Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

Previous Page

326 0 L. Spitz

Fig. 11.30. SAS Easycut electronic cutter. Source: SAS.

Presses Soup Shapes


Two basic shapes of soap exist: Banded (with a side band)-all soap shapes with vertical sides as their periphery. soap shapes with only one parting line, that is, without vertical

Bandless (without a side band)-all sides around their circumference.

One can hrther classiG all banded and bandless shapes into four variations: rectangular, round, oval, and irregular (Fig. 11.31).

Fig. 11.31. Soap shapes.

Bar Soap Finishing 0 327

Soap Presses
Flashstamping-type soap presses use only dies and corresponding counter-dies to stamp all banded, bandless, and specialty shaped products. Excess soap, referred to as flashing, is formed around the periphery of the dies as the dies come together to form the final bar shape and to set the stamped bar weight. Flashstampingalways requires a 10-30% heavier slugweight than the final stamped bar weight. Take into account this extra weight requirement to properly size the extrusion rate of the final plodder. Soap presses utilizing the traditional die-box stamping system are in limited use due to stamping speed and soap-shape stamping limitations. Horizontal and vertical motion flashstamping soap presses are available. Mauoni LBs vertical motion flashstamping STUR presses have been on the market since 1989 (Fig. 11.32). The current STUR stamping system is illustrated in Fig. 1 1.32.

Fig. 11.32. Mauoni LB STUR flashstamping soap press. Source: Mauoni LB, SPA.

Binacchis model USN-500 horizontal motion flashstamping press, introduced in 1989, was the first dual mandril press designed to accommodate up to eight dies (four on each mandril). One set was mounted on a reciprocating die slide, and the other two sets on a 180 rotating mandril. The new USN-2000 Series presses introduced in 2006 are vertical motion units with one-third fewer dies, since they do not have rotating mandrils.

328 0 L spitz

Direct Noncontact Bar soap Transfers for Cartoner and Wrapper Interface Binacchi Direct Pmduct Trans$& (DPO
In 1989 Binacchi was the first to offer a noncontact bar soap transfer as an integral part of their model USN-500 soap press coupled to a soap cartoner. This invention broke the then prevailing maximum 300 cartons per minute speed barrier. In 1995 Binacchi introduced a similar transfer system for the direct interface with Binacchi soap wrappers. The new direct product transfer (DPT) system with the Binacchi USN-2000 series presses with and without the DPT shown in Figures 11.33 and 1 1.34. Various optional layouts illustrate applications of these units with soap wrappers, cartoners, and flow-wrappers (Fig. 11.34).

Fig. 11.33. Binacchi USN-2000 Series soap presses. Source: Binacchi & Co.

Fig. 11.34. Binacchi USN-2000 Series soap presses with DPT direct transfer group. Source: Binacchi & Co.

Bar Soap Finishing 0 329

Mazwni LB Direct TranJfff System (DTS) The Mazzoni LB direct transfer system (DTS) was introduced in 2006. A set of vacuum transfer cups
rotates, spaces in pitch, and places the stamped bars by using a single-step rotation into the pocketed infeed conveyor of the packaging machine under the packaging section Figures 11.52, 1 1.53 and 1 1.54.

Fig. 11.35. Mauoni LB STUR flashstamping soap press with DTS Direct Transfer System. Source: Mauoni
LB, SPA.

330 0 L. spitz

A summary of the most widely used soap presses offered in 2009 is listed in Table 11.3.
Table 11.3. Flashstamping Soap Presses Maximum Number of Maximum Number of Dies for Bar Weights Stamping Die Support (Grams) Strokes Plates 100' 150" perMinute 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
5

Make BlNACCHl

Model USN-2150 USN-2200 USN-2600 USN-2800

Stamping Speed Bars per Minute for Bar Weights (Grams) 100' 150'' 180 240 300 420 600 720 180 240 240 360 540 660

Mandril Rotation (Degrees)

4
7 12

3 4

4 6
11

60

Fixed
Fixed Fixed Fixed 60 60
60

60

10

60
60 80 70 70
65

16 20 2

14 18 2 3 4 6
10

960 1200
~

840 1080
160 210 280 390

MAUONI LB STUR-2 STUR-3 STUR-4N STUR-7 STUR-10 STUR-12 SWR-14

160 210 280 455 720 720 840 150


~

3
4

7
12 12 14 2

60 60
~~

60 60 60
75 75 70 70 65 80
60

600
720 720 150 225 280 420 520 160
~ ~~

12 12 2 3 4 6 8 2
4

60 60 60 60 60

SAS

STAMPEX-2 STAMPEX-3 STAMPEX-4+ STAMPEX++ STAMPEX-8

3
4 6 8

225 280 420

60
60 60 180 180 180 180 180
~~

520
240 300 360 540

SELA

SPV-3 SPH SPH-S SPH-8 SPH-10 SPH-D

3
5 6
9

240 360 480 600 720 75 80 225


~~

3
3 3

6 8 10 12 3 1

60
60 60 60

10 12 4 2 4 5 7
9

600
720 100 160 300 350 455 585 780

3 2 2 2 2 2 2

SOAPTEC

MFS-HY MFS-1 MFS-3 MFS-4 MFS-6 MFS-8

25 80 75 70 65 65 65

60

60
60 60 60
60

3
4 6 8

280 390

520
650

MFS-10 2 12 10 Note: 8inacchi USN Presses with Horizontally Positioned Dies ** 8inacchi USN Presseswith Vertically Positioned Dies

60

Bar Soap Finishing 0 331

Packaged Water Chillers for Plodders and Roll Mills


Packaged water chillers are designed to circulate clean, chilled water to plodders and roll mills in a closed circuit. Chilled water ranging in temperature from approximately 8 to 15C circulates in the barrels of plodders and in the roll of roll mills. The exact operating temperature depends on the product and the processing role (Fig. 11.36). In most cases, the initial investment in and operating cost of chillers are offset by the cost of nonrecycled cooling water, varying seasonal water-temperature limitations, elimination of periodic maintenance required to remove hard-water deposits, and the ability to use the optimal chilled water temperature for the given process.

Units
Cooling units are rated in tons of refrigeration, which measure the cooling effect of 2,000 pounds (a short ton) of ice melting in 24 hours. This turns out to be 288,000 heat units in 24 hours, or 12,000 heat units per hour. For the cooling capacity of water, note: In the United States: 1 ton = 12,000 Btu/hour = 3,024 KcaVhour In Great Britain: 1 ton = 14,256 Btu/hour
=

3,592 Kcal/hour

In Europe: 1 frigorie/hour = 756 KcaUhour = 3,000 Btu/hour. Chiller capacities in the United States are based on a flow rate of 2.4 gallons per minute per ton and
a temperature drop of 10F.

Chiller Sizing
Chiller sizing is calculated by the following formula: Tons of refrigeration = GPM
x

AT124

(Eq. 11.1) where GPM is the water flow rate in gallons per minute and AT is the temperature differential in"F between the water leaving and entering the system. The design capacities are also based on ambient air at 35C for air-cooled chillers and 30C condenser water temperature for water-cooled chillers. As a rule of thumb, the cooling capacity of a chiller is reduced by 2% for each 0.5"C below 10C.

Low-Temperature Packaged GlycolNater Chillers for Soap Press Dies


Low-temperature packaged glycol chillers are designed to supply a glycol/water coolant solution at -30C (-22F) to soap press dies. The cooling capacity of packaged chillers is expressed in tons; however, the actual capacity varies with process temperatures and ambient temperatures. For example, a unit rated for about 5,000KcaUhour at -30C would provide 8,000 KcaVhour at -2O"C, 11,000 Kcal/hour at -1O"C, and 17,000 Kcal/hour at 0C. As another example, with nominal cooling capacity at 28C ambient temperature, the cooling capacity would decrease by about 12% if the ambient temperature increased to 38C (Fig. 11.37).

332 0 L Spitz

Duplex Vacuum Plodder

Independent Temperature Control Unit: for each Plodder Worm

Cooling Water Supply & Return Lines from Main Chiller

Independent Temperature Control Units for each Plodder Barrel Jacket

Three-Roll Mill

Cooling Water Supply & Return Lines from Main Chiller

Independent Temperature Control Units for each Roll

Fig. 11.36. Water-chiller system for plodders and roll mills. Source: Mauoni LB, SPA.

Bar Soap Finishing 0 333

Fig. 11-37. Low-temperature gylcol/water chiller system for soap press dies. Source: Mauoni LB, SPA.

Temperature Control Units


Temperature control units are recommended for cooling and heating the water circulating in the barrel of each plodder and in each roll of a roll mill. Standard temperature control units are used for plodder applications. Special low-temperature glycol control units are used for handling the glycol/water coolant solution circulating through soap press dies. Temperature control units are free-standing and self-contained. They incorporate a high-pressure centrifugal pump, an immersion heater, a cooling (solenoid or modulating) valve, and a microprocessorbased controller. These units are shown in Figures 1 1.36 and 1 1.37.

Soap Finishing Line Types and Selection


The selection of a bar soap finishing line depends on the following: Types of products to be produced Line-operating speed Number of refining stages required Choice of an all-plodder or a combination plodder and roll-mill line Rework/recycle quantity and recycle location Multifunction-line layout Pre-refining requirement

334

L. Spitz

The three most widely used lines in various layout configurations are: Line with 3 Plodders (2 Refining Stages)

A Simplex Refiner and a Duplex Vacuum Plodder (Fig.ll.39).


Line with 4 Plodders (4 Refining Stages) A Duplex Refner and a Duplex Vacuum Plodder (Fig.ll.40). Line with 3 Plodders and 1 Roll-Mill (3 Refining Stages) A Simplex Refiner a 'Ihree-RollMilland a Duplex Vacuum Plodder (Fig.ll.41).

he-Refining Lines One can make any line into a pre-refining line by placing a simplex refiner or, alternatively, a roll mill before the mixer. Multifirnction Lines In standard lines, products have to pass from one machine to another without the option of bypassing one stage. For some products, using less mechanical work (less refining) is indicated. All layouts indicate the multifunction and recycle options. As an example, a multifunction line with three plodders and one roll mill is shown. This is a dual function line in which one can bypass the roll mill if so desired. A similar line with four plodders would have a right-angle Duplex Refiner to allow the bypassing of the first-stage plodder when it is not required by the specific soap formulation.

Bar Soap Finishing 0 335

Fig. 11-38. Bar Soap Finishing LineTypes Summary.

336 0 L. spitz
Recvcle

CUTTING STAMPING PACKAGING MIXING Amalgamator REFINING Simplex Refiner REFINING S EXTRUSION Dupkx Vacuum Plodder

MIXING Amalgamator
'

CUmNG STAMPING PACKAGING

REFINING S EXTRUSION Duplex Vacuum Plodder

Fig. 11.39. Bar Soap Finishing Line with 3 Plodders (2 Refining Stages).

CUmNG STAMPING PACKAGING MIXING Amalgamator REFINING 4 REFINING Duplex R d m r REFINING 4 EXTRUSION Duplex Vacuum Plodder

MIXING Amalgamator

CUmNG STAMPING PACKAGING REFINING h REFINING Dupkx Refirnr REFINING EXTRUSION Dupkx Vacuum P k w c r

Fig. 11.40. Bar Soap Finishing Line with 4 Plodders (3 Refining Stages).

Bar Soap Finishing 0 337

Fig. 11.41. Bar Soap Finishing Line with 1 Roll-Mill and 3 Plodders (3 Refining Stages).

Packaging Soap Packaging Styles


Mass-market soaps are wrapped, cartoned, flow-wrapped, overwrapped, and/or bundled (U-banded). Specialty cosmetic, gift, and novelty soaps are pleat-wrapped, stretch film-wrapped, and flow-packed wrapped. High-priced soaps are also packaged in special cartons. During the last decade, the sale of single-pack toilet soaps practically disappeared and was replaced by multipacks containing up to 20 individually wrapped or cartoned bars. The multipacks always offer a few free bars. Also, to save cost per bar, most wrappers and cartons are white and unprinted. Most multipacks are ovenvrapped, and some are bundled (U-banded).

Packaging Equqmmt
New bar soap wrappers, cartoners, bar soap infeed (transfer) systems, and an increased acceptance of existing and new direct soap press transfer systems allow one to reach up to 600-bars-per-minute packaging speeds. Flow-packed wrapped-style (fin-seal style) packaging grew in many countries during the last few years. Horizontal flow wrappers are offered with in-line, noncontact infeed systems for higher speed units. Specialty cosmetic, gift, and novelty soaps are pleat- wrapped, stretch film-wrapped, and flowpacked wrapped. High-priced soaps are also packaged in special cartons. This portion of the presentation consists of an updated listing and illustrations of the most widely used soap wrappers and cartoners. The most widely used soap wrappers and cartoners are summarized in Tables 1 1.4 and 1 1.5, and illustrated in Figures 1 1.42 through 1 1.54.

Fig. 11.42. ACMA Rotary InfeednransferSystems for Soap Wrappers and Cartoners.

Fig. 11.43. ACMA TH-Non-Contact Soap Infeedflransfer with 16 Suction Cups for Wrappers and Cartoners.

Bar Soap Finishing 0 339

Fig. 11.44, ACMA 771 Soap Wrapper with TH Non-Contact Infeednransfer.

Fig. 11.45. ACMA 7250 and 7350 Soap Wrappers.

340 0 L spitz

Fig. 11.46, ACMA 330 Soap Cartoner with YT and YV Infeeds.

Fig. 11.47. ACMA 770 Soap Cartoner with TH Non-Contact Infeedflransfer.

Bar Soap Finishing 0 34 1

V512
Continuous Motion Non-Contact Rotary Infeed with 6 Grippers

V520
Continuous Motion Non-Contact Rotary Infeed with 18 Suction Cups

V520
Continuous Motion Non-Contact Rotary Infeed with 18 Grippers

Fig. 11.48. CAM Soap Cartoner Infeednransfer Systems. Source: Tecnicam Srl.

-a f
Fig. 11.49. Guerze 1O O S Horizontal Flow Wrapper with Non-Contact Infeed. Source: Guerze srl. OH

342 0 L Spitz

Fig. 11.50. Doboy IL3 Three Belt Contact Feeder for Horizontal Flow Wrappers. Source: Doboy, Inc.

Fig. 11.51. Doboy 114 Four Belt Non-Contact Feeder for Horizontal Flow Wrappers. Source: Doboy, Inc.

Bar Soap Finishing 0 343

Fig. 11.52, Binacchi Stamping and Packaging Systems. One Press with Direct Product Transfer and Two Alternate Packaging Options. Source: Binacchi 81Co.

Fig. 11.53. Binacchi Stamping and Packaging Systems. One Press with Direct Product Transfer and Three Alternate Packaging Options. Source: Binacchi 81Co.

344 L. Spitz

Fig. 11.54. Binacchi Stamping and Packaging Systems.Two Presses with Direct ProductTransfer and Three Alternate Packaging Options. Source: Binacchi & Co.

Table 11.4. Soap Wrappers. Make ACMA Model 7250 7350 735O/DL C701/HS 771m 771/DL BlNACCHl BSW-220 BSW-330 BSW-550 GUERZE Packsavon Speed (Wrapped Bars per Minute) 250 350 380 300 Soap Infeedflransfer System liming belts and suction CUDS. liming belts and suction cups. Direct linkage with press.
Flat belt.
~~ ~ ~

500 550
220
330 550 250

Pick and place turret. Direct linkage with press. Direct linkage with press. Direct linkage with press. Direct linkaae with Dress.
~~

Pick and place turret.

Bar Soap Finishing 0 345 Table 11.5. Soap Cartoners. Make ACMA
~

Model 330NV 330NT


~ ~~~ ~

Speed (Cartoned Bars per Minute)


240

Pitch 95 mm 95 mm
120 mm 120 mm

Soap Infeediliansfer System Pick and Place with 4 cups Pick and Place with 10 cups Pick and Place with 16 cups Direct linkage with press
2 Pick and Place Groups with 4 cups each 2 Pick and Place Groups with 4 cups each

300 500 600 300


400

770m

770lDL
~~

JONES

Legacy Legacy Criterion Criterion

6 inches
4 inches
4.5 inches
4 inches

500
~~

Direct linkase with press Direct linkage with press Pick and Place Group with 4 cups

600
250

GUERZE

Boxsavon

127 mm

Refer to Fig. 11.55 for carton blank terminology carton styles, Fig. 11.56 for carton styles, and Table 11.6 for wrapping material specifications and conversion factors data. The description of banders, bundlers, stretch film, pleat wrappers, and end-packaging machinery is beyond the scope of this chapter.

TUCKFLAP

)
I -

7 TOP END PANEL

ercn PANEL

FRONT ?ANgL

I 1
BOlTOMEND PANEL
I

TUCKFLAP

Fig. 11.55. Carton blank terminology.

346 L spitz

Reverse Tuck

Glue Seal

Fig. 1 1.56. Carton styles. Table 11.6. Packaging Material Definitions and Conversion Factors Basis Weight In the USA basis weight refers to the weight expressed in pounds of 500 sheets of 24 x 36 inches size paper (24"x 36"= 3,000 ftz= 270 m2) Grammage
Grammage is the basis weight expressed in glm' (grams per square meter)

CaliperlPoint
Caliper or Point is the thickness of paper or board expressed in thousands of an inch 1 caliper or 1 point = 0.001 inch Example: a 15 point board is a 0.01 5 inch thick board

Gauge
Film Thickness i s expressed in terms of mils. 1 mil = 0.001 inch For thin films the term gauge is used. 100 gauge = 1 mil Example: a 90 gauge film i s a O.OOO90 inch thickness film
Micron
1 micron = 0.001 mm 1 millimeter = 1000 microns

To Convert

Multiply by
1.627 0.0014 278.7 25.4 0.254 3.937

I bslream to a/m2
in2/lbto mVkg reams to m2 mils to microns gauge to micron micron to gauge

Bar Soap Finishing 0 347

Acknowledgments
Information and illustrations provided by Acma SPA, Binacchi & Co., Doboy, Inc. Guerze Srl, Mazzoni LB SPA, SAS, Sela GmbH, Soaptec Srl, and Tecnicarn Srl. are very much appreciated. I wish to extend a special note of thanks to Mr. Andrea del Corno from Soaptec srl who prepared many Solid-Edge s o h a r e based drawings.

References
Spitz, L. (ed.) Soap Tcrhnologyfor the 1990s;AOCS Press: Champaign, Illinois, 1990; pp.173-208. Spia, L. (ed.) Soaps and Detergents, A iTheonticalandPrarricalRrvinu;AOCS Press: Champaign, Illinois, 1996; pp, 243-287,474-492.

. Spia, L Bar Soap Finishing Lecture, SODEOPECZOOG Conference, Hollywood, Florida, April 5,2006.