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Amor Patrio In progressive Barcelona Rizal wrote a nationalistic essay entitled Amor Patrio (Love of Country), his first

article written on Spanish soil. He sent this article to his friend in manila Basilio Teodoro Moran, publisher of Diariong Tagalog the first Manila bilingual news paper (Spanish and Tagalog), and his pen name was Laong Laan, and the Spanish text was the one originally written by Rizal in Barcelona. The tagalog text was a translation made by M.H. Delpilar. The article caused quite sensations among the readers in the Philippines because of its nationalistic flavor. A s i n h i s p r i c e w i n n i n g J u v e n t u d F i l i p i n a . R i z a l i n h i s A m o r p a t r i o u r g e d h i m compatriots to love there fatherland the Philippines. Publisher Basilio Teodoro Moran d e e p l y i m p r e s s e d b y A m o r P a t r i o c o n g r a t u l a t e d Rizal and requested for more a r t i c l e . I n r e s p o n s e t o h i s r e q u e s t R i z a l w r o t e t h e s e c o n d a r t i c l e f o r d i a r i o n g tagalog entitled Los Viajes (Travels). His third article entitled Revista de Madrid(Review the Madrid), which he wrote in Madrid on November 29, 1882, was return to him because the diariong tagalong had ceased publication for lack of funds. While sojourning in Barcelona, Rizal received sad news about the cholera that was ravaging Manila and the provinces. Many people had died and more were dying daily. Sad news from the Philippines was the chatty letter of Chengoy recounting the unhappiness of Leonor Rivera, who was getting thinner because of the absence of love one. Life in Madrid On November 3, 1882, Rizal enrolled in university Central de Madrid in two courses Medicine and Philosophy and letters. Aside from his heavy studies from the u n i v e r s i t y h e s t u d i e d p a i n t i n g a n d s c u l p t u r e i n t h e a c a d e m y o f f i n e a r t s o f S a n Fernando. Rizal led a Spartan life in Madrid. He new that he came to Spain to study and prepared himself for service to his fatherland. According, he rigidly budgeted his money and time. On Saturday evening he visited the home of Don Pablo Ortiga Y Rey who lived with his son (Rafael) and daughter (Consuelo). Don Pablo had been city mayor of Manila during the administration of the liberal governor general Carlos Ma. De la Torre (1869-1871) and was promoted voice-president of the council of the Philippines. Romance with Consuelo Ortiga Y Perez Rizal was not a handsome man. In physique he was neither dashing nor imposing, for he was a shy small man-a few inches above fight feet in height. But he p o s s e s s e d a n a u r a o f c h a r i s m a d u e t o h i s m a n y - s p l e n d o r e d t a l e n t s a n d n o b l e character which made him attractive to young women. No wonder the prettier of D o n P a b l o s D a u g h t e r f e l l i n l o v e w i t h h i m . R i z a l b e i n g a l o n e l y m a n i n f o r e i g n country far from his natal land was attracted to Consuelos beauty and vivacity. He even composed a lovely poem on august 22, 1883, dedicated to her. In this poem titled A L a S e n i o r i t a C . O . y P . He expressed his admiration for her. Before his romance with Consuelo could bloosom into a serious affair he suddenly back out for t w o r e a s o n s : 1 . H e w a s s t i l l e n g a g e d t o Leonor Rivera and 2. His friend and co-worker in the propaganda Movement E d u a r d o D e L e t e , w a s m a d l y i n l o v e w i t h Consuelo and he had no wish to break there friendship because of a pretty girl. They ask me for Verses. In 1882 shortly after his arrival in madrid Rizal joined the Circulo Hispano-Filipino a society of Spaniards and Filipinos. Upon the request of the members of this society he wrote poem entitled Me Piden Versos (they ask me for verses). Rizal as a lover of Book A favorite pastime of Rizal in Madrid was reading. Instead of gabling and flirting of women, as many young Filipinos did in the Spanish Metropolis, he stayed at home and read voraciously until midnight. Since early child hood he liked to read. R i z a l e c o n o m i z e d o n h i s l e a v i n g e x p e n s e s a n d w i t h t h e m o n e y h e s a v e d , h e purchased book from a second hand book store owned by a certain senior Roses. He was able to build a fair-sized private library.

Rizals First Visit to Paris During his first summer vacation in Madrid Rizal went to Paris sojourning in this gay capital of France from June 17, to August 20, 1883. Unlike ordinary tourist whose main interest in visiting countries is to see a beautiful sight to enjoy thems elves in clubs and theater and o shop in souvenir items, Rizal improved his mind by observing closely the French way of life and spending many hours at the museums notably the world famous Louvre; the botanical garden especially the Luxembourg the libraries and art galleries and the hospitals including the Laenec Hospital where he observed Dr. Nicaise treating his patients and the Lariboisiere Hospital, where he observed the examination of different diseases of women. Rizal as a Mason In Spain Rizal came in close contact with prominent Spanish liberal and republican Spaniard who was mostly mason. Rizal was impressed by the way the Spanish mason openly and freely criticizes the government policies and lambasted the friars which could not be done in the Philippines. In due time in March 1883, he joined the Masonic longed called Acacia in the Madrid his reason for becoming a m a s o n w a s t o s e c u r e Freemasonrys aid in his fight again the friars in the Philippines. Since the friars used the catholic religion as a shield to entrench themselves in power and wealth and to persecute Filipino p a t r i o t s . L a t e r h e transferred to lodge Solidaridad (Madrid), were he became a Master Mason on November 15, 1890. Still later on February 15, 1892 he was awarded the diploma as a Master Mason by Le Grand Orient de France in Paris. Financial Worries After Rizals departure for Spain things turn for bad to worse in Calamba. The harvest of rice and sugarcane failed on account of drought and locusts. But there came in a time when a dreadful pest killed most of the turkeys. Due to hard times in Calamba, The monthly Alowance of Rizal in Madrid were late in arrival and there were times when they never arrived causing much suffering to him. At one time Paciano was forced to sell his younger brothers pony in order to send money to Madrid. Rizals salutes to Luna and Hidalgo The banquet on the evening of June 25, 1884 was sponsored by the Filipino community to celebrate the double victory of the Filipino artist in the National Exposition of Fine arts in Madrid. Speaking in sonorous Castilian, R i z a l h e l d h i s audience spell bound. He saluted Luna and Hidalgo as the two glories of Spain and the Philippines whose artistic achievements transcended geographical frontiers and r a c i a l o r i g i n f o r g e n i u s . H e a l s o a s s a i l e d w i t h r e f i n e s a r c a s m t h e b i g o t r y a n d blindness of a certain unworthy Spaniards. The magnificent speech of Rizal was greeted with wild ovations for seldom did the Spaniards hear such an oration from the lips of the brown Filipino which was in almost peerless in nobility of thought in Spain rhetoric in sincerity of feeling and in sonorous eloquence. Rizal Involved in students demonstration On November 20, 21, and 22, 1884, the serene city of Madrid exploded in bloody riots by the students of Central University. Rizal and other Filipino student participated together with Cuban, Mexican, Peruvian, and Spanish student in the t u m u l t . T h i s student demonstration was caused by the address of Dr. Miguel Morayta, professor of history at the opening ceremony of the academic year o n November 20, in which he proclaimed the freedom of science and the teacher. Such a liberal view was condemned by the catholic bishops of Spain who promptly excommunicated Dr. Morayta and those who applauded his s p e e c h . T h e appointment of the new Rector intensified the fury of the student

demonstrator. More student demonstration convulsed the city. Recounting the tumultuous rioting to his family in a letter dated November 26, 1884 Studies Completed in Spain Rizal completed his medical course in Spain. He was conferred the degree of licentiate in Medicine by the Universidad Central de Madrid on June 21, 1884. The next academic year (188485) he studied and passed all subjects leading to the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Due to the fact however that he did not present the thesis did not require for graduation nor paid the corresponding fees was he not awarded his Doctors diploma. At long last Rizal completed his studies in Spain. By obtaining the degree of Licentiate in philosophy and letters, he became qualified to be a professor of Humanities in any Spanish university. And by receiving his degree of licentiate in Medicine, he became a full-fledge physician, qualified to practice Medicine because it was together with the licentiate and the philosophy and letters, good only for teaching purpose. Being the man of high intelligence and foresight he knew that with his brown color and Asian racial ancestry no friar owned university or colleges in the Philippines would accept hi in its faculty staff. PARIS TO BERLIN After completing his studies in Spain, Rizal went to Paris and Germany for his specialization in ophthalmology. He chose this course of medicine because he wanted to cure his mothers growing eye ailment. He still hasnt forgotten his secret missionto observe the customs and lifestyle of the Europeans so that someday he will render service to his fatherland. In 1885, after completing his studies at Central University of Madrid, he went to Paris in order to acquire more knowledge in ophthalmology. He was 24 then. He stopped over at Barcelona, on his way to Paris, to visit his friend Maximo Viola who is also a medical student and a member of a rich family in Bulacan. And on the November of that year, Rizal was living in Paris where he sojourned for about four months. He worked as an apprentice of Dr. Louis de Weckert, who is a then, a leading French ophthalmologist. And with his master, his knowledge in ophthalmology improved. While not working at Dr. Weckerts clinic, Rizal visited his friends, such as the family of Pardo de Taveras, Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion, Hidalgo. Rizal spent many happy hours in the studio of Luna. Luna discussed with Rizal various problems on art and improved his own painting technique. Rizal posed to some painting of Luna. He was one of the Egyptian priests in Lunas painting The Death of Cleopatra. AT HEIDELBERG Rizal left Paris on February 1, 1886, after acquiring enough experience in the clinic of Dr. Weckert. He was set to go to Germany. He visited Strasbourg and other German towns. On February 3, 1886, he arrived in Heidelberg, a historic city in Germany famous for its old university and romantic surroundings. He lived in a boarding house with some German law students. The German students found out that Rizal was a good chess player and made him a member of the Chess Players Club. After a few days, he was transferred to a boarding house which was near University of Heidelberg. He worked at the University Eye Hospital under the direction of Dr. Otto Becker and attended the lectures of Doctor Becker and Prof. Wilhelm Kuehne at the university. On July 31, 1886, Rizal wrote his first letter in German to Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt. Rizal heard that Blumentritt was interested in the Philippine languages. Along with the letter was a book entitled Aritmetica. Delighted with Rizal, Blumentritt send gift books to Rizal. This marked the beginning of their long and frequent correspondence. LEIPZIG AND DRESDEN On August 9, 1886, three days after the fifth centenary of the University of the Heidelberg, Rizal left the city. He boarded a train and visited various cities of Germany until arriving in Leipzig on August 14, 1886. He attended some lectures in the University of Leipzig and befriended Professor Friedrich Ratzel, a famous German historian, and Dr. Hans Meyer, German anthropologist. Rizal translated William Tell from German to Filipino so that Filipinos might know the story of that champion of Swiss independence. He also translated into Filipino Hans Christian Andersens Fairy Tales. DRESDEN

Rizal left Leipzig to set course on Dresden on October 29, 1886. At Dresden, Rizal met Dr. Adolph Meyer, the director of the Anthropological and Ethnological Museum. He stayed only two days in the city. He heard the Holy Mass in a Catholic church which greatly impressed him, for he wrote Truly I have never in my life heard a Mass whose music had greater sublimity and intonation. Morning of November 1, Rizal left Dresden by train reaching Berlin in the evening. BERLIN Rizal liked Berlin because of its atmosphere which was very scientific and the absence of race prejudice. Also, here he met Dr. Feodor Jagor author of Travels in the Philippines, a book that Rizal admired because of its keen observances in the Philippine setting. Dr. Jagor in turn, introduced Rizal to Dr. Rudolf Virchow, a famous anthropologist and to his son, Dr. Hans Virchow, professor of Descriptive Anatomy. Rizal worked in the clinic of Dr. Karl Ernest Schweigger, a famous German ophthalmologist. Not all the experiences of Rizal in Germany were good, there is this one winter time wherein he lived in poverty because no money arrived from Calamba and he was flat broke. During that time, he only eats one meal a day and had to wash his clothes himself because he could not afford to pay the laundry. On Calamba, Paciano tried to raise money but crops have failed due to locusts and the sugar market collapsed.