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CHAPTER 17: CLASS AMPHIBIA VOCABULARY ____tetrapod____ ____Ichthyostega____ ____spiracle____ ____double circulation____ ____Lissamphibia____ ____ectothermic____ ____caecilians____ ____amplexus____ ____axolotl____

____spermatophore____ ____direct development____ ____paedomorphosis____ ____cloaca____ Order Apoda or Gymnophiona(without foot)-160 species with elongated body; limbs absent; mesodermal scales present; tail short or absent.95-285 vertebrae. Ex: caecilians. Order Caudata or Urodela (tail evident)-500 species with body, head, trunk and tail; no scales; usually two pairs of equal limbs; 10 to 60 vertebrae. Ex: newts and salamanders. Order Anura or Salientia (without tail)-4840 species with head and trunk fused; no tail; no scales; two pairs of limbs; 6-10 vertebrae. Ex: frogs and toads. Tetrapod-four-limbed vertebrates; the group includes amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Double circulation-a blood-transport system having a distinct pulmonary circuit of blood vessels separate from the circuit of blood vessels serving the remainder of the body. Caecilians-limbless burrowing creatures in tropical forests of South America, Africa and Southeast Asia. Spermatophore-capsule or packet enclosing sperm, produced by males of a few vertebrates. Direct development-a postnasal ontogeny featuring primarily growth in size rather than a major change in body shape or organs present; a life history that lacks metamorphosis. Paedomorphosis-displacement of ancestral juvenile features to later stages of the ontogeny of descendants. Amplexus-the copulatory embrace of frogs and toads. Spiracle-exhalant aperature of tadpole gill chamber. Ectothermic-having a variable body temperature derived from heat acquired from the environment. Axolotl-salamanders of the species Ambystoma mexicanum which do not metamorphose and retain aquatic larval characteristics throughout adulthood. Ichthyostega-early ancestor with fully formed tetrapod limbs; hindlimb bore seven toes; resembled aquatic forms in retaining a tail complete with fin rays and opercular (gill covering) bones. Lissamphibia-early ancester which diversified during the Carboniferous to produce ancestors of the three major groups of Amphibians alive today. Order Apoda or Gymnophiona(without foot)-160 species with elongated body; limbs absent; mesodermal scales present; tail short or absent.95-285 vertebrae. Ex: caecilians. Order Caudata or Urodela (tail evident)-500 species with body, head, trunk and tail; no scales; usually two pairs of equal limbs; 10 to 60 vertebrae. Ex: salamanders. Order Anura or Salientia (without tail)-4840 species with head and trunk fused; no tail; no scales; two pairs of limbs; 6-10 vertebrae. Ex: frogs and toads. Phylogeny-the origin and diversification of any taxon, or the evolutionary history of its origin and diversification. Ontogeny-the course of development of an individual from egg to senescence.