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MODAL VERBS 2.2. SHALL/WILL I. Work on the model: The door of our room is open.

(to shut it) Shall I/we shut it? I. Your suitcase is very heavy. (to help you) 2. This book is not very expensive. (to buy it) 3. Harry has not arrived yet. (to ring him up) 4. You don't know this word. (to translate it) 5. It is dark in here. (to turn the light on) 6. I think I am late. (to take a taxi) 7. I have found a mistake. (to correct it) 8. The radio is too loud. (to turn it down) 9. You don't have enough money. (to lend you some) II. Express insistence or threat by using shall. Work on the model: I insist that they come here tomorrow. They shall come here tomorrow. 1. We assure you that you will regret that! 2. I insist that they tell us the truth. 3. The pupils must be present before 9 o'clock. 4. We insist that they produce the evidence at once. 5. You will remember this one-day! 6. They are obliged to wear uniforms in this school. 7. I insist that you go there at once. 8. We assure you that this boy will admit his faults. III. Ask for the opinion of other people by using the structure let's ..., shall we ? according to the model:

Why don't we open the window? Let's open the window, shall we ? 1. What about going there one of these days? 2. Why don't we call the police? 3. How about postponing our trip? 4. Why don't we translate the whole paragraph? 5. I suggest we buy these dictionaries. 6. How about inviting her to our party ? 7. Why don't we read this sentence again? 8. I suggest we try to find them. 9. I think we should leave earlier today. 10. How about spending this weekend at the seaside? IV. Use will to describe "usual behaviour" instead of the Simple Present: 1. When she is tired, she often drinks tomato juice. 2. Our friends don't always spend the evenings at home. 3. Jane pays us a visit occasionally. 4. Don't worry; such things often happen here. 5. Father often goes fishing. 6. My sister watches TV for hours every afternoon. 7. Granny takes a walk every evening. 8. The girl drinks milk every morning.

V. Translate the following sentences containing supposition into Romanian: 1. This will be the place where the accident took place. 2. Her guest will have arrived by now. 3. Who will that pretty woman be? 4. They will have understood us, I suppose. 5. Our friends haven't arrived yet; they will still be working. 6. The bell is ringing. That will be Albert.

VI. Translate the following sentences into Romanian paying attention to the meanings of the verb will: 1. Will you come with me, please? 2. Children will be children. 3. I wonder who that tall man will be. 4. My daughter will be very happy if you will lend her this new dictionary. 5. I don't know whether they will succeed or not. 6. My car won't start. 7. This girl will spend long hours listening to music. 8. Will you kindly repeat the last sentence ? 2.3. CAN/COULD I. Comment on the following sentences using can or can't + Infinitive. Work on the model: Bob has learnt the poem by heart. He can recite it. 1. Lucy has studied French for five years. 2. We don't understand him. 3. You ski every winter. 4. Alice doesn't find her pen. 5. These boys don't play tennis well. 6. My brother does very difficult exercises. 7. Mary writes with

her left hand. 8. Liza makes very good cakes. 9. You don't drive a car. 10. The boys don't sing English songs. II. Turn the following sentences into the Future: 1. I can speak English. 2. We can play the piano. 3. Mary can understand him. 4. You can carry this box. 5. I can open that window. 6. The children can help us. 7. We can translate the lesson. 8. I can count in French. 9. You can draw nice flowers. 10. We can repair engines.

III. Work on the model: I can't swim very well, but I ... swim when I was a child. I can't swim very well, but 1 could swim when I was a child. 1. Jerry can't ride a bicycle, but he ... ride it years ago. 2. You can't speak German now, but you ... speak it when you were five years old. 3. We can't play football very well now, but we ... play quite well when we were pupils. 4. I can't type very fast now, but I ... type when I was a student. 5. We can't recognize him now, but we ... recognize him when he had a moustache. 6. My brothers can't remember her name now, but they ... remember it three days ago. 7. I can't ring her up at this time of night, but I ... ring her up at 7 o'clock in the evening. 8. Grandfather can't dance now, but he ... dance 10. You can't understand him now as very well when he was younger. 9. Our friends can't join us on the trip today, but they ... join us last week. slowly. he is speaking very fast, but you ... understand him when he spoke more

IV. Fill in the blanks with can or be able to. Sometimes it is possible to use either: 1. Your sister ... play the violin very well. 2. Although the problem is very difficult, we ... do it. 3. We have been looking for him for three hours, but we ... not find him. 4. I'm sure that you ... help her now. 5. I wonder how she ... find such smart dresses. 6. He is in a hurry. However, he ... explain to us how to reach the station. 7. Whenever he learns the lesson, he ... give very good answers. 8. If you enter this room, you ... see very interesting things.

V. Express permission according to the model: You are visiting your cousin. He has bought a new bicycle which you want to see. What will you say ? Can I see your new bicycle ? 1. You are visiting an old friend of yours. He has just cut some roses. You want to smell them. What will you say? 2. You are visiting your desk mate. You want to make a telephone call. What will you say? 3. Your little sister has stopped in front of the door. She is too short to unlock it. You want to help her. What will you say? 4. You are at your friend's birthday party. You want another piece of cake. What will you say? 5. You are visiting your neighbour. You want to see his newly decorated room. What will you say? 6. Mother has just finished a cake. You want to taste it. What will you say?

7. You meet some of your schoolmates in the park. You want to play with them. What will you say? 8. You have lost your pen. Your deskmate has got two pens. You want to borrow one of them. What will you say? 9. Your brother opened the window ten minutes ago. You feel very cold so you want to close it. What will you say? 10. You want to sleep, but your sister is still reading in bed. You want to switch off the light. What will you say? 11. Your friend and you are listening to the radio. The radio is too loud and so you want to turn it down. What will you say? VI. Rewrite these sentences using can/could or can't/couldn't with verbs of perception, according to the model: Does she hear me well now ? Can she hear me well now? 1. I smell something strange in the room. 2. We saw a lot of people there. 3. We don't see her now. 4. Do you hear Alice singing? 5. We didn't see the eagle at that moment. 6. You smell a fine scent in the air. 7. She sees the bear now. 8. The dog smelt the drugs in the car. \

VII. Use could + have + Past Participle according to the model: Did you see that film ? I could have seen it, but I decided not to. 1. Did you write a letter to her? 2. Did your mother give you a present? 3. Did the children buy sweets? 4. Did the boy draw a plane? 5. Did you sing an English song? 6. Did the girl make a cake? 7. Did these people help you? 8. Did the policeman fine you? 9. Did you eat all the apples? 10. Did Tom translate the whole text? VIII. Work on the model: Where shall we spend this weekend ? (go to the mountains) Well, we could go to the mountains. 1. What shall I tell your daughter now? (a short story) 2. When shall we pay him a visit? (next week) 3. What shall I put on? (the white blouse) 4. Where shall I sleep tonight? (in our tent) 5. When shall we visit this museum? (next Friday) 6. What shall we begin our programme with? (a Scottish dance) 7. Where shall we put the flowers? (near the window) 8. Where shall I look for my spectacles? (in the garden)

IX. Use can't + Present/Perfect Infinitive to express impossibility. Work on the models: John is at home now. He can't be at home now. Jane missed the bus. She can't have missed the bus. 1. Jack broke another window. 2. I don't think this boy speaks Japanese. 3. I don't think the pupils have finished all the exercises. 4. It's impossible for that man to have said that. 5. She knows our hiding place. 6. Peter saw a huge fish. 7. The girls made many mistakes. 8. I don't think the boys are in the garden. 2.4. MAY/MIGHT I. Rephrase the following sentences using may + Present Infinitive to express possibility: 1. Perhaps our friend will catch the train. 2. Maybe you remember her address.3. Perhaps the tourists don't know the way to the museum. 4. Perhaps you will buy another house. 5. Maybe we'll pay him a visit today. 6. Maybe she doesn't drink coffee in the morning. 7. Perhaps the dogs will not hear us. 8. Maybe we'll find tickets for this play. 9. Perhaps your sister will travel by plane. 10. Maybe the Browns are at home. II. Use may/might + Continuous Infinitive to express present possibility. Work on the model: The boy (to play) football now. a) The boy may be playing football now. b) The boy might be playing football now.

1. The kids (to sleep) now. 2. Your brother (to drink) some milk now. 3. The dog (to bark) now. 4. Grannie (to knit) by the fireplace. 5. The teacher (to correct) our papers. 6. John (to read) a new novel now. 7. Father (to repair) the gate now. 8. The children (to watch) a cartoon. 9. That woman (to sell) white roses. 10. The dog (to run) after the cat. III. Write uncertain answers to the following questions according to the model: Where are the children ? They may/might/could be in their room. 1. Where will you be tomorrow? 2. What time does mother come home? 3. What does Doris buy at the grocer's? 4. What time does the plane take off? 5. Where will your friends go on Sunday ? 6. What will your son choose for a pet? 7. Which of these houses is hers? 8. Where does this boy live? 9. What does your father read in the evening? IV. Express past possibility by using may/might + Perfect Infinitive according to the models: Do you know if Alex passed that exam ? I'm not sure, he may have passed it. Do you know if the policeman recognized you ? I'm not sure, he might have recognized me. 1. Do you know if it rained in the mountains? 2. Do you know if the boy won the match? 3. Do you know if Mary arrived? 4. Do you know if the children saw that film? 5. Do you know if Jane bought a new umbrella? 6. Do you know if Matthew learnt that poem by heart? 7. Do you know if the kids fell asleep? 8. Do you know if that patient recovered?

V. Turn the following "certain" statements into "possible"/"less certain" statements according to the model: She is in the garden now. Well, she may/might/could be there. 1. They will arrive at 6 o'clock. 2. This woman speaks five foreign languages. 3. Your sister is sleeping now. 4. Her aunt will be at home at that time. 5. The boys will play tennis tomorrow. 6. George works in a new factory. 7. The teacher hears us now. 8. She will borrow this dictionary from you. VI. Comment on the following sentences using may/might or can't: 1. Perhaps you'll find her there. 2. Perhaps she sold her car. 3. I think she knows him. 4. I don't believe they found out the truth. 5. I am sure the teacher has corrected our papers. 6. Perhaps your neighbour was not at home. 7. Maybe Jack is ill. 8. Perhaps the hunter shot that wolf. 9. Maybe Jack knows the poem by heart. 10. I am sure that this girl doesn't live in this house.

VII. Ask for permission by using may: 1. You have just finished your test paper and so you want to go out of the classroom. What will you ask your teacher? 2. You are at the cinema. The film has already started but you haven't found your seat yet. You see a vacant seat. What will you say? 3. Pamela opens the door. The teacher is already in the classroom. What will she ask him? 4. You work as a secretary for a big company. You haven't finished typing a long letter and you want to ask your boss if you can give him the letter a little later. What will you tell him? 5. You are at the school library. You see an interesting book on a shelf. You want to borrow it. What will you ask the librarian? 6. You are paying a visit to your neighbour. You see a fine stamp album on the table. You want to have a look at the stamps. What will you say? 7. You are travelling by plane. The woman sitting beside you has a doll in her hand. Your daughter wants to play with this doll. What will she ask the woman? 8. You are on a train. It is very warm in the compartment so you want to open the window. What will you ask the other passengers?

VIII. Turn the following sentences expressing permission into the Future, making all the necessary changes: 1. You may attend his lecture. 2. She may wait here. 3. The boy may not pick flowers in the park. 4. You may sleep in this room tonight. 5. The child may not return to the street. 6. His horse may have some sugar now. 7. You may go to the cinema after lunch. 8. The pupils may not talk during the test. 9. You may play together now. 10. She may visit him whenever she wants.

IX. Comment on the following sentences using might + Present/Perfect Infinitive to express reproach. Work on the models: You don't listen to me when I'm speaking to you. You might listen to me when I'm speaking to you. You didn't thank her for the book. You might have thanked her for the book. 1. She doesn't get up early. 2. You didn't learn the lesson. 3. The boy didn't greet the old woman. 4. Mary doesn't work hard. 5. You were not attentive. 6. You don't hurry. 7. Father doesn't give up smoking. 8. You didn't bring me my coat. 9. The sick man didn't take that medicine. 10. My sister doesn't lock the door. 2.5. MUST I. Answer the following questions. Use must to express an obligation. Work on the model: Can't she come later? No, she must come now. 1. Can't Peter finish his homework tomorrow? 2. Can't you repair your car in the afternoon? 3. Can't we discuss this matter some other time? 4. Can't your sister go shopping after lunch? 5. Can't her brother go there next week? 6. Can't the boys postpone the match? 7. Can't she shut the windows later on? 8. Can't you buy this book next month?

II. Turn the following sentences into the Past Tense: 1. We must answer the teacher's questions. 2. Mother must give the baby some milk. 3. You must wake your father at six o'clock. 4. We must pack everything by lunchtime. 5. You must lock the door before leaving. 6. She must brush her teeth every morning. 7. The boys must comb their hair. 8. He must pick some flowers. 9. I must light the fire at 7 o'clock. 10. She must tell me the truth. III. Turn the following sentences into the Future: 1. I must go to the market. 2. You must write this exercise. 3. She must clean the table. 4. The children must not cross the street here. 5. The patient must take this medicine. the lecturer. 6. I must hurry in the morning. 7. We must listen to 8. The dog must not enter the house. 9. The children

must help their parents. 10. You must dust the furniture. IV. Fill in the blanks with must or have to. Sometimes it is possible to use either: 1. The pupils in our primary school ... wear uniforms. 2. If you want to get a good mark, you ... work hard. 3. He couldn't come here yesterday because he ... repair his bicycle. 4. In Romania traffic ... keep to the right while in England it... keep to the left. 5. I am sure Tim will be punctual because he ... to catch the early train. 6. This girl ... earn her living since she was fifteen. 7. If you didn't want to write your homework yesterday, you ... write it today. 8. I don't think we can play tennis tomorrow. We ... go shopping. 9. I know that he doesn't like going to school, but he ... 10. As the manager was ill, we ... postpone our meeting. V. Make up questions with have to according to the model:

"Andrew had to go to the grocer's.' "Why...?" "Why did he have to go there ?'

1. "Jack had to give examples of adjectives." "How many... ?" 2. "We had to leave early." "What time... ? " 3. "The children had to ask questions." "How many... ?" 4. "Father had to pay a fine." "How much... ?" 5. "She has to give him some money." "Why...?" 6. "You have to put on another shirt." "Which...?" 7. "We have to buy a lot of things today." "What exactly...?" 8. "She had to return the book to the library." "When...?" 9. "George had to go back home." "Why...?" 10. "They have to choose some proverbs." "How many... ?"

VI. Fill in the blanks with mustn't or don't/doesn't have to: 1. I tell you this secret but you ... tell anybody about it. 2. We still have plenty of time so we ... hurry. 3. You ... cross the street till the traffic light is green. 4. I think your leg is broken. You ... move it. 5. We have enough bread, so you ... go to buy any. 6. I may get up later on because I ... go to school today. 7. Granny is sleeping, so we ... make any noise. 8. It isn't raining any longer, so you ... take your umbrella. 9. Tom, you ... be late for school again! 10. The weather is fine today, so we ... put on our warm clothes.

VII. Answer the following questions by using must or can't to express probability or impossibility, respectively. Work on the models: "Is Jane at home? " (Yes) "Yes, she must be at home." "Did she miss the train? " (No) "No, she can't have missed it." 1. "Are they friends? " (Yes) 2. "Do they understand her? " (No) 3. "Did Jack make so many mistakes? " (No) 4. "Do these girls have many toys? " (No) 5. "Is it late? " (Yes) 6. "Are your friends here? " (Yes) 7. "Did they get lost? " (No) 8. "Do your sisters know me?" (No) 9. "Does Mary speak English well?" (Yes) 10. "Did your cousins move to a new house? " (No)

VIII. Express past probability by using must + have + Past Participle according to the model: Peter is very tired, (to work hard) He must have worked hard. 1. Albert didn't want to go to the cinema. (to see the film) 2. Our friends haven't arrived yet. (to miss the train) 3. The little girl didn't find her key. (to lose it) 4. The dog raised its head. (to hear us) 5. Jack didn't buy that car. (to be too expensive) 6. Margaret didn't bring me the book. (to forget it) 7. The old woman was very sad. (to hear the bad news) 8. His neighbour had a terrible accident. (to fall asleep while driving his car) 9. The ball is no longer under the tree. (somebody/to take it) 10. The cake is not on the table. (the boy/to eat it)

IX. Translate the following sentences into English using must to express obligation or deduction: 1. Nu te neliniti. Trebuie s fie nc devreme. 2. Vine ploaia, aa c trebuie s ne grbim. 3. Vd c John nu a ajuns nc; trebuie c a pierdut autobuzul. 4. Bate cineva la u; trebuie s fie fiul vecinului. 5. Friorul tu se odihnete, aa c nu trebuie s facei glgie. 6. Se uita fix la mine ; trebuie s m fi vzut undeva. 7. Nu trebuie s mai facei asemenea greeli. 8. Bunicul nu-i gsete ochelarii; trebuie s-i fi uitat din nou n parc. 9. Nu trebuie s vorbeti tare n biseric. 10. Cei doi biei trebuie s stea iar de vorb pe banca din gradin. 2.6. NEED I. Use needn't according to the model: Shall I do this exercise now ? (later on) No, you needn't. You can do it later on. 1. Shall we go shopping now? (in the afternoon) 2. Shall I call her up today? (tomorrow) 3. Shall I do all the problems? (only the first three) 4. Shall we write to Granny today? (on Tuesday) 5. Shall I read the newspaper now? (in the evening) 6. Shall we sweep the floor now? (later on) 7. Shall I wash the dishes now? (in the afternoon) 8. Shall we visit the patient today? (tomorrow) 9. Shall we give her the present now? (later on) 10. Shall I read the sentence again? (We have already understood it) II. Fill in the blanks with must or need according to the meaning: 1. ... we buy any bread today? 2. When ... the film begin? 3. ... you return the book in a fortnight ? 4. ... we write exercise five, too ? 5. Where ... he wait

for us? 6. ... they leave earlier than usual? 7. ... they answer in French? 8. ... we salute all the officers? 9. "... I take my rain-coat?" "No, it has cleared up." 10. What ... we write on these sheets of paper ?

III. Fill in the blanks with mustn't or needn't according to the meaning: 1. People ... walk on the grass. 2. We ... take our umbrellas; the rain has stopped. 3. If he hasn't finished the book yet, he ... return it this week. 4. We ... talk in a library. 5. She ... get up so early. It doesn't take her longer than ten minutes to get to the station. 6. The president of a country ..., openly at least, take sides in politics. 7. Children ... run in the street. 8. Think it over. You ... decide right now. 9. You ... help me with this exercise. I can do it myself. 10. We ... feed animals in a zoo. IV. Fill in the blanks with mustnt /needn't/don't have to/haven't got to according to the meaning: 1. You ... stop your car on the zebra crossing. 2. You ... all the sandwiches if you are not hungry. 3. She ... worry about the train. It will arrive on time. 4. "Are you going to read that letter? " "No, I ... It's not mine." 5. We ... get up so early. The taxi will come at 8 o'clock. 6. She ... enter this building without permission. 7. You ... go to the theatre if you don't want to. 8. Pupils ... sleep during the classes. V. Make up questions with Need (I) ... ? or Do (I) need to ... ? according to the meaning: 1. ... we (to wait) for you every morning? 2. ... she (to finish) her composition today? 3. ... I (to hurry) now? 4. ... you (to brush) your teeth every morning? 5. ... the boys (to wash) their hands now? 6. ... mother (to

wake) him up every morning? 7. ... I (to carry) her suitcase, too, today? 8. ... she (to show) you her driver's licence now? 9. ... the children (to rehearse) the play every afternoon? 10. ... the pupil on duty (to clean) the blackboard every morning? VI. Use needn't have + Past Participle according to the model: I don't know why you said that. You needn't have said that. 1. I don't know why she made such a mistake. 2. I don't know why they came so early. 3. I don't know why Matthew ate all the cakes. 4. I don't know why you travel by train. 5. I don't know why she spent so much money. 6. I don't know why father waited for us in the park. 7. I don't know why Jane sang that song twice. 8. I don't know why the boys played football in the evening. 9. I don't know why our friends made so much noise. 10. I don't know why you told her such a terrible story. VII. Fill in the blanks with didnt need to/neednt have + Past Participle according to the meaning: 1. You ... (to tell) her that; you see she is crying now. 2. I ... (to knock) on the door because it was already open. 3. She ... (to take) a taxi because she still head a lot of time to get there. 4. We ... (to stop) here; the policeman has seen us. 5. I ... (to wait) long because they came back home very quickly. 6. You ... (to pay) him so much money; it couldn't be more than five dollars. 7. We ... (to water) the flowers because it had rained an hour before. 8. She ... (to stay) up so late; now she is very tired. 9. You ... (to mention) anything about the child. Now she understands that we have discussed about him. 10. I ... (to show) my identity card because he had recognized me.

2.7. SHOULD I. Give advice using should/shouldn't according to the model: It is rather late. Advise your sister to hurry. You should hurry. 1. Your brother speaks too loud. Advise him not to speak so loud. 2. Mike is often late for school. Advise him to get up earlier. 3. There is a good film on this week. Advise Alice to see it. 4. Your cousins are going to London. Advise them to visit the British Museum. 5. Your deskmate often draws during the classes. Advise him not to draw during the classes. 6. Your sister stays up late every night. Advise her not to stay up so late. 7. Tomorrow is your little cousin's birthday. Advise your mother to buy him a toy-train. 8. It is clearing up. Advise your friend not to take her umbrella. II. Relate the following sentences to the Past according to the model: Jane should do that at once. Jane should have done that at once. 1. You should change your shoes. 2. They should not go home alone. 3. She should read the text carefully. 4. You should repeat this rule. 5. The boy should be punctual. 6. The children should go to bed at 10 o'clock. 7. The

train should arrive at 5 o'clock. 8. Peter should work as hard as he can. 9. Your sister should not be late for school. 10. Juliet should see a doctor. III. Replace the Accusative + Infinitive by that + should + Infinitive: 1. It is better to go there yourself. 2. It was essential for them to understand this thing well. 3. It is advisable for her to try to find them. 4. It was natural for you to act in this way. 5. It is important for her to get the money in the morning. 6. It was necessary for them to catch the 5 o'clock train. 7. It is fair for him to tell the truth from the very beginning. 8. It was right for Michael to think about that. IV. Replace the verb + noun/pronoun (Accusative) + Long Infinitive construction by that + should + Short Infinitive: 1. I advised them to hurry. 2. She suggested to him to buy that horse. 3. The teacher demanded from his pupils to write that exercise again. 4. He advised you to be punctual. 5. He suggests to his sister to open the window. 6. The doctor demands from the patient to take that medicine. V. Replace the if + happened construction by should + Present Infinitive according to the model: If mother happened to hear us speaking like that, she would get angry with us. If mother should hear us speaking like that, she would get angry with us. 1. If you happened to see her, remind her of the trip. 2. If it happened to snow again, we couldn't get to the chalet today. 3. What would a little boy

do if he happened to meet a dog in the street? 4. I think he would sleep in this hotel tonight, too, if he happened to miss the train. 5. What would they do if they happened to find a passport in the street? 6. If you happened to hear this man speaking, you would immediately recognize him. 7. If you happened to win a large sum of money, what would you do with it? VI. Omit if in the following conditional sentences according to the model; Fred wouldn't fail the test if he worked harder. Should Fred work harder, he wouldn't fail the test. 1. He would change the present economic policy if he became the President of the country. 2. Mary would lend me a pen if she had one. 3. They would go swimming today if it weren't raining. 4. She would write to him if she knew his address. 5. The girl would be happy if she found her bag. 6. My daughter would like this film if she saw it. VII. Translate the following sentences into Romanian paying attention to the verb should 1. Why should they go there? 2. It is necessary that your brother should learn all the new words. 3. I remember that you urged that he should tell his mother the truth. 4. I think that, under the circumstances, you should write to them as soon as possible. 5. Should your mother see your dirty clothes, she would be very angry. 6. I didn't switch the light on lest my little son should wake up. 7. What would you say if your friend should ring you up at midnight? 8. You shouldn't have got up so early. Now, you'll have to wait till the others come. 9. You look pale. You shouldn't stay up so late. 10. That they should have behaved like that was very surprising. 11. I don't know

why she should speak like that. 12. I feel sorry that such a thing should have happened to him. 13. I think she should have written the exercise before coming to school. 14. I explained to them that I should leave for London in a few days. 2.8. OUGHT TO I. Work on the model: Dolly is in the park. But she ought to be at school. 1. Her homework is written in pencil. 2. The windows are open. 3. Jane is coming by train. 4. Your baby sister is awake. 5. George comes to school at 8 o'clock every day. 6. You go to the cinema every afternoon. 7. Robert reads in bed every night. 8. The girls finish their lessons at 11 o'clock at night. 9. Your brothers make a lot of noise when they come home. 10. Jane sleeps in the garden. II. Turn into the interrogative: 1. They ought to arrive at noon. 2. She ought to go to parties more often. 3. Doctor Smith ought to take a taxi. 4. We ought to invite our neighbours, too. 5. Eve ought to speak to her mother about that matter. 6. He ought to urge all his friends to attend that meeting. 7. I ought to try to find a better job. 8. Jack ought to lock the front door. 9. We ought to be a little more careful about such matters. 10. She ought to write a letter to her friends. III. Turn into the negative:

1. You ought to tell them about it. 2. He ought to let Maggie know what happened there. 3. I ought to send her a lot of money. 4. The students ought to read all these books. 5. We ought to object to Harry's suggestion. 6. She ought to have spoken to him first. 7. You ought to give that message to someone else. 8. They ought to leave at 6 o'clock. 9. William ought to persuade Sue to go there. 10. You ought to ask for his advice. IV. Work on the model: Our lesson started at 9.30. But it ought to have started at 9. 1. I was paid very little for my work. 2. The train arrived at 10 o'clock. 3. Martin bought five loaves of bread. 4. Irene put the flowers in the kitchen. 5. You have used white chalk. 6. They went there on foot. 7. Nelly saw only the first part of the film. 8. The old man drank six glasses of water. 9. Emma answered only one question. 10. Cressida didn't cross the street at the zebra crossing.

V. Translate the following sentences expressing expectation into Romanian: 1. According to the weather forecast, it ought not to rain tomorrow. 2. This telegram ought to get there in a few hours. 3. They ought to find this exercise easier than the other ones. 4. This book ought not to cost more than ten dollars. 5. These tools ought to be useful during our expedition. 6. At this time she ought to be at home. 7. If you have read this poem so many times, you ought to know it by heart. 8. This man worked here a few years ago, so you ought to remember him.

VI. Translate the following recommendations into English using ought to: 1. Fratele tu ar trebui s fie mai grijuliu. 2. Copiii ei nu ar trebui s mnnce attea dulciuri. 3. S-ar cuveni s-i trimit un cadou de Crciun. 4. Ar trebui s-i anuni pe prinii ei de acest lucru. 5. N-ar trebui s folosii lumina electric n timpul zilei. 6. Ei ar trebui s-i viziteze bunicii mai des. 7. N-ar mai trebui s ntrziai la aceste ore de clas. 8. Dac tot se simte ru, ar trebui s consulte un medic. 9. Ar trebui s m las de fumat; am nceput s am probleme cu plmnii. 10. Ar trebui s-i spunei adevrul; nu vedei cum se frmnt?

VII. Relate the following sentences to the Past according to the model: You ought to lend her your bike. You ought to have lent her your bike. 1. Mary ought to get there in the morning. 2. You ought to know this. 3. I ought to ring up my grandparents. 4. The boy ought not to eat so many cakes. 5. According to the time-table, the train ought to arrive at 6 o'clock. 6. You ought to work harder for this exam. 7. The pupil on duty ought to clean the blackboard. 8. He ought to have his hair cut. 2.9. WOULD I. Replace the Past Subjunctive used after the verb wish by would + Present Infinitive:

1. I wish he were not so lazy. 2. I wish you helped her. 3. You wish she knew the answer to this question. 4. They wish I were not so busy. 5. I wish you understood her. 6. You wish he wrote to his mother more often. II. Replace want in the following sentences by would like to: 1. My brother wants to become an engineer. 2. I want to buy a new car. 3. You want to find her there. 4. The boys want to win the match. 5. Mary wants to learn a foreign language. 6. You want to go to the seaside. 7. I want to explain to you what has happened. 8. The old man wants to buy some medicine. 9. You want to help the old woman. 10. I want to see that film.

III. Turn into the Indirect Speech: 1. "I will write to her soon," said the boy. 2. "Mother will make a good cake for my birthday," Ruth said. 3. "When will the children come?" the woman wanted to know. 4. "Nobody will find us here," Tom told me. 5. "Will your sister buy that book? " Tim asked Kate. 6. "My friends will travel by train," Martin explained. 7. "Our plane will take off at 11 o'clock," Bob let us know. 8. "The dog will recognize me," Peter hoped. 9. "My brother will not be late," she assured me. 10. "You will understand these things later on," the woman told her daughter. IV. Replace the used to construction by would + Infinitive: 1. My father used to work in the morning, but now he works in the afternoon. 2. You used to walk to your office, but now you go there by bus. 3. Mother used to drink much coffee, but now she doesn't any more. 4. When my daughter was a child, she used to read storybooks. 5. Bill did not

used to enjoy classical music, but now he listens to it regularly. 6. You used to get to work in time, but you don't any more. 7. Grandfather used to smoke cigars, but he doesn't any longer. 8. You used to play the piano, but you haven't touched it for years now. V. Make up polite requests according to the model: Come this way! Would you come this way ? Would you be so kind as to come this way ? Would you please come this way ? 1. Open the door! 2. Sing a song! 3. Tell me the truth! 4. Speak English to me! 5. Show me the way! 6. Clean the blackboard! 7. Give me a piece of chalk! 8. Read this article again! 9. Explain that rule to them! 10. Correct this sentence!

VI. Replace was/were unwilling to or refused to by wouldn't: 1. I asked her to help me but she refused to do it. 2. The boy was unwilling to take part in the debates. 3. You refused to show her how to do that problem. 4. I was unwilling to go to the theatre. 5. She invited him to come in but he refused. 6. The child was unwilling to drink that medicine. VII. Translate the following sentences into Romanian paying attention to the verb would: 1. I wish you would be here in the morning. 2. Would you be so kind as to help me with this difficult problem? 3. I remember that, when my son was

on holiday, he would spend long hours playing with other kids in the park. 4. Our teacher of English would rather we didn't make so many mistakes any longer. 5. Would she like to come with us to the country? 6. The little child said that he would fly his new kite that afternoon. 7. I wonder what his name would be. 8. Would your brother care to buy tickets for that show? 9. If I helped her, she would be grateful to me. 10. Would you like to show us those pictures again? 11. Would you mind opening the window? 12. Would you, please, speak louder? 13. She could help me if she would. 14. Would you lend me your bike, please? 2.10. USED TO I. Work on the model: What time/to go to bed/at 10/much later What time did you use to go to bed ? I used to go to bed at 10 o'clock but now I go to bed much later. 1. Where/to spend a winter holiday/at home/in the mountains; 2. What/to read/adventure books/history books; 3. Where/to live/in a village/in a town; 4. What time/to go to school/at 7.30/at 12.00; 5. Where/to play/in the garden/in the house; 6. Where/to have lunch/at the restaurant/at home; 7. What time/to come from work/at 3 p.m./at 6 p.m.; 8. What/to paint/landscapes/portraits; 9. Where/to meet this boy/in the park/at school; 10. What/to smoke/ cigars/ cigarettes. II. Replace the underlined verbs in the Past Tense Simple by the used to construction:

1. In her earlier life she imagined that she would be rich one day. 2. In the past people believed that a mad person was possessed by a devil. 3. At one time she was an actress, but now she is a singer. 4. Our house was formerly an orphanage. 5. There was once a pub at the corner of our street. 6. A long time ago, my daughter thought there were lands where giants existed. 7. In those years, a famous person lived in this house. 8. About fifty years ago the climate was much warmer than it is now. 9. Where they lived, in his childhood, they never had snow in winter. 10. There was a bridge across the river in front of our house. III. Replace would + Short Infinitive by the used to-construction : 1. We would spend long hours admiring the landscape. 2. You would pay him a visit every Saturday afternoon. 3. When Rebecca taught in our school, our pupils would speak English every day. 4. The little boy would play with the dog in the garden when his parents were not at home. 5. These pupils would ask a lot of interesting questions. 6. During the spring holiday I would work in the garden every day. 7. Nick would swim every morning last summer. 8. Our friends would go fishing every Sunday. 9. You would play football when you were younger. 10. Margaret would make good cakes on her son's birthday. IV. Replace to be accustomed to/to be in the habit of + -ing by used to: 1. In his childhood, he was accustomed to drinking fresh milk every morning. day. 2. Years ago, my sister was in the habit of writing letters every 3. Grandfather was accustomed to getting up early. 4.

Christine was in the habit of smoking about twenty cigarettes a day. 5. They were accustomed to working from early morning till late in the evening. 6.

We were soon accustomed to eating the food in that country. 7. Grandmother was in the habit of knitting by the fireplace. 8. My nephews were accustomed to coming to my place every Sunday morning. 9. Those two women were in the habit of talking for long hours. accustomed to taking long walks every evening. V. Translate the following sentences into English using to be/get used to: 1. Noi nu eram obinuii cu asemenea clim. 2. Nu m pot obinui s beau cafeaua fr zahr. 3. Nu sunt obinuit s stau att de trziu noaptea. 4. Fratele meu nu se poate obinui s se scoale att de devreme. 5. Betty a locuit acolo doar o sptmn, fiindc nu s-a putut obinui cu aerul umed. 6. Sunt sigur c nu-i vei mai considera ciudai pe aceti tineri dup ce v vei obinui cu ei. 7. Te vei obinui s auzi englezete de dimineaa pn seara. 8. Nu cred c ne vom obinui s cltorim cu avionul. 9. n sfrit, sau obinuit cu zgomotul strzii. 10. Mi-a spus c nu se poate obinui s mnnce att de mult pete. 2.11. DARE I. Replace the non-anomalous forms of dare by its anomalous forms. Work on the model: How does she dare to come here ? How dare she to come here ? 1. Does he dare to contradict his boss? 2. We don't dare to wake her up. 3. Do these boys dare to invite us to the party? 4. Do you dare to call me a liar? 5. I don't dare to tell him the truth. 6. Do you dare to repeat that again? 7. 10. Bob was

Does Mike dare to drink this? 8. How do these people dare to ask me such questions? II. Work on the model: Bob/to take my car. Bob, how dare you take my car? 1. Peter/to walk on the grass; 2. Children/ to pick flowers in the park; 3. Boy/to come into my garden; 4. Lucy/to say such a thing; 5. Jack/to ring me up at this time of night; 6. Paul/to talk to her like that; 7. Alice/to eat your brother's cake; 8. Andrew/to ask her such questions.

III. Supply dare/daren't/dare not/dare not have/didn't dare to: 1. She ... tell him this terrible news. 2. ... he come here again after what he did. 3. I hardly ... ask you to help me after all that. 4. We ... mentioned his name in her presence. 5. The boy ... show the teacher his dirty hands. 6. ... these girls denied the truth? 7. The beggar ... admit he was so hungry. 8. We ... woken up the children, but we were late for the train. 9. My sister ... tell father that she has lost her watch. 10. ... he say that I am not right. IV. Replace I guess/I suppose/I expect by / dare say according to the model: I suppose Jane will come to the party I dare say Jane will come to the party. 1. We'll find Mary at home, I guess. 2. I suppose Patrick will come earlier. 3. I expect Tom will get a good mark. 4. Sue will like that dress, I guess. 5.

Jack will understand us, I suppose. 6. My friend will buy a new car, I guess. 7. These children will help their parents, I expect. 8. Nobody will disturb us, I expect. 9. I suppose the postman will bring me a letter tomorrow. 10. The tourists will find the path, I expect. V. Replace challenge + noun/pronoun (Accusative) + Infinitive by dare + noun/pronoun (Accusative) + Infinitive in the following sentences : 1. I challenged Tom to run a race. 2. I challenged them to speak about the incident. 3. She challenged Peter to break Mr. Brown's window. 4. Did they challenge him to repeat those words? 5. We challenged her to swim in the river. 6. She challenged me to ask him such a question. 7. I challenged him to write her again. 8. Did they challenge the girl to lie to me?

2.12. GENERAL EXERCISE Translate the following sentences into English using modal verbs: 1. Se poate ca sora ta s nu tie ce s-a ntmplat acolo. 2. Ar trebui s cumperi casa; s-ar putea ca preurile s urce. 3. Dac ai fi amabil s-mi spunei numele dumneavoastr, a ti pe cine s anun. 4. Orict de mult i-ai iubi copiii, nu trebuie s le treci cu vederea greelile. 5. Doctorul a insistat ca pacientul s ia medicamentele regulat. 6. A dori ca Mo Crciun s-mi aduc o biciclet anul acesta. 7. Nu se poate ca ei s ne fi recunoscut n mijlocul unei asemenea mulimi. 8. Pot s-i citesc un paragraf interesant? 9. N-am putut merge la cinema ieri fiindc a trebuit s-l ajut pe tata. 10. Asemenea lucruri se ntmpl frecvent la meciurile de fotbal. 11. V deranjeaz dac deschidei toate ferestrele? 12. Dei eram foarte obosii,

am putut rezolva pn la urm toate exerciiile. 13. tiu c au plecat de la teatru la ora 10.30, aa c ar trebui s fie acas acum. 14. Cum ndrznete ea s ne pun astfel de ntrebri? 15. M ntreb de ce n-a venit Lucy la coal astzi; trebuie s se fi simit foarte ru. 16. A vrea s nu mai dai radioul aa de tare. 17. Am sugerat ca ei s-i ia umbrelele, fiindc cerul era acoperit de nori. 18. Dac deocamdat nu poi nelege acest text, sunt sigur c n douatrei zile l vei putea nelege. 19. Oriunde mergi n concediu, ia-i si ceva bun de citit. 20. Nu trebuia s-i pui aceast ntrebare; tiai c nu-i place s i se aminteasc de acest lucru. 21. Copiii s-ar cuveni s-i respecte pe cei mai n vrst dect ei. 22. Am provocat-o s notm pn la insula din mijlocul lacului. 23. Nu se poate ca ea s bnuiasc ce avem de gnd s facem. 24. Ai fi putut s ne spui asta de la bun nceput! 25. Cnd fiul meu era mic, i petrecea mult timp n parcul din faa casei. 26. Pacientul trebuie s fi pierdut mult snge n timpul operaiei. 27. Se poate ca prietenul tu s fi ajuns deja la gar. 28. Am putut s te ajut atunci i sper c voi putea s te ajut i data viitoare. 29. n caz c ntlnii pe cineva pe strad, nu v uitai la el, ci grbii pasul. 30. Nu au ieit din cort toat dimineaa, ca s nu fie atacai de cei doi uri. 31. Ori de cte ori unul dintre colegii lui nu tia rspunsul la o ntrebare, Peter ridica mna i spunea tot ce nvase el despre acea problem. 32. Le-am recomandat s citeasc textul mai atent. 33. Dac a avea bani, te-a ajuta. 34. Tata nu trebuie s mai taie pine; avem destul. 35. Nu trebuia s-i ari fotografiile; uite c plnge. 36. Nu trebuie s facei zgomot cnd prinii votri se odihnesc. 37. ndrznesc s spun c, de aceast dat, ei au dreptate. 38. Dac cumva sun telefonul, te rog s nu rspunzi. 39. N-a trebuit s stm trziu fiindc n-am avut de fcut multe exerciii. 40. Dei aud i vd bine acum, trebuie s mai stau n spital cteva zile.