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A Geological Excursion across the

Canadian Cordillera near 49° N
(Highways 1 and 3 from Vancouver to
southwestern Alberta and on to Calgary,

(special Paleogene version)

Richard Lee Armstrong
Department of Geological Sciences
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, B. C., V6T 2B4

Randall Richardson Parrish

Geological Survey of Canada
601 Booth Street
Ottawa, Ontario, KIA OE8

Road Log
Explanation for 1:500,000 Geological Map

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Vancouver to Calgary via Crowsnest Pass Version of 8/28/89 1

The Cordilleran orogen in Canada is both paragon and enigma. After a more than a century of work
geologists have discovered many of its secrets, but there are still controversies, paradoxes to resolve, and
new observations to be made. It has provided instructive examples of many orogenic structures and
processes but at the same time our understanding of its details is in a constant state of flux. It has inspired
many classical geological concepts - the structure of miogeoclinal fold and thrust belts, passive margin,
rift, and foredeep basin evolution, eugeosyncline and orthogeosyncline structure and the successor concept
of terranes and terrane accretion, metamorphic core zones, batholiths, great strike-slip faults, and fossil
subduction zones. This excursion will touch on all those topics and provide an opportunity for discussion
of outstanding problems.
In 1913 two Cordilleran transects in Canada were explored by rail as parts of Transcontinental
Excursions Cl and C2 of the International Geological Congress (Geological Survey of Canada, 1913a and
1913b). This came just after publication of Daly's Memoir (1912) describing the geology along the 49th
parallel. At that time no direct highway connection existed across southern British Columbia. Since 1972,
the standard trans-Cordilleran field trip in Canada has been the one following Highway 1 from Calgary to
Vancouver (Wheeler et al., 1972), which has been run many times in recent years (Price et aI., 1981 and
1985). Its emphasis is on fold and thrust belt structure, Mesozoic metamorphic core, and accreted terranes
and their history of amalgamation. The more southerly route across the Cordillera in Canada, following
Highway 3 for the most part, and thus running close to the international boundary between the U. S. and
Canada, has been less often followed, but was also the subject of an excursion for the 1972 International
Geological Congress (Monger and Preto, 1972). Parts have been run on several other field trips (e.g.
Price et al., 1972; McTaggart, 1977; Okulitch et aI., 1977; Brown et aI., 1981; H~y et al., 1981; Church,
1985; Parrish et al., 1985). We are reviving the more southerly route for several reasons. Much has been
learned of its geology in recent years so that many of the questions in 1972 now have answers. The rocks
seen are equally spectacular, both as scenery and geologic example. The themes that can be better
emphasized on the southern route are different - the great tectonic overlap of the accreted terranes onto
North America, the many magmatic episodes that have left their imprint on the Cordilleran region, and the
spectacular effects of Paleogene crustal extension associated with the last major magmatic episode.
The two alternate transects are thus complementary, and can be run together as a grand loop tour of the
Canadian Cordillera.
Much of the information for stops in the accompanying road log has been gleaned from the field guides
cited in the pervious paragraphs.

I Vancouver to Calgary via Crowsnest Pass Version of 8/28/89 2


We will cross four of the five Cordilleran tectonic belts (Diagram 1) in going from Vancouver to
Calgary. Only the Insular Belt, which consists of Vancouver Island will not be directly visited, but we
will see it from a distance. The Insular Belt is partly submerged in the Pacific Ocean. It is constructed of
Paleozoic and Mesozoic magmatic arcs and Mesozoic-Cenozoic accretionary belts (Muller, 1977). It is
largely unaffected by Cretaceous and younger magmatism and thus lay in the arc-trench gap from Middle
Jurassic time onwards.
Vancouver sits on the western edge of the Coast - Cascade Belt. The Coast Belt is mountainous
country, underlain largely by granitic rocks - the Coast Plutonic Belt or Coast batholith of Jurassic to
Eocene age. Included in its southeast corner is the Cascade Belt, a separate mountain system that merges
into the Coast Mountains. The two regions share many geologic features. The Cascade crystalline core
being almost exactly a southerly extension of the Coast Plutonic complex. The Northwest Cascades (and
closely related San Juan Islands) are distinct in being a west-vergent tectonic stack of oceanic terranes
(Mish, 1966). Fossil subduction zones are preserved, and the later magmatic arc overprint is lacking.
That tectonic stack appears to be traceable into the Coast Belt between Vancouver and Hope, but there are
many unresolved problems, disputed correlations, and much ongoing debate about the details of that
The Intermontane Belt lies at generally lower elevations than the bounding Coast and Ornineca belts. It
is underlain by Paleozoic to Cenozoic rocks of heterogeneous character: accretion complexes, magmatic
arcs, marine and nonmarine basins. The rocks are traditionally classified as eugeosynclinal or
epieugeosynclinal. Cenozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks bury the orogenic structure in many areas.
Lower elevation and relief, and the consequent cover by glacial and alluvial deposits and vegetation retard
geologic exploration here - but fossils are more commonly preserved than in the adjacent better-exposed
thermal culminations.
The Omineca Belt is a region of mountains, separated from the Foreland Belt mountains by a long
linear valley called the Rocky Mountain Trench. The rocks are largely metamorphic or granitic, with
highest-grade exposures in antiformal structural culminations. The term Shuswap Complex is used to
designate the areas of upper amphibolite facies (sillimanite-bearing) rocks. More recently the Shuswap has
been resolved into three components: the Monashee Complex (North American early Proterozoic
crystalline basement exposed in a structural window), the northwestern Shuswap Complex composed of
high-grade peri cratonic Proterozoic to Eocene schists and gneisses, and Okanagan Complex - a region of
batholiths, eugeosynclinal roof pendants, and basement gneisses (Okulitch, 1984). The Purcell Arch or
Geanticline underlies a north tapering wedge-shaped area between the east edge of the Okanagan complex
of the southern Omineca Belt and the Rocky Mountain Trench. It is a structural culmination exposing
Vancouver to Calgary via Crowsnest Pass Version of 8/28/89 3

Proterozoic strata that are only moderately affected by Phaneowic regional metamorphism and
The Foreland Belt is likewise mountainous, and has often been referred to as the Canadian Rockies or
Rocky Mountain Belt. It consists of the mountains between the Rocky Mountain Trench and the low-relief
and low elevation Platform region. Its exposed rocks are sedimentary, their structure imbricate - the well
known fold and thrust belt (Balley et al., 1966; Price, 1981). Their ages are Proterozoic to Mesozoic.
The underlying Precambrian crystalline basement is isostatically depressed but has otherwise remained
undeformed during the Phanerozoic.
East of the mountains lies the Plains. Deformed Paleozoic to Cenozoic rocks overlie depressed
Precambrain crystalline basement adjacent to the Foreland mountains. An abrupt structural front, which
lies just west of Calgary, Alberta, separates the deformed rocks of the Foothills Belt, from the flat-lying
Platform strata unconformably overlying the Precambrain basement of cratonic North America.


The terrane subdisions of the Cordillera (Diagam 2) partly coincide with tectonic belts, but not exactly.
The two concepts must be kept separate. The tectonic belts are defmed on topography, reflecting rock
types and Neogene crustal movements. The terranes are defined on affinity at the time of deposition of
their framework strata (Monger et al., 1972; Monger 1984). Terrane boundaries are faults, or inferred
faults, that mark abrupt discontiuities in fundamental history of the separated regions.
Vancouver lies close to the boundary between Wrangellia and a collage of terranes that underlie much
of the Coast - Cascade Belt (Diagram 3). The boundary is engulfed in younger Coast batholith and thus
obscure. Wrangellian rocks (Paleozoic and Mezozoic magmatic arcs that form the largest component of
Vancouver Island geology) can be traced into the Coast Belt along its western edge where they are
unquestionably intruded by Late Jurassic and younger rocks of the Coast Belt (Nelson, 1979; Armstrong
et al., ms; van der Heyden, 1989; Friedman and Armstrong, unpublished data).
Within the eastern Coast Belt, and continuing south along the western edge of the Intermontane Belt, is
the Bridge River - Hozameen Terrane. This is a distinct Permian to Middle Jurassic greenstone, chert,
ultramafic rock, and clastic sediment ocean-basin assemblage - an accretion complex, probably formed in
Middle Jurassic time or up to Middle Jurassic time (Potter, 1986; Haugerud, 1985; Rusmore et aI., 1988).
The western boundary is obscured by Coast batholith. The eastern boundary is the Hozameen fault which
places Triassic ophiolitic basement, of the Methow - Tyaughton trough, over Bridge River - Hozameen
Caught between Wrangellia and the Bridge River - Hozameen terranes are numerous smaller terranes of
which little can be seen in our transect of the Coast - Cascade Belt. There are Vedder Complex,
Chilliwack-Nooksack (Harrison), and Shuksan-Easton components exposed along Highway 1. Their
Vancouver to Calgary via Crowsnest Pass Version of 8/28/89 4

aggregation into the observed tectonic stack spanned Jurassic subduction to fMiddle Cretaceous
imbrication. By Early Cretaceous time parts were already included in an Andean-type continental-margin
magmatic arc (Armstrong, 1988a). The displacement of Wrangellia and intervening terranes and portions
of the accretion wedge with respect to North America are inferred to have been large, on the order of
thousands of km (Irving et al., 1980). This is generally accepted. The timing of these displacements is
highly controversial. The observed geology is inconsistent with large displacements after Early
Cretaceous time, perhaps the constraint exists even as far back as Middle Jurassic time (Tipper, 1984b;
van der Heyden, 1989). Some authors advocate or accept large post-mid Cretaceous movements (Irving et
aI., 1985; Umhoefer, 1987; Oldow, 1989), but these hypotheses simply have not been reconciled with the
facts presented on geologic maps.
Between the Bridge River - Hozameen Terrane and autochthonous North America this excursion
crosses only one terrane, Quesnellia, and an overlap assemblage linked to the western edge of Quesnellia
since Early Jurassic time, the Methow-Tyaughton Assemblage. Other parts of the composite Intermontane
Terrane (Stikinia and Cache Creek terranes) lie to the north. The underpinnings of Quesnellia are
Paleozoic to Middle Triassic oceanic basin, arc, and accretion wedge. Fossils are rare, structures only
fragmentarily recognized, deformation complex and multicyclic, metamorphism common - usually in
greenschist to low amphibolite facies. This assemblage of older subunits, each with local names, is linked
together into Quesnellia by the unconformably overlying Middle Triassic to Early Jurassic Nicola -
Rossland magmatic arc rock assemblage (Read and Okulitch, 1977; Ross, 1981). The arc faced
westward, arc and accretion wedge rocks being sedimentologic ally and tectonically mingled in the Cache
Creek area (Travers, 1978; Grette, 1979). The chemistry of arc magmatic rocks grades from calk-alkaline
in the west to alkaline in the east and there is a general younging trend eastward (Beddoe-Stephens and
Lambert, 1981; Mortimer, 1987).
The eastern boundary of Quesnellia is a fault, crossed near Salmo on Highway 3. At that locality the
Eastern or Slide Mountain Terrane, which is present immediately to the north, is missing, and Rossland
arc rocks are juxtaposed with Kootenay Arc (an arcuate tectonic zone of tightly folded Proterozoic to
Paleozoic strata along the west side of the Purcell Anticlinorium, not a magmatic arc) rocks that belong to
the passive margin of Phaneozoic North America. The space between Quesnellia and North America is
usually reconstructed as a relatively narrow marginal basin between the Mesozoic arc and the outer passive
margin (pericratonic terranes). Stratigraphic transitions are observed between successive tectonic slices
from Quesnellia to North America so that no large displacements are implied along this zone of sutures
(Klepacki, 1983 and 1985; Struik, 1988). The age of these sutures in southern British Columbia is
closely bracketed as late Early to early Middle Jurassic, between the youngest Rossland Volcanics, about
190 Ma (Tipper, 1984a), and the oldest stitching plutons, about 180 Ma (Parrish and Wheeler, 1983;
Klepacki, 1985).

I Vancouver to Calgary via Crowsnest Pass Version of 8/28/89 5

After the Jurassic accretion of Quesnellia, and closure of the Bridge River - Hozameen suture a
magmatic culmination of Middle to Late Jurassic age (170 to 150 Ma) affected Coast, Intermontane and
Omineca belts (Armstrong, 1988a; van der Heyden, 1989). This magmatism was especially extensive in
southern British Columbia and is little overprinted there by younger events.
Latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous time was notable for magmatic and tectonic quiescence. A
stratigraphic hiatus or lull in magmatic activity is observed in all areas (Armstrong, 1988a; Armstrong and
Ward, in press).
From Early Cretaceous time onwards the region crossed by the excursion has been an Andean-type
continental-margin magmatic arc, undergoing various types of intracontinental deformation. The
Cretaceous to Paleocene (up to about 58 Ma ago) was a time of batholith emplacement, and back-arc
tectonic convergence, crustal shortening, and thickening. The Paleogene (later Paleocene and Eocene) was
a time of within-arc crustal extension, synchronous with the last major magmatic episode (Ewing, 1980;
Parish et al., 1988; Freidman and Armstrong, 1988). This was also a time of moderate strike-slip fault
motions, as for example along the Fraser - Straight Creek fault system. Older strike-slip structures are not
recognized in the excursion transect.
Sporadic magmatism of Neogene age has occurred in all allochthonous terranes.


Geology illustrating three themes will be emphasized during the excursion.

Tectonic Convergence
Accretion history and tectonic stacking of units is seen in several areas. From Vancouver to the
Hozameen fault various aspects of the aggregation of Wrangellia and intervening terranes to Quesnellia
will be seen and discussed. The Foreland structures of the Rocky Mountain fold and thrust belt, seen at
the end of the excursion, are spectacular results of Cretaceous to Paleocene convergence. Within
Quesnellia we will see structural windows exposing the Precambrian basement of North America
(Armstrong et al., 1989). These demonstrate more than 100 km of tectonic overlap of accreted terranes
onto North America, achieved from Jurassic to Paleocene time.

Magmatic Episodes (Souther, 1977; Armstrong, 1988a)

The four major magmatic episodes of the Canadian Cordillera are well illustrated in the excursion. For
each there will be multiple examples visited, scattered across their respective extents. The episodes are:
Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Quesnel magmatic arc. Middle to early Late Jurassic stitching plutons and
extensive magmatic culmination - from Coast to Omineca belts. Mid Cretaceous magmatic culmination -
Vancouver to Calgary via Crowsnest Pass Version of 8/28/89 6

from Coast batholith belt to the Crowsnest Volcanics of the Rocky Mountains. Paleogene magmatism -
extensive from Cascade to Omineca belts. Both volcanic and intrusive aspects will be abundantly
Minor magmatic episodes will be noted, where appropriate. Mafic igneous rocks related to the two
Proterozoic rifting episodes that created the Belt-Purcell and Windermere basins, respectively, will be
encountered. Paleozoic igneous rocks, of various oceanic tectonic settings will be observed at a few
stops. The weak Late Cretaceous magmatic culmination is of limited extent and volume and will be hardly
noticed. It is largely eliminated from the excursion route by the Fraser - Straight Creek fault zone. Except
for the Oligocene-Miocene intrusions of the Cascade magmatic arc (Richards and McTagart, 1976) there
will be few Neogene magmatic rocks seen because of their small volume and scattered occurrence.

Paleogene Crustal Extension and Strike-Slip Faulting

From the Fraser - Straight Creek fault zone to the Rocky Mountain Trench the excursion encounters
many Cenozoic structures related to extension and transtension of the Cordilleran region. Between the
Okanagan fault and the Purcell fault metamorphic core complex structures are spectacularly developed
(Parrish et al., 1988). In that region Paleogene crustal extension on the order of 30 to 50 % is inferred and
this has a major impact on the mapped geology and measured geophysical fields, and on the crustal
structure observed in the deep seismic surveys such as LITHOPROBE (Cook et al., 1987 and 1988).
8/23/89 1

In this version of the Road Log the

stops highlighting Paleogene
aspects of Cordilleran geology
have been outlined

Vancouver to Calgary vIa Crowsnest
Day 1 Road Log, in two parts
0.00 km Starting Point: Front of Gage
Residence, University of British
we ct:ive across built up areas in
the CIty.
Columbia. Set odometer to
zero. Continue along Marine Drive,
0.30 km Turn left onto Wesbrook Mall. headed east.
0.70 km Turn left onto Chancellor 6.2 km Turn left onto 4th Avenue.
Boulevard. 10.15 km Angle left onto Burrard, cross
1.15 km Tum right onto Marine Drive. over Burrard Bridge.
11. 70 km Tum right at northeast end of
3.0 km Stop 1: Spanish Banks for Bridge onto Pacific Avenue then
view of the south slope of the after one block right again onto
Coast Mountains (Figure 1). Hornby and after another block
The Point Grey seac1iffs west of right again onto Beach Avenue.
here expose Quadra Sand (here 12.65 km Left onto Pacific from Beach
23 to 24 ka old) overlain by Avenue.
Vashon Drift. The south slope 13.40 km Turn right onto Denman.
of the Coast Mountains is an 14.30 km Tum left onto Georgia Streeet
exhumed erosion surface (Highway 99 and lA) and
beneath Cretaceous - Tertiary continue on through Stanley
sediments of the Nanaimo - Park.
Fraser basin. The bedrock, 16.95 km Crossing Lions Gate Bridge,
exposed in the higher peaks and continue to follow Highway 99
along the shoreline is erosion- into West Vancouver. The
resistant Mesozoic metavolcanic south abutment of the bridge is
and granitic rock, mostly of in the Late Cretaceous Lions
Cretaceous age. The city of Gate Member of the Burrard
Vancouver is built on hills of Group. The Cretaceous -
Cretaceous - Tertiary sediment Tertiary boundary lies within
mantled by Quaternary glacial Stanley Park but is not exposed.
deposits. Bedrock exposures Most of Vancouver overlies
are rare and none will be seen as Tertiary sediment. The erosion
resistance of the Burrard


2 8/23/89

sediment at the south bridge narrow and may be unsuitable

abutment is enhanced by the for large busses. If so debark
presence of 32 to 34 Ma old and walk down to beach area.
mafic dikes and their related Otherwise continue onwards.
contact metamorphism. 46.30 km Sharp and narrow left tum
19.50 km Tum right up Taylor Way. down Dogwood Lane.
20.70 km Left tum onto entrance ramp of
Highway 1, westbound. 46.60 km Stop 4: Caulfeild Park.
25.00 km Take Cypress Exit to right. Intrusive relationships are well
25.90 km Passing Entrance Gate to displayed here on bare shoreline
Cypress Park, continue on up exposures. The published
road, note granitic rock detailed map, Figure 4 of
exposures on right side when McTaggart (1977), shows the
approaching sharp right tum, different units and their
continue past sharp tum to relationships. The contact of a
Viewpoint. granodiorite pluton containing
mafic inclusions with banded
31.10 km Stop 2: Viewpoint (Figure 2). amphibolitic gneiss is exposed
Panoramic view of the city of here. A variety of dikes
Vancouver, the lower mainland, interlace the country rock
North Cascades, San Juan making this a test book example
Islands, Vancouver Island, and of multiple crosscutting age
(on a clear day) the Olympic relationships.
Continue westward.
Leave parking lot, turning left 46.85 km Go on past cove then at 47.00
down towards Highway L km
34.80 km Sharp hairpin tum left. tum right and climb Picadi1ly
back to Marine Drive.
35.05 km Stop 3: Roadcut exposure of 47.55 km Angle back onto Marine Drive,
Mesozoic granodiorite with past Caulfeild Trail sign, and go
mafic inclusions. back through West Vancouver.
56.40 km Tum left up Taylor Way.
Continue down to Highway 1. 57.60 km Tum right onto Highway 1,
37.00 km Cross over to south side of eastbound.
Highway 1 on overpass, enter 66.05 km Lynn Creek Bridge.
Highway 1 eastbound. 67.45 km Second Narrows Bridge.
38.35 km Take 22nd Street Exit on right. 69.85 km Empire Stadium on Right.
38.75 km Right tum. 70.05 km Crossing East Hastings, stay on
39.00 km Stop. Tum right onto Queens Highway 1.
Avenue. 70.90 km Angle left onto Freeway. This
39.80 km Stop. Tum left onto 26th. is the connecting point for those
40.45 km Stop. Tum left onto Haywood. who may choose to go directly
40.65 km Stop. Tum right. from UBC without the western
40.70 km Stop. Tum right onto Marine Coast Mountains stops and
Drive, westbound. views.
45.00 km Passing Fisheries and Oceans 88.85 km Port Mann Bridge over Fraser
Laboratory. The parking lot on River. The rolling uplands that
the right contains glaciated follow are on Quaternary
exposures of granitic rock cut deposits overlying Eocene and
by composite dykes and is Miocene sediment.
worth a visit if there is time.
46.05 km Angle left at Caulfeild Trail onto
Picadilly. The roads here are
-- --~--~----------~------------------==~--====~====

8/28/89 3

97.60 krn 176th Street Underpass, Continue east.

Highway 15 exit. Continue on 142.05 krn Sumas Mountain Road -
Freeway. access to geologic sites on
99.90 krn Road curves around tree. This Sumas Mountain.
was a memorial tree, dedicated 143.95 krn Highway turns gently left.
to war dead. The Highway was Mesozoic volcanic and intrusive
diverted to save the tree but it complex exposed on left on
did not survive the changes to southeast face of Sumas
its environment. It was later Mountain.
topped for safety reasons. 148.60 krn Take Yarrow - Cultus Lake exit
106.60 km Road turns gently right. to right. Head due east toward
118.95 krn (and again at 125.30 krn) north end of Vedder Mountain.
Mount Baker is visible at 12:30. The flat lowland here is the
129.90 km Gentle right turn, Mount Baker floor of Sumas Lake, drained in
now straight ahead. the 1920' s to gain farmland. A
136.35 km Continue past Mission - Sumas few m of late Quaternary lake
(Whatcom Road) Exit. deposits overlie glaciomarine
deposits here.
139.85 krn Stop 5: Pull over on new 151.00 krn Stop. Road jogs right, then
overpass for view of Sumas left. Continue east.
Mountain (Figure 3) and Vedder 153.00 krn Stop. Turn left, continue
Mountain. Church (1985) has through Yarrow.
described the sediments here at 156.40 krn Passing Goose Farm.
the west end of Sumas
Mountain - the type Huntington 160.70 krn Stop 6: North end of Vedder
Formation. More than 400 m of Mountain. Quarry on right at
continental shale, sandstone, bend in road. Mylonitic schists
lignite-coal, with commercial : quartz-mica-graphite-gamet
fireclay beds dip about 10° to schist and greenstone lenses
the southwest and (metatuff) of the Vedder
unconformably overlie Complex (Permocarboniferous
Mesozoic metavolcanic and moderately high-pressure
granitic rocks of the Coast metamorphic series).
Plutonic Complex that form the
higher mountain. Vedder Continue eastward.
Mountain in the distance to the 161.25 krn Keep turning left.
south is composed of foliated 161.85 krn Cross over Chilliwack River on
quartz diorite (Paleozoic?) in its Bridge into Vedder Crossing.
southwest part, and epidote- Keep going north on Vedder
amphibolite and gamet-mica Road.
schist with late Paleozoic 166.20 krn Passing through Sardis.
moderately high pressure 167.15 krn Turn right onto Highway 1,
metamorphism (_280 Ma eastbound. This may be a good
Vedder Complex, one of the point to stop to view Chilliwack
North Cascade tectonic rocks to the south and east of
components) in its northwest here mapped by Jim Monger
part. The crest of the mountain (1970). This view is described
and its east side are Mesozoic by him as stop 4-4 in Price et al.
clastic sedimentary rock, (1985).
Nooksack Group. The geologic 168.40 krn Crossing Chilliwack Creek, pre
contrast across the Fraser Valley 1880 channel of Chilliwack
here is a geologic quandry. River. View to south and east
of Chilliwack imbricate zone on
and below Cheam Peak.
4 8/23/89

177.45 km Highway curves to left. begin here and continue for the
178.20 km and 178.90 km Power line next 1.5 km.
crosses road. 194.95 km Chilliwack exposed in road cuts
182.63 km Highway 9 to Agassiz turns off for the next 2.3 km. The
here. Highway 7 on the north calcareous - siliceous
side of the Fraser River is an Chilliwack is metamorphosed
alternate route to Hope, past due to proximity of the Miocene
several geologic points of plutons. Numerous veins and
interest. Continue on Highway dykes are visible in the fresh
1. cuts.
183.95 km Passing Bridal Falls - Park and 198.50 km Miocene granodiorite - for the
tourist traps. Here prehistoric next 2.4 km.
landslide deposits form an 199.25 km Tum off on right, Peters Road
apron below Mount Cheam. exit, and park on side of on
184.85 km Tum right off highway onto ramp.
Popkum Road, then
immediately tum left onto ramp 199.40 km Stop 8: A quick look at
back to highway and park on Miocene granodiorite.
roadside before reentering
highway. Continue back onto Highway,
185.4 km Stop 7: Road cuts in 200.90 km Miocene granodiorite intrudes
Chilliwack Group siliceous metasediments which on the
argillite and limestone. With north side of the Fraser River
luck, cross sections of giant are called the Slollicum
hom corals can be found at this Formation (Triassic) by Monger
locality. A felsic dyke at this (1986).
locality is probably Miocene, 201.25 km Past the Laidlaw Exit. A major
from plutons of the nearby fault zone is crossed just ahead,
Cascade - Pemberton Belt. where the Highway crosses
Jones Creek. The fault is
Continue back onto Highway 1. steeply dipping and marked by
189.90 km Rusty weathering Chilliwack in ultramafic lenses. East of the
roadcut. fault is black argillite that may
190.50 km Miocene granitic stock on west be Darrington Formation of the
end of roadcut in intrusive Shuksan Thrust sheet. An
contact with Chilliwack Group optional side trip exits here and
exposed towards the east. The turns south up the Jones Lake
main intrusive body lies to the road. About 2 km up the road
east so this mass of Chilliwack are good exposures of black
sediment is a roof pendant or argillite. Further upvalley are
xenolith. good exposures of broken black
192.00 km Passing a hydro power station. phyllite. In the creek bed one
The water comes from Waleach can fmd boulders of gabbro and
(Jones) Lake through a tunnel diorite that may be from the
and descends about 600 m to early Paleozoic and
the powerhouse. Recent slow Precambrian(?) Yellow Aster
movements, opening cracks in Complex and bits of ultramafic
the water tunnel have raised rock.
concerns about a landslide here 206.70 km Hunter Creek Road. Tum off
at some future date. here for rest stop at Hunter
193.00 km Road cuts in Miocene stock Creek.
(Mount Barr Granodiorite)
207.25 km Rest Stop.
8/23/89 5

this latitude only a few km of

Return to highway, continue gneiss are present and this
east. tapers and is eventually
207.95 km Passing shotcrete-covered road truncated by the Fraser Fault
cuts in the mid Cretaceous System. Similar migmatitic
(-100 Ma) Spuzzum Pluton. schists and gneisses on the west
When these were fresh a dating side of the Fault System in the
sample was collected at this spot Bridge River area may be offset
but now it isn't worth the risk equivalents of these rocks.
of stopping here to look at Paragneiss components are
rocks. presumably Paleozoic and
210.20 km Passing weathered exposures of Mesozoic (although not directly
the Cretaceous Pluton. dated) but the granitic
211.85 km and 213.95 km fresh cuts in component seems to be largely
Cretaceous Pluton. Cretaceous (zircon and whole
215.90 km Just past Silver Hope Creek we rock Rb-Sr dating gives no
cross the Yale Fault of the older ages). The only exception
Fraser Fault System. are Eocene orthogneiss dikes
Cretaceous Pluton, on the west (dated by Rb-Sr) at Ross Lake.
side, faulted against Eocene The eastern contact, with
conglomerate, on the east. Hozameen Group rocks is either
216.50 km Eocene conglomerate on both gradational or faulted - and is
sides of Highway. Pull off on controversial.
to side of Highway here or on
exit ramp just ahead and walk Continue eastward.
back to exposure. 218.60 km to 218.95 km Past road cuts in
dark rocks (Hozameen ?) cut by
216.50 km Stop 9: Eocene conglomerate spectacular felsic dykes
caught in Fraser Fault Zone. (presumably Tertiary).
The bedding, where visible is 219.65 km Hope exit. Take exit into Hope
nearly vertical and the for gas and amenities.
conglomerate appears to be
lying on the Custer Gneiss Side Trip to examine Spuzzum Pluton.
which lies just east of here. Go into Hope and take
Highway 1 and 7 across the
Continue eastward on Highway Fraser River and stay on 7,
217.30 km Pull over into turnout just westbound.
before overpass. 227.05 km Pull into large parking area at
Devil Lake truck scales.
217.45 km Stop 10: Examine exposure
of Custer Gneiss. This foliated, 227.05 km Stop 10.5: Road cuts here are
mylonitic, migmatitic gneiss, in Spuzzum Diorite.
largely of Cretaceous age,
forms the northern continuation Turn around and head back to
of the Cascade Crystalline Core. Hope.
To the south there is a broad 228.77 km to 229.40 km note in roadcuts
region of metamorphosed and just before Bridge exposures of
migmatized Cascade River the Eocene conglomerate. The
Schist and granitic to migmatitic vertical attitude is usually
Skagit Gneiss which form the discernable here.
Crystalline Core of the North 230.90 km Hope, again.
Cascades (Misch, 1966). At
6 8/23/89

Road Log Day 1, Part II

0.00 km Reset odometer to zero while Coquihalla Highway (Highway
crossing overpass just after 5) goes by spectacular exposures
Custer Gneiss (Stop 10) or leave but offers few places to stop
Hope headed south under main safely by the roadside. Turnouts
Highway and turn west toward for scenery or resting or safety
Vancouver and about 3 km from purposes were evidently not
the center of Hope rejoin included in the inflated
Highway 1, head east past stops Coquihalla Highway budget.
9 and 10 and reset odometer to 7.60 km Nicolum Campground. The
zero when crossing overpass. highway passes many exposures
0.95 km to 1.45 km Past road cuts in dark of intrusive rock from here to
rocks (Hozameen ?) cut by 10.00 km.
spectacular felsic dykes 11.05 km Nicolum Creek. Hozameen is
(presumably Tertiary). exposed on the left. The
3.20 km Two Mile Creek, approximate highway begins to climb more
position of Hope Fault of the steeply.
Fraser Fault System. The next 12.65 km Hozameen rocks are exposed on
exposures are of Hope Intrusion the left. Park at the upper end of
which is mantled by Quaternary the cut.
till and graveL
3.90 km Alexander Creek Bridge. 12.60 km Stop 12: Walk back to briefly
5.15 km Pull over on side of road at examine Permian to Jurassic
Princeton Turnoff sign. Hozameen cherty argillite cut by
intrusive rocks.
5.15 km Stop 11: Hope Intrusion.
. \ " . Eocene. We have now entered Continue eastward.
"~~~ '~the Eocene magmatic arc, which 13.50 km Quaternary flood gravels and
I{J \~,j)~V)\~. ,will take several days to cross. kame terrace deposits overlying
o./J)jJ f\ ~v;-1?e Fraser Fault Syst~m Hozameen.
\J ,,\0"" displaces the magmatIc front and 14.10 km to 15.3 km Coarse sand and
, ({t\\~ Eocene ductile infrastructure and gravel deposits (postglacial).
. ~~y IS therefore younger than those 15.30 km The Hope slide and scar are now
~'\) ~ ,~')'J., features. No Eocene magmatic coming into view and 12:00 and
~,-~yroCkS or structures were visible 3:00, respectively.
\}J.:) \'! ,lir west of the Yale Fault near Hope 15.70 km Slide scar visible at 10:00.
"v \\\\' .!l.,<:'Y but they do occur on the west 17.05 km Turn left to Hope Slide
~1Y'Y side in the Bridge River area 100 viewpoint.
to 200 km to the north.
17.35 km Stop 13: View of Hope Slide.
Continue east, taking the The signs describe the event
Princeton turnoff onto Highway which occurred on January 9,
3. 1965. A small earthquake, on a
5.40 km Metamorphosed country rock, midwinter night, triggered the
Hozameen?, in road cuts. slide. Several vehicles and their
6.05 km Good exposures of intrusive occupants, stopped by a snow
rock where Highways 3 and 5 avalanche which had blocked the
split - take Highway 3. The highway were victims. In the
8/23/89 7

slide scar Hozameen greenstone separates Hozameen, oceanic

dips 45° to 60° towards the rocks of Permian to Jurassic age
valley. The opposite side of the from Jurassic and Cretaceous
valley is Hozameen bedded chert clastic sediments of the Methow -
which overlies the greenstone. Tyaughton Trough.
The rocks strewn about are
Hozameen greenstone (low Rb, Continue eastward.
low initial Sr ratio = MORB like) 36.15 km Rhcxlodendron Flats. A colorful
and felsic intrusive rock - the spot at the right time of year
dykes are visible in the scar. (May-June). Quaternary
Comfort facilities available. sediment overlying Jurassic
Ladner Group.
Back on to the Highway. Turn 37.70 km Crossing Snass Creek.
left to continue eastward. 37.85 km to 39.5 km Good exposures of
19.90 km Meander flats - valley fill behind Ladner to Dewdney Creek Group
the modem and prehistoric Hope sediments.
slides. Sunshine Valley resort 38.90 km Park in wide turnout.
area for those who like high-risk
living. 38.90 km Stop 15: Jurassic Sediments of
20.85 km Past turnoff to Silvertip ski area. the Methow - Tyaughton
21.90 km and 23.10 km Hozameen Trough. This stop is near the top
exposed in road cuts here and for of the Ladner Group (Sinemurian
the next 10 km. to Bajocian). Up the road is the
24.05 km Westgate Service Station. Dewdney Creek Group
25.10 km Park Boundary. (Oxfordian to Portlandian).
25.50 km Old Wagon Road stop of
interest. The Dewdney Trail, Continue eastward.
constructed in 1860. Rocks on 40.15 km We are now approximately on
the left side are Hozameen the axis of the Gibson Pass
greenstone. Syncline.
30.75 km 19 Mile Creek. 41.15 km Bridge over Skagit River.
33.40 km Abandoned buildings of old 41.75 km Bridge over Skagit River.
mining camp on south side of 43.30 km Bridge over Skaist River. The
river. Other relicts of abandoned dip slope on the left is in
prospects and mines are found sandstone and argillite of the
nearby. Lower Jackass Mountain Group.
33.80 km Sumallo Grove sign. 44.90 km Stop in turnout on right, on the
34.55 km Sumallo Grove turnoff. Park on outside comer at the top of a
the far side of the turnoff. steeper part of the highway but
before the highest point is
34.55 km Stop 14: Sumallo River Stock reached.
- which at this point plugs the
Hozameen Fault. A Cretaceous 44.90 km Stop 16: Conglomerate of the
biotite K-Ar date of 84 Ma for Jackass Mountain Group (Lower
this locality (Wanless et al. 1967) Albian here).
suggested no later movement on
the Fault. Redating of Continue eastward.
hornblende and biotite by both 46.60 km to 46.9 km Black shale and
K-Ar and Rb-Sr gives a Miocene argillite of the upper part of the
age, thus releasing the previous Albian Jackass Mountain Group.
age constraint on the fault. The 47.00 km Bridge over Skagit River.
previously published date must 47.50 km Bridge over Skagit River.
be disregarded. The Fault
r - 8- - -

47.75 km to 53.65 km Exposures of black

argillite of the upper part of the
Albian Jackass Mountain Group.
54.25 km and 54.40 km Jackass Mountain
58.00 km Allison Summit. From here to
the Manning Park Lodge we are
in poor!y exposed upper Jackass
Mountain Group.
65.0 km Coldspring Campground.
66.8 km Turnoff to Manning Park Lodge.
Park. End of Day 1.

8/23/89 9

Day 2 Road Log, in two parts

0.00 km Turn right onto Highway 3 in sediment on other side of fault.
front of Manning Lodge. Set The observations here are
odometer to zero. compatible with a normal fault,
1.45 km Beaver Pond on right. No good approaching mylonitic
exposures along this stretch of detachment fault in character.
road in Albian Jackass Mountain Elsewhere kinematic evidence of
Group. sinistral movement has been
2.65 km Ladner Group sediment on left in reported.
east limb of syncline.
3.20 km Crossing Chuwanten Fault, a Continue eastward.
steep, east vergent thrust. 11.65 km Pull over on right and stop.
3.50 km Monument 83 Trail on right.
4.40 km Albian-Cenomanian Pasayten 11.65 km Stop 19: Eagle Granodiorite,
Group sediment on left in lower still somewhat foliated. Veined
plate of Chuwanten thrust. with pegmatite and aplite which
5.10 km Hampton Camp on left, no give 105 to 110 Ma K-Ar and
signs. About here we are in Rb-Sr dates.
Pasayten Group exposures.
6.95 km Middle to Upper Albian Pasayten Continue eastward.
Group sediment on left. 13.35 km Still in Eagle with pegmatite and
7.20 km Large exposure of Pasayten aplite veins.
sandstone and coal. 14.10 km First exposure of
8.65 km to 9.10 km Well exposed Jackass metasedimentary rocks along
Mountain Group in road cuts. west-dipping eastern contact of
9.25 km Mule Deer Camp. Large talus Eagle Pluton with inverted
cone on left. metamorphic gradient.
10.55 km Pull over on right side of road. 14.75 km More metasedimentary rock.
15.25 km McDiarmid Meadow.
10.55 km Stop 17: Easternmost exposure 15.50 km East boundary of Manning Park.
of Jackass Mountain Group 15.60 km Stop on roadside.
sediment on left, north side of
road. West-dipping Lower 15.60 km Stop 20: Cross road to view
Albian sandstone with coaly beds spectacular coarse hornblende
showing minor compressional schists - Garbenschiefer of Eagle
deformation - bedding wedges. contact metamorphic zone.
This exposure is close to the Metamorphosed Nicola Group
Pasayten Fault but the fault itself greenstone. K-Ar dates on this
is not exposed. unit range up to 120 Ma. The
several-km thick layer of
Continue eastward. ductilely flattened and sheared
10.95 km Crossing Pasayten Fault. Nicola rocks that we are crossing
11.30 km Pull over on right and stop. here is a major latest Jurassic to
Early Cretaceous tectonic feature.
11.30 km Stop 18: Mylonitic gneiss of
Late1urassic and Early Continue eastward.
Cretaceous (c. Greig and P. van 16.05 km Eastgate Lodge.
der Heyden, unpublished U-Pb 16.95 km Stop on roadside. This is the
dates) Eagle Complex just east of fIrst of several short stops to
Pasayten Fault. Foliation dips observe the variety of rock types
west, approximately parallel with in the Nicola arc assemblage.
dip of Jackass Mountain
10 8/23/89

16.95 km Stop 21: Nicola Group 40.15 km Massive, fractured. friable flow.
greenstone in road cuts on left. 40.85 km Greenish and tan tuff and altered
hornblende andesite flow.
Continue eastward. 41.00 km Pull over on right side in small
18.90 km Stop again. turnout just before 60 km/hr
18.90 km Stop 22: Nicola Group
Rhyolite in large roadcut on left. 41.00 km Stop 26: Large-column
(colonnade) part of hornblende
Continue eastward. andesite flow.
19.60 km Stop again.
Continue northwards.
19.60 km Stop 23: Sediments of Nicola 41.35 km Small columns (entablature) in
Formation - black shale and roadside exposure.
sandstone. 41. 65 km Friday Creek Bridge at bottom of
slope, sharp curve.
Continue eastward. 42.75 km Lahars and volcanic clast
21.30 km Similkameen Falls are out of mudflows.
sight to the right of the road. 42.95 km Straight ahead the Ingerbelle
21.75 km Stop at turnout on right side at (Similkameen) Mine is now
lower end of large exposure. visible. A bit to the right, across
the Similkameen River, at -2:00,
21.75 km Stop 24: Walk back up road to are the open pit and dump of the
see exposures of Nicola older Copper Mountain Mine.
epic alas tic/pyroclastic rocks with The Ingerbelle ore body was
well preserved primary structure. discovered beneath the old
highway. Relocation westward
Continue eastward. was necessary so that the mine
24.05 km Rest Area. could be opened. The rerouted
25.55 km Sharp curve in Highway. Bridge highway will descend through
over Copper Creek. Slow road cuts in Nicola Group
down! On the next upgrade we volcanic and sedimentary rocks
cross into Eocene, Kamloops over the next 10 km.
Group, volcanic and sedimentary 47.70 km Beginning steep downgrade
rocks which continue for the next 49.25 km Pull over to right and stop just
17 km. before concrete comer barriers
32.45 km Sunday Summit.
34.55 km to 34.95 km Long cut in 49.25 km Stop 27: View of Princeton
greenish and pale cream colored Basin and copper mines. The
lahars of Kamloops Group. geology of the basin is
37.35 km Pull over on to side of road. summarized by McMechan
(1983). The structural control is
37.35 km a NNE trending normal fault on
the east side of the half graben
containing Eocene deposits.
Continue northward. Volcanic rocks, related to those
38.25 km Crossing another summit in we have just crossed are overlain
roadway. More lahar exposures by 1.7 km of coal-bearing clastic
along roadside. sediments of the Allenby
38.90 km Saturday Creek Bridge. Formation. Coal mining began
39.05 km Massive, close columnar jointed in 1901 and died out in the
flow. 1950's. The Similkameen mill is
39.55 km Lahar exposure. built on Early Jurasic monzonite
8/23/89 11

and syenite of the Lost Horse sediment, some baked and

Complex. Copper reddened by shallow coal flres.
mineralization is disseminated 54.15 km Start downgrade. Red colored
across the contact of the Early sediment in low cuts.
Jurassic alkaline plutons of the 54.45 km to 54.65 km More red Eocene
Copper Mountain suite with sediment. Poor exposures of
altered Late Triassic Nicola sediment continue for next 2 km.
volcanic rocks. 60.35 km Side road comes in from right.
61.10 km Exposure oflight colored
Continue northwards. sandstone.
49.70 km Road cuts in Nicola begin. 64.70 km Gate.
50.70 km Mine junction. 65.70 km Entering Princeton.
53.10 km Whipsaw Creek Bridge. Road 66.25 km Park by sandstone-grit exposure
cuts still in Nicola Group. on left side of highway in
53.40 km Whipsaw Road junction. To the Princeton, behind the bus depot.
right the dumps for the
Similkameen Concentrator are 66.25 km top 28: Kamloops Group
visible. Climbing the grade here sands of Princeton Coal Basin.
returns to exposures of Eocene
End of this section of road log.

Road Log Day 2, Part II

0.00 km Reset odometer to zero at Jurassic granodiorite by
highway junction in Princeton. roadside.
0.50 km Bridge over Similkameen River.
1.25 km to 1.80 km Tailings pile from Continue eastward.
Allenby copper concentrator on 28.55 km Granitic blocks by road.
right. 28.65 km Dark exposure of Nicola Group
3.80 km Entering Sirnilkameen River argillite.
Gorge. 31.50 km Bridge over Similkameen River.
5.50 km to 6.75 km Nicola 33.20 km Stemwinder Provincial Park.
greenstone - volcanic flows and 34.25 km to 34.75 km Nicola Group
breccias - cut by reddish argillite and limy argillite.
weathering granitic dykes. 35.75 km Mazama ash (from Crater Lake,
6.75 km to 8.65 km No exposures across Oregon eruption about 6845±50
intrusive contact. Road on river years ago) is visible in road cut
terrace. on left.
9.75 km to 26.45 km Jurassic granodiorite 35.20 km to 36.15 km Nicola argillite
exposures and talus. We are in exposures.
the Similkameen-Pennask 37.30 km Point of interest warning sign.
batholith. 37.80 km Pullover into parking area by
21.45 km Pullover into Bromley Rock information sign.
Provincial Park.
37.80 km Stop 30: Gold in Nickel Plate
21.45 km Stop 29: Rest stop in park. view stop. The cliffs above
Lunch. Examine blocks of Hedley expose 2000 m of
Nicola Group sediments, all of
1~·12 8/28/89

Upper Triassic (Carnian to 57.20 km Past turnoff to Outward Bound

Early Norian) age, intruded by camp.
Early Jurassic diorite and 57.65 km Paved turnout. Possible photo
gabbro sills and dikes. Nearby stop and opportunity to examine
stocks and batholiths range chert and greenstone float. A
from Early Jurassic to early Late glacial kettle in fluvioglacial
Jurassic in age. The Nickel gravels is visible on the north
Plate mine produced 2 million side of the road.
ounces of gold from 1896 to 60.15 km Big rock by roadside.
1930 and 1934 to 1958. 60.40 km Mazama ash overlain by
Mining has recently resumed. landslide debris.
The ore is in garnet pyroxene 60.90 km River gravels in road cut.
skarn. 61.95 km Rest area on right.
62.65 km Junction with road over covered
Continue eastward. bridge to Cathedral Provincial
38.55 km Passing through Hedley. Park. In the Park are
Eastward the valley is broader spectacular exposures of mid-
and flanked by gigantic talus Cretaceous granitic rock.
cones developed on Because of the high elevation
eugeosynclinal assemblages, these unusual weathered forms
mostly greenstone and argillite escaped Wisconsin glaciation.
of the Apex Mountain Group. 64.30 km Top of rise. We come into view
42.80 km Hill on left is granitic rock. of Mount Kobau to the
44.80 km 16 Mile Creek. southeast, and columnar
48.20 km Left curve in highway, 60km/hr Eocene lava of the Marron
speed limit. Formation to the northeast. The
53.75 km Colluvium with some Mazama highway is pointed almost
ash in road cut. exactly east. The Kobau area
54.05 km Pull over into large paved (Okulitch, 1973) is siliceous
turnout at Mountain Goat View metasediment with minor
Stop. greenstone and limestone.
Fossils are not present but the
54.05 km Stop 31: View of Apex age is inferred to be in the same
Mountain Group geology to time range as the Apex
northeast and Ashnola River Mountain Group, and most
Valley to south. Milford (1984) probably mid to late Paleozoic.
described these rocks as bedded 65.90 km Turn left onto paved road to
chert and basalt with minor bypass Keremeos. Heading
limestone and conglomerate of north and then northeast.
Carboniferous to Late Triassic 67.15 km Straight ahead is view of
age. Limestone lenses and Eocene Marron Volcanics on
clasts yield fossils as old as skyline overlying Old Tom -
Ordovician (Pohler et al., Shoemaker formations of Apex
1989). These rocks form an Mountain Group.
east-dipping accretion complex. 68.40 km Rejoin Highway 3A. Turn left,
The strata are generally upright, heading north.
but become younger westward, 70.40 km and 72.0 km Road cuts in
downward in the tectonic stack. Ollala alkaline intrusive complex
- biotite pyroxenite and syenite
Continue eastward. of Early to Middle Jurassic age.
54.80 km Poor exposures of Mazama ash 72.80 km Center of small community,
in colluvium on left. Ollala
55.95 km to 56.25 km Good exposures of
Mazama ash.
~----.-----------------------------==-----~~-= .....

8/23/89 13

74.00 to 74.10 kIn Roadcut in bedded Lake Member is mafic

chert of the Apex Mountain phonolite. Vugs and amygdules
Group. contain zeolites- natrolite,
72.20 kIn Mazama ash in road cut through laumontite-Ieonhardite,
colluvium. mordenite, and thompsonite.
76.35 kIn Attop of rise in road view to 86.00 to 87.00 kIn The highway rises
northeast is of Marron though Marron Volcanics -
Volcanics. To the right at 2:00 trachyte, trachyandesite, and
the light-colored Middle to andesite. The alkalinity
Upper Triassic (Pohler et al., decreases notably upsection.
1989) Ollala limestone (Nicola 87.05 kIn Turn right just past Coca Cola
equivalent) is visible high on the and Golf sign ont Twin Lakes
hillside. It is nearly horizontal Road, going south. The road
and unconformably overlies leads to to ice-contact face and
steeply dipping deformed and up onto a pitted outwash plain
metamorphosed Carboniferous 88.20 kIn Ridge of Marron Volcanics on
to Upper Triassic Apex left.
Mountain Group rocks. 88.45 kIn Sharp left tum.
77.7 and 78.0 kIn Outcrops of greenstone 88.60 kIn Sharp right tum. For the next
of Apex Mountain Group. kilometer we are driving past
78.60 kIn Middle to Late Jurassic Twin Lakes, kettles in the
Granodiorite in roadcut on left. outwash plain that drained
79.69 kIn Apex Ski Area turnoff to left. southwest and west.
Pull over on right shoulder of 89.70 kIn Tum east into White Lake
road or turnoff onto Apex road Basin.
and stop. 90.00 kIn Sharp right tum. The Okanagan
Valley is now visible in the
79.69 kIn Stop 32: View of Marron distance across the White Lake
Volcanics overlying Basin.
Springbrook Formation 90.50 kIn Sharp left tum.
conglomerate at 2:00. Church 92.00 kIn Approximately at the contact
(1985) details the next several between Marron Volcanics and
exposures. Here 230 m of White Lake Basin sedimentary
Springbrook conglomerate rocks.
contains chert clasts in its lower 93.15 kIn Good view of White Lake
part and mixed chert, Basin.
greenstone, metamorphic rocks, 94.85 kIn Sharp left tum. Volcaniclastic
and gneiss clasts in its upper rocks in roadcuts.
part. 95.45 kIn White Lake is visible at 2:00.
Rising behind the lake are
Continue northeast on Highway ridges of conglomerate and
3A landslide breccia of the Skaha
80.90 kIn Roadcuts in greenstone of the Formation.
Apex Mountain Group. 96.35 kIn Road junction. Go straight on
82.50 kIn Poor exposure of greenstone. towards the Dominion Radio
83.45 to 86.00 kIn Yellow and Toy Observatory. A sign here
Lakes, occupying a west points southward toward
draining meltwater channel, Oliver. (To reach the U. B. C.
dammed by postglacial fans. Field School follow the paved
Along this stretch of highway road to the south, staying to the
are good exposures of Marron right at road junctions. The
lava flows with several flow Field School camp is where the
contacts visible. The Yellow road to Oliver crosses Victoria
1- 14 8/23/89

Creek, on the right side of the 106.35 km Coming into Meyers Flat, an
road going south.) alluvium floored valley.
96.55 km Pull over just past cattle guard. 106.35 to 107.05 km Road cuts on left
are in Paleozoic-Triassic
96.55 km Stop 33: Panoramic view of greenstone and chert.
White Lake Basin with Radio 107.25 km Road forks. Go left. The hills
Observatory in foreground, straight ahead are Shuswap
Skaha Fonnation supports the Complex -Vaseaux Fonnation.
ridge in the background. The The hills to the right (south) are
overall structure here is a east underlain by the Oliver Pluton,
plunging syncline in a half a composite body of Early to
graben, bounded on the east by Middle Jurassic age. Older
a major, low-angle nonnal fault. hornblende diorite surrounds a
The Skaha is composed of younger adamellite core.
debris shed catastrophically 108.65 km Paved road forks again. Go
from the rapidly rising upland to left. The road will now follow
the east. the trace of the Okanagan Valley
fault for several km. On the left
Continue northeast. are exposures of chert and
96.75 km Sandstone and coaly beds by argillite. On the right are
road. metamorphic rocks. Near the
97.90 to 98.30 Good exposure of road these are mylonitic,
sedimentary rocks. Pullover approaching chlorite breccia
and stop on right hand side. inplaces. Foliation dips gently
98.30 km Stop 34: Examination of 109.40 km Paleozoic-Triassic chert and
sandstone and coal beds of greenstone fonn the high hills
White Lake Fonnation. on the left. To the north and
Coalified logs, fossil plant west, at 10:00, the hills are
fragments, mudflow deposits Marron Volcanics.
are observable. 110.45 to 110.95 km Outcrops of Vaseaux
Fonnation paragneiss.
Turn around and head back to 111.05 km Marron Volcanics on left.
south. 111.35 km Turn left onto dirt road at
100.10 km Sharp left curve. Mahoney Lake and stop.
101.35 km Stop on side of road.
111.35 km Stop 36: Mahoney Lake.
101.35 km Stop 35: View of Indian Rocks in the footwall of the
Head. The capping rock is Okanagan Valley Fault. Parrish
Skaha Fonnation slide breccias et al. (1985) describe the next
containing clasts of chert and several stops. Here we can see
greenstone. These overlie less mylonitic gneiss and chloritic
erosion-resistant tuff breccia and slicic breccias at the very
and agglomerate. top of the lower plate of the
Okanagan Valley fault. Acrosss
Continue south towards Oliver. the lake to the west are Marron
101.90 to 102.10 km Ridge on left is Volcanics. To the northwest the
Marron Volcanics again as we hills are Skaha Fonnation.
descend out of White Lake Mahoney Lake contains warm
Basin. saline stagnant bottom water.
104.55 to 105.90 km Downgrade across
faulted Marron. Continue northeast.
8/23/89 15

111.60 km Outcrops of amphibolitic detachment-fault-type of

gneiss. disseminated gold
112.75 km Skaha Formation. mineralization in quartz breccia
113.20 to 114.00 km Green Lake. Stop in White Lake Formation
on side of road at 113.55 km. sedimentary rocks. Open pit
mining in 1975-1976 recovered
113.55 km Stop 37: Skaha Formation at 0.5 million dollars in gold.
Green Lake. Observe the 125.00 km Turn left, south.
polymictic matrix-supported 127.90 km Rejoin Highway 97. Tum left,
breccia. The detachment fault is south. Note the Mountain
in the lake just 10's of m below Sheep warning sign.
the road. The breccias dip 128.70 km Vaseaux Lake Campground.
steeply into the fault. Green 129.60 km Stop and park in turnout on left
Lake, unlike Mahoney, has side.
oxygenated bottom water,
stirred by the wind. 129.60 km Stop 39: Vaseaux Formation
of the Shuswap Complex.
Continue north. Multiply deformed semipelitic
114.35 km Entering into the Okanagan gneiss discordantly intruded by
Valley. weakly foliated anastamosing
115.90 km Bottom of steep grade. For granitic sheets is well exposed.
next 4 km the steep cliffs on left The granitic rocks are like a
are of Skaha Formation, White thick foliated granitic sill just
Lake Formation, and Marron above us dated by U-Pb as
Formation, successively. Cretaceous (Parkinson, 1985).
119.75 km Junction with Highway 97. The fold and lineation trend is
Turn right to go through the WNW - a regionally consistent
town of Okanagan Falls. fabric parallel to the mylonitic
119.85 km Bridge over Okanagan River. lineation observed previously.
120.55 km Highway turns right but we go
straight ahead for one more Continue southward.
block. 129.64 to 130.00 km Spectacular cliff
120.55 km Tum right. Go south on Maple exposures of folded and injected
Street. gneiss of the Vaseaux
123.00 km Turn left, east just before Formation.
vinyard on left. 130.80 to 131.15 km More good
124.00 km Pull over on side of road at end exposures of gneiss.
of oiled section. 131.45 km South end of Vaseaux Lake.
136.95 km Continue past Inkaneep
124.00 km Stop 38: Mylonitic gneiss Provincial Park turnoff on left.
exposures on left side of road. 137.85 km Seacrest Road on right. An
Kinematic indicators show top optional point of geologic
to the west movement. interest may be reached by
Metamorphic grade is upper turning right here, going about
amphibolite. Panoramic view 1.0 km on paved road, turning
of Okanagan Valley fault on right onto a dirt road into Covert
right (Figure 4). Farms, and driving 0.5 km up
into the work yard. Walk a
Go back to paved road. The hill further 0.5 km north to the
to the north, just east of southernmost promontory of
Okanagan Falls, is Marron rock at the edge of the cultivated
Volcanics. The Dusty Mac area. There one can see a
mine just east of the hill is in a foliated and lineated Eocene(51
16 8/23/89

Ma) Rhomb Porphyry dike 142.05 km Signs for town of Oliver.

cutting Early Proterozoic(?) 142.40 km Stop on roadside if traffic is not
Vaseaux Formation gneisses too heavy.
and foliated Jurassic(?)
leuco anite sills. 142.40 km Stop 40: Garnet muscovite
140.65 kIn The Oliver pluton underlies the adamellite of the Oliver pluton.
hills on the right and is poorly
exposed in the low hills on the Continue southwards through
left, across the Okanagan Oliver.
Valley. The Gyppo Mine, a 144.80 km Turn left into Southwinds
quarry in a giant pegmatitic Motel. End of Day 2.
quartz vein, is visible at
approximately 142 km.

8/23/89 17

Day 3 Road Log, in two parts

0.00 km Set odometer to zero. Turn left, fault, except near Oliver where
south onto Highway 97 out of the Jurassic Oliver pluton of the
Southwinds Motel parking lot upper plate lies on both sides of
As we travel south the hills on the valley, and for several km
the right are in eugeosynclinal south of the international
Kobau Formation cut by altered boundary where Paleozoic
Jurassic intrusive rocks. The eugeosynclinal and Eocene
hills on the left are in granites volcanic and sedimentary rocks
and gneisses of the Shuswap of the upper plate are on both
Complex. The Okanagan Valley sides of the valley. The
fault is buried by valley fill south Okanogan dome is visible on the
of Oliver. east side of the valley far to the
14.10 to 14.20 km Road cuts in loess south in Washington. The lower
covering kame terraces of the plate there is composed of
Okanagan Valley. paragneiss and orthogneiss
18.70 km Junction with Highway 3. ranging in age from Early
18.75 to 19.90 km Downtown Osoyoos. Proterozoic to Eocene. Near the
20.45 km Bridge over Okanagan River. highway the lower plate rocks
22.00 km Start climb to Anarchist Summit are Jurassic granitic plutons with
The road cuts from here to 40.0 eugeosync1inal roof pendants
km are in the Early Jurassic (Anarchist Group). Small-scale
Osoyoos pluton. lower plate structures have a NW
24.85 km First good exposure of granitic trend and top-to-the-west sense
rock. of shear.
27.00 km Veined gneiss exposure.
27.50 km Sharp curve. Continue upwards past many
28.70 km Sharp curve. more Jurassic granitic rock
29.60 km Pull over into scenic turnout exposures and some road cuts in
Quaternary till.
29.60 km top 41: Anarchist Mountain - 38.12 km Past Rest Area turnoff.
Okanagan Valley Overlook. 39.95 km Road cut in till.
Panoramic view of Okanagan 40.80 km Road cut in Anarchist Group
(Okanogan in Washington) metamorphosed eugeosync1inal
Valley (Figure 5). The road cuts rocks. For the next 20 km we
here are fairly typical Early will be going through poorly
Jurassic Osoyoos gneissic quartz exposed Anarchist Group.
diorite cut by deformed aplite 42.80 km Ninemile Creek
dikes. The valley floor lies 275 43.00 km,49.72 km, and 50.15 km
m above sea level. The hills Road cut in Anarchist Group.
opposite are mid-Paleozoic to 50.50 km Anarchist Summit
Triassic eugeosync1inal 47.65 km,51.55 km, and 53.45 km
sediments cut by Jurassic granitic More exposures of Anarchist
plutons. Southward into Group, mostly greenstone.
Washington these are overlain by 54.45 km Center of Bridesville.
Eocene volcanic and sedimentary 56.95 km Road cut in Anarchist Group.
rocks. The distant mountains are 58.05 km Bridge over Rock Creek.
in the Early to Middle Jurassic 58.70 km Past junction on left with road to
Similkameen batholith. The east Baldy Mountain Ski Area.
side of the valley is the lower 59.45 km Road cut in Anarchist Group.
plate of the Okanagan Valley
18 8/28/89

60.30 km Road cut in Jurassic(?) intrusive magma-soaked crust at the time

- poorly exposed for the next 3.5 of extension. The upward
km. decrease in alkalinity mimics the
62.50 km Road to Conkle Lake Provincial change observed in the White
Park takes off on left. Lake Basin. The faults appear to
63.10 km Entance to Johnston Creek be steep and west dipping for the
Provincial Park on right. most part but a few gently-
63.70 km Gulch of Johnston Creek dipping faults have been
64.20 km Entance to Johnston Creek mapped, especially to the east
Provincial Park on right. From near Greenwood (Little, 1983).
here to Kettle River we are in The low angle nature of these
Marron Volcanics. faults is illustrated by Fyles
66.15 km Curve left, Kettle River Valley (1989).
comes into view.
66.70 km Road cut in volcanic rock. Continue east on Highway 3.
67.15 to 67.45 km Columnar jointed 79.80 km Bridge over Kettle River.
Marron lava flow. 80.10 km Pull over on right side of road
68.40 km Sharp curve right. Volcanic and stop.
exposures in road cuts.
68.80 km Eocene sandstone with coaly 80.10 km Stop 43: Ash flow in Eocene
partings. Kettle River Formation.
70.30 km Junction with Kettle River Valley
Highway 33 coming in from left. Continue eastward.
70.35 km Bridge over Rock Creek. In 82.75 km Road cut in Middle Triassic
lower part of Rock Creek and Brooklyn Formation,
Kettle River valleys and on east epieugeosynclinal sedimentary
side eugeosynclinal rocks rocks.
(Anarchist or Knob Hill Groups) 83.5 to 83.65 km Good exposures of
are exposed. Northeast of here, Eocene sediment.
across the Kettle River Valley is 87.55 and 87.95 km Sharp right and then
a silica mine - the white scar is left turns in road as it crosses
notable. railway tracks.
75.35 km Stop on right side of highway. 89.05 to 90.00 km Town of Midway.
The Ministry of Forests Kettle For next 6.0 km there are
Valley Field Office is to the left, numerous exposures of Eocene
an Overnight Rest Stop on the sedimentary and volcanic rocks,
right. none very spectacular.
96.30 to 97.30 km Road cuts in pre-
75.35 km Stop 42: View of inverse Carboniferous greenschist.
imbricate structure of the Kettle 96.75 km Dewdney Trail Point of Interest
River Valley (Figure 6). This sign.
area of numerous normal faults 97.25 km Bridge over Boundary Creek.
and dikes of north-south trend 97.62 km Slag dump on left - we are
was first mapped in detail by approaching the Greenwood
Monger (1968). The clastic Mining District.
sedimentary rocks and tuffs of 98.50 km Amphibolitic gneiss.
the Kettle River Formation are 98.60 km Stop on right shoulder of road.
overlain by trachyte and
phonolite, changing upwards to 98.60 km Stop 44: Amphibolitic gneiss.
andesite flows of the Marron View towards Skomas Mine at
Volcanics. Eocene intrusive 10:00. The low-grade tectonic
rocks are fairly abundant, melange of Paleozoic to Triassic
suggesting an underlying eugeosynclinal rocks of
8/23/89 19

Quesnellia appear to be underlain 111. 70 km World War I monument. This

by higher grade metamorphic part of the road is in Eocene
rocks of uncertain original age. strata.
At the same time they are 112.25 km Road crosses Gold Drop fault -
unconformably overlain by less from Eocene into late Paleozoic
deformed and metamorphosed Knob Hill Formation. Most of
Middle and Upper Triassic strata. downgrade that follows is in
The presence of even older Triassic strata.
crust and mantle lithosphere 114.75 km A side road on left goes to a ski
under this region is evidenced area. Continue down main
only indirectly by windows road.
exposing Early Proterozoic 120.35 km Rejoin Highway 3. Turn right.
gneiss near Oliver and Grand 120.75 km Stop on right shoulder of road.
Forks, and by ultramafic nodules
(Fuji and Scarfe, 1982; Ross, 120.75 km Stop 46: Glacially sculpted
1983) of comparable age (Sun, outcrop of Upper Triassic red-
1985) in Quaternary alkali basalts matrix conglomerate. The
that erupted onto Okanagan Triassic lies with marked
granitic rocks north of the Kettle unconformity over deformed
River Valley of stop 42. Paleozoic eugeosynclinal rocks
and is itself multiply deformed
Continue on past more exposures regionally but here it appears
of amphibolitic gneiss over next relatively intact. Light colored
1.0 km. limestone clasts are prominent
100.00 to 102.00 km Road cuts in late but most clasts are of igneous
Paleozoic argillite and chert of orgin.
Knob Hill Formation.
Elsewhere greenstone (pillow Continue southward. Good
lava and breccia) is abundant in exposures of the Triassic red
this unit. matrix conglomerate are passed
101.35 km Greenwood signs. for the next 0.5 km.
101.80 km Greenwood Smelter Point of 121.80 km Road cut in darker colored
Interest sign. At approximately Triassic clastic sedimentary
102.3 we cross the contact with rocks.
the Middle Jurassic Greenwood 122.05 km Serpentinite of inferred Jurassic
pluton. age.
102.95 km Branch right from Highway 3. 122.75 km Triassic limestone.
103.20 km Stop sign. Then go right, 123.20 to 127.95 km Jurassic flow
uphill. The first 2.0 km are in breccia and massive greenstone.
Jurassic pluton. The next 5.0 129 to 130 km Straight stretch of road
km are in poorly exposed late past poorly exposed Triassic
Paleozoic Knob Hill Formation. strata.
109.40 km Middle Triassic sedimentary 130.15 km Large left curve begins.
rocks. 132.65 km Side road branches off to right.
111.15 km Road to right leads into Phoenix 132.70 km Pull into turnout on right, stop.
Mine open pit Turn right and
stop. 132.70 km top 47: View of Grand
Forks - Kettle Dome. The
111.15 km Stop 45: Phoenix Mine. Granby River comes in here
Description being prepared by from the north to join the Kettle
R. Parrish. River which rejoins our route
from the south. The Kettle
Return to road headed east. River continues east, transecting
20 8/28/89

Grand Forks - Kettle Dome, lies 2 to 3 km north of the

here more a horst. The Granby highway. The west end of the
River Fault dips about 45° west fold is marked by a ridge-
and separates upper plate formin Jurassic(?) s enite sill.
greenschist-grade Paleozoic,
Triassic, and Jurassic rocks Continue towards Grand Forks.
from lower plate amphibolite- 135.20 km Junction with Highway 41.
grade Paleozoic and Mesozoic Continue eastward on Highway
paragneiss and orthogneiss. 3 - stay left.
The major lower plate structure 137.75 km Entering Grand Forks.
is a west- plunging antiform 140.95 km Bridge over Granby River.
cored by older rocks. The axis

Road Log Day 3, Part II

0.00 km Bridge over Granby River. Detrital zircon in this quartzite is
Reset odometer to zero. as young as 650 Ma (G.S.c.
0.30 km Exposures of Grand Forks data). Farther east the Grand
Gneiss on left. For the next 20 Forks gneisses are very
km we will be in the horst of radiogenic, probably Early
Grand Forks Gneiss. All Proterozoic (Rb-Sr indicates an
exposures will be high -grade age on the order of 2 Ga and Sm-
sillimanite-almandine-orthoclase Nd depleted-mantle model ages
plutonic rocks in contrast to the are about 2.3 Ga. The isotopic
low-grade eugeosynclinal rocks systems are variably reset by
crossed since the Okanagan Mesozoic metamorphism.) The
Valley. We are now in unit IV of only evidence for an
Preto (1970): Amphibolitic unconformity is the change in
gneiss and schist with biotite lithology and abrupt isotopic
schist and calcareous schist. Sr change. The small scale
isotopic compositions suggest a structural trends here are W to
Late Proterozoic to Paleozoic NW trending, like those
age. observed elsewhere on this
3.35 km Left curve past large road cut. transect across the Shuswap
4.40 km Right curve. A silica mine is Complex.
visible to the left in Preto's
Dolomite and quartzite unit. Continue east.
5.40 km Quarry on left is in quartzite. 8.55 to 11.30 km Exposures of sillimanite
6.55 km Stop and park on shoulder of biotite paragneiss with calc
road. Quartzite underlies ridge to silicate gneiss.
left. 17.15 km Logging road enters from left.
17.55 km Pull over on right shoulder and
6.55 km Stop 48: Quartzite. This is the park before large road cut.
lowest paragneiss with
unradiogenic Sr (i.e. Late 17.55 km Stop 49: Early Proterozoic
Proterozoic or younger), gneiss of the Grand Forks -
probably the base of the Kettle Dome. Multiply folded,
metamorphosed geosynclinal migmatitic, mica and calcareous
rocks we have been passing. gneiss containing various

8/23/89 21

generations of pegmatite sills and 34.25 to 34.35 km Large road cut in

dikes. This is cut by a late Mount Roberts Formation. Side
discordant felsic dike that may be road on right crosses bridge over
Mesozoic or Cenozoic. The McCrae Creek. Stay on
gneisses are older than 2 Ga but Highway 3.
give 50 Ma mica and 60 Ma 35.30 to 37.10 km More Mount Roberts
hornblende K-Ar dates, Formation. Looks more
indicating the last time of heating metamorphosed as we approach
and rapid tectonic unroofing. a sea of granitic rocks.
37.85 km Granitic rocks begin here. These
Continue eastward. are shown on Little's map as
17.75 km Junction with Highway 395. Coryell. Some exposures are
Stay on Highway 3, headed mixed Mount Roberts Formation
northeast. and intrusive rock.
18.25 km Last road cut in gneiss. 39.65 km Porphyritic granitic rock - still
20.25 km Christina Lake junction. Stay on Coryell.
Highway 3. 40.40 km More Coryell.
20.45 km Bridge over Christina Creek. 43.00 to 44.44 km Cooked up Mount
23.30 km Large road cut in late Paleozoic Roberts Formation - greenish
Mount Roberts Formation. For rocks, cut by felsic intrusive
the next 14 km most of the rocks.
numerous road cuts will be in 44.60 km Granitic rock, now mapped by
this unit. Little as Nelson Plutonic Suite.
23.90 to 24.15 km View of Christina The Jurassic Nelson rocks
Lake on left. Mount Roberts continue for the next 50 km.
Formation in road cut on right. 44.70 km Bridge over McRae Creek.
26.65 to 26.95 km Road cut on right in 44.90 to 48.55 km Lots of exposures of
Coryell Syenite according to Nelson, some with country rock
Little's (1983) map of the inclusions, some chloritic altered
Greenwood area. and fractured, some cut by dikes.
27.7. km Paved turnout on left side. Good 49.40 km Rest area on right.
view of Christina Lake. The 50.15 to 50.45 km More Nelson in cuts to
Kettle River Fault trace is top of steep climb. Pull over and
beneath the lake here but is stop at about 50.2 km to briefly
exposed along the south flowing examine Jurassic granodiorite, if
stretch of the Kettle River in desired.
Washington (Cheney, 1980; 53.00 to 55.20 km Nelson exposures,
Rhodes and Cheney, 1981; and some pretty grungy.
Cheney et al., 1982). 55.95 km Paulson Summit, still in Nelson.
28.15 km Curve right, start climb up valley 57.10 km Cut in Nelson with dark dikes.
of McRae Creek. 61.70 km Big Sheep Creek.
29.10 km Cut in Mount Roberts Formation 65.35 km Nancy Greene Lake on right.
at top of steep climb. 67.15 km Nancy Greene Provincial Park
31.10 km Rest area on left Tum in and entrance.
park. Walk back to road cut. 67.25 km Junction with Highway to
Rossland and Trail (3B) to
31.10 km Stop 50: Mount Roberts southeast. Stay on 3, headed
Formation. Argillite and northeast.
calcareous siltstone are cut by 68.15 to 69.00 km Still in Nelson, mixed
Eocene Coryell Syenite dikes. dark and light components
73.25 to 86.30 km Mostly in Quaternary,
Continue east on Highway 3. bedrock exposures rare.
32.25 km Gate for highway closures. 87.25 to 90.40 km Back in good
exposures of granitic rock. The
22 8/23/89

lower exposures as we descend Continue west on paved road,

into the Columbia River Valley past a few more road cuts in
show good exfoliation jointing. Castlegar Gneiss.
We pass from Mackie pluton, 10 1.25 to 102.30 kIn Large pulp and
Nelson Plutonic Suite, into lumber mills on right.
Castle gar Gneiss (shown as 104.10 kIn Quarry on left in Castlegar
Kinnard pluton on the map) Gneiss.
along this stretch of road. 104.55 to 105.55 kIn Crossing Hugh
91.75 kIn Paved crossroad. Keenleyside Dam on Columbia
92.10 kIn View of Columbia River Valley. River. Reservoir extends 200
92.85 kIn Turn right off Highway 3 at kIn northwards, flooding two
interchange. former lakes.
93.05 kIn Turn left, north, towards 106.30 kIn Junction with road on north side
Castlegar on Highway 22. of Columbia River. Turn left,
96.50 kIn Railroad overpass, veer left, heading west.
heading west on the south side of 108.00 kIn Quarry on right in veined
the Columbia River. pyroxene dioritic gneiss.
97.25 kIn Passing Robson Ferry (service 109.85 kIn Scotties Marina.
discontinued in 1988, may not 110.05 and 110.45 kIn Possible parking
resume) and John Robson Point spots on left. Good gneiss
of Interest sign. Busses longer exposures on right side of road.
than 13 m should take the ferry Stop and walk along exposures.
(if service is restored) or fmd
another route across the 110.00 to 111.00 kIn Stop 52: Deformed
Columbia River, rather than Eocene Granite. Discretely
follow the log route over spaced top-to-the-west shear
Keenleyside Dam. zones observable here in biotite
97.45 kIn Railroad crossing. Continue on leucogranite (Ladybird Granite)
paved road west. postdate a penetrative top-to-
99.50 kIn Beginning of road cut in the-east fabric observed
Castle gar Gneiss. elsewhere in the Valhalla Dome.
99.35 kIn Pull over into dirt road on left
and stop. Walk up to road cut. Continue west. Passing granite
and syenite gneiss exposures
99.35 kIn Stop 51: Castlegar Gneiss. with increasing mafic
Hornblende ± biotite K-feldspar component.
megacrystic granodiorite, also 112.85 kIn Entrance to Syringa Creek
described in Parrish et al. Provincial Park. Eocene syenite
(1985). This is a stone you in road cuts.
would love to see in your 114.00 kIn Road cut in syenite.
fIreplace. Its fabric is probably 114.45 kIn Gate, turn left to campground.
ca. 55-60 Ma old, related to east 115.32 kIn Picnic ground parking lot.
directed shear on the Slocan Rest stop. Tum around to
Lake-Valkyr Shear Zone. Its retrace route.
geochronometry is fascinating: 116.20 kIn Gate again.
magmatic zircons are about 110 116.70 kIn Pull over and stop.
Ma old, but many have lots of
diffusional Pb loss. Sphenes are 116.70 kIn Stop 53: Coryell Syenite.
60-70 Ma, hornblende is about Undeformed tan, pinkish or
60 Ma, biotite about 50 Ma. The brownish porphyritic syenite
inference is protracted cooling in containing rounded mafic
this metamorphic core complex. inclusions.

8/23/89 23

Continue to retrace route, mylonitic paragneiss of

eastward. uncertain protolith age. K-
120.10 km Steep mafic dike in gneiss. feldspar-sillimanite-biotite-
120.85 km Past Scotties Marina again. garnet-graphite paragneiss with
122.65 km Veined diorite gneiss again. leucocratic layers and
124.35 km Continue past road to dam. amphibolite boudins dips 30°
Scattered cuts in heterogeneous NE and shows an east-plunging
Castlegar Gneiss continue for lineation with top-to-the-east
next 2 km. Then comes several sense of shear. Lineated
km with no exposures. sillimanite-bearing concordant
132.05 km Spectacular cliff on left in leucocratic pegmatites here are
Castlegar Gneiss. 70 Ma and have very complex
132.55 km Robson Ferry landing.on right zircon and monazite
(ferry may not be in service). s stematics.
133.50 km Bridge over Ladybird Creek.
134.40 km Sharp left to head north up Turn around and retrace route
Ladybird Valley on winding back towards Castlegar,
paved road following creek. southwards.
140.00 km Climb up onto terrace. 175.05 km Branch road on right leads to
144.55 to 145.30 km Exposures of gently Vallican. Stay on main road.
dipping mylonitic Eocene 189.90 km Slocan River Bridge junction
granitic gneiss. and railroad track crossing.
148.15 to 148.55 km Road climbs Stay on Highway 6, going
through cuts in sand. south.
150.20 km Cross Goose Creek. 190.90 km Rapids in Slocan River on right.
150.80 km Stop on side of road. 192.30 km Junction with Highway 3A.
Turn right, south, following the
150.80 km Stop 54: Mylonitic foliated Kootenay River.
Paleocene (62 Ma by U-Pb) 194.80 km Bridge over Slocan River.
pluton. The layered mylonitic 204.65 to 208.80 km Road cuts on right
augen gneiss shows top-to-the- in rocks of the Jurassic
east sense of shear. Bonnington Pluton. This is part
of the Nelson Plutonic Suite that
Continue northeast. The road is here in the upper plate of the
wanders back and forth across Slocan Lake - Champion Lake
Goose Creek for the next 3.5 Fault, which forms the east
km. bounding structure of the
155.75 km Turn right. Valhalla Dome.
155.85 km Cross bridge over Slocan River. 205.60 km Rest area on left.
161.65 km Turn left, north, and cross 207.60 km Dam on right.
railway track on Highway 6. 208.85 km Bridge over Kootenay River.
167.00 to 167.55 km Cuts in paragneiss. 209 .25 km Road cut on left in rocks of the
168.80 km Junction with paved road that Jurassic Bonnington Pluton.
goes left over Slocan River. 210.70 km Junction with road to Airport
Keep going straight, north on and Selkirk. Keep going
Highway 6. straight
169.75 to 172.35 km Cuts in paragneiss. 211.25 km Turnoff to right.
172.95 km Stop and park in turnout on left 211.90 km Bridge over Columbia River.
side of road. Walkup road to 212.60 km Turnoff to right towards
large cut in paragneiss. Highway 22 and Castlegar.
213.05 km Turn right on 22.
172.95 km top 55: Paragneiss of 213.20 km Turn left into Fireside Motel.
Valhalla Dome. Banded,
24 8/23/89

Side trip to Stop 56: Tum right out of motel,

headed south. Drive 15 km to

Stop 56: Genelle Roadcut.

Complexly defonned Jurassic
Mackie Pluton amongst para-
and orthogneiss. These later
gneisses are part of either the
Trail Gneiss (with mid
Paleozoic zircon dates and a mid
Mesozoic injected leucosome
where studied by Simony,
Armstrong, Mortensen and van
der Heyden) or metamorphosed
late Paleozoic Mount Roberts
Fonnation. According to
Parrish et al. (1988), this zone
of high strain is early Tertiary
and part of the Valkyr Shear
Zone above the Valhalla

Tum around and return to

Castlegar. End of Day 3.
I--------------~~~~~---=~====~-~=~== .........""""""""""""""""

8/23/89 25

Day 4 Road Log, in two parts

0.00 km Fireside Inn, Castlegar. Set granodiorite and Jurassic
odometer to zero. Leave parking Rossland Group strata.
lot, turn right onto Highway 22. 25.40 km Rossland Group in road cut.
0.25 km Turn left onto ramp onto 26.70 km Runaway lane.
Highway 3, eastbound. 27.15 to 27.25 km Large road cut in
1.35 km Bridge over Columbia River. siltstone and argillite of the
1.90 km Fork to left, stay on 3 to Salmo, Archibald Formation, Rossland
not 3A to Nelson. Group.
3.20 km Columbia Road crosses 27.40 km Side roads enter highway.
highway. 27.80 km Bridge over Beaver Creek.
3.35 km Start climb past lots of road cuts 28.05 km Junction of Highway 3 and 3B.
in border zone of Bonnington Turn left, east.
pluton, Nelson Plutonic Suite. 29.25 to 29.35 km Dark argillite of
The rock exposed here is Archibald Formation in road cut.
Jurassic granodiorite mixed with 31.10 to 31.20 km Nelson granitic stock
country rock, and variously near Meadow Station.
veined and cut by dikes. 31.30 km Railroad overpass.
4.20 to 4.45 km Intrusive cut by mafic 33.70 km Rest area on right side.
dikes. Most exposures along 34.80 km Bridge over Erie Creek.
this stretch are pretty ugly. 35.85 km Railroad crossing.
7.55 km Turn right into viewpoint parking 38.45 km Junction of Highways 3 and 6.
lot. Keep to right, south on 3.
38.70 km Bridge over Erie Creek.
7.55 km Stop 57: View of Castle gar 39.25 km Pull over and stop on broad right
Gneiss across Columbia River shoulder.
(Figure 7). Also look at Trail
Gneiss? in roadcut, 39.25 km Stop 59: Jurassic Hall
heterogeneous, deformed, Formation of the Rossland
variably veined, altered, and Group. Hornfelsed argillite is
fractured. Not a pretty sight observed here because of
proximity to the Salmo stock.
8.30 to 12.20 km Road cuts in Jurassic
pluton mixed with country rock Continue southward.
inclusions. 40.55 to 40.70 km Cuts in dark, rusty-
13.05 km Turnout on right and stop. weathering Hall Formation.
42.80 to 43.05 km Cuts in massive
13.05 km Stop 58: Bonnington pluton, volcaniclastic rock of the
Nelson Plutonic Suite. Rossland Group. Pull out into
Granodiorite with country rock large turnout on left at 42.85 km
inclusions. and stop.

Continue eastwards. 42.85 km Stop 60: Rossland Group

13.85 to 22.60 km Road cuts in Jurassic volcanic rock. This is the last
pluton mixed with country rock stop in accreted or suspect
and cut by mafic dikes. terranes. We are just about to
22.60 to 24.0Sicrn Covered interval. enter North American craton-
23.20 km Runaway lane. Downgrade into margin lower Paleozoic
Beaver Creek Valley. sediments.
24.50 km Approximate contact between
Nelson quartz diorite to Continue south.
26 8/28/89

43.75 and 44.20 kIn Last road cuts in 59.95 kIn Road widens, turnout on right
Rossland Group. shoulder and stop.
44.45 kIn Bridge over Salmo River.
45.65 km Cut on left at end of ridge is in 59.95 kIn Stop 62: Lower Cambrian
Nelson-type granitic rock. quartzite, Sheep Creek Anticline.
48.05 to 48.50 kIn Tailings pile by side of Strike of bedding swings around
road. We are in the Salmo from northeast to northwest.
Mining District. This is a steep axial plane, tight,
52.60 kIn Junction of Highways 6 and 3. south plunging anticline - typical
Stay on 3, going east. of this part of the Kootenay Arc.
Optional side trip to see the Black
Bluff fault: 5.15 kIn south on Continue eastward.
Highway 6, with a good pullout 60.40 kIn Last quartzite exposure. Dip is
on the right (west) side is an now eastward.
excellent exposure of the fault, 62.30 kIn Lower Cambrian Laib Formation
described by Lambert et al. slaty argillite in cut on left.
(1989). The fault is seen on the 62.70 kIn Light grey limestone of Middle
east side of the road where it is Cambrian Nelway Formation.
host to a biotite lamprophyre 63.35 kIn Large curve to left, leaving South
dike. Black slate of the Salmo River and entering
Ordovician Active Formation on Stagleap Creek Valley, which
the north is separated from trends nearly parallel to strike.
phyllite and limestone of the 64.05 kIn Nelway Formation.
Middle Cambrian Nelway 65.35 kIn Crossing Ripple Creek Fault,
Formation on the south. just before Gate. For the next
53.15 km Good cut on left in Lower kilometer road cuts are in shale
Cambrian Reeves Limestone and argillite of the Lower
Member of Laib Formation. We Cambrian Laib Formation.
are now in the Lower Paleozoic 67.35 to 67.65 kIn Good exposures of
strata of the Kootenay Arc. Lower Cambrian Reno
53.90 to 54.05 kIn More Reeves Formation slate and argillite.
Limestone, dark limestone in 68.20 kIn Light grey limestone of the
road cuts. Lower Cambrian Reeves
54.40 kIn Pull over into small turnout on Limestone Member of the Laib
right and stop. Walk back to Formation. We are coming into
road cuts. the core of the Laib Syncline.
68.60 to 69.15 kIn Spectacular minor
54.00 km Stop 61: Reeves Limestone. folds in argillite. Possible stop at
68.90 kIn in core of syncline.
Continue eastward. 69.65 kIn Roadcut into dark limestone.
54.60 kIn Rest Stop on right. 70.05 to 71.00 kIn Cuts are in dark
57.00 km Approximate position of the argillite of Reno Formation.
Black Bluff fault - Ordovician 71.00 to 73.50 kIn Cuts are in quartzite
Active Formation on the and argillite of the Quartzite
northwest side, upper Laib Range Formation. The contacts
Formation of Early Cambrian age appear to be somewhat
on the southeast side. gradational.
57.60 km Power line overhead. 73.50 to 75.30 kIn Cuts in Three Sisters
59.70 kIn Good exposure of medium Formation, Windermere Group
bedded quartzite with west dip greenish and grey grit and
on northeast side of road. This quartzite.
is Lower Cambrian Quartzite 75.45 kIn Summit Lake. Wide turnouts on
Range Formation. both sides of road permit a stop
8/28/89 27

to walk back and see cooked up 89.95 km Stop 65: Toby Conglomerate,
gritty quartzite. base of Windermere Group.
75.60 km Crest in Highway. Flattened clasts of quartzite and
76.10 km Stop on broad shoulder. buff to white dolostone occur in
a phyllitic matrix. The unit is
76.10 km Stop 63: Summit stock. Two- inferred to be a glacial diamictite.
mica granodiorite of mid Walk back down road, past
Cretaceous age. parking spot and covered
contact, to Dutch Creek
Continue east, mostly Formation, Purcell Group.
downgrade for next 38 km to the Rusty weathering quartzite and
Kootenay River Valley, going pelite. Stop 1-5 of Brown et al.
down section in the Proterozoic (1981).
continent-margin sediment
wedge. This is a very thick Continue eastward.
section with metamorphic grade 90.60 km Maryland Creek road turnoff on
increasing noticeably left.
downsection and eastwards. 93.90 km Approximate position of Blazed
78.70 km Approximate contact of Summit Creek normal fault. East side up
stock with Three Sisters - bringing up Aldridge Formation
Formation. at higher metamorphic grade.
79.45 km Grey quartzite of Three Sisters 96.50 km Road cut in steeply dipping
Formation. Aldridge Formation, lower
79.90 km Curve right. Purcell Group. Pegmatite fills a
80.90 km Turnout on right and stop. Walk nearly horizontal fissure.
ahead to road cut under power 93.35 km Rest area on right.
line. 100.30 km Topaz Creek.
101.90 to 108.35 km Road cuts in
81.10 km Stop 64: Irene Volcanics and metamorphosed Aldridge, cut
Monk Conglomerate. by lenticular pegmatite sheets.
Stromatolitic dolomite occurs at 108.35 km Dirt road intersects highway on
west end of exposure, dolomite left. Turn in and park. Walk
clast conglomerate and back to road cut.
pyroclastic greenstone follow to
the east. This is stop 1-7 of 108.30 km Stop 66: Metamorphosed mica
Brown et al. (1981). schist and micaceous quartzite
of the Aldridge Formation,
Continue eastward. Lower Purcell Group. The
89.45 km Road cuts in base of Windermere mineral assemblage is biotite-
to west and top of Purcell to east muscovite-quartz with minor
of this point at approximate garnet, sillimanite and kyanite.
contact between the units. More than one foliation is
81. 70 km Cut in Irene Volcanics. present. The quartz-feldspar
83.45 km Gate. pegmatite bodies are
86.15 km Power line overhead. boudinaged within the foliation
86.30 to 89.95 km Road cuts in Toby (sl), which is further folded
Conglomerate at base of and kinked. This is stop 1-4 of
Windermere Group. Clasts are Brown et al. (1981).
flattened parallel to cleavage in
matrix. Continue east on Highway 3.
90.00 km Pull over and stop on wide 108.55 km Bridge over Summit Creek.
shoulder on right side of road. 108.75 to 109.05 km Aldridge Formation
Walk back to exposure. in cuts on left.
28 8/23/89

109.25 km Entrance to Summit Creek 124.75 km Stop 67: West Creston

Campground with paved Gneiss. A low rounded outcrop
turnout on left. of foliated granodiorite lies
110.50 km Turn sharply to right, off adjacent to the road here. This
Highway 3, take route towards is an outlier of the mid
Wildlife Center. We are now in Cretaceous Kaniksu batholith.
the Purcell Trench, Kootenay The fabric is of Late Cretaceous
River Valleyo The major to early Cenozoic age and thus
structure is a normal fault, east younger than ductile
side down, which cuts the west deformation in the Kootenay
limb of the Purcell Arc.
Anticlinorium. The fault is
concealed beneath the alluvium Turn around and retrace route
filled, glacially deepened valley. northwards.
11l.35 km Keep left. 131. 7 5 km Turn right, to go north.
111.70 km Wildlife Center. 131.80 km Bridge.
115.30 km Bridge over Com Creek. 135.70 km Back to Highway 3. Turn
117.50 km Bridge. right, east.
118.75 km Sharp right curve to southo 136.35 km Bridge over Kootenay River.
12l.35 km Sharp curve to left, east on to 140.00 km Roadjunctiono Turn left to stay
graded surface. on Highway 3.
122.15 km Sharp right curve to south, on 140.30 km Road cut in Aldridge
to pavement again. Formation, Purcell Group on
123.80 km Dirt road on left. Keep straight right.
on pavement. 140.70 km Railroad underpass.
124.55 km Rounded outcrop of 140.90 km Junction with Highway 3A.
granodiorite gneiss on right. Turn right to stay on 3 into
The road curves around it. Creston.
124.75 km End of pavement. Junction 143.70 km Downtown Creston. End of
with Granary Road. Stop here. this section of road log.

Road Log Day 4, Part II

0.00 km Where the Highway turns 90 34.00 km Cut in massive typically rusty
degrees left into downtown weathering Aldridge.
Creston set odometer to zero. 35.90 km Railroad overpass.
7.35 km Road cut in Aldridge Formation. 36.65 km Railroad underpass.
7.80 km Bridge over Arrow Creek. 36.95 km Bridge over Moyie River.
12.10 km Bridge over Goat River. There 37.10 km Junction with Highway 95. Stay
are few bedrock exposures along on 3, left.
this stretch of highway that 37.75 km Bridge over Moyie River.
follows alluviated valleys. A 38.45 to 38.75 km Road cuts in rusty
few low exposures of Aldridge Middle Aldridge.
are passed between 16 and 18 39.95 km Yahk.
km. 40.60 km Yahk Provincial Park.
17.55 km Kitchener. 41.50 km Bridge over Moyie River.
18.25 km Bridge over Meadow Creek 44.15 to 46.80 km Low cuts and outcrops
22.75 km Rest area. of Aldridge.
8/23/89 29

48.70 kIn
Rest area. Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposit began in
49.10 kIn
Bridge over Moyie River. 1890 and ended several decades
49.35 kIn
Railroad overpass. ago.
52.90 kIn
Beginning of good road cuts in 72.80 to 73.65 kIn Mine dumps on right.
Aldridge Fonnation. 73.65 to 74.00 kIn Moyie.
53.55 kIn Pull over on shoulder on right 74.65 to 78.20 kIn Cuts in Upper
and stop. Aldridge, rusty-weathering,
laminated, dark grey argillite and
53.55 kIn Stop 68: Middle Aldridge lighter-grey siltstone.
Formation. Rusty weathering 80.30 kIn Crest of hill.
argillite, siltstone and quartzite 80.70 kIn Beginning of large cut in Creston
showing turbidity current Formation.
sedimentary structures indicative 81.10 kIn Pull over and park in wide
of deep water deposition are turnout on left side of highway.
observable here on the west limb
of the Moyie Anticline. This unit 81.10 kIn Stop 70: Creston Formation in
is more than 5000 m thick. large road cut. This formation is
composed of 2000 m of tan,
Continue northeast. green, brown, and purple
54.75 kIn Bridge over Irishman Creek agrillaceous quartzite, siltstone
55.30 kIn Pull over on wide shoulder on and argillite with shallow-water
right and stop. sedimentary structures.

55.30 kIn Stop 69: Moyie Sill. Continue northward, past more
Hornblende quartz diorite sill in cuts in Creston Formation.
Middle Aldridge Formation. 81.90 to 82.5 kIn Covered interval.
These gabbroic sheets are 82.50 kIn Beginning of good exposure
numerous in the Purcell including Creston -Kitchener
Geanticline and intruded only transition.
Low and Middle Aldridge 82.70 kIn Pull over and park in turnout on
sediment, presumably during left side of highway.
deposition of the Aldridge
Formation. U-Pb dates indicate 82.80 kIn Stop 71: Kitchener Formation
a 1.43 Ga time of crystallization. in large road cut. This
These magmas were probably Formation is composed of 2000
the heat source for the m of argillaceous dolostone and
hydrothermal system that dolomitic argillite with shallow
deposited the Sullivan and related water sedimentary structures.
vein base metal deposits. Molar tooth structure in the
carbonate rocks is a distinctive
Continue northeast. feature.
55.80 kIn End of nearly continuous
Aldridge exposures. Continue northwards, past
58.40 to 72.70 kIn Multiple cuts and approximately 2 km of Kitchener
exposures of Aldridge Fonnation Formation exposures in road
along highway. cuts, including well developed
65.65 kIn Midway mine dump on left. molar tooth structure in silty
70.05 kIn Bridge over Moyie River. carbonate beds.
73.00 kIn Ruins of mill on right. For the 83.95 kIn Bridge over Peavine Creek.
next 10 kIn there are views of 84.80 kIn Cross the Moyie fault. This
Moyie Lake to the left of the structure has a minimum 4000 m
highway. reverse/right lateral displacement.
73.15 kIn St. Eugene Mine Point of Interest We cross it close to the axis of
sign. The exploitation of this the Moyie Anticline.
30 8/23/89

85.90 km Bridge over Moyie River. Just Purcell Volcanics (andesitic

to the west of this point is the Nichol Creek Fonnation).
capture site, where the south- 118.95 km Rest area.
flowing Lower Moyie River has 127.80 km Along this stretch of highway
intercepted the east flowing there are poor exposures of
Upper Moyie River. Devonian gypsum.
86.00 km Road to Moyie Lake Provincial 132.35 km Pull over into paved turnout on
Park on left. Low exposure of left side of highway.
Middle Aldridge on right
87.75 km Bridge over Moyie River. 132.35 km Stop 73: View of the
87.85 to 88.50 km Outcrops of Middle Steeples, Hughes Range.
Aldridge Fonnation and Moyie Kootenay Steamboats Point of
gabbro sill. Interest Sign. The Southern
92.10 to 92.50 km Exposure of Middle Rocky Mountain Trench
Aldridge Fonnation. extends more than 1600 km and
92.25 km Pull over and park on wide right defmes the west limit of the
shoulder of highway opposite Rocky Mountains. Here the
Lumberton Road coming in from Trench structure is a half graben
left. with a prominent 1500 m high
fault scarp on the east side of
92.25 km Stop 72: Middle Aldridge the valley. The last 600 m of
Fonnation. The rocks here are movement has been dated as
grey quartz wacke and siltstone post Miocene by Clague (1974)
with graded beds and sole The listric nonnal fault dips
markings indicating turbidity approximately 40° at shallow
current deposition. In the middle depths but the dip decreases
of the Middle Aldridge, uphill downward. There is no
from here, are laminated measureable strike-slip
argillaceous siltstones. The displacement here. The Moyie
distinctive lamination patterns and Dibble Creek faults match
have been correlated over one another, with distinctive
hundreds of kilometers. hanging wall and footwall
Purcell - Paleozoic
Continue northward. Highway unconformities on both sides of
passes a few low exposures of the Trench. In the east wall of
Middle Aldridge. Cliffs to the the Trench steeply east-dipping
north are Moyie gabbro sills. Purcell rocks are visible to the
102.70 km Entering Cranbrook. crest of the Range. Cambrian
105.95 km Sharp left at light, following and younger miogeosynclinal
Highway 3 and 95. strata, unconfonnably overlie
108.75 km Keep left leaving Cranbrook. the Purcell strata and are
109.10 km Underpass. steeply dipping to overturned
110.75 to 115.10 km Road cuts in behind the Steeples. On the
Kitchener Fonnation. Trench floor and west side thin
115.05 km Stay left, on Highway 3, Devonian - Mississippian
eastbound. We are now coming carbonate units rest
into the Rocky Mountain unconfonnably on Upper
Trench, Kootenay River Valley. Purcell strata. Eocene and
117.85 km To the northeast and east, the Miocene sediments fill deeper
Trench and behind it the parts of the half graben but are
Hughes Range are visible. At poorly exposed because of
1:30 the forested mountain is Quaternary valley deposits.
underlain by erosion-resistant
8/23/89 31

Continue southeast. 174.40 km Pull over on to right shoulder

134.20 to 135.40 kIn Long road cut and stop.
exposing south dipping
Mississippian Rundle 174.40 kIn Stop 75: Phillips Formation,
Fonnation. Upper Purcell Group. Redbeds
139.95 kIn Right turnoff to Wardner with intercalated stromatolitic
Provincial Park. Stay on limestone.
Highway 3.
140.40 kIn Bridge over Kootenay River. Continue eastward up Elk
141.15 to 141.35 kIn Big cut in Devonian Valley.
Palliser Fonnation. 175.65 kIn Approximate position of
151.75 kIn Junction with road on right to Wigwam Thrust - Purcell rocks
Jaffray. Stay on Highway 3. moved eastward over
152.55 kIn Small bridge over Little Sand Mississippian rocks. Over the
Creek. From the next 0.8 kIn next 4 km we cross Upper
the highway is pointed towards Paleozoic miogeosynclinal strata
Sand Creek Valley in the Lizard in the southeast-plunging
Range, the physiographic Broadwood Anticline. The
expression of the Sand Creek Wigwam Thrust is younger than
Fault. the Hosmer Thrust with which
152.90 kIn Pull over on right shoulder and it merges and carries piggyback.
stop. Both were folded together over
the Broadwood Anticline.
152.90 kIn Stop 74: Sand Creek view. 176.05 to 177.45 kIn Good exposures of
The Hosmer Thrust Plate on the Rundle and Banff limestone,
left, north, overrides the dipping west.
Wigwam Thrust Plate on the 181.35 kIn In cliff ahead a cave is visible in
right, south, side of the Valley. east dipping massive Rundle
Continue eastward. 182.20 kIn Tunnel in Rundle limestone.
163.80 kIn Rest area on left. 182.55 km Pull over into wide turnout on
168.20 kIn Road to right goes to Kikomun right.
Creek Provincial Park.
168.65 km Road curves left towards Elk 182.55 km Stop 76: Broadwood
River Valley. Anticline and Fernie Basin. The
169.05 km Good exposure of Gateway top of the Rundle limestone is
Fonnation, Upper Purcell present on the left side of the
Group. road. The Elk River lies below
170.30 kIn Junction of Highways 3 and 93. us on the right. Across the Elk
Stay on 3, eastbound. River towards the northeast one
170.55 kIn Good view of south end of can see the forested ridges
Lizard Range. underlain by clastic Mesozoic
171.05 kIn Small road cut in Rooseville sedimentary rocks of the Fernie
Fonnation. Basin. The river valley follows
171.30 km Watch for outwash channel by the weak shales of the Jurassic
road. Fernie Formation.
171.40 km Road climbs through thick
gravel deposits of Elk River Continue northward.
Delta. A glacial outwash terrace 182.90 km Pennsylvanian Rocky Mountain
formed when the Trench was Quartzite outcrops on left.
partially filled by ice. 183.40 kIn Low exposure of dark early
171.60 kIn Railroad overpass. Mesozoic sediment, possibly
172.85 kIn Small exposure of Rooseville Spray River, on left.
Formation on left
32 8/23/89

184.75 kIn Dark exposures of shale and

sandstone on left.
187.10 kIn Road to Morrissey Provincial
Park enters from right.
189.00 kIn View up to mountains on left to
see overturned Lizard Range
section. Devonian limestone
forms the crest of the Range,
Pennsylvanian and Permian to
Jurassic underlie treed slopes,
and the thrust fault is located in
Jurassic shale near base of
191.50 to 192.40 kIn Good exposures of
Fernie black shale. Pull over
and stop.

192.00 km Stop 77: Fernie Formation,

the erodable unit controlling the
position of the Elk River here ..

Continue northward.
194.50 km Good views to north along this
stretch of highway - towards
Mount Fernie and the Three
Sisters. More overturned
Paleozoic in the upper plate of
the Hosmer thrust.
195.90 km Road from ski area comes in to
Highway from left.
197.15 kIn Bridge.
198.90 km Road from Mount Fernie
Provincial Park comes in from
200.25 kIn Entering Fernie.
201.20 kIn Bridge over Elk River.
201.40 kIn Three Sisters Motel. End of
Day 4.

8/23/89 33

Day 5 Road Log

0.00 Ian Three Sisters Motel, Fernie. Set several large coal mines.
odometer to zero. Leave parking Continue on Highway 3,
lot and head northeast. eastward around north end of
1.35 Ian Good view of Mount Fernie and Fernie Basin.
Three Sisters to northwest from 31.95 to 32.05 Ian Road cuts in dark
right shoulder of road just past shale of Fernie Formation
Fernie Motor Inn. grading up into sandstone and
1.80 Ian Bridge over Elk River. shale of transition to Kootenay
1.95 Ian Road cut in dark shale of Fernie Formation.
Formation. 32.05 Ian Bridge over Michel Creek. Note
4.30 Ian Pull over on right and stop. the adit of the now defunct
Balmer South coal mine on the
4.30 Ian Stop 78: View of Mount right. The Balmer seam is 5 to
Hosmer. Klippe of steeply 10 m thick and quite extensive; it
dipping Devonian to Permian is exploited in several mines.
strata over!ying overturned 34.20 Ian Tum left to head back up Elk
Jurassic section. With correct Valley.
lighting or thin snow cover the 34.80 Ian Bridge.
shorelines of glacial Lake Elk are 35.60 Ian Road junction. Turn right and
visible on the mountains park on shoulder.
northwest of Fernie,
approximately 300 m above the 35.60 Ian Stop 79a: View of coal mines
valley floor. At one time the lake and processing plant.
drained east through Crowsnest
Pass. Later, as ice retreated, the Tum around and head back
drainage was reestablished towards Highway 3.
westward into the Rocky 37.00 Ian Back to Highway 3. Turn left.
Mountain Trench, forming the 38.60 Ian Tum off on to gravel on right
voluminous coarse terrace side of road and stop.
deposits there.
38.60 Ian Stop 79b: View of coal mines.
Continue northeast. In this area there are 11 coal
12.05 Ian Bridge over Elk River. seams more than 1 m thick.
12.70 Ian Good view at 9:30 of twisted Underground mining was active
Paleozoic strata on Mountain to from 1899 to about 1980, when
west, left of road and of Fernie the last underground hydraulic
Basin at 12:00 to 3:00 to the east, operation was closed. Since
right of road. 1969 production has been from
17.30 Ian Rest area on left side. large open-pit mines on Balmer
21.65 Ian Cross Railroad tracks. Ridge, to the north.
25.00 to 28.00 Ian Good views at 9:00 to
12:00 of Wilson Fault, in core of Continue southeast.
overturned anticline outlined by 38.65 Ian Bridge over Michel Creek.
Pennsylvanian - Permian 38.85 Ian Westar Mine entrance on left.
carbonate layers .. Balmer underground mine on
29.40 Ian Poor exposure of Fernie shale on right. This was an underground
right. hydraulic operation, closed about
29.90 Ian Sparwood Shopping Center on 1980. The slurry was carried by
left. pipe and conveyor to the coal
30.45 Ian Junction with road to north up processing plant north of the
Elk Valley. Access route to highway.
34 8/23/89

40.15 kIn Westar offices on right.

40.95 kIn Old mine entrance on left. Continue eastward.
41.75 to 42.20 kIn Ruins of old coke 60.55 kIn Small lake on right.
ovens on left. 60.75 to 61.00 kIn Road cut in Devonian
43.10 kIn Bridge over Michel Creek. carbonate.
43.60 kIn Poor exposure of Kootenay 61.40 to 61.60 kIn Notch cut in Devonian
Formation on right. carbonate.
43.90 kIn Coal measures visible across 61.80 km Tum in and park where gravel
river on left. road comes in on right. Walk
46.00 kIn Poorly exposed Kootenay on back to viewpoint.
47.60 kIn Bridge over Michel Creek 61.68 kIn Stop 81: Crowsnest Mountain
47.85 km Road from Byron Creek view (Figure 8). Lewis thrust
Colleriers comes in from right. and its klippe of Devonian -
48.10 kIn Crossing railroad track. Mississippian carbonate on
48.95 kIn Approximate position of Upper Cretaceous shales.
Erickson fault, a normal fault
with west side down. Continue eastward.
49.05 kIn Good road cut in upper Paleozoic 62.15 to 61.45 km Road cuts in
carbonate section. Cretaceous Belly River shale.
49.65 kIn Bridge over Carbon Creek. 63.65 kIn Bridge over Crowsnest River.
50.00 km Approximate position of 63.95 kIn Railroad overpass.
Alexander thrust fault. 65.60 kIn Gas plant on right.
51.05 kIn Road curves right. 66.95 kIn Road cut in dark grey Upper
51.40 kIn Road curves left. Road cut in Cretaceous Alberta Group shale.
Fernie black shale. 67.60 kIn Volcanic rock point of interest
53.30 kIn High Rock Range straight ahead. sign on left - not in correct
53.90 to 54.30 kIn Rocky Mountain location.
Formation well exposed on left. 68.35 kIn Large road cut in mid Cretaceous
54.60 km Road to Crowsnest Provincial Crowsnest Volcanics begins.
Park enters from left. 68.45 km Pull over on right shoulder and
54.95 to 56.65 kIn Dipslope on left in stop.
Rundle Formation.
55.75 kIn Crowsnest Pass Point of Interest 68.45 kIn Stop 82: Crowsnest Volcanics,
sign. Iron Ridge. View back towards
56.95 km Road cuts in upper Paleozoic Lewis thrust. The Crowsnest
carbonate. Formation here is 320 m
56.95 to 57.80 kIn Crossing between (approximately its maximum
lakes. thickness) of pyroclastic and
58.40 kIn Small bridge over Crowsnest epiclastic rocks composed of
Creek. alkaline trachyte and phonolite
58.85 kIn Lime works on left. fragments. K-Ar dates of 100
59.40 kIn Large cuts in upper Paleozoic Ma indicate this is of the same
carbonate begin. age as magmatic rocks we have
59.70 kIn Pull over and stop in parking lot seen from the Coast Mountains
by Crowsnest Lake on left side to the Stagleap Summit stock.
of Highway. Small intrusive bodies of alkaline
syenite in the Rocks Mountains
59.70 kIn Stop 80: Examine Devonian are likely intrusive equivalents to
Palliser to Mississippian Rundle the Crowsnest Volcanics.
section with well displayed These, like the Crowsnest, are
contraction and extension very Sr rich (thousands of ppm)
structures in upper plate of Lewis
8/23/89 35

and have relatively low initial 80.00 km Sharp left turn onto road into
87S rj86S r ratios (circa 0.705). Frank Slide Visitor Center.
80.05 to 80.45 km Good exposure of
Continue eastward. Blainnore sandstone on right.
69.85 to 70.2 km Blainnore shale 81.20 km Sharp right turn. Cuts in
exposure in road cut. Blainnore continue up to parking
70.60 km Pull over and stop on wide paved lot.
shoulder of highway. 81.75 km Park in Visitor Center lot.

70.60 km Stop 83: Cadomin

Conglomerate unconformably 81.75 km Stop 84: Frank Slide Visitor
overlying Kootenay Formation Center. Displays describe the
and underlying Blainnore history of coal mining and the
Formation. The Cadomin is a disasters related to mining
distinctive chert pebble activities. The slide occurred on
conglomerate about 125 Ma old. April 29, 1903. More than 76
Its deposition may have been the people were killed. On Turtle
result of thermal uplift of the Mountain the Rundle Group
Rocky Mountains at the forms a tight anticline truncated
beginning of Cretaceous downwards by the gently
magmatism and orogeny. dipping Turtle Mountain Fault.
Below the fault are coal measures
Continue eastward. of the Kootenay Formation, in
70.75 km Exposure of Kootenay the steeply dipping west limb of
Formation at the base of the the Hillcrest Syncline. Climb up
Coleman Thrust Plate. to nearby hilltop for view of
71.40 km Center of Coleman, just past Livingstone Range (Figure 9)
Belly River sandstone outcrops. from outcrops of Blairmore
71.65 km Cardium Sandstone of the conglomerate.
Alberta Group.
73.40 km Blainnore shales exposed by Retrace track back to Highway 3.
road. 83.45 km Turn left at Highway 3 to
74.00 km Low ridge on left is underlain by continue southeast.
Kootenay Formation coal 83.50 to 85.40 km Crossing Frank Slide.
measures. 83.90 km Frank Slide Point of Interest sign
74.65 km Exit to Blainnore on right. Stay and turnout on right.
on Highway 3. 85.70 and 86.30 km Road cuts in
75.30 km View of Turtle Mountain at 2:00. Blainnore.
76.55 km Kootenay Formation in road cut 86.90 km Note coal mine tunnel entrance
on left. on left.
77.10 to 78.55 km Good exposures of 87.65 km Kootenay Formation coal
upper Paleozoic carbonate measures.
section on both sides of road - in 89.00 km Kootenay sandstones in road
upper plate of Turtle Mountain cuts.
thrust. 89.95 km Road curves left.
77.80 km Road from Blainnore comes in 91.00 km Road cuts in Blainnore
on right. Formation.
77.95 km Bridge over Crowsnest River. 91.80 and 93.20 km Blainnore sandstone
78.60 km Approximate position of Turtle exposures in road cuts.
Mountain Thrust. 95.20 km Junction with Highway 507.
79.00 km Bridge over Crowsnest River. Stay on Highway 3.
Frank slide coming in to view. 95.30 km Approximate position of
Livingstone Thrust.
36 8/23/89

97.65 km Rock Creek Road comes in on decline of the Cretaceous

left. seaway.
98.60 km Belly River sandstone ridges at
1:00 to 3 :00. Continue northward.
99.00 and 99.30 km Belly River 128.25 km Bridge over Oldman River.
sandstone. 133.45 km East dipping sandstone bedding
99.70 km Turn right to Lundbreck Falls. traces visible on hill to
100.90 km Park in lot at Falls. northwest. The regional dip
here is eastward into the Alberta
100.90 km Stop 85: Lundbreck Falls. syncline.
Belly River Sandstone is all 138.30 to 140.45 km Spectacular
around and is the resistant unit meanders visible to right in
supporting the Falls. underfit valley of Callum Creek
which the road is following
Tum left out of parking lot - northwards.
back towards highway. 140.35 km For the next 4 km Willow Creek
102.05 km Turn right onto Highway 3. Shale is exposed in gulleys and
102.30 km Belly River Sandstone ridge. badlands across the valley to the
The route crosses the crest of an east, right. The road turns
anticline just ahead East northeast to climb section and
dipping Belly River Sandstone elevation into the Porcupine
is visible in the Crowsnest Hills.
River and on the ridge east of 143.50 km Pull over on shoulder and stop.
103.75 km Approximately on axis of fold. 143.50 km Stop 87: View of Willow
104.10 km Turn left, north - to Turner Creek Formation and Porcupine
Valley and Longview via Hills.
Highway 22.
104.40 km Road climbs through cut in east Continue northward.
dipping Belly River Sandstone. 147.60 km Road curves left. Ahead the
109.80 km Route is northwards. The cuts are in Paleocene Paskapoo
Porcupine Hills are visible to (or Porcupine Hills) Formation.
the right, east and the 148.45 km Junction with Road 520. Stay
Livingstone Range to the left, on 22.
west. 149.40 to 158.45 Siltstone and sandstone
116.70 km On the hill to the northwest exposed in new road cuts.
sandstone bedding traces outline 164.75 km Chimney Rock Road on left.
a synform. 166.45 km Riley Road on right.
119.25 km Road curves right. 171.60 km ChainLakes come into view
121.90 km Road curves left. ahead.
122.70 km Graded surface begins (1987). 175.10 km Bridge over North Willow
127.40 km View of whale back ridge to Creek.
northwest. 175.30 km Junction with Road 533.
128.10 km Road 517 comes in from left. Nanton to right, Chain Lakes to
128.15 km Stop on shoulder of road just left. Stay on 22.
before bridge. 179.85 km High point with good views of
mountains to west.
128.15 km Stop 86: Upper Cretaceous 180.55 km East dipping sandstone visible
Saint Mary Formation in gulch by road.
sandstone and shale, visible in 185.60 km North end of Chain Lakes.
river cut. These sediments are 186.45 km Road 532 junction on the left.
approximately at the marine to 188.00 km First distant view of Turner
freshwater transition, at the Valley anticline.
8/23/89 37

191.40 km Road crosses perpendicular to 244.00 km Large glacial erratic in field on

Highway 22. left, carried by ice from the
197.50 km Bridge. Occasional oil and gas vicinity of Jasper, 350 km to the
wells are now seen. northwest.
200.75 km Road 540 crosses perpendicular 251.10 km Turn left onto 2A, towards
to Highway 22. Calgary.
203.65 km Bridge. 261.90 km Merge into Highway 2.
209.15 and 211.90 km More crossroads. 280.30 km Turn right onto Anderson Road
211.95 km Pull over on right shoulder and to 2N.
stop. 283.70 km Merge onto Deerfoot Trail, still
211.95 km Stop 88: View of Turner 298.50 km Exit onto Highway 1. Right
Valley anticline and town of turn onto IE.
Longview. At the surface the 299.90 km Turn right onto 19th St. NE to
structure is a broad anticline Quality Inn. End of field trip.or
outlined by a Belly River continue on IE to Airport:
sandstone ridge. In the 300.80 km Exit right onto Barlow Trail,
subsurface imbricate northbound towards Airport.
Mississippian limestone is the Follow signs to Airport parking
reservoir for oil and gas. The or unloading areas.
field was discovered in 1914, 310.40 km Calgary Airport. End offield
and was Albertas first major oil trip.
field. More than 100 million
barrels of oil have been
recovered. We thank W.H. Mathews and
L. J. Anderton for several
Continue northwards. suggestions and corrections to
213.30 km Bridge over Highwood River. early drafts of this road log.
Upper Cretaceous Edmonton The geologic map is from John
Formation exposed in river Wheeler, an enlargement of part
bank. of the new Tectonic Assemblage
213.95 km Longview, pavement resumes. Map of the Canadian Cordillera
Continue north on 22 towards (Wheeler and McFeely, 1987),
Black Diamond. with extensive editing and
231.70 km Stop. Turn right onto Highway modification by RLA, based on
7. numerous detailed maps and
unpublished geochronometry.
~: ,,
•• J
I Q;' I :. (

, "01
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, .
/..... /

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'. :..... ~
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I ""'.0", '" : :'.v-t '" .'
: : ".~( ....
, I \
";! " " , "'-i.. .f' ...... ...=
(, •••• :::Do .... -<.
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13 c ....../.
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: 13 ...... •
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: 19
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: :.

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~ ~ 1\ " ' )
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' ... , .
~" : :0 '.';:) :
f'::: '" \ ...,....
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•. r..::" -L.:.. : c;Il / ~. :'
Cascade .......
... ,J ~",'
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"49' ." 49.


Diagram 1. Simplified terrane and tectonic belt maps for western



Diagram 3. Schematic terrane topology ( strike-slip movement on

Fraser - Straight Creek fault system removed) for the Coast -
Cascade region, southwestern British Columbia and vicinity (from
Armstrong, 1988b)
major composite terranes whose
components apparent 1y coa 1esced
I ,II: prior to accretion to the j
I~orth Ameri can p1ate
...---I---. (
E Eastern
(of Monger 1977 >

Q Quesne 11 i a

Cc Cache Creek

St Stikinia
Br Bri dge Ri ver

CcCascadi a I~~~I

...-.--![--....... I ...

GN Gravina-
i4utzoti n

A Alexander
W \~range 11 i a
· •• 0......

Pc Pacifi c
Pacifi c
Be lt of
. _.

o Olympic 0 ~
. . . .'" to .. & ..
to . . . _ . . .

: .... ......
t~ull er,

boundari es of the
five tectonic belts Q 2!
3 4 5
• of Figure 1 OO'S km
Figure 2. Distribution and nature of probably allochthonous (or suspect) terranes in the Canadian Cordillera. Each terrane is characterized by a distinctive.
laterally persistent stratigraphic record or has a stratigraphic style featuring extreme disruption (melange. in part). The heavy lines delinate terranes (I. II)
composed of smaller terranes that coalesced prior to accretion to North America. The Sr"7: Sr"6line (Armstrong and others. 1977; Armstrong, 1979 and
personal communication) marks the probable western limit of Precambrian continental crust at the ancient continental margin or in blocks that may be
displaced outboard from it. Boundaries of the five belts in Figure I are given for reference: note the rough correspondence between the two high grade belts
(OCB. CPC) and the boundaries of I. II and the autochthonous terrane.

Diagram 2. Terranes of the Canadian Cordillera (from Price et

aI., 1981)
t 1. 1
.~ ..;
c o

..I. :

.. c3

..•· .



.. ..

~ ~


n Western Zone Axial Zone Hozameen-
Bridge R.


FillUre 43. Major lithological units of the Nonhem Cascade System, their relationships to one another and to the structural elements of the Cascades.

Diagram 5. Schematic diagram relating major lithologic units of

the North Cascades (from Price et aI., 1981)
--~--~-------~----------- --------------------




6000 Q..
.-<' ...,
-+- Q

.-<' . ..,



CROSSBEDDING , , , . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...JJ.L.
U GRADED BEDDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -=-
~ LAMINATED . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . , .. =
2000 .... LENTICULAR BEDDING . , . . . . . • . . • . . -
...JJ.L. <C
w -+-
MUD CRACKS .•.•..••...........

RIPPLE CROSS-LAMINATION . . . . • . . . . .-<'

~ 0::
RIP-UP CLASTS . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . • ..,
w ~
() ...JJ.L. ~
! SCOUR AND FILL • • . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . -....r
Q Q..
~ w STROMATOLITES .....•.•......... A
..... p
« 0."
OOLITES • . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0.... ~
...JJ.L. ;:,

FIGURE 4. A composite stratigrapbic column of tbe Purcell Supergroup in tbe Moyie Lake area (St. Eugene area of Fig. 2); (from
Hoy and Diakow, 1982).

Diagram 6. Purcell Supergroup Stratigraphy (from H~y, 1982)







I~ , FIGURE 2'1


It~ ~~~6~T5~~STONE ,


-~~--L U.S.A.


Diagram 7. Rocky Mountain to Platform stratigraphy, Banff-

Calgary region (from Monger and Preto, 1972)
Diagram 8. Phanerozoic stratigraphy of the Crowsnest Pass area
(from Jackson et al. 1981)
Figure 1. View northwest from Spanish Banks. The southern peaks and
slope of the Coast Mountains are underlain by crystalline rocks of the
Coast Plutonic Complex (Mz CPC) - gabbro to granodiorite of Mesozoic
age with pendants of amphibolitic schist and gneiss (pre-Jurassic Twin
Islands Group and Lower Cretaceous clastic and volcaniclastic rocks of
the Gambier Group. Bowen Island is greenstone, chert, and greywacke
of intermediate age. The 10 to 15° south slope is an exhumed Late
Cretaceous erosion surface beneath the Late Cretaceous (Campanian -
Rouse et at, 1975) part of the Burrard Formation. The Cretaceous -
Eocene contact occurs in Stanley Park, just west of Third Beach (behind
the sculpture).
Figure 2. Panoramic view of Vancouver and the
Strait of Georgia from the view stop on the Cypress
Bowl Highway. View towards the southeast (left),
south, and southwest (right) looking across Burrard
Inlet and the city of Vancouver to parts of Washington
state and the Insular Belt of British Columbia. All the
foreground, underfoot, is Early Cretaceous granite of
the Coast Plutonic Complex. In the middle distance
(including Stanley Park, Vancouver, Point Grey, the
Fraser River Valley, and the Gulf Islands on the south
and southwest sides of the Strait of Georgia) is the
Nanaimo - Burrard -Kitsilano-Chuckanut-Huntington
composite basin filled with Late Cretaceous to Recent
sediment that covers multiple and poorly understood
terrane sutures. The ridges and mountains of the
southeast (left) skyline are underlain by the North
Cascade thrust system (NCTS) - west- to northwest-
vergent, imbricated Paleozoic to mid Cretaceous
rocks of a variety of tectonic settings. The Twin
Sisters is a large dunite body along the imbricate
zone of the Shuksan thrust. The southwest skyline
(right) is Vancouver Island, underlain by Wrangellia
(the southern part of the Insular Composite Terrane).
Rocks there range from Paleozoic to Jurassic, are
overlapped unconformably by the Late Cretaceous to
Recent basin deposits and intruded north of here by
Early Cretaceous plutons of the Coast Plutonic
Complex. Early Cretaceous plutons also cut and
postdate movement on thrusts of the NCTS in southern
British Columbia but movement continued on thrusts
in the San Juan Islands into Late Cretaceous time. At
Prospect Point (south side of First Narrows), near
Jer~cho Beach, and at several other localities in
Vancouver Oligocene mafic dikes intrude Late
Cretaceous to Eocene sediments. The Pleistocene
volcano, Mount Baker may be visible more to the east
- left of the view shown in the figure.
Figure 3. View down Sumas River Valley, northeastward towards the
Fraser Valley and town of Hope. The nearby hill on the left, part of
Sumas Mountain, Is underlain by Huntington Formation (Eocene) dipping
about 10° southwest Into the Whatcom sedimentary basin (note the
visible sandstone ledges). The farther, higher part of Sumas Mountain
Is Jurassic Harrison Lake Formation (porphyritic metavolcanic rocks)
Intruded by Mesozoic biotite-hornblende and hornblende quartz diorite.
The genUe westward sloping surface of Sumas Mountain is the exhumed
pre-Huntington erosion surface. On the right is Vedder Mountain. Its
crest is Mesozoic clastic sediment (Nooksack Group). The lower slope
and north end are Vedder Complex - Late Paleozoic moderately high
pressure epidote amphibolite and garnet-mica schist, in fault contact
with the Nooksack Group. A major structural discontinuity must lie
beneath the Sumas Valley here - separating Coast Plutonic Complex on
the north from North Cascade imbricate zone to the south. The distant
high peaks beyond Vedder Mountain are in the Chilliwack Imbricate Zone,
just southwest of the Miocene Mount Barr granodiorite.
Figure 4. Panoramic view of the Okanagan Valley from a hill southeast
of Okanagan Falls. The view is towards the eastsoutheast, on the left,
to westsouthwest, on the right. The gently west-dipping Okanagan
Valley fault separates steeply east dipping sedimentary and volcanic
rocks of the White Lake Basin (T) in its upper plate, on the far right,
from mylonitic paragneiss of the Vaseaux Formation (~) in its lower
plate. A Proterozoic age for the Vaseaux Formation is inferred from Sr
and Nd isotope analyses of gneisses. Mylonitic foliation in the lower
plate parallels the fault surface; a prominent lineation, which lies in
the foliation and trends northwest, is imposed on rocks in the lower
plate as young as Eocene. Lenticular sheets and blobs of foliated
granitic rocks in the lower plate are of Jurassic(?) and Cretaceous age
(Parkinson, 1985). Displacement on the fault is estimated to be several
tens of kilometers (Parkinson, 1985; Tempelman-Kluit and Parkinson,
. ?%;-M~.·
: ..... .

Figure 5. Anarchist Mountain Overlook. Panoramic view of Okanagan

Valley from north, on the right, to south, on the left, looking generally
west. Underfoot is the Early Jurassic (Parkinson, 1985) Osoyoos
gneissic quartz diorite(E..R i) in the footwall of the Okanagan Valley
fault. Far to the south, at the left end of the view, is the Colville
batholith • another lower plate exposure, part of the Okanogan Dome in
Washington State. Upper plate rocks are mid Paleozoic to Triassic (pz·
Mz) eugeosynclinal sedimentary and volcanic rocks • chert, greenstone,
and greywacke, multiply deformed and cut by Jurassic plutons (~i), all
unconformably overlain by Eocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks (E).
In the distance the Middle Jurassic (Parkinson, 1985) Similkameen
batholith (mJ:fi) is visible on a clear day. The dip of the Okanagan
Valley fault is not well controlled here but is probably intermediate (30
to 45°) and its displacement is on the order of 10 Kilometers.
Figure 6. View across the Kettle River Valley to faulted east-dipping
Eocene sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Greenwood map area
(Little, 1983). Upper Paleozoic (pz) Knob Hill Group chert and
greenstone, visible in the hill on the far right, are unconformably
overlain by Eocene Kettle River Formation (Ekrs) clastic sediment with
minor volcanic layers which is overlain in turn by Eocene Marron
Formation (Emv) trachyte flows and both are intruded by syenite and
diorite dikes and sills of the Eocene Marron Formation (Em i). That
entire sequence is disrupted by numerous normal faults - mostly west
side down within the field of view, creating an inverse imbricate
structure characteristic of zones of extreme brittle extension.
Figure 7. Panoramic view from south (left) to north (right) looking
generally westward across the Columbia River from lookout stop east
of Blueberry Creek, and the town of Kinnard, B. C.. We stand on
mylonitlzed gneiss (Trail Gneiss? - t) In the lower plate of the Siocan
Lake-Champion Lake fault (S.-C. F.), which Is located directly above us
to the east. Sentinel Mountin, to the north is composed of -169 Ma
Nelson batholith (mJ i). The anticlinal structure to the west is a fold In
the -110 Ma Castlegar (Kinnard) Gneiss, with the Valkyr shear zone
(V.S.Z.) above it. In the hanging wall of the Valkyr shear zone are
Jurassic (165-170 Ma) granitic rocks (mJ I - Trail and Mackie plutons)
and metamorphosed Mount Roberts Group strata (C). The College Creek
stock (ETi - 47.2±0.5 Ma) intrudes the Valkyr Shear Zone. To the north
in the southern Valhalla Range, the Early Tertiary intrusions (ETi) of
the Ladybird (55-58 Ma) and Airy (62±1 Ma) suites can be seen as
gently east-dipping sheets.

Figure 8. Lewis thrust and Crowsnest Mountain
klippe from highway just east of Crowsnest Pass.
Devonian - Mississippian miogeosynclinal carbonate
(Devonian Fairholm - Alexo, Palliser, Mississippian
Exshaw, Banff, and Rundle formations) in the upper
plate are well exposed. Upper Cretaceous Alberta
Group and Belly River Formation sand and siltstone in
the lower plate are covered by vegetation and soil.
Figure 9. Livingstone Range, viewed towards the
northeast from a hill above the Frank Slide Visitor
Centre. The upper plate of the Livingstone thrust is
here composed of south- plunging en echelon folds
cored by massive Upper Paleozoic carbonate strata
(pz). Triassic - Jurassic strata (Mz) occur on the
west (distant) flank of the Range on the right and all
along the lower slopes of the east (closer) side of the
Range. Cretaceous strata underlie the valley in the
foreground. Immediately in front of the observation
point is a conglomerate in the Upper Cretaceous
Blairmore Formation (Kb).
--- ----~-------------------

Explanation: Map Patterns and Acronyms

Scale 1:500,000
Intermediate to silicic +' 1+ 1



t~ v :, ~I
I~ y YyYJ
Fault and Pluton names are shown on map.
Field trip stops are numbered in sequence on map on or near trace of
Highway 1 from Vancouver to Hope and Highway 3 from Hope to Alberta.

Vancouver Island
ETim Eocene Sooke Gabbro
ETv Paleocene-Eocene Metchosin Basalt
uK Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group
JK Jurassic-Cretaceous Leech River - Pacific Rim Melanges
E..RV Lower Jurassic Bonanza Volcanics
E.Ri Early Jurassic Island Intrusions
E.Rim Early Jurassic and older Wark-Colquitz Gneisses
~v Upper Triasssic Karmutsen Basalt
Di Devonian Saltspring Intrusions
pz Devonian-Permian Sicker Group

San Juan Islands

ET Eocene Chuckanut Formation
uK Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group
JK Jurassic-Cretaceous Constitution-lummi-Haystack Formations
Jvi Late Jurassic Fidalgo Ophiolite
Js Late Jurassic Cypress Ultramafic
PJ:t Mid-Paleozoic to Jurassic Deadman Bay and Orcas Groups
Ot Early Paleozoic Turtleback Complex
Coast - Cascades to Pasayten Fault
TQv Pliocene-Quaternary Garibaldi Volcanics
mTv Oligocene-Miocene Pemberton Volcanics
mTi Oligocene-M iocene Pemberton Intrusives, including Chilliwack
ETv Eocene Volcanics
ETs Eocene Sediments
ETi Eocene Intrusives
ET Eocene Chuckanut, Huntington, and other Formations
LKn Late Cretaceous Custer and Skagit Gneiss
uK Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo-Burrard Gp., Virginian Ridge Fm.,
and other Sediments
LKi Later Late Cretaceous Bendor and other Intrusives
mUKv Early Upper Cretaceous Midnight Peak Formation
mKi middle Cretaceous Squamish, Eldorado, and other Intrusives
K Cretaceous Pasayten-Winthrop-Jackass Mtn. Fms.
G Lower Cretaceous Gambier Group
JK Upper Jurassic-Lower Nooksack-Relay Mountain-Peninsula
Cretaceous and other Formations
JKv Jurassic-Cretaceous Volcanics
JKi Jurassic-Cretaceous Intrusives, undated
LJ i Late Jurassic Intrusives
J Jurassic Ladner-Dewdney Creek Fms., including
Triassic Spider Peak Fm., Darrington Phyllite
.R Lower to Middle Jurassic Harrison Lake Formation
Jv Middle Jurassic Wells Creek Volcanics
EJv Lower Jurassic Shuksan Greenschist
"RJ Upper Triassic-Lower Cultus Formation
"R.R Triassic-Jurassic Settler(?) Schist
"RJs Triassic-J urassic Settler-Chiwaukum Schist
L"Ri Late Triassic Marblemount Intrusives
"R Triassic Siollicum Formation
"'Rc Triassic Cadwallader Group
P~ Permian-Jurassic Bridge River-Hozameen/Hozomeen
PJ Permian-Jurassic Cogburn Creek Group
CPm Carboniferous-Permian Vedder Complex
DP Devonian-Permian Chilliwack Group
ill Precambrian(?) and Yellow Aster Complex
Early Paleozoic
n (or suffix n) Orthogneiss, especially Skagit Gneiss
m Paragneiss, especially Cascade River
urn Ultramafic Bodies, including Twin Sisters

Pasayten Fault to Okanagan Valley

to Kootenay Arc
LTv Late Cenozoic Valley Basalt
mTv Miocene Plateau Basalt
ETv Eocene Kamloops-Marron Volcanics
ETs Eocene Springbrook-Princeton-Kettle River Fms.
ETi Paleocene-Eocene Coryell and other Intrusives
LKi Late Cretaceous Intrusives
mKv Middle Cretaceous Spences Bridge Volcanics
mKi Middle Cretaceous Bayonne-Verde Creek and other Intrusives
LJKi Late Jurassic-
Early Cretaceous Eagle Complex
~i Late Jurassic Intrusives
mJli Middle Jurassic Kuskanax-Nelson and other Intrusives
Jv Early Jurassic Rossland Volcanics
J Lower Jurassic Rossland Group
E.Ai Early Jurassic Guichon-Copper Mountain and other
JKTi Jurassic to Early Cenozoic Intrusives, undated
L"R i Late Triassic Coldwater and other Intrusives
"RJ Upper Triassic-Lower Nicola Group, Sicamous Formation
"R Triassic Brooklyn-Ollala Formations
C"R Carboniferous-Triassic Apex Mountain Group
CPK Carboniferous-Permian Kobau Group
CPA Carboniferous-Permian Anarchist-Chapperon-Knob Hill Groups
CP Carboniferous-Permian Blind Creek Limestone
C Carboniferous-Permian(?) Mount Roberts Formation
M"R Mississippian-Triassic Cache Creek Assemblage
D"R Devonian-Triassic Harper Ranch Group
pz Paleozoic Strata
I?Pz Proterozoic-Early Eagle Bay, Lardeau, and other Formations
I? Proterozoic Monashee Paragneiss
EI? Early Proterozoic Monashee-Vaseaux-Grand Forks
Crystalline Basement
n (or suffix n) Orthogneiss
ug Granodiorite, quartz diorite, quartz
monzonite, partly Nelson Intrusives, undated
gn Paleozoic Trail Gneiss

m Paragneiss
um Ultramafic
umn Ultramafic nodule locality

Kootenay Arc to Rocky Mountains

ET Eocene-Oligocene Kishenehn Formation
ETv Eocene Volcanics
ETs Eocene Tiger Fm. and other Sediments
ETi Eocene Intrusives
pT Paleocene Paskapoo-Porcupine Hills Formations
KT Upper Cretaceous- Willow Creek-St. Mary River-Belly River
Paleocene Formations
uKs Upper Cretaceous Sophie Mountain Formation
uK Upper Cretaceous Alberta Group
y-y-y middle Cretaceous Crowsnest Volcanics
m Ki middle Cretaceous Howell Creek, Kaniksu, and other Intrusives
mK middle Cretaceous Blairmore Group
JK Upper Jurassic-Lower
Cretaceous Kootenay Group
m-.R i Middle Jurassic Intrusives
E.R i Early Jurassic Flowery Trail Pluton
Jv Lower Jurassic Rossland Volcanics
J Lower Jurassic Rossland Group
~ J Triassic, mostly Upper Siocan Group
"'R Triassic Strata
PJ Permian-Triassic Spray River Assemblage
P~ i Permian-Triassic Diatremes
P Carboniferous-Triassic Kaslo Group
Cv Carboniferous Volcanics
C Carboniferous Milford Group
Dv1 Devonian-Mississippian Rundle Assemblage
OSi{xxxxxx )
Ordovician-Si Iurian Diatremes and Volcanics
-rn Cambrian-Devonian Rocky Mountain Assemblage
Be Proterozoic-Cambrian Gog Assemblage r?(:.:o~;:::,;,,:]
pz Paleozoic Lardeau ......... ..
uew Upper Proterozoic Windermere Group I: : : ",I
uewv Upper Proterozoic Irene Volcanics of Windermere Group 1-" .v ~ I
ml?P Middle Proterozoic Purcell Group
me Pv{vvvvvv )
Middle Proterozoic Purcell Volcanics
m I?i Middle Proterozoic Moyie Sills and Hellroaring Creek Pluton (HRC)
um Ultramafic Bodies
Roadlog and Map References 1

Armstrong, R. L., 1988a, Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Canadian Cordillera, in, S. P. Clark,
B. C. Burchfiel, and J. Suppe, editors, Processes in Continental Lithospheric Deformation: Geologial Society of
America Special Paper 218, p. 55-91.
Armstrong, R. L., 1988b, Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism in the southwestern Canadian Cordillera and northwestern
Washington and its relationship to terranes, sutures, and accretion events: 2nd Southern Cordilleran Geology
Workshop Sidney, B. c., April 28-29, 1988,3 pp.
Armstrong, R. L., Isaachsen, Clark, and Scott, K. L., unpublished manuscript, Rb-Sr and Sr isotopic study and U-Pb
dating of Vancouver Island igneous rocks and related Island Intrusions and of the Coast Plutonic Complex and
Early Cenozoic igneous rocks of Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
Armstrong, R. L., van der Heyden, P., and Ghosh, D., 1989, The 2.1 to 2.3 Ga basement under Quesnellia between 47°
and 53° N: Lithoprobe Cordilleran Workshop, February,1989, Abstracts, p. 60.
Armstrong, R. L. and Ward, Peter, in press, Late Triassic to earliest Eocene magmatism in the North American
Cordillera: Implications for the Western Interior Basin: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper.
Bally, A. W., Gordy, P. L., and Stewart, G. A., 1966, Structure, seismic data, and orogenic evolution of southern
Canadian Rocky Mountains: Bulletin Canadian Petroleum Geology v. 14, p. 337-381.
Barksdale, J. D., 1975, Geology of the Methow Valley, Okanagan County, Washington: Washington Division of
Geology and Earth Resources Bulletin 68, 72 p.
Beddoe-Stephens, B. and Lambert, R. St J., 1981, Geochemical, mineralogical, and isotopic data relating to the origin
and tectonic setting of the Rossland volcanic rocks, southern British Columbia: Canadian Journal of Earth
Sciences, v. 18, p. 858-868.
Benvenuto, G. L. and Price, R. A., 1979, Structural evolution of the Hosmer thrust sheet, southeastern British
Columbia: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology v. 27, p. 360-394.
Brown, E. H. and 14 others, 1986, Geologic map of the Northwest Cascades, Washington.
Brown, R. L., Fyles, 1. T., Glover, J. K., H0Y, T., Okulitch, A. V., Preto, V. A., and Read, P. B., 1981, Southern
Cordillera cross-section - Cranbrook to Kamloops: Geological Assocation of Canada, Field guides to geology
and mineral deposits, Calgary, 1981, Meeting, p. 335-372.
Cheney, E. S., 1980, Kettle dome and related structures of northeastern Washington: Geologial Society of America
Memoir 153, p. 463-483.
Cheney, E. S., 1987, Major Cenozoic faults in the northern Puget Lowland of Washington, in, E. J. Schuster, editor,
Selected papers on the geology of Washington: Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources Bulletin
77, p. 149-168.
Cheney, E. S., Rhodes, B. P., and McMillen, D. D., 1982, Metamorphic core complexes and low-angle faults of
northeastern Washington, in, S. Roberts and D. Fountain, editors, Tobacco Root Geological Society, 1980
Field Conference, Guidebook.
Christopher, P. A., 1978, East Okanagan uranium area (Kelowna to Beaverdell) south-central British Columbia: British
Columbia Ministry of Energy Mines and Petroleum Resources Preliminary Map 29.
Church, B. N., 1980, Geology of the Kelowna Tertiary outlier (west Half); British Columbia Ministry of Energy Mines
and Petroleum Resources Preliminary Map 39.
Church, B. N., 1985, Volcanology and structure of Tertiary outliers in south-central British Columbia. Geologial
Society of America Cordilleran Section Field Trip Guidebook, Vancouver, B. C., May, 1985 Meeting, Trip 5,
46 pp.
Clague, J. J., 1974, The St. Eugene formation and the development of the southern Rocky Mountain Trench: Canadian
Journal of Earth Sciences v. 11, p. 916-938.
Cook, F. A., Green, A. G., Simony, P. S., Price, R. A., Parrish, R. R., Milkereit, B., Gordy, P. L., Brown, R. L.,
Coflin, K. c., and Patenaude, C., 1988, Lithoprobe seismic reflection structure of the southeastern Canadian
Cordillera: Initial results: Tectonics v. 7, p. 157-180.
Roadlog and Map References 2

Cook, F. A, Simony, P. S., Coflin, K. C., Green, A G., Milkereit, B., Price, R. A., Parrish, R. R., Patenaude, C.,
Gordy, P. L., and Brown, R. L., 1987, Lithoprobe southern Canadian Cordilleran transect: Rocky Mountain
thrust belt to Valhalla gneiss complex: Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society v. 89, p. 91-98.
Daly, R. A., 1912, Geology of the North American Cordillera at the Forty-Ninth Parallel: Geological Survey of Canada
Memoir 38, 3v., 857 pp.
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i---------R:adI0g and Map References

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