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# 1CHAPTER 5: LIGHT

5.1 REFLECTION OF LIGHT 1. Question 1: Johor 09 Diagram 1 shows light rays parallel with the principal axis directed to a concave mirror.

2. An object is placed at a distance ,u from a concave mirror, M. The table shows the characteristics of image , when the distance u is varied. a. Name the light phenomenon that is phenome involved to form the image by the mirror. _____________________________

Object distance , u /cm 10 Diagram 1 (a) Complete the sentence below by ticking (x) the correct box. The light rays reflected by the mirror y will : Converge at a point F ......... Diverge from a point F ......... [1 mark] (b) Complete the ray diagram on Diagram 1 and mark F on the principla axis. [1 mark] (c) What is the characteristics of image formed by the mirror in Diagram 1? .......................................................... [2 marks] 20 30 40

Image Characteristics

## Real, inverted, same size as the object

b. Using the information in the table, determine the focal length of the mirror M. _____________________________ c. Give the reason for your answer in (b). ____________________________ d. Complete the table. e. An object is placed at a distance 50 cm from the concave mirror M. (i) Draw a ray diagram in the space below to show the formation of the image.

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3. Question 2: N9 08 Diagram 1 shows the side mirrors of a car which helps the driver to see objects behind the car more effectively.

## 4. Question 3: Kedah 07 Diagram 3.1 shows a mirror at the corner of a shop.

Diagram 3.1 (a) State the type of mirror used. ............................................................. [1 mark] (b) Give one reason why this type of mirror is used instead of a plane mirror. .............................................................. [1 mark] (c) In Diagram 2, F is the focal point and C is the centre of curvature of a convex mirror. (a) Name the type of mirror shown in Diagram 3.1. ............................................................... [1 mark] (b) Name one characteristic of the image formed by the mirror. ............................................................... [1 mark]

## (c) Sketch a ray diagram to show how the image is formed.

(i) Complete the ray diagram in Diagram 2 to show the position of the image formed. [ 2 marks] (ii) State two characteristics of the image formed. ......................................................... ......................................................... [2 marks]
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[3 marks] (d) What is the advantage of using this type of mirror in the shop? ............................................................... [1 mark]

5. Question 6: SBP Final F4 08 Diagram 6.1 and 6.2 show a virtual image produced by a plane mirror and a convex mirror respectively.

(d) Name the light phenomenon that occurs. .......................................................... .............................................. [1mark] (e) State one advantage of using convex mirror as the side mirror of s a car. ............................................................... [1mark]

(a)

What is meant by virtual image? ............................................................ [1 mark ] 6. Question 7: Trengganu 07 Diagram 7.1 shows two cars, P and Q , travelling in the opposite directions, passing through a sharp band. A mirror is placed at X .

(b) Based on Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2, (i) compare the size of the image ....................................................... ................................. [1 mark] (ii) state one other similarity of the image formed besides virtual. ...................................................... [1 mark] (c) In Diagram 6.3, draw a ray diagram to show how the image in Diagram he 6.2 is formed. [3 marks]

DIAGAM 7.1 (a) Diagram 7.2 shows an incomplete ray diagram when a plane mirror is placed at X.

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DIAGRAM 7.2

(i)

## Complete the ray diagram in Diagram 7.2 [2 marks] (i)

DIAGRAM 7.3 AGRAM Give the name of the curve mirror. .................................................... [1 mark] (ii) Complete the ray diagram in Diagram 7.3 [2 marks]

(ii)

## State the light phenomenon involved in (a)(i). ................................................ .......................................... [1 mark]

(iii) Based on your answer in (a)(i), state the problem experienced by the driver in car P. .................................................... .................................................... .................... [1 mark] (b) Diagram 7.3 shows an incomplete ray diagram when a curve mirror is placed at X to replace the plane mirror in Diagram 7.2. The curve mirror is used to overcome the problem that occur in (a)(iii). ur

(iii) Based on your answer in b(ii), how the curve mirror solved the problem in (a) (iii)? .................................................... [1 mark] (c) The characteristics of the image formed by the curved mirror in Figure 7.3 is diminished, virtual and upright. (i) What happen to the characteristics of the image when the focal length of the curved mirror is increased? ................................................. [1 mark]

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(ii)

Give the reason for your answer in (c)(i). ........................................ .................................................... [1 mark]

8. Question 3: Melaka 07 An observer is looking at a piece of coin at the bottom of a glass filled with water as shown in Diagram3. He found that s the image of the coin is nearer to the surface of the water.

5.2 REFRACTION OF LIGHT 7. Diagram 2 shows a light ray passing through a glass prism.

(a) Name the phenomenon involved involved. ........................................................ .................. [1 mark] (b) Why does the phenomenon in (a) occur. ........................................................ ............................... [1 mark] (c) What is the refraction angle? ....................................................... [1 mark] (d) Calculate the refractive index of the glass prism. [2 marks] (ii) Name the science phenomenon involve in the observation above. .................................................... [1 mark] (b) Explain why the image of the coin th appears nearer to the surface of the water. .......................................................... .......................................................... [2 marks]
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## (a) (i) State a characteristic of image in Diagram 3. ....................................................... [1 mark]

(c) On Diagram 3, complete the ray diagram from the coin to the iagram observers eye. [2 marks] 9. Question 5: Trengganu 08 Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show an identical pencil is immersed in the distilled water and sea water respectively.

(c)

## Name the phenomenon shown in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2

........................................................ [1 mark] (d) Underline the correct answer in the bracket to complete the sentence se below. Phenomenon in (d) happens because of the change in (velocity, frequency) of the light. [1 mark] (e) Diagram 5.3 shows a coin in a beaker filled with water. In Diagram 5.3 , draw a ray diagram from a coin to the eye to show how m the image of the coin is formed.

(a) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram m 5.2, (i) compare the bending of the pencil ...................................................... [1 mark] (ii) compare the density of distilled water and the sea water ................................................ [1 mark] state the relationship between tate the density of water with the bending of the pencil

(iii)

.................................................. [1 mark] (b) Based on Diagram 5.1, compare the size of the observed pencil inside and outside the distilled water ........................................................ .............................................. [1 mark]
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10. Question 5: SBP 08 Diagram 5.1 shows a student watching a container filled with water. He looks vertically down at an object placed at the bottom of the container. He notices that the object appears to be nearer to ct him than it really is. The water in the container is then replaced with liquid X which is denser than water and the students repeated his experiment.

He estimates the real and apparent depth of the water and liquid X respectively and plots a graph using his y experimental results as shown in Diagram 5.2.

g.

If the student repeated the f experiment above using a glass block, instead of water, compare the size of the image seeing from the glass block to that of water in Diagram 5.1 ............................................................. ............................................................. [1 mark]

11. Question 5: Kedah 09 Diagram 5.1 shows a ray of light entering from air into water. Diagram 5.2 shows a ray of light entering from air into glass. a. Based on Diagram 5.2, compare the gradient of the graph. ............................................................. [1 mark] b. Compare the refractive index of water and liquid X. ............................................................. [1 mark] c. Relate the density of liquid with the refractive index. ............................................................. [1 mark] d. Calculate refractive index of the liquid X. [2 marks] Name the phenomenon involve. ............................................................. [1 mark] f. What happen to the wavelength of light as it leaves the water? ............................................................. .................................... [1 mark]
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e.

(a) (i)

Compare the speed of light in water with the speed of light in air. ....................................................... [1 mark]

(ii) Compare the speed of light in glass with the speed of light in air. .......................................................... [1 mark] (iii) State the relationship between the speed of light in a medium and the direction of bending of light in that medium. ...................................................... [1 mark] (iv) Name the phenomenon shown in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 ...................................................... [1 mark]

5.3

## TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION

12. Question 4: MARA 09 Diagram 4.1 shows a light ray incident into a glass block.

(e)

(i) Based on Diagram 4.1, the angle of 42 is known as ........................ [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the refractive index for the glass block. [2 marks]

(b) The light ray is adjusted so that the angle at M is now 48, as shown in Diagram 4.2.

(b) Diagram 5.3 shows a point P at the bottom of a swimming pool appears to be at the point Q to the observer. (i) complete Diagram 5.3 by drawing light rays to show how the image of the point P is seen at Q. [2 marks] (ii) Calculate the refractive index of the water in the swimming pool. [2 marks]

(i)

(ii)

On Diagram 4.2, complete the pathway for the light ray. [1 mark] Explain your answer in 4(b)(i). ................................................... [1 mark]

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(i) In the glass block in Diagram 4.2, i) draw the refracted ray. [1 mark ] (ii) Why the angle in the glass blocks ii) different from the water. ........................................................... ............................... ........................................................... [ 1 mark ] (c) Diagram 4.3 shows a diamond with a carefully cut faces and give the diamond its sparkle. Diagram 4.4 shows entering light into the diamond

(c) Diagram 4.3 shows a light ray propagating into a glass block. (i) On Diagram 4.3, complete the propagation of the light ray. [1 mark] (ii) What happens to the angle of refraction if a denser glass block is used? ................................................... ................................... [1 mark] 13. Question 4: Trengganu 07 Diagram 4.1 shows a ray of light travels from air to water. Diagram 4.2 shows a ray of light travels .2 from air to a thick glass block. . The refractive index of water and glass is 1.33 and 1.50 respectively

(i)

Complete the ray in Diagram 4.4. [ 1 mark ] (ii) Give one reason for your answer in (c) (i). .............................................................. .............................................................. [ 1 mark ] (d) If the refractive index of a diamond is 2.40 calculate the critical angle of the diamond.

## (a) What is meant by refractive index?

.....................................................................

[2 marks]

[1 mark] (b) In Diagram 4.1, the ray in the water is bent toward normal at a certain mal angle.
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14. Figure 5 shows two glass prisms with right angle are being used in a binocular.

(a) Name this natural phenomenon as observed by the driver. he .......................................................... [1 mark] (b) State the physics concept that is involved in this phenomenon. .......................................................... [1 mark] (c) (i) How is the density of the cool air compare to the density of the warm air?

(i) On the diagram, complete the light ray until it reaches the ntil observer. (ii) State the characteristic of the image in a binocular. _____________________________ (iii)Give advantages of using a Give binocular instead of a telescope. _____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________

.................................................... [1 mark] (ii) When light rays propagates from a denser medium to a less dense medium, state what happen to the direction of the refracted rays. .................................................... [1 mark] (iii) Complete Diagram 2.2 to show the formation of the natural phenomenon as shown in Diagram 2.1.

15. Question 2: Johor 08 Diagram 2.1 shows a driver that is driving under a hot sun, sees a pool of water appearing on the road ahead, but the pool of water disappears as the car approaches it.

## Diagram 2.1 Diagram 2.2

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16. Figure 6 shows an optical fibre. It consists of two layers which are made of material P and Q. P and Q are of different optical densities.

5.4 LENSES 17. Figure 1.1 shows an object X placed in front of a convex lens.

a. Name the light phenomena observed in optical fibre. ............................................................... b. Which material (i) is optically denser? __________________________ (ii) Has a higher refractive index? __________________________ ____________________ (c) The refractive index of inner core Y is 2.10. Calculate the critical angle of the inner core Y. [ 2 marks ] (d) State one use of optical fibre in (i) medical field _____________________________ (ii)communication ____________________________ (i) Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image of the object Y by the lens. (ii) State three characteristics of the ee image formed by the concave lens. ________________________ (b) Figure 7.2 shows an object Y placed in front of a concave lens. (i) Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image of the object X by the lens. (ii) State three characteristics of the image formed by the convex lens.

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18. Figure 2 shows two parallel light rays enter a convex lens and then converge at the other side of the lens.

19. Question 2: SBP 08 Diagram 2 shows an object is placed in front of a convex lens on the principal axis. F is the focal point of the lens.

Figure 2 (a) Where is position of the object? ________________________ (b) State three characteristics of the image formed by the lens. ________________________ (c) What is the focal length of the lens? (a) What is meant by focal length? .......................................................... [1 mark] (b) Using the information in diagram 2,calculate the image distance.

(d) An object with a height of 4 cm is placed at a distance 15 cm in front of the lens. Find (i) object distance

[2 marks] (c) (i) Complete the diagram 1 to determine the position of image form. [1 mark]

(ii) height of the image (ii) State the characteristic of the image form. (iii) characteristics of the image _____________________ Iv) A light bulb is put in front of the lens. Parallel light rays emerge from the lens. Where is the position of the light bulb? on ________________________
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.................................................... [1 mark]

20. Figure 3 shows a convex lens which has a focal length of 15.0 cm. An object is placed at a distance 20 cm in front of the lens.

21. Question 6: Mid Melaka 09 Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 show light rays from two identical objects passing through the convex lenses, M and N. Both of the lenses produce virtual images. F is the focal point of each lens.

Figure 3 (a) (i) complete the ray diagram. Determine the position of the image. (ii)State the characteristics of the image. _______________________ (b) Calculate the image distance. Diagram 6.2 (a) What is meant by virtual image? (c) Find linear magnification of the image. [1 mark] (b) Observe Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2. State the difference between: (i) size of image produced by the lenses. .. [1 mark] the object distance ,u. .................................................... [1 mark] the image distance , v. .. [1 mark] Diagram 6.1

(d)

The convex lens is replaced by a concave lens which also has a focal length of 15 cm. State any changes in the characteristics of the image formed by the concave lens.

(ii)

(iii)

___________________________
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(c) State the relationship between the image size and the image distance of the lens ............................................................... [1 mark] (d) Based on the answers in 6 (b) and 6(c), write an equation to show the te relationship between the magnification of the image, m , object distance, u and the image distance, v. .. [1 mark] (e) Half of lens M in Diagram 6.1 is covered with a piece of black paper. (i) What happen to the image produced by lens M. [1 mark] (ii) Explain your answer in 6 (e) (i). [1 mark]

(b) State the characteristics of the image formed. ............................................................ [1 mark] (c) If the object is placed at a distance bject 30 cm from the lens, calculate: (i) The image distance [2 marks] (ii) Linear magnification [1 mark] (d) You are given another convex lens, Y with focal length 50 cm. You are required to create a simple astronomical telescope using convex lenses X and Y. (i) Which lens is suitable to be objective lens and eyepiece? Objective lens:. Eyepiece lens: [2 marks] (ii) Give one reason to your answer in (d)(i)

22. Question 8: Kelantan 08 Diagram 8 shows an object, O with height 2 cm placed on the left side of a convex lens X. The focal length of the convex lens is 10 cm.

. [1 mark] (e) Draw the arrangement of the lenses and sketch the ray path from distance object using convex lenses X and Y to form a simple astronomical telescope. [3 marks]

(a) In Diagram 8 draw the ray path from the object to form an image. ject [2 marks]
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23. Conceptual: Kelantan 08 Diagram 9.2 and Diagram 9.3 show two rectangular glass blocks with different optical density and refractive in index. Ray of light is directed toward the glass blocks with the same angle of incidence 30.

24. Conceptual : Perak 07 Diagram 9.1 shows a ray of light ray ram enter a rectangular glass block and Diagram 9.2 the light ray enter a prism at right angle. Both the block cause the light ray to change its direction.

Based on Diagram 9.2 and 9.3, (i) Compare the densities of the glass blocks. (ii) Compare the refractive index of the glass blocks. (iii) Compare the angle of refraction of the glass blocks. e (iv) Relate the angle of refraction, r and the density of the glass blocks. (v) Relate the angle of refraction, r and the refractive index of the glass blocks. [5 marks]

Diagram 9.1

Diagram 9.2 (i) Name the phenomena? [ 1 mark] With reference to diagram 9.1 and 9.2 compare the angles of the rays in both blocks . Relate all the angles in diagram 9.2 to show the iagram relationship with refractive index of the glass block. State one condition for the above phenomena to occur. [5 marks]

(ii)

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25. Conceptual: Johor 08 Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show a transparent block made of a material with a different refractive index. A light rent ray travel in both blocks with the same incident angle, i.

relationship between the thickness of the lens and the focal length. [5 marks] 27. Conceptual: Melaka 08 Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show light rays from two identical objects passing through a convex lens.Both situations produce real images. F is the focal point for the convex lens

(i) What is meant by a refractive index? [1 mark] (ii) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the refractive index, refraction angle and critical angle between the two blocks. Base on Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, relate the refractive index with critical angle. [5 marks] 26. Conceptual: Melaka 08 Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show parallel light rays passing through convex lenses J and K. F is the principle focus and O is the optical centre .

## (i) What is meant by real image? [1 mark]

(i) What is meant by principle focus ? [1 mark] (ii) Based on Diagrams 9.1 and 9.2 , compare the thickness of the convex lenses J and K and the effect on the refracted light rays. State the cted
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(ii) Based on Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, compare the object distance, the image distance and the size of a image. Relate the size of the image with the image distance to make a deduction regarding the relationship between the object distance and the size of the image. [5 marks]

28. Conceptual: SBP 08 A student used a slide projector to view the image from the slide. When the slide is place nearer to the lens the sharp image form on the screen as shown in Diagram 9.1. When the slide is place further from the lens the sharp image form on the screen as shown in Diagram 9.2.

(i) State the type of mirror used by the dentist. [1 mark] (ii) Draw the ray diagram to show the characteristic of image seen by the racteristic dentist. [3 marks] 30. Understanding: Melaka 08 Describe how you estimate the focal length of a convex lens. [4 marks] 31. Understanding: Kelantan 08 Diagram 9.1 shows a ray of light directed perpendicularly at a side of the semi circular glass block. The ray passes through the glass block to a point O before leaving the glass block. The angle of incidence in the glass dence block is 30.

Based on Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, agram compare the object distance, the image distance and size of image that formed on the screen. Relate the object distance to the image distance and the object distance to the size of image that formed on the screen. [ 5 marks ]

29. Understanding: SBP 08 Diagram 10.3 shows a dentist used a mirror to examine a tooth of a patient.

(a) What is meant by angle of incidence? [1 mark] (b) Explain how total internal reflection occurs in Diagram 9.1 above. [4 marks]

Diagram 10.3
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32. Understanding: Johor 08 (i) State two conditions under which light ray would undergo total internal reflection. [2 marks] (ii) Diagram 9.3 shows a light ray is incident on a piece of Crown Glass of critical angle 42. Draw the light ray to show how a ray emerging from the Crown Glass [2 marks]

35. Understanding: Kedah 07 With the help of a diagram, explain the working principle of an optical fibre. [4 marks] 36. Understanding: MRSM 07 Figure 11.1 shows the top view position of a car driver, the cars side mirror and the front of a lorry which is overtaking the car.

## 33. Understanding: SBP 08

(i) Name the type of mirror used for the side mirror in Figure 11.1. [1 mark] (ii) Explain why the mirror in Figure 11.1 is used instead of other types of mirror. [3 marks] (iii) The focal length of the side mirror in Figure 11.1 is 5 cm. An object with a height of 3 cm is placed 6 cm in front of the mirror. Using a scale of 1:1, draw a ray diagram to show how the image of the object is formed. [2 marks]

While driving a car on a hot day, you ng may see a mirage on the road. Explain how mirage occurred. [ 4 marks ] 34. Understanding: Perak 07 Explain why a fish in a pond able to see objects around him although there are obstacles. [4 marks]
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37. Understanding: Johor 07 Diagram 11.1 and Diagram 11.2 shows two incomplete periscopes R and S. Periscope R uses two plane mirrors to reflect the light. Periscope S uses two prisms to enable total internal reflection of light. al

[5 marks]

38. Qualitative problem: Perak 07 You are given two right angles prisms n to build a periscope. (i) Explain how you are going to build a simple periscope [6 marks ] Suggest modification to be made to convert the periscope to binoculars [ 4 marks ]

(ii)

39. Qualitative problem: Johor 08 Diagram 9.4 shows the structure of an optical fibre used in telecommunications.

(a) Which periscope produces clearer image? Give a reason for your choice. [2 marks] (b) Complete the diagrams belo to below show the positions of the plane mirrors in periscope R and the prisms in periscope S. Draw the ray diagram to show the reflection of light in periscopes R and S. State a condition that enable total internal reflection of light in the prism of the periscope S.
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Optical fibres are made of fine strands of glass. Each single glass fibre (inner core) is coated with a thin layer of another type of glass (outer cladding).You are required to give some suggestions in designing an optical fibre which can carry more information. arry Explain your suggestions base on the following aspects:

(i) refractive index of the inner and outer glass (ii) the properties of material used for optical fibre (iii) the thickness of the glass [10 marks]

(ii) Suggest a suitable optical device to optic modify the microscope you built in (c)(i) to produce brighter image. [2 marks] (iii) Suggest and explain a method to produce a bigger image in the compound microscope. [2 marks]

40. Qualitative problem: SBP 08 Diagram 9.5 shows a simple astronomical telescope.

42. Making Decision: Johor 07 Diagram 11.3, 11.4 and 11.5 show the reflection of light by three types of mirrors

By using two prism and a telescope in Diagram 9.5, suggest modification that can be done to make a binocular. In your explanation, (i) draw the arrangement of the prisms and lenses draw ray diagram to explain how the image form in

As a scout, you intend to design a solar cooker that can be used to boil water using direct sun light. Diagram 11.6 shows three different hows design of the solar cooker.

binocular compared to telescope when observing far object on the ground. [ 10 marks ]

41. Qualitative problem: Melaka 08 You are given two convex lenses, R and S, with focal lengths of 40 cm and 10 cm respectively. Both the lenses are used to build a compound microscope. (i) Using the two lenses, explain how you would build a compound microscope. [6 marks]
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(a) Choose the most suitable design in Diagram11.6 that can boiled water in the shortest time and explain the suitability of the design.

(b) Suggest and explain two ways to improve the design you c chose in (a). (c) Give two reasons why the above solar cooker is said to be environmental friendly? (d) Give two reasons why the solar energy is not widely used?

44. Making Decision: MRSM 07 You are asked to investigate the features of optical fibres for the design of an endoscope for medical imaging. Figure 11.2 below shows the parts of an optical fibre.

[10 marks]

43. Making Decision: Kedah 07 Table 11.1 shows 5 materials which can be used to make an optical fibre.
Refractive index of Outer core Refractive Index of Inner Core Flexibility

P 1.5

Q 1.6

R 1.5

S 1.6

1.6 High

1.5 Low

1.6 High

1.5 low

(i) Write an equation for finding the inding refractive index of a material in term of velocity of light? [1 mark] (ii) You are asked to investigate the characteristics of the materials in Table 11.1 which could be used to make the optical fibre. Explain the suitability of each characteristic and hence, determine the most suitable material to be used to make the optical fibre. Give a reason for your c choice. [10 marks]
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## Diameter of fibre (mm)

1.00

1.00

0.01

0.01

(i) Based on the Table above, explain the suitable features of the optical fibres and then determine the most suitable optical fibre that can be used to design the endoscope. Give reasons for your choice. [8 marks] (ii) Figure 11.3 shows an endoscope. At the two ends of the endoscope endosc are two lenses. One is the objective lens, the other is the eye piece.

(ii) The depth of water in Diagram 11.2 is 16 cm. Calculate the apparent depth of the coin when viewed directly dir from above by the observer. 4 [Refractive index of water = ] 3 [2 marks] (iii) Suggest one method that will make the coin appear nearer to the observer than in (b)(i). State the function of the two lenses. [2 marks] 45. Quantitative problem: MRSM 07 An object is placed 30 cm from a convex lens of focal length 10 cm. ens (i) Calculate the image distance Calculate the linear magnification for the image. [5 marks] 46. Quantitative problem: Kedah 07 Diagram 11.1 shows a coin at the bottom of a tall empty cup. Diagram 11.2 shows the coin at the bottom of the cup when the cup is filled with water (ii) [1 mark] 47. Section B: Kelantan 09 Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show parallel rays are directed towards the lenses P and Q with focal point F.

Diagram 11.1

Diagram 11.2

(i) Compare the size of the coin in Diagram 11.1 and Diagram 11.2, as seen by an observer above the cup. State the phenomenon that caused the difference in size of the coin in seen in Diagram 11.1 and Diagram 11.2. [2 marks]
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## (a) What is meant by focal point? [1 mark]

(b) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, 1 compare the thickness, the focal length and power of the lens. Relate the thickness of the lens with the focal length to make a deduction regarding the relationship between thickness of the lens and the power of lens. [5 marks] (c) Diagram 9.3 shows lens P is used as a magnifying glass.

Using an appropriate physics concept, suggest and explain suitable modifications or ways to enable the microscope to increase its efficiency efficien and to form a brighter and clear image. Your modification can be emphasized on the following aspects: The selection of lens as objective lens and as an eyepiece The position of the object The position of the eyepiece lens The distance between the objective lens and eyepiece ective Condition of the place to store the microscope. [10 marks]

(i)

(ii)

At which position the object should be placed so that lens P will acts as a magnifying glass? Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image formed by lens P in Diagram 9.3 [4 marks]

48. Section B: Melaka 09 Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show light rays travel from glass to air. The incidence rays traveled into the glass travele are at different angle. The critical angle of the glass is 420.

## (d) Diagram 9.4 shows a compound microscope

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Diagram 9.2 (i) By combining the two types of glasses, explain how you are going to build the optical fiber in telecommunication and describe the working principle of the optical fiber. [6 marks]

(a) (i) What is meant by critical angle? [ 1 mark ] (ii) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the size of the incident angles and the effect of these incident angles towards the propagation of light rays produced. Relate the size of the angle with the critical angle to make a deduction regarding the relationship to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks ] (b) It is known that the sky is red during sunset and the formation of rainbow on the sky always appeared after raining. Explain these phenomena. [4 marks ] (c) You are given two type of glass with different refractive index . Both glasses are used to build an optical fiber. The structure of this optical fiber is shown on Diagram 9.2.

(ii) Suggest modification that needs to be done so that your optical fiber can be use in an endoscope for medical imaging. Your modification should base on the features of the optical fiber and the flexibility of the fiber optic. [4 marks]

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