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A PROJECT ON GRAPH THEORY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF

MATHEMATICS OF SCIENCE (PART II)

IN MATHEMATICS

CAM PRACTICAL, PAPER (XIV)

PRESENTED BY

NAME

Sheet Nihal Topno

Ratan Kumar Mishra

Anup Kumar Keshri

Md. Aslam Ansari

(Group ‘A’)

ROLL NO.

09MS5496591

09MS5496597

09MS5496620

09MS5496591

09MS5496589

09MS549660

09MS5496626

09MS5496591

CERTIFICATION

The project titled “ The Project Report on Graph Theory and Its Applications” is the work done by Group ‘A’ is hereby approved as a creditable work and presented in a manner satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as its serve the purpose for which it has been submitted.

INTERNAL EXAMINER

SIGNATURE

(GUIDE)

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

RANCHI UNIVERSITY, RANCHI

ACNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful completion of the project is solely due to the guidance and encouragement received from the people around us. We would sincerely like to thank to all of them.

We have received constant support from the cooperative and efficient faculty members of our department and so we would like to thank them.

Our special thank to our H. O. D. Dr. N. K. Aggrawal, our project guide Mr. Aamir Khusro for their help and support.

Finally, we would like to thank to entire Department of Mathematics, Ranchi University, Ranchi for their help in course of development of every phase of our project.

GRAPH

THEORY

INTRODUCTION

There is an interesting story behind the development of Graph Theory. A river Pregel (Preger) flows through the city of Königsberg, thereby forming two islands in the city. These islands were connected by seven bridges as shown in figure

Fig. 1

The citizens of Königsberg had an entertaining problem. Is it possible to cross each one of seven bridges exactly once and come back to starting point? This problem is known as ‘Königsberg Bridge Problem’.

Euler was fascinated by the problem and it was he who gave the mathematical proof for the impossibility of such a rule. Euler represented each land area by a point and joined the two

such points by a line which was symbol for the bridge. His representation was

Fig. 2

This is nothing but a mapping a real world problem into a paper. Various networks like road map, electric network air routes are represented in this way. Euler worked on the problem and developed new branch of mathematics called graph theory. With the help of the algorithms and theorems of graph theory many problems of real world are solved. Many mathematicians have also worked on this topic and given mathematical theorems and algorithms.

Euler was one who translated a real world problem into a mathematical problem. In this project we present the way this mathematical problem can be transferred to a computer. We also provide a few C program code to solve some problems of graph theory with the help of computer easily.

Mathematically such a representation is called a graph. Mathematical definitions and properties of graph are discussed further.

Definition:-A graph G is a set of two tuples (V,E), where V represents the non empty set of vertices of G and E is a subset of V×V called edge set of G.

Fig. 3

Directed Graph: A graph G=(V,E) is said to be a directed graph if its every edge e k =(v i ,v j ) is represented as a line segment from vertex v i to v j with an arrow directed from v i to v j.

Fig. 4

Weighted Graph: Let G be a graph. For any edge e, w(e) called the weight of e, is a real number. If each edge of the graph is assigned with some real number then G is called a weighted graph.

Fig. 5

Fig. 7

REPRESENTATION OF GRAPH IN COMPUTER

Usually the first step in representing a graph is to map the vertices to a set of contiguous integers. (0,|V|-1) is the most convenient in C- programs. There are two popular ways that are used to maintain a graph in a computer memory. These are:

1. Sequential

Sequential Representation: The graphs can be represented as matrices in sequential representation. There are two most common matrices. These are:

2. Incidence

The adjacency matrix is a sequence matrix with one row and one column for each vertex. The entries of the matrix are either 0 or 1. A value of 1 for row i and column j implies that edge e ij exists between v i and v j vertices. A value of 0 implies that there is no edge between v i and v j . In other words we can say

n vertices then the

that if graph G consists of v 1 , v 2 , v 3 ,…

adjacency matrix A=[a ij ] of graph G is the n×n matrix and can be defined as:

,v

a ij =

1

If v i is adjacent to v j (that is if there is an

edge between v i and v j )

0

If there is no edge between v i and v j .

Fig.7

Such a matrix A. which contains entries of only 0 or 1, is called a bit matrix or a Boolean. For example consider the graph G illustrated in above figure, which consists of 5 vertices and 10 edges. The set of vertices is as follows:

V= { v 1 , v 2 , v 3 , v 4 , v 5 }

and the set of edges is:

E= {(v 1 , v 2 ), (v 1 , v 3 ), (v 2 , v 1 ), (v 2 , v 3 ), (v 2 , v 5 ), (v 3 , v 1 ), (v 3 , v 4 ), (v 4 , v 1 ), (v 4 , v 5 ), (v 5 , v 3 )}

The adjacency matrix A for G is as follows:

 v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4 v 5 v 1 0 1 1 0 0 v 2 1 0 1 0 1 A= v 3 1 0 0 1 0 v 4 1 0 0 0 1 v 5 0 0 1 0 0

From the matrix A, it is clear that number of 1’s in the adjacency matrix is equal to the number of edges in the graph. When one is constructing an adjacency matrix for a graph, one must follow the following points:

1. Adjacency matrix does not depend on the ordering of vertex of a graph G, i.e. different ordering of vertices may result in a different adjacency matrix. One can obtain the same matrix by interchanging rows and columns.

2. If the graph G is undirected then the adjacency matrix of G will be symmetric. i.e. [aij]=[aji] for every i and j.

The incidence matrix consists of a row for every vertex and a column for every edge. The entries of the matrix are -1, 0 and 1. If k th edge is (v i ,v j ), the k th column has a value 1 in i th row, - 1 in the j th row and 0 elsewhere. For example, the incidence matrix I for the above graph is as follows:

 1 1 -1 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 -1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 I= 0 -1 0 -1 0 1 1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 -1 1

/* Program for creation of adjacency matrix of a simple graph */

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

#define max 20

int n; /* Denotes number of nodes in the graph */

main()

{

int max_edges,i,j,origin,destin;

char graph_type;

printf("Enter number of vertices : ");

scanf("%d",&n);

printf("Enter type of graph,directed/undirected (d/u):");

fflush(stdin);

scanf("%c",&graph_type);

if(graph_type=='u')

max_edges=n*(n-1);

else

max_edges=n*(n-1)/2;

for(i=1;i<=max_edges;i++)

{

printf("Enter edge %d(end vertices) : ",i);

scanf("%d %d",&origin,&destin);

if( (origin==0) && (destin==0) )

break;

if(origin > n || destin> n || origin<=0 || destin<=0)

{

printf("Invalid edge!\n");

}

else

{

}

}/*End of for*/

i--;

if( graph_type=='u')

else

for(i=1;i<=n;i++)

{

for(j=1;j<=n;j++)

}

getch();

}

printf("\n");

OUTPUT

Adjacency matrix of the following undirected graph through c programming :

Enter number of edges : 4

Enter type of graph, directed or undirected (d/u): u

Enter edge 1 (end vertices):

1

2

Enter edge 2 (end vertices):

1

3

Enter edge 3 (end vertices):

1

4

Enter edge 4 (end vertices):

2

1

Enter edge 5 (end vertices):

2

3

Enter edge 6 (end vertices):

3

1

Enter edge 7 (end vertices):

3

2

Enter edge 8 (end vertices):

3

4

Enter edge 9 (end vertices):

4

1

Enter edge 10 (end vertices):

4

3

Enter edge 11 (end vertices):

1

2

Enter edge 12 (end vertices):

1

2

 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

OUTPUT

Adjacency matrix of the following directed graph through c programming :

Enter number of edges : 4 Enter type of graph, directed or undirected (d/u): d Enter edge 1 (end vertices):

1

2

Enter edge 2 (end vertices):

2

3

Enter edge 3 (end vertices):

3

1

Enter edge 4 (end vertices):

1

4

Enter edge 5 (end vertices):

4

3

Enter edge 6 (end vertices):

1

2

 0 1 -1 1 -1 0 1 0 1 -1 0 -1 -1 0 1 0

DEFINITIONS AND THEOREMS OF GRAPH THEORY

Loop: An edge of the form (a, a), a belonging to V, vertex set of G is called a loop.

Fig.8

Multiple Edges: Two edges e 1 and e 2 of a graph G are said to be multiple edges if they have same end vertices.

.

Fig.9

Null Graph: A null graph is a graph which has no edges.

Fig. 10

A vertex in a graph G which is not connected to the other vertices of the graph by an edge is called an isolated vertex. All the vertices of null graph are isolated.

Adjacency matrix for a null graph is of the form:

 v 1 v 2 v 3 …. v n v 1 0 0 0 …. 0 v 2 0 0 0 …. 0 v 3 0 0 0 …. 0 0 0 0 …. 0 v n o 0 0 …. 0

Complete Graph: A simple graph is said to be complete if each pair of vertices of the graph are adjacent to each other.

Fig. 11

Adjacency matrix for a graph having no loop is of the form:

 v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4 v n v 1 0 1 1 1 ……… 1 v 2 1 0 1 1 ………… 1 v 3 1 1 0 1 ………… 1 …………………………………… v n 1 1 1 1 ……… 0

Simple Graph: A Graph G is said to be simple if it has no loop as well as multiple edges.

Simple

graphs

play

an

discussion of graph theory.

important

role

in

further

Cycle Graph: The cycle graph is a graph with vertices v 1 , v 2 , .…., v n whose edge set is (v 1 ,v 2 ), (v 2 ,v 3 ),…., (v n-1 , v n ), (v n , v 1 ) with a particular order of vertices.

Fig. 12

Bipartite Graph: A graph G(V,E) is said to be bipartite if the vertex set can be split into two non-empty subsets X and Y such that X Y=φ and XY=V and for any edge (a, b)ЄE either a Є X

& b Є Y or a Є Y & b Є X.

Fig. 13

In the graph of Fig.12 the vertices can be partitioned into X{v 1 , v 6 , v 8 , v 3 } and Y{v 2 , v 4 , v 5 ,v 7 }. Every edge in the graph has one end

in X and another end in Y which can be easily inspected.

A graph G is bipartite if and only if each cycle of G if exists is of even length.

Complete bipartite graph: A bipartite graph G with partitions

X and Y is said to be complete if each vertex of X is adjacent to

each vertex of Y.

In the

graph of Fig.

Fig. 14

14

the set of vertices can be

partitioned into X{v 1 , v 2 , v 3 } and Y{v 3 , v 4 , v 5 } so that each vertex if the graph has an end in both the sets. Also each vertex of X is connected with each vertex of Y, making the graph bipartite.

Degree of vertex: Let V be any vertex of a graph G. The degree of v is denoted by deg(v) or d(v) and defined as deg(v)=number of edge end associated with v in G.

Even or Odd degree vertex: A vertex v of a graph G is said to be even or odd according as the degree of the vertex is even or odd.

The number of odd vertices in a graph G is even. This fact is used in handshaking lemma.

Subgraph: A graph H(V(H),E(H)) is said to be a subgraph of G(V(G),E(G)) if V(H)V(G) and E(H)E(G).

Fig. 15(a)

Fig. 15(b)

Component of a graph: A component K of a graph is a subgraph of G in which there exists a path between each pair of vertices of K. Connected Graph: A graph G is said to be connected if there exists a path from a vertex to another vertex to another vertex of the graph.

If G is a simple graph n vertices, m edges and k components then n-k ≤ m ≤(n-k)(n-k+1)/2.

A simple graph with n vertices and more than (n-1)(n-2)/2 edges is connected.

Cut Edge(Bridge): A cut edge of a graph G is an edge of G after removal of it the graph G becomes disconnected.

Fig.16

The graph given in Fig.16 cut edges (bridges).

edges (v 3, v 4 ) and (v 6 , v 7 ) are

An edge e of a graph G is a cut edge of G if and only of e is contained in no cycle of G.

Cut Set: A cut set of a graph G is a subset of edge set of G such that after removal of all the edges of the set the graph G becomes disconnected.

PATHS AND CYCLES

Walk:Any sequence of edges of a graph such that the terminal vertex of an edge is the initial vertex of the edge appearing next to it is called a walk.

Path: A walk is said to be a path if there is no vertices with repetation except possibly end vertex.

Trail:A walk is repetation.

said to

be

trail if there are

no edges with

Connected graph: A graph G is said to be connected if there exists a path from a vertex to another vertex of the graph.

Cycle: A closed path in a graph G is said to be a cycle.

If G is a graph with minimum degree of vertices of G, δ(G) ≥2, then G contains a cycle of length at least δ+1. If G is a graph with p edges and q vertices such that q≥p, then G contains a cycle.

Eulerian Trail:A closed trail containing all the edges of a graph G is called an Eulerian trail of the graph.

Eulerian Graph: A graph G is said to be Eulerian if it contains an Eulerian trail.

Euler finally proposed a theorem to show the impossibility of occurance of the rule discussed previously. Furthermore his theorem goes on to say that such rule is impossible for every graph having a certain property. If such a rule is possible for a graph then we call that graph Eulerian.

Euler’s theorem: A connected graph G is said to be Eulerian if and only if degree of each vertex of G is even.

Euler considered a problem which assumes no repetation of edges however vertices can be repeated. We now consider a modified case in which vertices are non repetative.

Hamiltonian cycle: A cycle containing all the vertices of a graph G is called a Hamiltonian cycle of G.

Hamiltonian Graph: A graph is said to be Hamiltonian if it contains a Hamiltonian cycle.

Following theorem of Dirac is very important in order to check whether a given graph is hamiltonian or not.

Let G be a simple connected graph with n (≥3) vertices and δ(u)≥n/2 for each vertex u in G, then G is Hamiltoian.

TREE

Cyclic Graph: A graph is said to be cyclic if it contains a cycle.

Tree: A connected acyclic graph is called a tree.

Fig. 17

In any tree two vertices are connected by a unique path.

In a tree number of edges is one less than number of vertices.

Every non-trivial tree has at least two vertices of degree one.

A connected graph is a tree if and only if every edge is a cut set.

If G is a graph with ν vertices and v-1 edges then following statements are equivalent: (a) G is connected, (b) G is acyclic, (c) G is a tree.

Forest: A graph having no cycle is called forest.

Spanning tree: A spanning tree of a connected graph G is a subgraph of G which is a tree containing all the vertices of G.

Every connected graph contains a spanning tree.

Minimum Spanning Tree: A graph G may have many spanning tries. If weigth is associated with each edge of G then the spanning tree of minimum weigth is called the minimun spanning tree of graph G.

There are a few algorithms to find out minimum spanning tree of a graph. We disscuss Kruskal’s Algorithm and present C programming code for this algorithm.

Kruskal’s Algorithm:

Step 1: Choose e 1 an edge of G such that w(e 1 ) is small as possible

and e 1 is not a loop.

Step 2: If edges e 1 , e 2 ,….,e i have been chosen then choose an edge

e i+1 not already chosen such that (i) the induced graph

 G{e 1 , e 2 ,… , e i , e i+1 } is acyclic. (ii) weight of e i+1 is as small as possible.

Step 3: If G has n vertices stop after n-1 edges have chosen

otherwise repeat step 2.

Step 4: Exit.

/*Program for creating a minimum spanning tree from Kruskal's algorithm*/

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

#include<malloc.h>

#define MAX 20

struct edge

{

int u;

int v;

int weight;

}*front = NULL;

int father[MAX]; /*Holds father of each node */

struct edge tree[MAX]; /* Will contain the edges of spanning tree */

int n; /*Denotes total number of nodes in the graph */

int wt_tree=0; /*Weight of the spanning tree */

int count=0; /* Denotes number of edges included in the tree */

/* Functions */

void make_tree();

void insert_tree(int i,int j,int wt);

void insert_pque(int i,int j,int wt);

struct edge *del_pque();

create_graph();

main()

{

int i;

create_graph();

make_tree();

printf("Edges to be included in spanning tree are :\n");

for(i=1;i<=count;i++)

 { printf("%d->",tree[i].u); printf("%d\n",tree[i].v); }

printf("Weight of this minimum spanning tree is : %d\n", wt_tree);

getch();

}/*End of main()*/

create_graph()

{

int i,wt,max_edges,origin,destin;

printf("Enter number of vertices : ");

scanf("%d",&n);

max_edges=n*(n-1)/2;

for(i=1;i<=max_edges;i++)

{

printf("Enter edge %d(end vertices): ",i);

scanf("%d %d",&origin,&destin);

if( (origin==0) && (destin==0) )

break;

printf("Enter weight for this edge : ");

scanf("%d",&wt);

if( origin > n || destin > n || origin<=0 || destin<=0)

{

printf("Invalid edge!\n");

}

else

i--;

insert_pque(origin,destin,wt);

}/*End of for*/

if(i==0)

{

printf("Spanning tree is not possible\n");

}

}/*End of create_graph()*/

void make_tree()

{

struct edge *tmp;

int node1,node2,root_n1,root_n2;

while( count < n-1) /*Loop till n-1 edges included in the tree*/

{

tmp=del_pque();

node1=tmp->u;

node2=tmp->v;

printf("n1=%d ",node1);

printf("n2=%d ",node2);

while( node1 > 0)

 { root_n1=node1; node1=father[node1]; }

while( node2 >0 )

{

root_n2=node2;

node2=father[node2];

}

printf("rootn1=%d ",root_n1);

printf("rootn2=%d\n",root_n2);

if(root_n1!=root_n2)

{

insert_tree(tmp->u,tmp->v,tmp->weight);

wt_tree=wt_tree+tmp->weight;

father[root_n2]=root_n1;

}

}/*End of while*/

}/*End of make_tree()*/

/*Inserting an edge in the tree */

void insert_tree(int i,int j,int wt)

{

printf("This edge is inserted in the spanning tree\n");

count++;

tree[count].u=i;

tree[count].v=j;

tree[count].weight=wt;

}/*End of insert_tree()*/

/*Inserting edges in the priority queue */

void insert_pque(int i,int j,int wt)

{

struct edge *tmp,*q;

tmp = (struct edge *)malloc(sizeof(struct edge));

tmp->u=i;

tmp->v=j;

tmp->weight = wt;

/*Queue is empty or edge to be added has weight less than first edge*/

if( front == NULL || tmp->weight < front->weight )

{

front = tmp;

}

else

{

q = front;

}/*End of else*/

}/*End of insert_pque()*/

/*Deleting an edge from the priority queue*/

struct edge *del_pque()

{

struct edge *tmp;

tmp = front;

printf("Edge

>v,tmp->weight);

processed

is

return tmp;

}/*End of del_pque()*/

%d->%d

%d\n",tmp->u,tmp-

OUTPUT

The minimum spanning tree of the following graph through c programming :

Enter number of vertices : 5 Enter edge 1 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 2

Enter edge 2 (end vertices) : 2

3

Enter weight for this edge : 3 Enter edge 3 (end vertices) : 3

4

Enter weight for this edge : 2 Enter edge 4 (end vertices) : 4

5

Enter weight for this edge : 1

Enter edge 5 (end vertices) : 5

1

Enter weight for this edge : 2 Enter weight for this edge : 5

2

Enter edge 6 (end vertices) : 3 Enter weight for this edge : 2

5

Enter edge 7 (end vertices) : 1

5

Enter weight for this edge : 2

Enter edge 8 (end vertices) : 5

4

Enter weight for this edge : 1

Enter edge 9 (end vertices) : 4

3

Enter weight for this edge : 2 Enter edge 10 (end vertices) : 3

2

Enter weight for this edge : 3 Edge processed is 4->5 1 n1=4 n2=5 rootn1=4 rootn2=5 This edge is inserted in the spanning tree

Edge processed is 5->4 1 n1=5 n2=4 rootn1=4 rootn2=4

Edge processed is 1->2 2 n1=1 n2=2 rootn1=1 rootn2=2 This edge is inserted in the spanning tree Edge processed is 3->4 2 n1=3 n2=4 rootn1=3 rootn2=4 This edge is inserted in the spanning tree Edge processed is 5->1 2 n1=5 n2=1 rootn1=3 rootn2=1 This edge is inserted in the spanning tree Edges to be inserted in the spanning tree are :

4->5

1->2

3->4

5->1

Weight of this minimum spanning tree is : 7 Hence the minimum spanning tree of above graph is :

PLANARITY

Planar Graph:A graph G is said to be plannar if it can be drawn in a plane without intersecting the edges except its end vertices.

Every simple planar graph contains a vertex of degree atmost five.

Graph K 5 (Complete graph in 5 vertices) and K 3,3 (a complete bipartite graph in 6 vertices) are non-plannar.

A graph is plannar if and only if it contains no subgraph homeomorphic to K 5 or K 3,3 .

A graph is plannar if and only if it contains no subgraph contracible to K 5 or K 3,3.

Region or Face: Let G be a plannar graph. A region of G is the area in which any arbitrary pair of points may be joined by a curve without intersecting any edges of G.

Let G be a connected planar graph with n vertices, m edges and r regions then n-m+r=2. This interrelation was proposed by Euler.

Let G be a plannar graph with n vertices, m edges, r regions and k components. Then n-m+r=k+1.

If G is a connected simple plannar graph with n≥3 vertices and m edges then m≤3n-6.

If in addition G has no triangle then m≤2n-4.

/* Program for checking planarity of simple graph */

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

#define max 20

int n; /* Denotes number of nodes in the graph */

main()

{

int max_edges,i,origin,destin, no_edges; printf("Enter number of vertices : "); scanf("%d",&n);

if(n<=2)

{

printf("\nGraph is planar ");

}

else

{

max_edges=n*(n-1);

for(i=1;i<=max_edges;i++)

{

printf("Enter edge %d(end vertices) : ",i); scanf("%d %d",&origin,&destin);

if( (origin==0) && (destin==0) ) break; if( origin > n || destin > n || origin<=0 ||

destin<=0)

{

}

else

{

}

}/*End of for*/

no_edges=c/2;

if(no_edges<=3*n-6)

printf("Invalid edge!\n"); i--;

c=c+1;

printf("\nGraph is planar."); else printf("\nGraph is not planar.");

}

getch();

}

OUTPUT Test for the graph K 3.

Enter number of vertices : 3

Enter edge 1 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter edge 2 (end vertices) : 2

3

Enter edge 3 (end vertices) : 3

1

Enter edge 4 (end vertices) : 1

3

Enter edge 5 (end vertices) : 3

2

Enter edge 6 (end vertices) : 2

1

Graph is planar.

OUTPUT Test for the graph K 5.

Enter number of vertices : 5

Enter edges 1 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter edges 2 (end vertices) : 1

3

Enter edges 3 (end vertices) : 1

4

Enter edges 4 (end vertices) : 1

5

Enter edges 5 (end vertices) : 2

1

Enter edges 6 (end vertices) : 2

3

Enter edges 7 (end vertices) : 2

4

Enter edges 8 (end vertices) : 2

5

Enter edges 9 (end vertices) : 3

1

Enter edges 10 (end vertices) : 3

2

Enter edges 11 (end vertices) : 3

4

Enter edges 12 (end vertices) : 3

5

Enter edges 13 (end vertices) : 4

1

Enter edges 14 (end vertices) : 4

2

Enter edges 15 (end vertices) : 4

3

Enter edges 16 (end vertices) : 4

5

Enter edges 17 (end vertices) : 5

1

Enter edges 18 (end vertices) : 5

2

Enter edges 19 (end vertices) : 5

3

Enter edges 20 (end vertices) : 5

4

Graph is not planar.

VERTEX COLOURING

Let G be a graph. The vertex colouring of G is labelling of its vertices by some given colours such a way that no two adjacent vertices have same colour.

K- Colourable Graph: Let G be a given graph. It is said to be K- colourable if it can be coloured by k colours.

Chromatic Number for Vertex: If a graph G is k colourable but not k-1 colourable then the chromatic number of G is k. The chromatic number of a grapf G is denoted by χ(G).

If G is a simple graph with largest vertex degree ∆, then G is (∆+1) colourable.

If G is a simple connected graph which is not a complete graph, and if the largest vertex degree of G is ∆(≥3), then G is ∆- colourable.

Every simple planar graph is 6- colourable.

Every simple planar graph is 5- colourable.

Recent research (1976) have also proved that a planar graph is four clolourable.

Vertex colouring has various uses in network problems. Colouring of a map can be easily done with its help. For any given map, we can construct its dual graph as follows. Put a vertex inside each region of the map and connect two distinct vertices by an edge if and only if their respective regions share a whole segment of their boundaries in common. Then, a proper vertex coloring of the dual graph yields a proper coloring of the regions of the original map.

GSM phone networks are constructed with the help of vertex coloring. GSM is a cellular network with its entire geographical range divided into hexagonal cells. Each cell has a communication tower which connects with mobile phones within the cell. All mobile phones connect to the GSM network by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. GSM networks operate in only four different frequency ranges. The reason why only four different frequencies suffice is clear: the map of the cellular regions can be properly colored by using only four different colors! So, the vertex coloring algorithm may be used for assigning at most four different frequencies for any GSM mobile phone network.

APPLICATION OF GRAPH THEORY

exist in the

network analysis. These split broadly into three categories:

Many

applications

of

graph

theory

form

1. First, analysis to determine structural properties of a network, such as the distribution of vertex degrees and diameter of the graph. A vast number of graph measures exist, and the production of useful ones for various domains remains an active area of research.

2. Second, analysis to find a measurable quantity within the network, for example, for a transportation network, the level of vehicular flow within any portion of it.

3. Third, analysis of dynamical properties of networks.

Graph theory is also used to study molecules in chemistry and physics. In condensed matter physics, the three dimensional structure of complicated simulated atomic structures can be studied quantitatively by gathering statistics on graph-theoretic properties related to the topology of the atoms.

Graph theory is also widely used in sociology as a way, for example, to measure actor’s prestige or to explore diffusion mechanisms, notably through the use of social network analysis software.

Likewise, graph theory is useful in biology and conservation efforts where a vertex can represent regions where certain species exist (or habitats) and the edges represent migration paths, or movement between the regions. This

information is important when looking at breeding patterns or tracking the spread of disease, parasites or how changes to the movement can affect other species.

Most important advances in graph theory arose as a result of attempts to solve particular practical problems- Euler and the bridges of Konigsberg, Caley and the enumeration of chemical molecules, and Kirchhoff’s work on electrical networks, etc. There are also some attempts to solve on shortest path problems. These problems are very interesting to discuss. There are two problems ‘Travelling salesman problem’ and ‘Chinese postman problem’ both are shortest path problems. A salesman or a postman has to decide as to which path he should go so that he would travel all the cities or villages and return to the starting point in least possible total distance.

In order to solve these problem there are several algorithms. Our main aim of this project is to present the C- programming of these a few algorithms.

Dijkstra’s Technique

This technique is used to determine the shortest path between two arbitrary vertices in a graph. Let w(v i ,v j ) is associated with every edge (v i ,v j ) in a given graph G. Furthermore, the weights are such that the total weight from vertex v i to the vertex v k via vertex v j is w(v i ,v j )+w(v j +v k ). Using this technique the weight from a vertex v s (starting of the path) to vertex v t (the end of the path) in the graph G for a given path (v s ,v 1 ), (v 1 ,v 2 ), (v 2 ,v 3 ), , (v i , v t ) is given by w(v s ,v 1 ) + w(v 1 ,v 2 ) +

w(v 2 ,v 3 ) +

between v s and v t .

+w(v

i , v t ). In a graph there are many possible paths

Dijkstra’s method is very popular and efficient one to find every path from starting to terminal vertices. If there is an edge between two vertices, then the weight of this edge is its length. If several edges exist however, use the shortest edge. If no edge actually exists set the length to infinity. Edge (v i ,v j ) does not necessarily have the same length as edge (v j ,v i ). This allows different paths depending on the direction of travel.

Dijkstra’s technique is based on assigning labels to each vertex. The label is equal to the distance (weight) from the starting vertex to that vertex. Obviously, the starting vertex v s has a label 0. A label can be in one of two state-temporary or permanent. A permanent label that lies along the shortest path while a temporary label is one that has uncertainty as to label is along the shortest path.

Dijkstra’s Algorithm

Step 1: Assign a temporary label 1 (v s ) = ∞ to all vertices

except v s .

Step 2: [Mark v s as permanent by assigning 0 label to it]

1 (v s )=0

Step 3: [Assignment value] of v s to v r where v r is last vertex to

v r =v s Step 4: If 1(v i )>1(v k )+w(v k ,v i )

1(v i )=1(v k )+w(v k ,v i )

Step 5: v r =v i

Step 6: If v t temporary label, repeat Step 4 to Step 5 otherwise

the value of v t is permanent label and is equal to the

shortest path v s to v t.

Step 7: Exit.

/*Program of shortest path between two node in graph using Djikstra’s algorithm */

#include<stdio.h>

#define MAX 10

#define TEMP 0

#define PERM 1

#define infinity 9999

struct node

{

int predecessor;

int dist; /*minimum distance of node from source*/

int status;

};

create_graph();

int n;

int findpath(int s,int d,int path[MAX],int *sdist)

{

struct node state[MAX];

int i,min,count=0,current,newdist,u,v;

*sdist=0;

/* Make all nodes temporary */

for(i=1;i<=n;i++)

{

state[i].predecessor=0;

state[i].dist = infinity;

state[i].status = TEMP;

}

/*Source node should be permanent*/

state[s].predecessor=0;

state[s].dist = 0;

state[s].status = PERM;

/*Starting from source node until destination is found*/

current=s;

while(current!=d)

{

for(i=1;i<=n;i++)

{

/*Checks for adjacent temporary nodes */

if ( adj[current][i] > 0 && state[i].status == TEMP )

{

/*Checks for Relabeling*/

if( newdist < state[i].dist )

{

state[i].predecessor = current;

state[i].dist = newdist;

}

}

}/*End of for*/

/*Search for temporary node with minimum distand make it current

node*/

min=infinity;

current=0;

for(i=1;i<=n;i++)

{

if(state[i].status == TEMP && state[i].dist < min)

{

min = state[i].dist;

current=i;

}

}/*End of for*/

if(current==0) /*If Source or Sink node is isolated*/

return 0;

state[current].status=PERM;

}/*End of while*/

/* Getting full path in array from destination to source */

while( current!=0 )

 { count++; path[count]=current; current=state[current].predecessor; }

/*Getting distance from source to destination*/

for(i=count;i>1;i--)

{

u=path[i];

v=path[i-1];

}

return (count);

}/*End of findpath()*/

void main()

{

int i;

int source,dest;

int path[MAX];

int shortdist,count;

create_graph();

while(1)

{

printf("Enter source vertex (end vertex) : ");

scanf("%d",&source);

printf("Enter destination vertex (end vertex) : ");

scanf("%d",&dest);

if(source==0 || dest==0)

break;

count = findpath(source,dest,path,&shortdist);

if(shortdist!=0)

{

printf("Shortest distance is : %d\n", shortdist);

printf("Shortest Path is : ");

for(i=count;i>1;i--)

printf("%d->",path[i]);

printf("%d",path[i]);

printf("\n");

}

else

printf("There

node\n");

is

no

}/*End of while*/

path

}/*End of main()*/

create_graph()

{

from

source

to

int i,max_edges,origin,destin,wt;

destination

printf("Enter number of vertices : ");

scanf("%d",&n);

max_edges=n*(n-1);

for(i=1;i<=max_edges;i++)

{

printf("Enter edge %d(0 0 to quit) : ",i);

scanf("%d %d",&origin,&destin);

if((origin==0) && (destin==0))

break;

printf("Enter weight for this edge : ");

scanf("%d",&wt);

if( origin > n || destin > n || origin<=0 || destin<=0)

{

printf("Invalid edge!\n");

}

else

i--;

}/*End of for*/

}/*End of create_graph()*/

display()

{

int i,j;

for(i=1;i<=n;i++)

}/*End of display()*/

OUTPUT

Shortest path between vertices 5 and 3 of following graph through c programming :

Enter number of vertices : 5 Enter edge 1 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 20

Enter edge 2 (end vertices) : 2

3

Enter weight for this edge : 14 Enter edge 3 (end vertices) : 3

4

Enter weight for this edge : 50 Enter edge 4 (end vertices) : 4

5

Enter weight for this edge : 5

Enter edge 5 (end vertices) : 5

1

Enter weight for this edge : 17 Enter edge 6 (end vertices) : 1

4

Enter weight for this edge : 10 Enter edge 7 (end vertices) : 4

1

Enter weight for this edge : 10 Enter edge 8 (end vertices) : 1

5

Enter weight for this edge : 17 Enter edge 9 (end verties) : 5

4

Enter weight for this edge : 5

Enter edge 10 (end vertices) : 4

3

Enter weight for this edge : 50

Enter edge 11 (end vertices) : 3

2

Enter weight for this edge : 14

Enter edge 12 (end vertices) : 2

1

Enter weight for this edge : 20 Enter edge 13 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 20 Enter edge 14 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 20 Enter edge 15 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 20

Enter edge 16 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 20

Enter edge 17 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 20 Enter edge 18 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 20 Enter edge 19 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 20 Enter edge 20 (end vertices) : 1

2

Enter weight for this edge : 20

Enter source vertex : 5 Enter destination vertex : 3 Shortest distance is : 49 Shortest path is : 5->4->1->2->3 Enter source vertex :

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gupta M. K., “Discrete Mathematics”, Edition 2008, chapter 7-11, pages 327-502.

Patel, R. B., “Data structure through C”, Edition 2008, chapter 8, pages 591-664.

Wilson, R. J., “Graph Theory” ,Edition 2007, chapter 1-6 , page 1-

96.

THE END