among foreign workers

232

5-2-8 Environmental awareness among the media

232

5-2-9 Environmental awareness among some religious clerics (mosque Imams and Islamic

preachers)

5-3 Major Issues of concern in the Environmental Education and Awareness Sector 5-3-1 Environmental awareness issues in decision making 5-3-2 Environmental awareness issues amongst different groups of society 5-3-3 Lack of environmental awareness among the persons in charge of the media

issues amongst different groups of society 5-3-3 Lack of environmental awareness among the persons in charge
issues amongst different groups of society 5-3-3 Lack of environmental awareness among the persons in charge
issues amongst different groups of society 5-3-3 Lack of environmental awareness among the persons in charge

234

234

234

235

238

5-3-4 Environmental awareness issues in various education stages prior to university level

240

5-3-5 Issues and problems of concern related to environmental modules and curricula in

241

5-3-6 Bolstering environmental awareness of religious clergymen (Imams and mosques

Kuwait University and the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training

preachers) 5-3-7 Environmental awareness issues at the non-governmental and non-profit

241

242

5-3-8 Environmental awareness issues to reinforce the concept of participation and consultation in environmental conservation

243

5-4 Causes of the problems related the environmental awareness and education sector

problems

243

5-4-1

Institutional

causes

244

5-4-2 Technical Causes

245

5-4-3 General causes

246

5-5 Means and measures required to solve the issues of concern related to the environmental education and awareness sector

248

5-6 Information sources

251

SECTOR SIX: INDUSTRY AND ENERGY

258

6-2 Evaluation of the Resources of the industry and energy sectors

262

6-2-1 Industrial

Sector

262

6-2-2: The Public Authority for Industry

266

6-2-3

Industrial areas

268

6-2-4 Energy sector

279

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

6-3 Environmental issues related to Energy and Industry sectors

6-3-1 Issues related to the equilibrium between industrial development and environmental

284

conservation

284

6-3-2 Issues related to industrial development

285

6-3-3 Issues related to Population Development

286

6-3-4 Issues related to Industrial Areas:

287

6-3-5 Issues related to Energy Consumption patterns:

287

6-3-6 Issues related to technology

288

6-3-7 Human resources

289

6-3-8 Issues related to industrial wastes and emissions

290

6-3-9 Establishments structures

292

6-3-10 Legislative issues

292

6-4 Causes of environmental issues of concern in the industry and energy sector 295

6-4-1 The balance between industrial development and environmental protection

295

6-4-2 Technology

295

6-4-3 Industrial wastes, litters, and gaseous emissions

296

6-4-4 Establishments structures/units

299

6-4-5 Legislative policies

299

6-5 The required methods and measures to solve the problems of the industry and

energy sector

300

6-5-1 The balance between industrial development and environmental protection

300

6-5-2 Procedures related to the technology field

302

6-5-3 Procedures for the industrial wastes field

304

6-5-4 Measures related to the structures of establishments

308

6-5-5

Legislative measures

310

6-5 References and sources of Information 312

SECTOR SEVEN:WILD LIFE, FLORA AND FAUNA

315

7-1 Introduction:

317

7-2 Available resources for wild life and animal sectors

318

7-2-1 Non-governmental organizations and governmental bodies

318

7-2-2 Organizational, human, technical, legislative, awareness capacities available for

serving the wild life sector

319

7-2-3 Legislations, laws and regulations enacted by the governmental sector for the protection of wildlife

320

7-2-4 Achievements in wildlife protection

323

7-2-5 Available resources for protection and development

324

7-2-6 Current and future directions concerning wildlife

336

7-3 Major issues of concern that are threatening wildlife, overexploiting its resources

and obstructing achieving sustainable development 7-3-1 Deterioration of the vegetation cover (1)

and obstructing achieving sustainable development 7-3-1 Deterioration of the vegetation cover (1)

338

338

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

7-3-2 Environmental pollution (2)

339

7-3-3 The extinction of some types of mammals, birds, fish and reptiles (2)

339

7-3-4 Lack of environmental awareness among individuals and decision makers in issues

339

7-3-5 Incomplete development of natural reserves, rangelands and national parks (3)340 7-3-6 Over consumptive patterns that overexploits natural resources and pressurizes

related to wildlife biodiversity (3)

wildlife (2)

340

7-3-7 The negative Impacts of the Iraqi Invasion on flora and fauns Wildlife (3)

340

7-3-8 Retreating from enforcing laws and legislations related to the protection of natural

resources of the country (1)

340

7-3-10 Lack of financial support for the protection of wildlife sector and leniency in establishing the Desert Park (3)

341

7-4 Direct causes of overexploitation and deterioration of Wildlife resources and their

habitats

341

7-4-1 Marine and coastal habitats

341

7-4-2 Desert habitat

343

7-5 Methodologies and procedures required to resolve problems facing the wildlife

sector and maintain its sustainability

351

7-5-1

Institutional procedures

351

7-5-2 Legislative procedures

356

7-5-3 Technical, educational and media procedures

358

7-6 References and sources of material

361

SECTOR EIGHT:URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HERITAGE

372

8-1 Introduction

373

8-2: Resources of urban environment and heritage sector:

374

8-2-1 Residential units:

374

8-2-2 The Residential Area:

375

8-2-3 Facilities and Services:

376

8-2-4

Infrastructures:

377

8-2-5 The evolution of urban planning in Kuwait:

377

8-2-6 Historical buildings and structures:

378

8-2-7 Public corporations and authorities working in the construction sector:

380

8-2-8 Legislations concerning the urban environment and heritage:

384

8-3 Issues related to the urban environment and heritage sector:

386

8-3-1 The loss of the architectural character:

387

8-3-2

Urban pollution:

388

8-3-3 Inadequate application of the urban plan and the weakness in architectural planning:

 

390

8-3-4 The presence of harmful and polluting utilities and services:

394

8-3-5 The increasing pressure on available resources of the environment:

394

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

8-3-6 The influence of natural phenomena on the urban environment:

394

8-3-7 Insufficient maintenance of heritage, historical, and archeological buildings:

395

8-3-8 The absence of a housing strategy:

395

8-3-9 Lack of Environmental Awareness:

395

8-3-10 Expanding Projects of Enhancing and Improving the Environment:

396

8-3-11 Compliance with Environmental Legislations and Laws:

397

8-3-12 The Freedom to Access Information:

397

8-3-13 Financial and Economical Issues:

398

8-4 Causes of problems and issues of concern in the Urbanization and Urban Environment Sector:

398

8-4-1 Reasons for the lack of cohesion in buildings and the loss of architectural identity:

 

398

8-4-2 Reasons for urban Pollution:

399

8-4-3 Reasons for the inadequate application of the Urban Plan and the poor architectural

planning:

400

8-4-4 Reasons for the presence of harming facilities and services:

402

8-4-5 Reasons for increased pressure on available resources:

402

8-4-6 Reasons behind the influence of natural phenomena on the urban environment:402 8-4-7 Reasons for lack of maintenance of heritage, historical, and archeological

buildings:

403

8-4-8 The reasons necessitating a residential strategy:

403

8-4-9 Reasons for lack of environmental awareness:

404

8-4-10 Reasons for leniency in expanding environment beautification projects:

404

8-4-11 Reasons for the inadequate compliance with laws and legislations concerning the

environment:

404

8-4-12 Reasons for improper coordination between corporations:

405

8-4-13 Reasons for inadequate monetary and economic spending on urban development

projects:

8-5 The proposed solutions and procedures to the issues and problems of the urban

environment sector:

8-5-1 Proposed solutions to counter the lack of cohesion of the architectural fabric of the

405

405

country:

405

8-5-2 Proposed solutions to control urban pollution:

406

8-5-3 Proposed solutions to augment urban planning:

408

8-5-4 Proposed solutions to the presence of harming and polluting facilities and services:

409

8-5-5 Proposed solutions to reduce the pressure on electricity and water:

409

8-5-6 Proposed solutions to limit the pressure imposed on resources and raw materials in

construction:

410

8-5-7 Proposed solutions to the influence of natural phenomena:

410

8-5-8 Proposed solutions to maintain historical resources:

411

8-5-9 Proposed solutions for dissipating the population:

411

21

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

8-5-10 Proposed solutions for lack of environmental awareness:

412

8-5-11 Proposed solutions for the expansion of environmental projects:

413

8-5-12 Enacting legislations:

413

8-5-13 Insufficient monetary and economic funding for urban development:

413

8-5-14 Proposed solutions to enhance the coordination between various corporations:413

8-6 Sources of information:

425

SECTOR NINE:AGRICULTURE AND LAND-USE IN KUWAIT

428

9-1 Introduction

430

9-2 Comprehensive evaluation of the agricultural and landscape sector resources432

9-2-1 Structures of institutions working in the agriculture sector

9-2-2 Authorities and institutions responsible for environmental issues and sustainable

development

9-2-3 Existing human, technical, institutional, and legislative capacities to control, and

conserve environmental issues

9-2-4 National environmental conservation legislations and procedures pursued by the

432

434

435

agriculture sector

437

9-2-5 Achievements in the field of environment preservation and protection

438

9-2-6 The importance of the agriculture sector for the national economy and its role in

providing partial food security

9-2-7 Coordinating measures and cooperation between the land and agriculture establishments and the various governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of environmental management and natural resources conservation443 9-2-8 The importance of the agriculture sector in supplying animal feedstock and

441

rangelands

445

9-2-9 Assessing agricultural lands

445

9-3 Environmental issues for the landscape and agriculture sector

449

9-3-1

Water resources deterioration

449

9-3-2

Low soil capacity

450

9-3-3 Sand drifting and accumulation problems

450

9-3-4

Harsh climate conditions

450

9-3-5 Oil spill incidents

451

9-3-6 Irrational uses of pesticides and hormones

451

9-3-7

Diseases and blights

451

9-3-8 Decrease of vegetation cover and the increase of deteriorated lands due to the

irrational land exploitation

453

9-3-9 The Second Gulf War (1990-1991)

455

9-4 Reasons of irrational exploitation and deterioration of agriculture and land sector

resources 9-4-1 Natural factors 9-4-2 Human factors

resources 9-4-1 Natural factors 9-4-2 Human factors
resources 9-4-1 Natural factors 9-4-2 Human factors
resources 9-4-1 Natural factors 9-4-2 Human factors

9-4-3

The Gulf War

455

455

459

460

22

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

9-5 Procedures and measures required to limit the problems of the sector

461

9-5-1 Implementing environmental monitoring programmes

461

9-5-2 Designing a comprehensive national plan to combat desertification

462

9-5-3 The sand encroachment and soil erosion control programme

465

9-5-4 Developing and management of natural rangelands

465

9-5-5 Expanding the landscape and green belts application

468

9-5-6 Water resource management and development

470

9-5-7 Sustainable development of agriculture activities and animal resources

472

9-5-8 Proposed legislations

475

9-6 Sources of Information

476

SECTOR TEN:COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT

478

10-1 Introduction

480

10-2 Coastal and marine resources

481

10-2-1 Marine organisms:

481

10-2-2 Water and energy:

482

10-2-3 Storm water discharges:

483

10-2-4 Transportation and trade:

483

10-2-5

Industry

484

10-2-6

Urban development

484

10-2-7

Touristic and recreational activities

484

10-2-8

Environmental establishments and authorities

485

10-2-10

Technical capabilities

491

10-2-11 Environmental achievements

491

10-3 Marine and Coastal environment sector issues

496

10-3-1 Issues related to the pollution of coastal waters

496

10-3-2 The issue of the violating the sound use of the coastline

504

10-3-3 The issue of fisheries resources depletion

506

10-3-4 The issue of absence of environmental awareness

509

10-3-5 Issues related to environmental laws and legislations

509

10-3-6

Institutional issues

509

10-3-7 Economic and financial issues

509

10-4 Reasons that caused the deterioration of the marine and coastal

 

environment

510

 

510

10-4-1 Reasons for the deterioration of coastal water quality 10-4-2 Reasons for the deterioration of the reproduction capacities of

marine species512

10-4-3 Issues of concern related to violations to the coastal line

514

10-4-4 The reasons for the lack of environmental awareness

516

10-4-5 Issues of concern related to the incompliance with environmental laws

516

10-5 Recommended solutions

517

10-5-1 Recommended solutions to prevent deterioration of coastal waters quality

517

23

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

10-5-2 Recommended solutions to limit the deterioration of the reproduction capacities of the marine species

518

10-5-3 Proposed solutions to cope with the effects of illegal use of the coastal line

521

10-5-4 Proposed solutions for sustainable development

522

10-5-5 Proposed solutions to increase environmental awareness

524

10-6 Information sources

525

ANNEXES

530

ANNEX 1:THE OBJECTIVES AND GOALS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY OF THE STATE OF KUWAIT

531

ANNEX 2:RESEARCH PROJECTS SPONSORED BY THE EPA, KUWAIT

537

(FOR FIVE YEARS AND UNTIL THE YEAR 2000)

537

ANNEX 3:A SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH COMPLETED

BY KISR, (1996-1998)

557

ANNEX 4:RESEARCH FUNDED BY THE KUWAIT FOUNDATION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCES

571

ANNEX 5:A LIST OF RESEARCH CONDUCTED BY KUWAIT UNIVERSITY

 

587

ANNEX 6:A LIST OF RESEARCH PROJECTS

590

24

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Sector One Natural and Human Characteristics

Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Sector One Natural and Human

25

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Members of the Geographic and Human Characteristics Sector Team

Preparation by:

Dr. Eng. Sufyan Al-Tal

Scientific Material and References:

Atlas of the State of Kuwait From Satellite Images (2000). Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences.

Geomorphology:

Topography:

Senior Adviser, United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

Edited by: Dr. Farouk El-Baz and Dr. Mohammad Abdul Rahman Al- Sarawi. Supervision by Dr. Ali Abdullah Al-Shamlan.

Dr.

Mohammad Al-Sarawi.

Dr.

Faruk

El-Baz

&

Mohammad Al-Sarawi and Majalee Kookh.

Surface Geology:

Mohammad Al-Sarawi.

 

Sand Dunes:

Mohammad

Al-Sarawi

and

Huda

Al-Dabi.

Climate:

Ali Hamid Ali.

 

Weather:

Dhari Al-Ajmi.

Oil Resources:

Urban life:

Kuwait City: Waleed Al-Munais.

The

Environment in the State of Kuwait

(2000).

Natural Resources and Environmental Characteristics of Kuwait.

the

Foozya Abdullah.

Abdullah Al-Ghunaim.

Current

Status

of

The Environment Public Authority.

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait, 2000.

Ministry of Planning, Central Department of Statistics.

Annual Statistical Census 1994-1999.

26

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Plate 1-2 A satellite image that shows

Plate 1-2 A satellite image that shows the location of the State of Kuwait within the Arabian Peninsula.

27

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

1.1Kuwait’sgeography

1-1-1 Location

The State of Kuwait is located at the northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between latitudes of 28.30º and 30.05º north and longitudes of 46.33º and 48.30º east. It is bound by the Arabian Gulf from the east, Iraq from the North, and Saudi Arabia from the South.

1-1-2 Area

The State of Kuwait occupies an area of 17,818 square Kilometers. The average land length from east to west is 170 Kilometers (106 miles) and the distance between the farthest northern location to the farthest southern location is about 200 kilometers (124 miles). The borders of the State of Kuwait has total length of 685 kilometers, 495 kilometers of which are land borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia and the remaining 195 kilometers (121 miles) are sea boundary on the Gulf.

1-1-3 The coastline

The coastal line has total length of 325 kilometers, excluding the coasts of the islands. Adding these coasts will make the grand total of the coasts to about 500 kilometers. This coast is considered a part of the shollow waters of Shat Al-arab. This coastal area could be divided into two main areas: North and South. The northern area extends from Ras Al-Ard to Um-Qasser and the coasts of Bubyan and Warba Islands. Kuwait Bay is one of the most important locations of this area. The Southern area extends from Ras Al-Ard to Al-Nuwaiseeb, Al-Khairan area and its mud flats and wetlands are considered the most important locations in this southern area.

1-1-4 The islands

The State of Kuwait has a total of nine islands. The largest of these islands is Bubyan, which is located at the western part tip of Shat Al-Arab Delta in the northwestern part of the Gulf. The island has a length of 40 kilometers, width of 30 kilometers, and its total area 1400 square kilometers. The length of its coasts is 120 kilometers. The level of this island is nearly at sea level and it contains mainly muddy delta sediments. Another island is Warba, which is located north of Bubyan and has a circumference of 30 kilometers and is covered mainly with muddy sediments. The second largest island in Kuwait is Failaka, which is located at the entrance of Kuwait Bay and has an area of 48 square kilometers. Next to Failaka are two small islands: Miskan and Awhah, their areas are half square kilometer and quarter square kilometer respectively. Kubbar Island is located 30 kilometers of the coast of Fahaheel and has an area of three quarters of a square kilometer.

28

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Fig. 1-1 Locations of Kuwait's

Fig. 1-1 Locations of Kuwait's islands.

29

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Plate 1-2 Warbah, Bubyan, and Failaka islands,

Plate 1-2 Warbah, Bubyan, and Failaka islands, from top to bottom. These are the three largest islands of northern Kuwait.

30

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Plate 1-3 Aerial photographs of Kuwait's smaller
The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Plate 1-3 Aerial photographs of Kuwait's smaller
The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Plate 1-3 Aerial photographs of Kuwait's smaller
The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Plate 1-3 Aerial photographs of Kuwait's smaller
The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Plate 1-3 Aerial photographs of Kuwait's smaller
The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Plate 1-3 Aerial photographs of Kuwait's smaller

Plate 1-3 Aerial photographs of Kuwait's smaller islands (Miskan, Awhah, Umm An-Namil, Kubbar, Qaruh and Umm Al-Maradim,

from

bottom).

top

to

31

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Qaruh Island is located at the furthest sourthern part of the Kuwaiti regional waters. Also, Umm Al-Maradim Island is located 40 kilometers from the coast of Al-Nuwaiseeb in the southern part of Kuwait and has an area of a quarter of square kilometer. Finally, Umm An-Namil Island is located at the western part of Sulaibikhat Bay and could be reached during low tides.

1-1-5 High and low tides

The water levels at the Kuwaiti coasts change due to high and low tides, which are caused due to the force of gravity between the moon, the earth, and the sun. This change in water levels occurs every six hours. This means that there are two high tides and two low tides everyday. Water moves towards the northern part of the gulf during high tide periods and towards the southern part of the gulf during low tide periods. The horizontal difference in water levels is approximately 2 meters between the southern and northern coasts of Kuwait.

1-1-6 Topography

The State of Kuwait has a plain topography, the geological heights range between 285 meters in the southwestern part and 30 meters in the northeastern part. The most important geological sites are: Jal Al-Zur enscarment, Um Al-Rimam depression, Wadi Al-Batin, Al-Ahmadi hill, Al-Leyah, Al-Shegaya, Al-Dibdiba, Al-Huma,Kera’aAl-Maroo, Al- Dahzool, Telal Al-Mezeel, Ras Al-Ard, Ras Al-Julia, in addition to other depressions and Wadis and desert locations.

Jal Al-Zur enscarment is considered the most important of these locations, its height is 125 meters above sea level and extends for a distance of 65 kilometers along the northern coast of The State of Kuwait. Jal Al-Zur Enscarpment consists of sand and lime rocks. These rocks belong to the Halocene and Miocene ages. At the western and northwestern side of Jal Al-Zur eEscarpment there is a slight slope towards some other desert lowlands. Underneath Jal Al-Zur Enscarpment many recent sediments are formed, which extends towards the coastal area which also includes some old sea cliffs.

Um Al-Rimam depression is located four kilometers to the west of Jal Al- Zur Enscarpment. This valley consists of two main parts. One of these parts has a depth of 15 meters. The formation of Um Al-Rimam Depression was formed due to the melting processes of the lime rocks. The longitudinal section of the lowland consists of a group of distinguished figures, which mainly includes recent sediments, atmospheric depositions, wetlands and rock sediments.

Atlas of Kuwait , Al-Sarawi and Majali

32

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Fig. 1-3 The distribution of surface sediment

Fig. 1-3 The distribution of surface sediment distribution in Kuwait.

Source: Al-Ajmi and Kalaf, (1993).

33

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Wadi Al-Batin is considered as one of the most important topographies in Kuwait. It is noticed that Wadi Al-Batin expands from the southwestern side and reaches it maximum width in the northwestern side. The following characterizes Wadi Al-Batin: flat sandy area, scattered elevations, low height hills, rims covered with thin layer of gravel, sand dunes, scattered wetlands, and finally gravel sediments. Al-Ahmadi hill, which has a height of approximately 125 meters above sea level and length of six kilometers, is found in the southern part of Kuwait.

Many other heights can also be found on the surface of the State of Kuwait; mainly: Wara height, which is 30 meters above sea level, and Burgan hills, which is 50 meters above sea level and has a circular outer shape.

The eastern seacoast and the southeastern part of Kuwait is flat, low in height, and is characterized by the presence of wetlands and mud flats. It is surrounded by a group of sand dunes and coastal hills; one of these is in Al-Khairan coastal area. Coastal riges in the area were originated from the tectonic movements and one is of a height of 45 meters above sea level.

1-1-7 Surface Geology

Geologically The State of Kuwait is located between the northern coast of the Arabian Gulf and the gravel sediments in the Dibdiba formation in the south. From the east, the shallow waters of the Arabian Gulf border Kuwait. From the south, the desert sands of Saudi Arabia border Kuwait. Kuwait’sgeologyischaracterizedbyitsflatsurfaceandcouldbedivided into two main parts: the Northern and Southern parts.

Northern Part:

It comprises of a flat gravel surface with few lowlands. Some small, scattered hills are also formed from the northeastern towards the southwestern side, they fade away completely at Al-Rawdatain, the ground water rich area. One of the most important geological sites in the northern part is Jal Al-Zur Enscarment and Jal Al-Leyah.

Southern Part:

It consists of fine desert sands where Al-Ahmadi hill appears. It has a height of 125 meters. Wadi Al-Batin is one of the most important geological site in the area and extends from the far southwest towards the northeast. The age of the rocks on Kuwait surface goes back to the recent age until the middle Euocene age, 47 million years ago. The sediments on Warba and Bubyan islands are recent and were formed from the sediments of Euphrates and Tigris rivers. In general, mostofKuwait’s

34

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

geology and its surface sediments are considered recent and are less than 66 million years of age.

Most of these recent sediments are located above layers of formations from the Jurassic and Cretaceaus Ages, which dates back to 25-208 million years. On the surface of Kuwait many recent rocks consists of limestones. Slates and fine sands. Cretaceaus layers, which usually separates the Pliocene and Miocene can also be found and presents the long weathering period.

Al-Ghar and Faris layers, which belong to the Miocene Age, are also considered as distinguished layers, due to the presence of limestone sand

and clay. Layers of Al-Ghar and Faris are located above the layers of Al- Dibdiba. It consists of an upper part of course sands; whereas the lower part consists of fine sands. In addition, the Dibdiba formation, which has

a thickness of 3 metres is originated from water streams. The recent

sediments are characterized by the abundance of gravel surfaces of distributed around the surface of Kuwait. These sediments were originated from the water flows from the Arabian Peninsula through the

valleys and other streams.

The tectonic location of Kuwait is between the Iranian Zagros Mountains in the north and eastern parts. This area is tectonically unstable and is exposed to earthquake activities. The south part of Kuwait is considered geologically to be part of the Arabian Peninsula, which is known for its stability since the Cambrian Age more than 505 million years ago. Layers of the Arabian shield incline towards the northeast and consist of limestone, mud, oolitic limestone and marl.

Many of convex layers, towards north south, also exist and distinguished with its petroleum importance. One of the important formations in Kuwait is the Wadi Al-Batin, which extends from the far southwest towards the northeast and is considered an extension to Wadi Al-Rimma

in Saudi Arabia.

1-1-8 Geomorphology

Four geomorphologic regions were discovered using aerial photographs. This classification is based on the geological (surface) formations and geomorphologic features. One of these regions is the Northern Region, which is characterized by water sediments affected by Shat Al-Arab waterway and gravel sediments from Wadi Al-Batin. Some of the important geomorphologic sites are: Al-Abdali area (salt sediments), Al- Rawdatain (sandy sediments), sand dunes, and Um Al-Maradem area (limestone).

Atlas of the State of Kuwait, Farouk El-Baz and Mohammad Al-Sarawi.

35

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Fig. 1-4 Geological map of

Fig. 1-4 Geological map of Kuwait.

36

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Another geomorphologic region is the Western Region, which was affected by the high water flow forming Wadi Al-Batin. This region has large amounts of rock sediments in Wadi Al-Batin area and many evidences shows that it is located above a great fault followed by a long period of erosion. The third region is the Southern Region that covers the southern and the southeastern parts. Wind usually affects the formations in this region, which are mainly flat desert surfaces, which is filled with loose sands.

Some areas are rocky with salt sediments and high concentrations of calcium carbonate. The Coastal Region surrounds the eastern part of Kuwait, overlooking the Arabian Gulf. The middle part of Jal Al-Zur heights, Ras Al-Subya and other mud flats contains many wetlands as well as coastal ridges and sand dunes.

1-1-9 The Soil

The formation and contents of the soil in Kuwait are created from the sedimentation and repositioning caused by rainfalls and water flows prior to the current dry era. The soil in lowlands was formed from inhomogeneous rock fragments, which contains different minerals and was transferred for long distances from the Arabian Peninsula.

At the end of the rain age and during the dry era, the role of winds became greater in soil formation while the role of water was greatly reduced. Under these dry conditions, fine sand, mud, and silt along with organic matter were deposited by water streams. They also weathered some lowlands such as Um Al-Rimam, and Um Al-Aish lowlands in the northeastern part of Kuwait. These processes assisted in the dominance of sand dunes and sand layers in many areas of Kuwait.

1-1-10 Sand dunes

Sand dunes cover large areas in Kuwait reaching more than 500 square kilometers. These sand dunes can be detected through satellite images. Most sand dune fields drift with wind and evidences shows that they were originated from south of Iraq. These sand dunes differ in size from one location to another and have the following types:

Anchored sand dunes, which have lengths ranging between 15 and 20 meters and heights between 10 to 15 meters. This type can be found in the vallies and hills.

 Natural Resources and Environmental Characteristics.

Atlas of the State of Kuwait, Mohammad Al-Sarawi and Huda Al-Dabi, (2002).

37

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Fig. 1-5 Distribution of geomorphologic units in

Fig. 1-5 Distribution of geomorphologic units in the State of Kuwait.

Source: Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, (2002).

Key:

Blue: Wadi Al-Batin. Green: Al-Dibdibah Valley. Orange: Al-Huwailmiyah. Light Blue: Al-Rawdatain Gravel Valley. Pink: Burgan Depression. Yellow: Coastal Valley.

38

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Crescent sand dunes, which can be found south of the anchored sand dunes in the lowlands between the hills and the valleys. This type of sand dunes moves on an average of 15 to 20 meter per year.

Accumilated sand dunes, which include sand in the southern parts of the sand dune accumulations and covers large areas.

Thearea’stopographyisflatandhasnotrenchantterrains.The direction of sand dunes demonstrates wind directions in the past.

Sand dunes contain high concentrations of quartz and limestone. The granules are round in shape, which indicates that they have travelled long distances before settling in their location.

1-1-11 Climate characteristics 

The climate in the Arabian Gulf region is desert climate, with infrequent rainfall, high temperature in the summer and low in winter. The seasonal weather conditions are erratic. Rainfall decreases from north to south. The area is also saturated with humidity throughout the year due to the location near the gulf waters except in May and June when the high speed northwestern winds are dominant.

Wind:

Wind speed increases at higher atmospheric levels. However, the region is subjected to high speed northwesterly winds reaching 60 knots (120 km/hr) especially during winter season. At the higher elevations of the atmosphere, the wind speed depends on the strength of the orbital current thrust (strong winds at an elevation of 18,000 feet). The difference in atmospheric pressure between the earth surface and the higher elevations determines the wind speed and duration. The speed and duration of the northwesterly wind is determined by the low atmospheric pressure at the Southern part of the Arabian Gulf region (specifically at the strait of Hermuz). When the low atmospheric pressure halts at the strait of Hermuz, the strong northwesterly winds blows for 3-5 days. Moreover, if the wind moves toward the Gulf of Oman, the strong northwesterly winds last for 48 hour, which is known as short-range northwesterly winds.

Usually, wind speed is less at night, but remains strong at the Arabian

elevations above 5,000 feet due to the effect of the air current thrust. In the absence of strong winds, the entire region falls under the effect sea

breeze

during

day

time.

 Atlas of the State of Kuwait, Ali Hamid Ali, (2000).

39

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Fig. 1-6 The different types of

Fig. 1-6 The different types of soil in Kuwait.

40

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Theregion’stemperaturesarealsoaffectedbythestrongwind,the temperature drops when the wind direction is northwesterly regardless of the season. The western winds in the summer are dry and have the potential of carrying dusts and sand storms. Clouds at high altitudes are formed during summer time due to the seasonal Indian low pressure.

Al-Kaus south and southeasterly wind, starts before the northwesterly winds in all seasons especially during fall, winter, and spring. There two types of Al-Kaus winds (from September to May). The first type covers the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, which occurs when cold air fronts arrive at the Gulf region from the north of the Arabian Peninsula during the winter season. The wind speed during winter can reach a maximum speed of 30 knots (60 km/hr) and lasts for 20 to 48 hours. The second type of Al-Kaus winds starts during spring and fall seasons. These are hot and humid winds and last for short periods. They reach the latitude of 28º north. The duration of this type of wind depends on the seasonal Sudan low pressure and the African and Siberian high pressure. The AL-Kaus winds carry dusts from the open areas in the southern and central part of the Arabian Peninsula.

Dust and sand storms:

Winds that cause sand storms in the northern part of the Arabian Gulf region are linked with the movement of the short waves in the atmospheric layers over the eastern part of the Mediterranean. The vertical movement of these winds is caused by the difference in air pressure produces dust. It can reach most parts of the Arabian Gulf region within 12 to 14 hours, depending on the strength of the wind and thrust currents in the atmosphere. The dust quantities, however, declines near the coasts of the United Arab Emirates, where vision is rarely below 5 km due to northwesterly winds.

Sand storms are very common in the State of Kuwait and the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula during the beginning of the summer season every year.

Sand dust:

Sand dust is an unpopular weather condition in Kuwait. Its affects not only human health but also the natural and economic environments. Visibility is reduced to the extent that traffic (air, ground, and sea) is impeded. Besides, this type of dust degrades soil quality affecting the

agricultural

Atlas of Kuwait, Al-Ajmi, Dhari

41

production.

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Fig. 1-7 The different types of sand

Fig. 1-7 The different types of sand dune, the thick red arrows indicate wind direction.

42

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Table 1-1 Wind Speed, Kuwait International Airport.

Month

Average Speed (meter/second)

Maximum Speed (meter/second)

January

3.6

18

February

4.1

19

March

4.4

21

April

4.4

23

May

4.6

29

June

5.8

20

July

5.8

18

August

4.7

19

September

3.7

17

October

3.4

21

November

3.5

15

December

3.5

19

Year

4.3

29

Source: Annual Statistical Census, (1994). MoP.

Another adverse effect of dust is the malfunction of unprotected sensitive. This phenomenon continues during the summer seasons (from mid May until early November). It should be noted that there are different types of sand dusts which includes: sand storms, ascending sands or dusts and suspended dust.

Thunderstorms and rain:

Rain falls at several times during winter season more than in summer. It is accompanied by the tropical air current thrust over the Arabian Peninsula. The presence of the low pressure at high altitudes helps in increasing the amount of rainfall in the northern parts of the Arabian Gulf. In November, an average of three strong low pressures passes through the Gulf region, which increases the amount of rainfall influenced by the strong winds. However, in December-March, the area witnesses few thunderstorms near the centres of the low pressure areas in the lower altitudes of the atmosphere (near the earth surface). This occurs

43

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

when the low pressures from the eastern part of the Mediterranean linked with the low pressures, enters the higher altitudes of the atmosphere. This link determines the intensity of the low pressure.

During the spring season, and as the earth surface temperature increases, thunderstorms increase.

1-1-12 Weather:

Kuwait enjoys long periods of sunshine during summer time causing a high increase in temperature in the months of June, July, and August. During winter, however, the sun radian falls with a slope and for fewer hours dropping the temperatures dramatically.

Kuwait’stemperatureisaffectedbythreemajorairmasses.Theseare:

Orbital sea air masses above the Arab Sea and the northern part of the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Gulf.

Orbital continental air masses, which are very dry and high in temperature. These are originated from the seasonal air masses that are formed during summer above northwest India.

Polar continental air masses, which are formed in the winter above the inner northern part and covered with snow in the Asian continent.

The pressure in the northwestern part of the Arab world can be divided into two main types: summer and winter. During the summer season a large area of low pressure is formed above the northwestern part of India and expands west to Iran and the Arab World, it might even reach the eastern Mediterranean causing north winds to dominate. These winds increase causing sand storms which reduces visibility to few meters only especially around noon. The average high temperature ranges between 42 and 46 degrees Celsius, the highest recorded temperature in Kuwait was 50.8 degrees Celsius in 25 th of June 1954 in Shuwaikh area.

The low temperatures are formed above the Arab world during the months of August and September causing winds known as Al-Kaus in addition to very hot humidity. The humid summer season usually starts on the 20 th of July in the period in which easterly and southeasterly winds coming from the Gulf dominate. These winds carry large quantities of water vapor. In some cases, wind direction becomes northwesterly even during noontime and then changes to northeastern until the afternoon due to the sea breeze. However, it changes again to southerly winds until the evening. Finally the wind changes its direction to become westerly winds until sunrise. The duration of the humid period ranges between two and

The Statistical Census

44

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

twenty days continuously. Clouds may appear during this period, but the occurrence of thunderstorms is unlikely.

The Weather round the year

Winter (6 th of December to 15 th of February)

The weather is moderate to very cold especially at night or when cold and dry high-speed northwesterly winds blow. The maximum temperature could reach 13 degrees Celsius and may drop to 3.3 degrees Celsius, except in warm periods caused by the humid southeasterly winds. The maximum temperatures range between 23 and 31.3 degrees Celsius. The clouds start to appear in the sky causing rain to fall after the strong southeasterly winds dominate, which also cause sand storms.

In January, extremely cold northwesterly winds dominate over these southeasterly winds causing the temperatures to drop below zero degrees Celsius and causing frost. The lowest temperature recorded in Kuwait in this season was 4 degrees Celsius in 20 th of January 1964 at Kuwait International Airport. Fog appears in calm nights when the winds are northwesterly and cold.

Spring (16 th of February to 20 th of May)

After a period of stable average temperatures, the temperature starts to rise after the 16 th of February breaking the cold weather. Between 15 th of March and 10 th of April, hot southern winds dominate, which last for few days, causing the maximum temperature to increase to 41 degrees Celsius (13 degrees Celsius above average). This indicates that summer is approaching. However, moderately cold northwesterly winds dominate again at this time causing the temperature to drop again. During this period, easterly and southeasterly winds, especially during the day, blows again causing thunderstorms (between 10 th of March and 8 th of April), which could be accompanied by strong sand storms. These conditions might lower the visibility to zero and become a hazard to small boats especially knowing that these winds travel at a rate of 40 miles per hour. However, air that accompanies thunderstorms is usually cold (less than 12 degrees Celsius from the air mass directly fronting it).

Warm spring (9 th of April to 20 th ofMay)and“Al-Sarrayat”(9 th of April to 13 th of May)

Thisistheseasonofwhatislocallyknownas“Al-Sarrayat”.Duringthe afternoon or the night, thunder clouds begin to form accompanied by strong sand storms lowering visibility to zero and strong rain fall within

The Statistical Census

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

few minutes. The maximum rainfall recorded was 38.4 mm within 20 minutes on the 4 th of April 1967 at Kuwait International Airport. The southeasterly winds at this time are hot and humid and the temperature can change suddenly, up to 10 degrees Celsius in one minute. The temperature is unstable especially between the 11 th and the 30 th of April, the temperature reaches the summer average for few days and then drops dramatically after the arrival of the northwesterly winds. During the month of May, the wind in the morning becomes northwesterly and then changes in the afternoon to easterly due to sea breeze. During this period, the temperature starts to rise gradually causing the average maximum temperature to range between 30 and 40 degrees Celsius. Thunderstorms may occur during the dates 8-12, 16, 22-26 of April and 7-10 of May.

Summer (21 st of May to 4 th of November)

Transitional period (21 st of May to 5 th of June)

Winds are unpredictable and keep changing between northeasterly, northwesterly, and southeasterly with low to moderate speed. This is a transitional period between late spring and real summer. Maximum temperatures range between 40 and 44 degrees Celsius; clouds also disappear.

Dry summer (6 th of June to 19 th of July)

This is the period of the hot winds, continuous hot and dry northwesterly winds,andsandstorms.Thesewinds,knownlocallyas“Al-Somoom” vary in strength. It becomes stronger in many times causes visibility to drop to few meters especially at noontimes. Sand storms occur usually during four major periods: 9-12, 17-24 of June, 1-7, and 9-17 of July. At these periods, strong northwesterly winds dominate and reach their maximum speed during daytime and then gradually decrease through nighttime. It repeats this process the next days. Average maximum temperature ranges between 42 and 46 degrees Celsius; the maximum recorded temperature was 51.1 degrees Celsius on the 13 th of June 1988 at Al-Wafra. Clouds also disappear and humid southerly winds are rare.

Humid summer (20 th of July to 4 th of November)

This period can be characterized by a large increase in temperature and humidity. The humid periods start on the 20 th of July and remains intermittently during the months of August, September, and October. During this period, light easterly winds prevail and become moderate at noontime, these winds usually carry large quantities of water vapor because it is coming from the Gulf. These winds, which are saturated with water vapor, along with the high temperatures at this time cause great fatigue to people. In some instances, the winds become

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northwesterly until noontime and then changes, due to land breeze, to northeasterly and again to easterly winds during the afternoon. At sunset period, the wind direction changes again to southeasterly and then changes another time to southerly until midnight. At sunrise, the wind direction becomes westerly. Humid periods range from 2 and 20 continuous days, especially during the following periods: 18-28 of July and 6-29 of August. Clouds may appear during these periods and thunderous rain, although rare, could also fall. Average maximum temperature ranges between 45 to 46 degrees Celsius.

Transitional period (1 st of September to 4 th of November)

At this period the temperature starts to drop, but humidity and calm winds are still present. Humid periods remain between the periods of 15 th to 29 th of September and between 12 th and 26 th of October. Thehotwinds,“Al- Somoom”disappearandassaidbeforetemperaturedropsfast,starting 11 th of September. The maximum temperature ranges between 42 degrees Celsius, at the beginning of the period, and 30 degrees Celsius, at the end of the period. During this period, land and sea breeze occur frequently and clouds start to appear more. It was noticed that the weather in the summer becomes tiresome when the wind is northwesterly.

Fall (5 th of November to 5 th of December)

The hot season usually ends on the 5 th of November. Before this date, hot southeasterly winds change to cold northwesterly accompanied by thunderstorm. Average maximum temperature ranges between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius. Night time is cold whereas daytime is warm. During this period, warm southeasterly winds may occur and remains for a week, especially at the beginning of November. This wind is followed by cold northwesterly winds for about five days causing the winds to disappear. The wind changes again to warm southeasterly for another four days accompanied by some clouds, in some cases thunderous. During nighttime, calm winds dominate.

Table 1-2 Monthly average temperature (degrees Celsius).

Jan

Feb

March

April

May

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Ave

8.3

20.8

24.8

32.2

39.8

44.5

46.1

45.8

42.2

35.6

27.3

20.7

36.1

Source: Annual statistical Census, (1999), MoP.

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1-1-13 Rain

Rain in Kuwait is scarce and can be categorized into two types: Cyclonic Rain, which occurs during the formation low pressures above the Mediterranean and falls between November and March all over Kuwait. The second is the Convectional Rain, which falls when the heated air at the earth surface is rises to higher altitudes forming thick clouds and thunderstorms. This type of rain falls during the months of October, November, March, April, and May.

Table 1-3 Monthly average rainfall (mm).

Jan

Feb

March

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Ave

24.2

19.4

29.4

9.3

2.3

-

-

-

-

1.8

17.7

21.6

125.7

Source: Annual statistical Census, (1999).

Table 1-4 Average monthly and annual humidity for the year 1999.

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

year

Min

43

40

28

14

6

6

6

10

11

16

23

37

20

Max

90

91

83

49

30

26

29

44

46

68

72

22

60

Source: Annual statistical Census, (1999).

Table 1-5 Average monthly and annual evaporation (mm) as in 1990- 1999, Kuwait International Airport.

   

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

 

Pool

 

3.6

5.0

7.0

10.6

15.8

21.9

23.0

21.1

15.9

9.6

6.1

3.5

11.8

type 1

 

Source: Annual statistical Census, (1999).

 
 

Table 1-6 Sunshine period as in 1999.

 
 

Jan

 

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

% in posbl time

64

 

59

66

70

82

86

85

87

87

83

75

81

77

Average:

 

6.42

 

6.35

7.56

9.0

11.21

12.02

11.46

11.25

10.46

9.34

7.59

8.17

9.86

Hr.&Mn.

 

Source: Annual statistical Census (1999).

 
 

1-2 Oil and gas resources

Naturalresources…

 

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Oil reserves in the Arab-Iranian basin reservoirs were estimated to be around 656 billion barrels, which is approximately 64.5% of the total world reserves. Gas reserves were estimated to be 42448 billion cubic meters, which is 30.7% of the world gas reserves. Kuwait contains 96.5 billion barrel of oil reserves, which is 14.7% of the reserves in Gulf countries and 9.5% of the total world reserves. Gas reserves in Kuwait amount to 1500 billion cubic meters, which is 3.5% of the reserves in the Gulf countries.

Oil discovery in the region started with the geological studies in Kuwait in 1912 through the Admiral British Agency. The Surface geological studies commenced by the Anglo-Persian Company, currently known as British Petroleum (BP), and Gulf Oil Company and continued until 1934.

In 1932, the drilling of two wells, in Bahrah and Burgan, indicated the presence of natural gas, oil and Bitumen along the borehole. The wells penetrated Kuwait Rock Formation at depths of 26.5 and 66.5 meters respectively.

Results from explorations by the two companies in the area surrounding Kuwait were also promising. This lead to the cooperation of the two companies to get the production rights and the establishment of Kuwait Oil Company (K.S.C) in 1935. Production entitlement was granted for 75 years within the political borders of Kuwait excluding the neutral zone with Saudi Arabia. The geophysical studies by seismic waves and earth gravity started in 1935. Drilling commenced in Burgan field in 1938 and oil was located in a rocky layer of sandstone at a depth of 1120 meters. Drilling operations continued until 1942 where eight wells were drilled at Burgan field penetrating the formations of Wara and Burgan (Cretaceaus). The operations were halted because of the Second World War. In 1945, the operations commenced in 1946 and the first oil shipment was exported from Kuwait through pipelines from the oil fields to the sea. Drilling and excavation operations continued until 1951 at Al- Magwa'a and Ahmadi areas. The Studies on the two fields along with Burgan revealed that they originate from a single great field, with dimensions of 35 by 20 kilometers, and became known as the Greater Burgan Field. By 1960, oil production at this field reached 1.5 million barrel a day.

In 1954 and 1956, the geophysical studies at the northern part of Kuwait were also very promising and led to the drilling of more wells. Commercial quantities of oil were found in the formations of Al- Mawdood, Burgan, and Al-Zubair in the Al-Rawdatain, Al-Sabrya, and

Source: Fawzya Hussain Abdullah, (2002), Atlas of the State of Kuwait.

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Bahrah fields. After the geophysical studies were completed between 1959 and 1962, more oil fields were also discovered in the southern part of Kuwait at Al-Manageesh and Um Gdair fields.

In 1972, natural gas production was at a rate of 604 billion cubic meters per year. The gas was used for oil production operations. In 1976, the former Amir of Kuwait (His Highness Sheikh Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah) laid the foundations for the Gas Project at Al-Ahmadi area. Drilling operations continued in Kuwait and at the neutral zone where the total drilled wells until 1989 was 1395 including 864 producing wells.

On the 2 nd of August 1990, oil exploration and production was obstructed by the Iraqi invasion. During this period, the Iraqi forces destroyed most of Kuwait oil facilities and set more than 700 oil wells on fire. More than 604 gushing oil wells in Burgan field alone was set on fire oil and more than 103 wells were damaged. Production and drilling operations commenced shortly after liberation; production rate reached 2 million barrel a day by 25 th of February 1993.

Burgan, Al-Mgwa'a, Al-Ahmadi, Al-Rawdatain, Al-Sabrya, Bahrah, Al- Manageesh, Al-Abdili, and Al-Retqa are the most important oil fields in Kuwait. In the Joint Operations zone, oil is produced from Al-Wafra, Al- Fawares, Southern Um Gdair, and three other off-shore fields.

1-3 Demographic characteristics of the residents of Kuwait

After the discovery of oil and with the increase in development activities in Kuwait, the number of population was also increased. This can be noted from the Annual Statistical Census by the Ministry of Planning. In 1957, the population of Kuwait was 206,473 with population density of 13 people per square kilometer; Kuwaitis were 55% of the total population.

In 1965, the population increased to 467,339 of which 298,546 were non- Kuwaitis. This makes the percentage of Kuwaitis 36.1% of the total population with population density of 26.3 people per square kilometers.

In 1975, the population was 994,837 with the number of non-Kuwaitis reached 687,082 making a drop in the percentage of Kuwaitis to 30.9%. The population density increased to 55.8 people per square kilometer.

In 1985, the population of Kuwait reached 1,637,301 including 1,226,828 non-Kuwaitis. This made Kuwaitis only 27.7% of the total population. The population density increased to 95.3 people per square kilometer.

Annual Statistical Census, (1994-1999), MoP.

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Fig. 1-8 Location of Kuwait

Fig. 1-8 Location of Kuwait oil fields.

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

However, in 1995, a decrease in the population was recorded to become 1,575,570 of which 921,954 were non-Kuwaitis. Accordingly, the percentage of Kuwaitis became 41.5% of the total population and the population density decreased to 88.4 people per square kilometer. This was mainly due to the events in Kuwait in the beginning of the nineties.

In the middle of 2000 population was estimated to be 2,189,668 and 2,274,980 in the middle of 2001.

Table 1-7 Population of Kuwait as in 1965-1995 censuses.

Year

Total

Kuwaitis

%

of

Non-

%

of

non-

population

Kuwaitis

Kuwaitis

Kuwaitis

1965

468339

168793

36.1

298546

63.9

1975

994837

307755

30.9

687082

69.1

1985

1697301

470473

27.7

1226828

72.3

1995

1575575

653616

41.5

921954

58.5

2000(est.)

2189668

 

2001(est.)

2274980

1-4 Urbanization

The urbanization in Kuwait dates back to more than four thousands years according to the explorations made in the area. This was due to the unique geographic location, which made Kuwait the centre civilizations.

Kazma was considered as one of the oldest locations in the region and served as a station for the convoys from Persia and the Fertile Crescent on their way to the east and centre of the Arabian Peninsula. It served as a commercial link between the countries of the Indian Ocean, Syria, and Europe for a long time. It was therefore a very vital commercial centre and one of the longest trade routes in the ancient world.

The presence of fresh water wells helped in making Failaka Island a port for commercial ships sailing between the northern and southern Gulf ports on their way to Oman, India, and east Africa. Until the beginning of the seventeenth century, the region was known as Kazma. Its port was located at the northwestern part of Kuwait Bay and carried the same

Atlas of The State of Kuwait- Abdullah Al-Ghunaim

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name. Later, the urban centre moved south and became first known as Al- Qurain and later as Al-Kuwait.

Historic documents indicated that Kuwait city was established in 1613 when groups of families and tribes arrived to this area coming from Najd. Their vision and insight made them to recognize the importance of this location. The tribes that settled in Kuwait were urbanized with a clear political entity that enabled the country to become prosperous and stable.

Many travelers wrote about Kuwait in the past centuries and drew maps of it. A traveler named Murtada bin Alwan was the first person to use the name Kuwait in 1709. Later, a Danish traveler named Karsten Nebor, traveled through the Arabian Peninsula between 1763 and 1765, mentioned Kuwait and how it was prosperous. He also mentioned that the people of Kuwait owned more than 800 ships and how the people transformed to an urban society working in shipbuilding, pearl diving, and trade.

Many European travelers also wrote about Kuwait situation as an independent state, from the Ottoman Empire during the rule of Sheikh Jaber and his son Sheikh Sabah (1815-1866). Among those travelers was Buckingham in 1816, who admired Kuwait as an independent from the Ottoman Empire at a time when most other regions in the Gulf area were under the Portuguese and Ottoman Turks rules.

Reviewing the historic geographic maps, it is found that they were rich with important information about Kuwait. There are five maps, which date back to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, which are of great importance and show the geographic borders of Kuwait. These maps are:

Dutch map of the Ottoman Empire and Persia, dating back to the beginning of the eighteenth century, showing clearly the border between Kuwait (or Kazma as it was called at that time) and the Ottoman Empire. Another map is a French map of the Turkish Asia (1850). Other maps include the German map for Karl Retter (1818), map of the Arabian Peninsula (1862-1863) during the journey of Balgreef, and the map of the Arabian Peninsula and part of Asia published by A.K. Johnston in his Large Atlas in 1874.

After the Kuwaiti society became stable and its activities prospered in the land and sea, a wise person from Al-Sabah family was chosen to be a leader. The wisest person in the family was usually selected to rule. Later, the Kuwaiti constitution emphasized this rule and was approved by the Kuwaiti people. Since its establishment, Kuwait, occupied the northwesternpartoftheArabianGulf.Kuwait’srelationwiththe Ottoman Empire, which controlled Iraq entirely, was merely due to Islamic brotherhood that linked Muslim countries. There was no Ottoman

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presence in Kuwait and by no means had Kuwait had political or other ties with the Ottoman Empire.

ToprotectKuwait’sindependence,Kuwaitfollowedaverybalanced policy in dealing with all competing countries in the area that were trying to gain control of the region. Kuwait refused to sign the Sea Truce Treaty that was signed between the English with the rulers of the Gulf coast in 1820 despite the tremendous pressure exerted on Kuwait. Kuwait also refused the German and Turkish pressures that offered, in 1900, to buy a coastal area near Kazma to become the final station for a railroad from Baghdad. The British Government signed a defense treaty with Kuwait in 23 rd of January 1899 knowing that Kuwait is sovereign country and is independent from the Ottoman State.

1-5 Kuwait City

Kuwait city was established in 1613 as a small city overlooking the sea and separated from the desert by a wall, made from mud built around the city and had five gates. These gates were designed to be the entrances to the city from the southern villages, like Abu-Hulaifa, Al-Fintas, Shuaiba, and other coastal villages, and from the west of the village, Al-Waha, Al- Jahra, and inland from the Arabian Peninsula side.

The geographic and climate conditions influenced the pattern of which urbanareasweredistributed.Kuwait’slocationmakesitoneofthe warmest places in the world especially between May and September, when the temperature ranges between 30 and 50 degrees Celsius. Houses where built so they can absorb minimum heat and provide cooling conditions to inhabitants during the summer. During the winter, these houses kept warm and conserved temperature. The city was also designed to face the Gulf to benefit from the sea breeze. The narrow roads and high mud walls provided sufficient lighting, shade, and breeze for houses, shops, and pedestrians.

Kuwait developed drastically during the first fifty years of its establishment. It also urbanized and prospered economically during the Persian occupation of Basra, which diverted commercial traffic from Basra to Kuwait. Pearl diving, shipbuilding, sea trade, fishing, agriculture, and handcrafts also assisted in supplying the society with its needs. Pearl diving was the major source of living for the people.

Atlas of the State of Kuwait, Waleed Al-Munais, (2000).

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Plate 1-4 Kuwait City and

Plate 1-4 Kuwait City and near by suburbs.

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

In 1904, and during the peak of this industry, Kuwait exported an equivalent of two million sterling Pounds worth of pearls, with the presence of more than 700 ships and about 15 thousands men working in this business. Kuwait was also famous in sea trade and was the main port for the trade between the Gulf, the Peninsula, and Europe. These trades included dates and grains to Yemeni, South Iraqi, Indian, and east African ports. On their return the ship carry grains, coffee, tea, rice, spices, wood, clothes, and other minerals.

Kuwait economy and population developed gradually and therefore the need to expand the wall surrounding the city was met. The last wall was built (the Third wall) in 1921 during the rule of Sheikh Salim bin Mubarak Al-Sabah. In response to incursions by Bedouin tribes toward the west of the city, the people cooperated in building the extension of the mud wall. Over the years, the wall was removed but its gates remained at the entrance of Kuwait city as historic sites. The urban expansion can be divided into two main stages:

The First stage: The period before oil discovery and it extends until 1946, during which the first shipment of oil was exported.

The Second stage: From 1946 (or 1950) until present when the urbanization and expansion of the Old Kuwait City started.

Before the urban expansion there were types of architectural designs:

Urban architecture in the city.

Rural architecture in the coastal villages towards the south.

Village architecture- oasis (as in the Al-Jahra in the west).

Desert life.

With the increase in oil revenues and the migration of people to Kuwait, Kuwait city expanded horizontally and vertically. The two main factors that influenced the urban growth were the laws for land ownership and acquisition as well as the comprehensive urban planning. Land acquisition was accompanied by strategic urban master plans to organize and plan fro future cities the development of the old city. These plans are:

Kuwait first Master Plan (1952).

Municipality Master Plan (1967).

Kuwait Second Master Plan (1970).

The first development of the Kuwait Second Master Plan (1977-2000).

The second development of Kuwait Second Master Plan in (1983-

2005).

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

The Kuwait Third Master Plan (1989/1990-2015), which is considered one of the recent plans.

Today, and after 250 years, Kuwait city became a modern metropolis with seven ring roads surrounding the city, which links its main roads. At the southern and the western outskirts of Kuwait city are the cities of Al-Ahmadi and Al-Jahra.

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Sector Two The Atmosphere and Air Quality

Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002 Sector Two The Atmosphere and

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

Members of the Atmospheric and Air Quality Sector Team

Dr.ManeaAl-Sederawi Department of Environment and Earth Sciences, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR), Chairman of the team.

Dr. Saud Al-Reshaid

of

Air

Pollution

Department Monitoring, Authority (EPA).

Environment

Public

Dr. Ahmad Eisa

Department of Environment and Earth Sciences, KISR.

Saleh Bu-Nashi Public Authority for Industry

Eng. Zainab Saleh

Department

Monitoring, EPA.

of

Air

Pollution

Preparation:

Dr. Ali Helayel Environmental Advisor, EPA.

Supervision, review, editing, completion of the scientific material and re- organization:

Dr. Sufyan Al-Tal

Senior Advisor, United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

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2-1 Introduction

Atmosphere is considered as one of the most important elements of the environment with which all living species including humans, animals, plants, and even non-living components interact continuously. It is known that humans and other living organisms need air to breath and can not survive without it even for few seconds or minutes; whereas they can survive without water for few days and without food for longer periods.

The atmosphere surrounding earth extends for about 350 kilometers, from the surface of earth. It contains a mixture of different gases in different proportions, though these proportions remain constant in non-polluted environments. This is caused by the environmental cycles such as the Nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Sulfur, and phosphate cycles through the metabolism process of living organisms and the interaction between their food chains through their balanced ecosystems. Nitrogen makes 78.1% of air; whereas Oxygen makes another 20.9%, Argon makes 0.934%, Carbon dioxide makes 0.033%, and other gases like Neon (12.18 ppm), Helium (5 ppm), Ozone (0.01 ppm), as well as water vapor that makes between 1.4 and 8% of the total air volume.

In addition to the vital functions of the atmosphere in providing living organisms with Oxygen and the proper climate to survive, atmosphere is also considered as a media that carry air pollutants after they are exhausted from their various sources. The atmosphere is divided into five layers according to the distribution of air mass and the climate condition, especially temperature and natural activities, in each layer. These five layers are:

The lower layer (Troposphere at 18 kilometres)

Stratosphere (up to 50 or 55 kilometres and includes the Ozone layer at 20-25 kilometres)

Mesosphere (at 80 kilometres)

Thermosphere (at 350 kilometres)

The outer atmosphere (Exosphere at 500 kilometres)

The lower layer is considered the most important in terms of the distribution and dispersing of concentrated air pollutants. Besides, most of the climate changes that occur in it play roles in determining the direction of these pollutants.

2-1-1 Air Pollution

Air pollution is defined by the availability of one or more of the pollutants in the air with specific concentrations for a period of time that

60

The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

could adversely affect human health, comfort, ability to perform work, or life enjoyment.

Air pollution is considered one of the most dangerous problems facing humanity in this era. This problem is caused by the rapid development and advancement in industry and technology. Another reason that causes air pollution is the availability of different means of transportations such as air, land, and sea. The use of energy sources as well as the information and telecommunication revolutions helped in increasing this problem, due to the fact that many pollutants (gases, dusts, particles, ionized and non- ionized materials) are emitted from them. These pollutants have direct and indirect adverse effect on human health and quality of life as well as other living organisms, flora and fauna.

Major air pollutants can be divided into:

Primary air pollutants: These are pollutants that enter the surrounding air in their original physical and chemical forms, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulphur.

Secondary Air pollutants: These pollutants are produced as a result of the chemical reactions between the emitted gases themselves after they are spread in the air. An example would be Photo-Chemical Oxidants, contains mostly Ozone gas that are formed due to the reaction between the hydrocarbon vapours with nitrate acids and Carbon monoxide in the presence of sunbeam and relative humidity.

2-1-2 Air pollutants in the outer environment

These can be divided according to their sources:

Natural sources

These are pollutants originated from nature and the environment itself without the interference of man, such as gases emitted from volcanoes, volcanic ashes, natural gas, volatile salts from oceans, and wild forest fires. Other pollutants in this category are, dusts from the deserts and pollens. In general, most of these pollutants are less dangerous to the environment and health, due to the fact that nature can cope with these pollutants with time.

Man Made sources

These could be called industrial or developed pollutants. They are produced by different human activities through the use of technologies such as industrial facilities, including oil production, transportation (including the use of energy), and construction.

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The Envioronment Public Authority The Environmental Strategy of the State of Kuwait, 2002

2-1-3 Definition of the major air pollutants in the State of Kuwait, their sources and their effects

Dust

Small solid, organic and non-organic, particles with different chemical and physical structures (depending on their sources and spread). Usually these particles are relatively large causing them to fall due to gravity. Open desert areas are major natural sources from which dust originate from, due to high temperatures and dryness of the soil in Kuwait. Gravel production and the construction processes are causes to these dusts and are caused by man. Dust has many environmental effects, such as reducing visibility, which causes accidents, changes in the composition of the soil surface, and damaging agricultural and grazing lands.

Suspended Particles in the air (TSP, PM-10)

These are small solid or liquid particles ranging in size between 0.1 to 100 microns, which makes them suspended in air for long periods and spread over long areas from their source. Their physical and chemical compositions depend on the nature of their sources. Nature can also produce these particles as in the case of volcanoes, seas, dust, and wild forest fires. Some of the human activities can produce these particulates such as cement, brick, ceramic manufacturing as well as sand and gravel quarrying. Oil exploration and drilling, exhausts from transportation, tire tear and wear, and complete combustion that produces ashes are also sources of particulates.

Most countries face serious air pollution problems resulting from such particulates. They can be found in rural and urban areas, with some difference in their concentrations and the types. Kuwait also suffers from high levels of particulates throughout the year, especially in spring and summer seasons. This is due to the frequent occurrence of dust and sand storms. Chemical composition and concentration of these particles play a role in affecting the environment and human health. The sizes of these particles are also of great importance especially to those exposed to it. As their sizes decrease, their effects increase, because they can pass and settle in the lower part of the respiratory system.

Therefore, special attention was given by the World Health Organization to the particles that are less than 10 microns (PM-10) in size for their adverse effect. The particles also contain toxic metals and other harmful chemical compounds such as lead, mercury, and vanadium. This would lead to the deterioration of patients suffering from Asthma and other respiratory diseases. It also impedes the process of photosynthesis and has toxic effects on plants and animals.

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Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

A

colorless gas with very strong odor that irritates the respiratory system.

It

is oxidized in the air forming Sulfur Trioxide, which melts quickly in

the water vapor forming Sulfuric acid and then falls like rain or acidic moisture. The gas is emitted by many sources such as the combustion of fossil fuels that contain sulfur (such as coal and oil), oil refining and production,sulfuricacidmanufacturing,cars’exhausts,andpower stations.

Respiratory diseases, like asthma and lung efficiency reduction, are caused by exposure to Sulfur dioxide. It also causes corrosion in buildings, metal constructions, textiles, and rocks. Another hazardous effect of this gas is that it causes the formation of acid rain, which is very harmful to flora and fauna and affects human health.

Hydrogen Sulphide